UNina Fedoroff: Ukugqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukubuyisela iMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphuzu ayisihluthulelo:

  • Njengomongameli nosihlalo webhodi le-AAAS kusuka ngo-2011-2013, uDkt Fedoroff uthuthukise izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo. Manje usebenzela inkampani yezikhalazo.
  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ubudlelwane bomphakathi kanye nemizamo yokunxenxa kuhlanganiswa kanjani ekusithekeni phakathi kwemboni yezolimo, amaqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele.
  • UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaza izinhlangano ezidukisa umphakathi mayelana nesayensi nobudlelwano bazo ezimbonini.

UNina Fedoroff, i-PhD, ungomunye wososayensi abanethonya elikhulu abalwela ukwanda nokuncishiswa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Ungumongameli wangaphambilini we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (2011-2012) futhi owayengusihlalo we-AAAS Board of Directors (2012-2013). Ungu- umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi kusukela ngo-2015 e-OFW Law, inkampani yokubamba iqhaza lapho amaklayenti afakiwe Syngenta futhi Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology, iqembu lokuhweba elimele iBayer (engumnikazi weMonsanto), iBASF, iCorteva (isigaba seDowDuPont) neSyngenta.

Kusukela ngo-2007-2010, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengomeluleki wesayensi nobuchwepheshe kuNobhala Wezwe kanye noMphathi we-USAID ngaphansi kokuphathwa kukaGeorge W. Bush kanye no-Obama. Ngaphambi kwalokho, wayengu- ilungu lebhodi we-Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, inkampani yamakhemikhali yamazwe ngamazwe kanye ne-biotech; kanye ne Ilungu lebhodi elelulekayo ye-Evogene, inkampani ye-biotechnology esebenzisana nayo DuPont, Syngenta, Bayer futhi Monsanto. 

Ngo-2017, uDkt Fedoroff wakhuthaza uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo Incwadi ethi “junk science” eceleni kososayensi ababili abahambisana namaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu kanye nokunxenxa imikhiqizo kagwayi.

NjengoNobhala Wezwe uHillary “Umbusi wesayensi kaClinton, "UDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengonozakuzaku we"GMO yonke indlela”Ngenqubomgomo yaseMelika yezangaphandle, uTom Philpott wabika eGrist ngo-2008 nango-2009. I-Pesticide Action Network yaseNyakatho Melika ichaze uDkt. Fedoroff ngokuthi“inxusa laseMelika ngokoqobo ”lobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, uDkt. Fedoroff ube “a ummeli oshisekayo wokwanda komhlaba jikelele kweGM ukudla (okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo) kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe. ”

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli nosihlalo we-AAAS, i ngobukhulu emhlabeni umphakathi wesayensi eyahlukahlukene, uDkt Fedoroff waqokomisa lezo zindima ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwezepolitiki embonini yezolimo: iBhodi labaPhathi be-AAAS ngaphansi kosihlalo wayo yakhipha isitatimende esibekelwe isikhathi sezepolitiki sokuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO ngo-2012; ngenkathi umongameli wenhlangano yesayensi ngo-2011, uDkt Fedoroff wasiza ekunqobeni isiphakamiso se-US EPA esasizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yezitshalo ze-GMO, ngokusho kwama-imeyili achazwe ngezansi. Bheka, UNina Fedoroff, i-AAAS kanye nomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe bezolimo. UDkt Fedoroff ne-AAAS abaphendulanga ezicelweni zempendulo.

Ukuhlangana namaqembu aphambili embonini ekhohlisayo nemizamo ye-PR

UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze futhi wasiza ukwenza ngokusemthethweni amaqembu athi angamazwi azimele esayensi kepha asebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ngezindlela ezidukisa umphakathi - kufaka phakathi amaqembu amabili asiza iMonsanto zama ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi abasebenza ophikweni lochwepheshe beWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) oluchaza i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu e 2015.

Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo (ACSH) uxhaswa ngu izinkampani zamakhemikhali, ezithaka imithi kanye nogwayi, ngokuvumelana ne kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi lowo mbhalo wokuthi iqembu lizifaka kanjani izinsizakalo zalo ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Ama-imeyili akhishwe ngezinqubo zenkantolo akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto bavuma ukuxhasa i-ACSH ku-2015, futhi ucele iqembu ukuthi libhale ngalo umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC nge-glyphosate; I-ACSH ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathi umbiko womdlavuza wawungowokukhwabanisa okungokwesayensi.     

UDkt Fedoroff usize ukukhuthaza leli qembu njengomthombo osemthethweni wesayensi ku-2017 Umcimbi weNational Press Club ukwethula i-ACSH's “Little Black Book of Junk Science” Ababebonakala eceleni kukaDkt Fedoroff emcimbini wabezindaba bekungososayensi ababili abaxhumene namaqembu athi ukuphika isayensi yezulu futhi ukunxenxa imikhiqizo kagwayi:

Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo: UDkt Fedoroff ubaliwe njengelungu lebhodi kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu elithi lizimele kodwa abalingani neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR kanye nokunxenxa, ngokwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Imibhalo ekhishwe ekufayweni kwenkantolo ibonisa ukuthi iMonsanto ibhale leli qembu phakathi kwe- "Abalingani bemboni" behlela ukuzibandakanya nesu lokuhlela "ukukhala" ngokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate ukuze "kuvikelwe isithunzi ne-FTO ye-Roundup." IGenetic Literacy Project selokhu yathumela okungaphezulu kwe- Izihloko ze-200 egxeka i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ukuhlaselwa komuntu siqu kososayensi ababandakanyeka embikweni we-glyphosate, ebasola uzungu, ukukhwabanisa, elele, inkohlakalo, imfihlo, nokukhuthazwa “inzuzo nokuyize. ”??

Ku-an uchungechunge lokuwina imiklomelo eLe Monde mayelana "nemizamo kaMonsanto yokucekela phansi i-UN ejensi yomdlavuza nganoma iyiphi indlela," izintatheli uStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel bachaze iGenetic Literacy Project ne-ACSH "njengamawebhusayithi aziwa kakhulu enkulumo-ze" futhi bathi i-GLP "idliswa ngabantu be-PR abaxhumene izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane ne-biotechnology. ” I-GLP yethulwe ngo-2011 nguJon Entine, onenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi eyayineMonsanto njengekhasimende ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukuhlaselwa kwabaphenyi bomdlavuza kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ebala uDkt Fedoroff "njengelungu lebhodi":

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengomthombo wesayensi onokwethenjelwa esihlokweni sango-2012 ku Amathrendi ku-Genetics kanye nengxoxo ye-2016 ne-Washington Examiner mayelana ubuntatheli besayensi obumpofu. Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kwakungu usethe njengeqembu langaphambili ngosizo lweMonsanto ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bobunjiniyela kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ngenkathi ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe. Iqembu, okuyi bathi ukuzimela kodwa kwaba uxhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo, ahlasele imboni yezimboni “njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha.”

Ikamu leBiotech Literacy Boot Camp: UDkt Fedoroff wabalwa ohlwini lwe- ilungu lobuchwepheshe obuyisisekelo we-Biotech Literacy Project “camp boot” owawubanjelwe e-UC Davis ngo-2015. Lo mcimbi wawuhlelwe ngamaqembu amabili e-PR, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, futhi uxhaswe ngasese yizinkampani zezolimo ukuze “aqeqeshe ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate,” kubika uPaul Thacker ku-Okuqhubekayo. Izipikha zifake uhlu olujwayelekile lwabalingani bemboni ye-PR kubandakanya UJay Byrne, UJon Entine, UBruce Chassy, ​​uDavid Tribe, UHank Campbell we-ACSH futhi I-keynote by “iSci Babe.”

I-AgBioWorld: Ku-2012 Trends and Genetics wakhe esihlokweni, UDkt. Fedoroff wakhuthaza iwebhusayithi i-AgBioWorld ngokuthi “enye insiza eyigugu” yokufunda ngesayensi. Ngo-2002 ku-Guardian, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze ukuthi ithimba le-PR leMonsanto lisebenzise kanjani iwebhusayithi ye-AgBioWorld nama-akhawunti enkohliso ezokuxhumana nabantu ukuhlambalaza ososayensi nabezemvelo abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngezitshalo zeGM. UMonbiot ubike:  

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. '

Ngenkathi esebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi ukuthi Wow ukuthi 'usebenzisa isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ukubamba iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhombe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona kahle.' I-AgBioWorld yisiza lapho [umlingisi mbumbulu online uMary] Smetacek aqala khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuhlaselwa ku-Greenpeace: UDkt Fedoroff wakhuluma ku umcimbi wokucindezela we-2016 weqembu elizibiza “Sekela i-Precision Agriculture, ”Ebethula incwadi esayinwe ngabaklonyelizi bezindondo abangaphezu kwekhulu beNobel begxeka iGreenpeace ngokungahambisani kwabo namaGMO. Ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo usizile ngomkhankaso, kufaka phakathi owayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana kaMonsanto UJay Byrne; iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP I-Val Giddings; noMat Winkler, oxhasa imali nge- Iphrojekthi ye-PR ye-Genetic Literacy Project futhi ibhalwe njenge- ilungu lebhodi kanye noDkt Fedoroff kuwebhusayithi yeqembu. Uhlobo lwe- .com lwewebhusayithi okuthiwa izimele ye- “Support Precision Agriculture” iqondiswe kabusha kwi-Genetic Literacy Project iminyaka (yahlukaniswa ngemuva kokuthi siyinake ku-2019). Ku- ama-imeyili avela ku-2011, U-Byrne wakhomba i-Greenpeace ohlwini lwama "target" ayelwenzela iMonsanto enamagama abagxeki bezimboni ababengabhekana nabo ngemuva kwekhava iqembu lezemfundo elixhaswe ngezimboni lokho kwavela ngokuzimela.

Umngani we GMO Izimpendulo: UDkt Fedoroff uyi isazi esizimele Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a Umkhankaso we-PR owenziwe ubudlelwano bomphakathi kaKetchum, ene-a umlando wokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukuthonya umphakathi. Yize uKetchum ebanga umkhankaso weZimpendulo ze-GMO 'kungachaza kabusha okwenzekayo,' iqembu izimpendulo ezibhaliwe ngochwepheshe "ozimele" futhi wabalwa phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza. A Isigaba "sezinsizakusebenza" (ikhasi 4) sikhombe kwizixhumanisi zeGMO Answers kanye neMonsanto ezixhumana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "IGlyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic." Ngo-2016, UDkt Fedoroff ukhulume ngesigungu esixhaswe ngabakwa-GMO Answers, Scientific American kanye ne ICornell Alliance yeSayensi mayelana nokusakazwa kwabezindaba kwesayensi equkethe izintatheli ezinobungani embonini UKeith Kloor futhi UTamar Haspel. Bona “IMedia Machine yeMonsanto Iza eWashington, ”NguPaul Thacker.

Uphenyo oluphikisayo lokuthola ubudlelwane bemboni nezifundo

Ku-2015, uDkt Fedoroff nabanye abaongameli ababili be-AAAS, uPeter Raven noPhillip Sharp, bathuthukisa izindima zabo zobuholi be-AAAS, kepha behlulekile ukudalula noma yikuphi ukubambisana kwabo embonini, ku-Guardian i-op-ed ophikisana nophenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi obefuna ukuthola ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga nezinhlelo zezimali phakathi kwezinkampani zezolimo, amaqembu abo e-PR kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi. I- uphenyo olwenziwe yi-US Right to Know wembule eminye yemibhalo esemqoka echazwe kuleli qiniso.

Yize uGuardian kamuva engeze i- ukudalulwa ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff usebenza enkampanini yokwamukela izivakashi i-OFW Law, akuzange kudalule lokho Iklayenti le-OFW Law ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezimboni zezolimo, izinkampani zalo ezingamalungu ezazigxile ekuphenyweni kwamarekhodi omphakathi. Omengameli bangaphambilini be-AAAS baphikisana nohlelo lwabo lokuthi uphenyo lokuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ezingadalulwanga embonini nezifundo "lwalukhipha ikhasi encwadini yokudlala yeClimategate" futhi luthinta "ukuphika isayensi," izimangalo ezifanayo enziwe yizimboni amaqembu e-PR achazwe kuleli qiniso.

Kusetshenziswa i-AAAS ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) kusuka ngo-2011-2012 nanjengoSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi kusukela ngo-2012-2013, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo ukuthuthukisa izinhloso zenqubomgomo ezisemqoka: ukugcina izakhi zofuzo ukudla okwenziwe ngobuchwepheshe kungabhalwanga futhi kwehliswa isiphakamiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe ngemithelela yezempilo nezemvelo yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezihlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-AAAS isize ukuncenga abavoti ukuthi baphikise ukufakwa ilebuli kwe-GMO

Ngo-2012, iBhodi Labaqondisi be-AAAS ngaphansi kukaSihlalo kaDkt Fedoroff yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthatha uhlangothi odabeni lwezepolitiki olunombango kusasele amasonto amabili ngaphambi kokuba abavoti eCalifornia baye okhethweni lokuthatha isinqumo ngeProposition 37, okuyisinyathelo sokuvotela ama-GMO. Ukubuyekezwa kwezitatimende eziningi zezepolitiki ezenziwe yi-AAAS azitholanga ezinye izibonelo zenhlangano eyayizama ukuthonya abavoti ngaphambi kokhetho lombuso. (I-AAAS noDkt. Fedoroff abaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono. Futhi ukudalulwa: abaqondisi abasebenzisana ne-USRTK basebenze emkhankasweni wokufaka ilebula.)

Amabhodi we-AAAS isitatimende Ukuphikisa ilebula le-GMO kwakuyimpikiswano. It kuqukethe ukunganembi, ngokusho kwamalungu esikhathi eside e-AAAS, amaningi awo usilahlile isitatimende esiphikisana nokulebula njengokuhlasela “kobaba” kwamalungelo abathengi okudukise umphakathi ngokushiya umongo obalulekile wesayensi nokulawula. Okhulumela i-AAAS ngaleso sikhathi, uGinger Pinholster, wabiza ukugxekwa ngokuthi “akulungile futhi akunankinga.” Utshele intatheli ubesekamelweni ngesikhathi ibhodi lidlulisa isitatimende: “Asilona iqembu labameli. Izitatimende zethu sizenza ngokuya ngobufakazi besayensi, ”kusho uPinholster. "Ngingakutshela ukuthi isitatimende sethu asiwona umsebenzi noma asithonywanga yinhlangano engaphandle."

Abanye izingqapheli baqaphela ukufana kolimi olusetshenziswa yi-AAAS ne- umkhankaso oxhaswa ngezimboni ukwehlula isiphakamiso 37. "Ngabe iqembu elikhulu lesayensi liyayilahla iMonsanto?”Kubuza uMichele Simon ngoGrist. USimon uchaze isitatimende sebhodi "njengesingeyona isayensi kepha esifanele kakhulu ukucaphuna," futhi waphawula ukuthi ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-AAAS ibiqukethe "amaphuzu okuxoxa" ahambisana no-No on 37 izincwadi zomkhankaso.

"Ukubonakala ungaphansi kokusobala kungumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wezesayensi"

Phakathi ku Incwadi ka-2013 eya kumagazini weSayensi, elinye iqembu lososayensi abali-11 lizwakalise ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isitatimende sebhodi le-AAAS ngokudla okuyi-GMO "singahle siqhume." Babhala bathi, “sikhathazekile ukuthi isikhundla se-AAA simele indlela engenalo ulwazi lokuxhumana nesayensi…  ukubonakala kungabonakali obala kuwumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wesayensi. ” 

UDkt. ososayensi abane abamele "umphakathi wesayensi nowezemfundo" ophikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Umkhankaso ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wacela uDkt Fedoroff ukuthi asize ekufuneni izifundiswa ezengeziwe emgomweni wazo, lokho wakwenza ngokusho kuka Okthoba 1, 2012 imeyili kuMeghan Callahan we-BCF Wezindaba Zomphakathi, “Ngidlulisele [isicelo sakho sabaxhasi bezemfundo] eqenjini lamazwe omhlaba le-biotechnology elisekela izifundiswa. Ngiyasola ukuthi uzobe uzwa ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, ”kubhala uDkt Fedoroff.

Kusize ukubulala izidingo zedatha yezitshalo ezikhiqiza izibulala-zinambuzane

Ngo-2011 ngenkathi esebenza njengoMongameli we-AAAS, uDkt. Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo kanye nomuntu osebenzela izimboni ukumisa i-US Environmental Protection Agency ekudingeni izinkampani ukuthi zinikeze imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuhlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokusho kwama-imeyili kuchazwe ngezansi.

Isiphakamiso se-EPA sisuselwe engxoxweni yePhaneli Elulekayo Yezesayensi ye-EPA yango-2009 mayelana izindlela zokwenza ngcono ikhono le-ejensi lokwenza izinqumo ezilawulayo mayelana nezitshalo ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukukhiqiza noma ukuqukatha izibulala-zinambuzane, i-EPA eyibiza ngokuthi "izivikeli ezifakwe ezitshalweni" (ama-PIP). Amalungu ePhaneli acelwe ukuthi ahlole izidingo zamanje neziphakanyiswayo zedatha ye-EPA yama-PIP kulezi zindawo ezilandelayo: 

  • idatha yokuhlola ukufana okukhona phakathi kwama-PIP nama-allergen, ubuthi, ama-anti-nutrient namanye amaprotheni ayingozi; 
  • ukuhlolwa kwemiphumela ehambisanayo kwezempilo nakwizinto ezingezona ezihlosiwe, lapho izici ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ze-GMO zihlanganisiwe (istacked trait GMOs);
  • imithelela engahle ibe khona kubantu abancane bezinto eziphilayo emhlabathini; futhi 
  • idatha yokubhekana kangcono nemithelela yokugeleza kofuzo. 

Ngokuvumelana ne amanothi avela emhlanganweni we-EPA ka-Okthoba 2009, imithetho ehlongozwayo "izodidiyela kakhulu izidingo zedatha ezikhona ezisetshenziswa njengamanje," futhi izofaka imikhakha emihlanu yedatha nolwazi: ukwenziwa komkhiqizo, impilo yabantu, imiphumela engahlosiwe, ukuphela kwemvelo nokumelana ukuphathwa. EPA umemezele imithetho ehlongozwayo kwiRejista Yenhlangano ngo-Mashi 2011.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi izimbangi zomfelandawonye zahlangana kanjani ukunqoba lesi siphakamiso.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo phakathi kukaBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngaleso sikhathi, u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto nabanye abasebenza embonini bexoxa ngemisebenzi nangemihlangano ebandakanya uDkt Fedoroff. UChassy uzichaze kuma-imeyili (ikhasi 66) njengokuxhumana phakathi kwemboni nezifundiswa emzameni wokuphikisana nezidingo zedatha ye-EPA. Okufakwe kuma-imeyili akhe kuSachs bekukhona imibuzo yokuthi ngabe uMonsanto uthumele isheke yini e-University of Illinois Foundation ukuxhasa umsebenzi kaChassy “wokufinyelela kwe-biotechnology kanye nemisebenzi yezemfundo.” (Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngezimali ezingadalulwanga uChassy azithola eMonsanto iminyaka njengoba ethuthukisa i-biotechnology, bheka kubika nguMonica Eng eWBEZ futhi ama-imeyili athunyelwe yiNew York Times.)

NgoJulayi 5, uDkt Chassy uthumele i-imeyili u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto ukubika ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff uthumele i- incwadi eya ku-EPA ngaphezulu kwesiginesha yakhe esayinwe ngokubambisana ngamalungu angama-60 eNational Academy of Sciences. “UNina ulicoshe ibhola walisusa phansi enkundleni,” kubhala uChassy. Uchaze isiphakamiso se-EPA “njengokuphahlazeka kwesitimela.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngo-Agasti 19, abamele amaqembu ezokuhweba embonini babe umangele futhi wajabula (ikhasi 19) ukubona i-New York Times i-op-ed kusuka kuDkt. Fedoroff ephikisana nemithethonqubo yobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo; “Ngubani owenze isikhundla sikaNina?” U-Adrienne Massey we-BIO ubuze uDkt Chassy nabanye ababambisene naye embonini, Henry Miller futhi I-Val Giddings. UChassy uphendule wathi: 

UMassey udlulisele uDkt Chassy incwadi i-BIO ayithumele ku-EPA “enethemba lokuthi uzokwakhela encwadini yezifundiswa futhi anqamule noma yikuphi ukuphendulwa kwe-EPA kuleyo ncwadi.” Imizamo yabo ayiphumelelanga njengoba bebethemba. Ngo-Agasti 24, UDkt Chassy ubhalele u-Eric Sachs (ikhasi 14) ukuthi uDkt. Fedoroff “uthole impendulo evela ku-EPA eyinhlamba.” Uchaze izinhlelo zokuqinisa ingcindezi.

 

NgoSepthemba, uChassy uhlele ucingo lwengqungquthela noFedoroff, u-Eric Sachs weMonsanto, u-Adrienne Massey we-BIO kanye no-lobbyist wabo uStanley Abramson, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokusho kukaChassy amanothi asocingweni, "Ukuthola indlela yokuqinisekisa ukuthi isiphakamiso se-EPA asikaze sibone ukukhanya kosuku kungaba umphumela omuhle kakhulu esingalindela wona. Okulandelayo okuhamba phambili kuzoba ukuqinisekisa ukuthi yi-DOA, kodwa uma kunesidingo kumele sizimisele ukuqhubeka nokulwa. ” 

Wabuye wabelana ngenkinga yokuthi, “I-EPA ayikholwa ukuthi umphakathi wezemfundo ungaphikisana ngokuqinile nomthetho wabo ohlongozwayo; bakholelwa ukuthi bambalwa kuphela abambalwa abalandela isicelo nokuthi iningi labasayinile abazinikele kulolu daba. ” Leli qembu linqume ukuthi lidinga “ukwakha umgogodla wososayensi abaholayo empeleni abazimisele ukukhuluma futhi banikele ngesikhathi kulolu daba.” 

Ngo-Okthoba, iqembu lalinethemba kakhulu. UChassy wathumela i-imeyili ngamaSachs ukubika ngomhlangano "okhiqizayo ngokumangazayo" yena noDkt. Fedoroff bahambela noSteve Bradbury we-EPA. Umhlangano wawusungulwe nguMassey kanye no-Abramson owamukela izivakashi. Isiphakamiso se-EPA sokudinga imininingwane yama-GMO PIPs asikaze sikubone ukukhanya kosuku, ngokusho kukaMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, owabamba iqhaza emihlanganweni yomphakathi nale nhlangano.

Amaketanga e-imeyili aphelele, ngokusebenzisa Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni we-UCSF: 

Ukubika okuhlobene  

"Ngavinjelwa engqungqutheleni yabezindaba yeNobel Laureate ngumxhumanisi we-PR noMonsanto Ties, ”NguTim Schwab, Food & Water Watch (2016) 

"AbaPuppetmasters base-Academia, ”NguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent Science News (2015)

"Eminyakeni engama-20 kamuva: iqembu le-biotech limasha, ”I-Pesticide Action Network (2012) 

"Ukudla kwezobunjiniyela kukabani? ” ngu-Marcia Ishii-Eitemann, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Pesticide Action Network North America (2011) 

"Uxolo, NY Times: Ama-GMO namanje ngeke asindise umhlaba, ”Ngu-Anna Lappe, Grist (2011) 

"Lapho ngiya khona uzwane nozakwabo wesayensi kaH. Clinton ngama-GMO, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2009) 

"I-Diplomat Eguqulwe Ngokofuzo: Inqubomgomo Yezangaphandle yase-US i-GMO Yonke Indlela, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2008)

UNina Fedoroff: Ukugqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukubuyisela iMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
  • Njengomongameli nosihlalo webhodi le-AAAS kusuka ngo-2011-2013, uDkt Fedoroff uthuthukise izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo. Manje usebenzela inkampani yezikhalazo.
  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ubudlelwane bomphakathi kanye nemizamo yokunxenxa kuhlanganiswa kanjani ekusithekeni phakathi kwemboni yezolimo, amaqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele.

UNina Fedoroff, i-PhD, ungomunye wososayensi abanethonya elikhulu abalwela ukwanda nokuncishiswa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Ungumongameli wangaphambilini we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (2011-2012) futhi owayengusihlalo we-AAAS Board of Directors (2012-2013). Ungu- umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi kusukela ngo-2015 e-OFW Law, inkampani yokubamba iqhaza lapho amaklayenti afakiwe Syngenta futhi Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology, iqembu lokuhweba elimele iBayer (engumnikazi weMonsanto), iBASF, iCorteva (isigaba seDowDuPont) neSyngenta.

Kusukela ngo-2007-2010, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengomeluleki wesayensi nobuchwepheshe kuNobhala Wezwe kanye noMphathi we-USAID ngaphansi kokuphathwa kukaGeorge W. Bush kanye no-Obama. Ngaphambi kwalokho, wayengu- ilungu lebhodi we-Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, inkampani yamakhemikhali yamazwe ngamazwe kanye ne-biotech; kanye ne Ilungu lebhodi elelulekayo ye-Evogene, inkampani ye-biotechnology esebenzisana nayo DuPont, Syngenta, Bayer futhi Monsanto.

Umcimbi wango-2017 wokukhangisa uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo Incwadi ethi “junk science” kufakwe uDkt Fedoroff futhi ososayensi ababili abahambisana namaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu.

NjengoNobhala Wezwe uHillary “Umbusi wesayensi kaClinton, "UDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengonozakuzaku we"GMO yonke indlela”Ngenqubomgomo yaseMelika yezangaphandle, uTom Philpott wabika eGrist ngo-2008 nango-2009. I-Pesticide Action Network yaseNyakatho Melika ichaze uDkt. Fedoroff ngokuthi“inxusa laseMelika ngokoqobo ”lobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, uDkt. Fedoroff ube “a ummeli oshisekayo wokwanda komhlaba jikelele kweGM ukudla (okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo) kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe. ”

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli nosihlalo we-AAAS, i ngobukhulu emhlabeni umphakathi wesayensi eyahlukahlukene, uDkt Fedoroff waqokomisa lezo zindima ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwezepolitiki embonini yezolimo: isibonelo, i-AAAS Board of Directors ngaphansi kukasihlalo wayo yakhipha isitatimende esasibekelwe isikhathi sezepolitiki sokuphikisana nokufakwa kophawu lweGMO ngonyaka ka-2012. Ngenkathi engumongameli wenhlangano yesayensi ngo-2011. , UDkt Fedoroff usize ukwehlula isiphakamiso se-EPA sase-US ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yezitshalo ze-GMO, ngokusho kwama-imeyili achazwe ngezansi. Bheka, UNina Fedoroff, i-AAAS kanye nomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe bezolimo. UDkt Fedoroff ne-AAAS abaphendulanga ezicelweni zempendulo.

Ukuhlangana namaqembu aphambili embonini ekhohlisayo nemizamo ye-PR

UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze futhi wasiza ukwenza ngokusemthethweni amaqembu athi angamazwi azimele esayensi kepha asebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ngezindlela ezidukisa umphakathi - kufaka phakathi amaqembu amabili asiza iMonsanto zama ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi abasebenza ophikweni lochwepheshe beWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) oluchaza i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu e 2015.

Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo (ACSH) uxhaswa ngu izinkampani zamakhemikhali, ezithaka imithi kanye nogwayi, ngokuvumelana ne kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi lowo mbhalo wokuthi iqembu lizifaka kanjani izinsizakalo zalo ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Ama-imeyili akhishwe ngezinqubo zenkantolo akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto bavuma ukuxhasa i-ACSH ku-2015, futhi ucele iqembu ukuthi libhale ngalo umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC nge-glyphosate; I-ACSH ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathi umbiko womdlavuza wawungowokukhwabanisa okungokwesayensi.     

UDkt Fedoroff usize ukukhuthaza leli qembu njengomthombo osemthethweni wesayensi ku-2017 Umcimbi weNational Press Club ukwethula i-ACSH's “Little Black Book of Junk Science” Ababebonakala eceleni kukaDkt Fedoroff emcimbini wabezindaba bekungososayensi ababili abaxhumene namaqembu athi ukuphika isayensi yezulu futhi ukunxenxa imikhiqizo kagwayi:

Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo: UDkt Fedoroff ubaliwe njengelungu lebhodi kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu elithi lizimele kodwa abalingani neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR kanye nokunxenxa, ngokwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Imibhalo ekhishwe ekufayweni kwenkantolo ibonisa ukuthi iMonsanto ibhale leli qembu phakathi kwe- "Abalingani bemboni" behlela ukuzibandakanya nesu lokuhlela "ukukhala" ngokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate ukuze "kuvikelwe isithunzi ne-FTO ye-Roundup." IGenetic Literacy Project selokhu yathumela okungaphezulu kwe- Izihloko ze-200 egxeka i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ukuhlaselwa komuntu siqu kososayensi ababandakanyeka embikweni we-glyphosate, ebasola uzungu, ukukhwabanisa, elele, inkohlakalo, imfihlo, nokukhuthazwa “inzuzo nokuyize. ”??

Ku-an uchungechunge lokuwina imiklomelo eLe Monde mayelana "nemizamo kaMonsanto yokucekela phansi i-UN ejensi yomdlavuza nganoma iyiphi indlela," izintatheli uStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel bachaze iGenetic Literacy Project ne-ACSH "njengamawebhusayithi aziwa kakhulu enkulumo-ze" futhi bathi i-GLP "idliswa ngabantu be-PR abaxhumene izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane ne-biotechnology. ” I-GLP yethulwe ngo-2011 nguJon Entine, onenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi eyayineMonsanto njengekhasimende ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukuhlaselwa kwabaphenyi bomdlavuza kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ebala uDkt Fedoroff "njengelungu lebhodi":

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengomthombo wesayensi onokwethenjelwa esihlokweni sango-2012 ku Amathrendi ku-Genetics kanye nengxoxo ye-2016 ne-Washington Examiner mayelana ubuntatheli besayensi obumpofu. Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kwakungu usethe njengeqembu langaphambili ngosizo lweMonsanto ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bobunjiniyela kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ngenkathi ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe. Iqembu, okuyi bathi ukuzimela kodwa kwaba uxhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo, ahlasele imboni yezimboni “njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha.”

Ikamu leBiotech Literacy Boot Camp: UDkt Fedoroff wabalwa ohlwini lwe- ilungu lobuchwepheshe obuyisisekelo we-Biotech Literacy Project “camp boot” owawubanjelwe e-UC Davis ngo-2015. Lo mcimbi wawuhlelwe ngamaqembu amabili e-PR, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, futhi uxhaswe ngasese yizinkampani zezolimo ukuze “aqeqeshe ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate,” kubika uPaul Thacker ku-Okuqhubekayo. Izipikha zifake uhlu olujwayelekile lwabalingani bemboni ye-PR kubandakanya UJay Byrne, UJon Entine, UBruce Chassy, ​​uDavid Tribe, UHank Campbell we-ACSH futhi I-keynote by “iSci Babe.”

I-AgBioWorld: Ku-2012 Trends and Genetics wakhe esihlokweni, UDkt. Fedoroff wakhuthaza iwebhusayithi i-AgBioWorld ngokuthi “enye insiza eyigugu” yokufunda ngesayensi. Ngo-2002 ku-Guardian, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze ukuthi ithimba le-PR leMonsanto lisebenzise kanjani iwebhusayithi ye-AgBioWorld nama-akhawunti enkohliso ezokuxhumana nabantu ukuhlambalaza ososayensi nabezemvelo abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngezitshalo zeGM. UMonbiot ubike: 

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. '

Ngenkathi esebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi ukuthi Wow ukuthi 'usebenzisa isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ukubamba iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhombe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona kahle.' I-AgBioWorld yisiza lapho [umlingisi mbumbulu online uMary] Smetacek aqala khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuhlaselwa ku-Greenpeace: UDkt Fedoroff wakhuluma ku umcimbi wokucindezela we-2016 weqembu elizibiza “Sekela i-Precision Agriculture, ”Ebethula incwadi esayinwe ngabaklonyelizi bezindondo abangaphezu kwekhulu beNobel begxeka iGreenpeace ngokungahambisani kwabo namaGMO. Ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo usizile ngomkhankaso, kufaka phakathi owayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana kaMonsanto UJay Byrne; iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP I-Val Giddings; noMat Winkler, oxhasa imali nge- Iphrojekthi ye-PR ye-Genetic Literacy Project futhi ibhalwe njenge- ilungu lebhodi kanye noDkt Fedoroff kuwebhusayithi yeqembu. Uhlobo lwe- .com lwewebhusayithi okuthiwa izimele ye- “Support Precision Agriculture” iqondiswe kabusha kwi-Genetic Literacy Project iminyaka (yahlukaniswa ngemuva kokuthi siyinake ku-2019). Ku- ama-imeyili avela ku-2011, U-Byrne wakhomba i-Greenpeace ohlwini lwama "target" ayelwenzela iMonsanto enamagama abagxeki bezimboni ababengabhekana nabo ngemuva kwekhava iqembu lezemfundo elixhaswe ngezimboni lokho kwavela ngokuzimela.

Umngani we GMO Izimpendulo: UDkt Fedoroff uyi isazi esizimele Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a Umkhankaso we-PR owenziwe ubudlelwano bomphakathi kaKetchum, ene-a umlando wokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukuthonya umphakathi. Yize uKetchum ebanga umkhankaso weZimpendulo ze-GMO 'kungachaza kabusha okwenzekayo,' iqembu izimpendulo ezibhaliwe ngochwepheshe "ozimele" futhi wabalwa phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza. A Isigaba "sezinsizakusebenza" (ikhasi 4) sikhombe kwizixhumanisi zeGMO Answers kanye neMonsanto ezixhumana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "IGlyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic." Ngo-2016, UDkt Fedoroff ukhulume ngesigungu esixhaswe ngabakwa-GMO Answers, Scientific American kanye ne ICornell Alliance yeSayensi mayelana nokusakazwa kwabezindaba kwesayensi equkethe izintatheli ezinobungani embonini UKeith Kloor futhi UTamar Haspel. Bona “IMedia Machine yeMonsanto Iza eWashington, ”NguPaul Thacker.

Uphenyo oluphikisayo lokuthola ubudlelwane bemboni nezifundo

Ku-2015, uDkt Fedoroff nabanye abaongameli ababili be-AAAS, uPeter Raven noPhillip Sharp, bathuthukisa izindima zabo zobuholi be-AAAS, kepha behlulekile ukudalula noma yikuphi ukubambisana kwabo embonini, ku-Guardian i-op-ed ophikisana nophenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi obefuna ukuthola ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga nezinhlelo zezimali phakathi kwezinkampani zezolimo, amaqembu abo e-PR kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi. I- uphenyo olwenziwe yi-US Right to Know wembule eminye yemibhalo esemqoka echazwe kuleli qiniso.

Yize uGuardian kamuva engeze i- ukudalulwa ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff usebenza enkampanini yokwamukela izivakashi i-OFW Law, akuzange kudalule lokho Iklayenti le-OFW Law ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezimboni zezolimo, izinkampani zalo ezingamalungu ezazigxile ekuphenyweni kwamarekhodi omphakathi. Omengameli bangaphambilini be-AAAS baphikisana nohlelo lwabo lokuthi uphenyo lokuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ezingadalulwanga embonini nezifundo "lwalukhipha ikhasi encwadini yokudlala yeClimategate" futhi luthinta "ukuphika isayensi," izimangalo ezifanayo enziwe yizimboni amaqembu e-PR achazwe kuleli qiniso.

Kusetshenziswa i-AAAS ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) kusuka ngo-2011-2012 nanjengoSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi kusukela ngo-2012-2013, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo ukuthuthukisa izinhloso zenqubomgomo ezisemqoka: ukugcina izakhi zofuzo ukudla okwenziwe ngobuchwepheshe kungabhalwanga futhi kwehliswa isiphakamiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe ngemithelela yezempilo nezemvelo yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezihlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-AAAS isize ukuncenga abavoti ukuthi baphikise ukufakwa ilebuli kwe-GMO

Ngo-2012, iBhodi Labaqondisi be-AAAS ngaphansi kukaSihlalo kaDkt Fedoroff yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthatha uhlangothi odabeni lwezepolitiki olunombango kusasele amasonto amabili ngaphambi kokuba abavoti eCalifornia baye okhethweni lokuthatha isinqumo ngeProposition 37, okuyisinyathelo sokuvotela ama-GMO. Ukubuyekezwa kwezitatimende eziningi zezepolitiki ezenziwe yi-AAAS azitholanga ezinye izibonelo zenhlangano eyayizama ukuthonya abavoti ngaphambi kokhetho lombuso. (I-AAAS noDkt. Fedoroff abaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono. Futhi ukudalulwa: abaqondisi abasebenzisana ne-USRTK basebenze emkhankasweni wokufaka ilebula.)

Amabhodi we-AAAS isitatimende Ukuphikisa ilebula le-GMO kwakuyimpikiswano. It kuqukethe ukunganembi, ngokusho kwamalungu esikhathi eside e-AAAS, amaningi awo usilahlile isitatimende esiphikisana nokulebula njengokuhlasela “kobaba” kwamalungelo abathengi okudukise umphakathi ngokushiya umongo obalulekile wesayensi nokulawula. Okhulumela i-AAAS ngaleso sikhathi, uGinger Pinholster, wabiza ukugxekwa ngokuthi “akulungile futhi akunankinga.” Utshele intatheli ubesekamelweni ngesikhathi ibhodi lidlulisa isitatimende: “Asilona iqembu labameli. Izitatimende zethu sizenza ngokuya ngobufakazi besayensi, ”kusho uPinholster. "Ngingakutshela ukuthi isitatimende sethu asiwona umsebenzi noma asithonywanga yinhlangano engaphandle."

Abanye izingqapheli baqaphela ukufana kolimi olusetshenziswa yi-AAAS ne- umkhankaso oxhaswa ngezimboni ukwehlula isiphakamiso 37. "Ngabe iqembu elikhulu lesayensi liyayilahla iMonsanto?”Kubuza uMichele Simon ngoGrist. USimon uchaze isitatimende sebhodi "njengesingeyona isayensi kepha esifanele kakhulu ukucaphuna," futhi waphawula ukuthi ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-AAAS ibiqukethe "amaphuzu okuxoxa" ahambisana no-No on 37 izincwadi zomkhankaso.

"Ukubonakala ungaphansi kokusobala kungumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wezesayensi"

Phakathi ku Incwadi ka-2013 eya kumagazini weSayensi, elinye iqembu lososayensi abali-11 lizwakalise ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isitatimende sebhodi le-AAAS ngokudla okuyi-GMO "singahle siqhume." Babhala bathi, “sikhathazekile ukuthi isikhundla se-AAA simele indlela engenalo ulwazi lokuxhumana nesayensi…  ukubonakala kungabonakali obala kuwumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wesayensi. ”

UDkt. ososayensi abane abamele "umphakathi wesayensi nowezemfundo" ophikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Umkhankaso ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wacela uDkt Fedoroff ukuthi asize ekufuneni izifundiswa ezengeziwe emgomweni wazo, lokho wakwenza ngokusho kuka Okthoba 1, 2012 imeyili kuMeghan Callahan we-BCF Wezindaba Zomphakathi, “Ngidlulisele [isicelo sakho sabaxhasi bezemfundo] eqenjini lamazwe omhlaba le-biotechnology elisekela izifundiswa. Ngiyasola ukuthi uzobe uzwa ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, ”kubhala uDkt Fedoroff.

Kusize ukubulala izidingo zedatha yezitshalo ezikhiqiza izibulala-zinambuzane

Ngo-2011 ngenkathi esebenza njengoMongameli we-AAAS, uDkt. Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo kanye nomuntu osebenzela izimboni ukumisa i-US Environmental Protection Agency ekudingeni izinkampani ukuthi zinikeze imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuhlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokusho kwama-imeyili kuchazwe ngezansi.

Isiphakamiso se-EPA sisuselwe engxoxweni yePhaneli Elulekayo Yezesayensi ye-EPA yango-2009 mayelana izindlela zokwenza ngcono ikhono le-ejensi lokwenza izinqumo ezilawulayo mayelana nezitshalo ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukukhiqiza noma ukuqukatha izibulala-zinambuzane, i-EPA eyibiza ngokuthi "izivikeli ezifakwe ezitshalweni" (ama-PIP). Amalungu ePhaneli acelwe ukuthi ahlole izidingo zamanje neziphakanyiswayo zedatha ye-EPA yama-PIP kulezi zindawo ezilandelayo:

  • idatha yokuhlola ukufana okukhona phakathi kwama-PIP nama-allergen, ubuthi, ama-anti-nutrient namanye amaprotheni ayingozi;
  • ukuhlolwa kwemiphumela ehambisanayo kwezempilo nakwizinto ezingezona ezihlosiwe, lapho izici ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ze-GMO zihlanganisiwe (istacked trait GMOs);
  • imithelela engahle ibe khona kubantu abancane bezinto eziphilayo emhlabathini; futhi
  • idatha yokubhekana kangcono nemithelela yokugeleza kofuzo.

Ngokuvumelana ne amanothi avela emhlanganweni we-EPA ka-Okthoba 2009, imithetho ehlongozwayo "izodidiyela kakhulu izidingo zedatha ezikhona ezisetshenziswa njengamanje," futhi izofaka imikhakha emihlanu yedatha nolwazi: ukwenziwa komkhiqizo, impilo yabantu, imiphumela engahlosiwe, ukuphela kwemvelo nokumelana ukuphathwa. I-EPA umemezele imithetho ehlongozwayo kwiRejista Yenhlangano ngo-Mashi 2011.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi izimbangi zomfelandawonye zahlangana kanjani ukunqoba lesi siphakamiso.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo phakathi kukaBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngaleso sikhathi, u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto nabanye abasebenza embonini bexoxa ngemisebenzi nangemihlangano ebandakanya uDkt Fedoroff. UChassy uzichaze kuma-imeyili (ikhasi 66) njengokuxhumana phakathi kwemboni nezifundiswa emzameni wokuphikisana nezidingo zedatha ye-EPA. Okufakwe kuma-imeyili akhe kuSachs bekukhona imibuzo yokuthi ngabe uMonsanto uthumele isheke yini e-University of Illinois Foundation ukuxhasa umsebenzi kaChassy “wokufinyelela kwe-biotechnology kanye nemisebenzi yezemfundo.” (Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngezimali ezingadalulwanga uChassy azithola eMonsanto iminyaka njengoba ethuthukisa i-biotechnology, bheka kubika nguMonica Eng eWBEZ futhi ama-imeyili athunyelwe yiNew York Times.)

NgoJulayi 5, uDkt Chassy uthumele i-imeyili u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto ukubika ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff uthumele i- incwadi eya ku-EPA ngaphezulu kwesiginesha yakhe esayinwe ngokubambisana ngamalungu angama-60 eNational Academy of Sciences. “UNina ulicoshe ibhola walisusa phansi enkundleni,” kubhala uChassy. Uchaze isiphakamiso se-EPA “njengokuphahlazeka kwesitimela.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngo-Agasti 19, abamele amaqembu ezokuhweba embonini babe umangele futhi wajabula (ikhasi 19) ukubona i-New York Times i-op-ed kusuka kuDkt. Fedoroff ephikisana nemithethonqubo yobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo; “Ngubani owenze isikhundla sikaNina?” U-Adrienne Massey we-BIO ubuze uDkt Chassy nabanye ababambisene naye embonini, Henry Miller futhi I-Val Giddings. UChassy uphendule wathi:

UMassey udlulisele uDkt Chassy incwadi i-BIO ayithumele ku-EPA “enethemba lokuthi uzokwakhela encwadini yezifundiswa futhi anqamule noma yikuphi ukuphendulwa kwe-EPA kuleyo ncwadi.” Imizamo yabo ayiphumelelanga njengoba bebethemba. Ngo-Agasti 24, UDkt Chassy ubhalele u-Eric Sachs (ikhasi 14) ukuthi uDkt. Fedoroff “uthole impendulo evela ku-EPA eyinhlamba.” Uchaze izinhlelo zokuqinisa ingcindezi.

 

NgoSepthemba, uChassy uhlele ucingo lwengqungquthela noFedoroff, u-Eric Sachs weMonsanto, u-Adrienne Massey we-BIO kanye no-lobbyist wabo uStanley Abramson, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokusho kukaChassy amanothi asocingweni, "Ukuthola indlela yokuqinisekisa ukuthi isiphakamiso se-EPA asikaze sibone ukukhanya kosuku kungaba umphumela omuhle kakhulu esingalindela wona. Okulandelayo okuhamba phambili kuzoba ukuqinisekisa ukuthi yi-DOA, kodwa uma kunesidingo kumele sizimisele ukuqhubeka nokulwa. ”

Wabuye wabelana ngenkinga yokuthi, “I-EPA ayikholwa ukuthi umphakathi wezemfundo ungaphikisana ngokuqinile nomthetho wabo ohlongozwayo; bakholelwa ukuthi bambalwa kuphela abambalwa abalandela isicelo nokuthi iningi labasayinile abazinikele kulolu daba. ” Leli qembu linqume ukuthi lidinga “ukwakha umgogodla wososayensi abaholayo empeleni abazimisele ukukhuluma futhi banikele ngesikhathi kulolu daba.”

Ngo-Okthoba, iqembu lalinethemba kakhulu. UChassy wathumela i-imeyili ngamaSachs ukubika ngomhlangano "okhiqizayo ngokumangazayo" yena noDkt. Fedoroff bahambela noSteve Bradbury we-EPA. Umhlangano wawusungulwe nguMassey kanye no-Abramson owamukela izivakashi. Isiphakamiso se-EPA sokudinga imininingwane yama-GMO PIPs asikaze sikubone ukukhanya kosuku, ngokusho kukaMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, owabamba iqhaza emihlanganweni yomphakathi nale nhlangano.

Amaketanga e-imeyili aphelele, ngokusebenzisa Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni we-UCSF:

Ukubika okuhlobene 

"Ngavinjelwa engqungqutheleni yabezindaba yeNobel Laureate ngumxhumanisi we-PR noMonsanto Ties, ”NguTim Schwab, Food & Water Watch (2016)

"AbaPuppetmasters base-Academia, ”NguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent Science News (2015)

"Eminyakeni engama-20 kamuva: iqembu le-biotech limasha, ”I-Pesticide Action Network (2012)

"Ukudla kwezobunjiniyela kukabani? ” ngu-Marcia Ishii-Eitemann, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Pesticide Action Network North America (2011)

"Uxolo, NY Times: Ama-GMO namanje ngeke asindise umhlaba, ”Ngu-Anna Lappe, Grist (2011)

"Lapho ngiya khona uzwane nozakwabo wesayensi kaH. Clinton ngama-GMO, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2009)

"I-Diplomat Eguqulwe Ngokofuzo: Inqubomgomo Yezangaphandle yase-US i-GMO Yonke Indlela, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2008)

UJay Byrne: Hlangana noMuntu Olandela Umshini We-Monsanto PR

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana Kwamabhizinisi uMonsanto uJay Byrne, umongameli wenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi v-Amandla, ungumdlali oyinhloko kufayela le- i-covert inkulumo-ze nemikhankaso yokunxenxa izinkampani zezolimo ezinkulu kakhulu emhlabeni. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, kuthunyelwe ku-UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Archive, yembula uhla lwamasu akhohlisayo uByrne nabanye ababambisene nabo embonini abasebenzisayo ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ukudla kwe-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Izibonelo lapha zibonisa ezinye zezindlela izinkampani ezihambisa ngazo imiyalezo yazo enkundleni yomphakathi zisuka ngemuva kwesembozo samaqembu angaphambi kokuzwakala, abasizi bakahulumeni kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele njengoba zisebenza nezinkampani noma ababonisi babo be-PR.

Amaklayenti: izinkampani eziphezulu zezolimo, ezolimo kanye nezinkampani zezidakamizwa 

KaByrne uhlu lwamakhasimende ifake phakathi uhla lwamabhizinisi amakhulu ezolimo kanye nezinkampani ezenza imithi namaqembu amabhizinisi, kufaka phakathi i-American Chemistry Council, iSyngenta, i-AstraZeneca, iMonsanto, iPfizer, i-American Farm Bureau, iNational Corn Growers Association, iGrocery Manufacturers Association, iRohm neHaas kanye nemboni yokubulala izinambuzane. iqembu lokuhweba iCropLife.

I-International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ekhuthaza ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo “iGolden Rice,” nayo iyiklayenti. Byrne ubambe iqhaza emizameni ye-PR yokuhlasela iGreenpeace nabanye abagxeka ilayisi le-GMO. Bheka nomtapo wolwazi wamakhompiyutha we-UCSF wabaningi amadokhumende afaka i-IRRI.

Kuphekwe iqembu eliphambili lezemfundo ukuze lihlasele abagxeki beMonsanto

Isu elisemqoka lomkhakha wezolimo, njenge I-New York Times ibike, ngukutshala osolwazi “besigqoko esimhlophe” ukulwa izimpi zomkhakha we-PR kanye nokunxenxa izimpi zisemuva kwesembozo "sokungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eliza nozalo loprofesa."

NgoMashi 2010, uByrne kanye noProfesa waseYunivesithi yase-Illinois UBruce Chassy uxoxe ngokusungula iqembu eliphambili elibizwa nge- "Academics Review" elingaheha iminikelo evela ezinkampanini ngenkathi libonakala lizimele. U-Byrne waqhathanisa lo mqondo nesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi (iqembu langaphambili eliqhutshwa udumo olubi inkulumo-ze yenkampani indoda engaphambili uRick Berman), okuthe “kwangena kulokhu ngokweqile; futhi ngicabanga ukuthi sinomqondo ongcono kakhulu. ” U-Byrne uchaze “uhla 'lwamathuba' anezinhloso” abangalulandela. UByrne wabhalela uDkt Chassy:

Wonke lawo maqembu, abantu kanye nezindawo zezihloko "kusho imali yezinhlangano zezinkampani ezithende kahle," kubhala uByrne. Uthe yena futhi UVal Giddings, PhD, owayeyisekela likamongameli weqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech i-BIO, ingasebenza "njengezimoto zokuhweba" zezifundiswa.

Ngo-November 2010, UByrne wabhalela uChassy Futhi, "Kuzoba kuhle ukuthola isigaba esilandelayo somsebenzi ekubuyekezweni kwe-Academics - sinezinga elihamba kancane eliqhamuka ngonyaka ka-2011 uma ibhizinisi lisafana." U-Byrne unikeze “ukuhlela isikhathi esithile sokwenza i-pro bono search engine optimization” ”ukuze iqembu lakhe libhekane nethonya lomgxeki we-GMO online. U-Byrne uphethe i-imeyili, "Njengenjwayelo, ngingathanda ukuthola isihloko esilandelayo (futhi sixhase) ukukhulisa lokhu ngenkathi sikwazi."

Ngo-2014, i-Academics Review yakhipha i- kubika ukuhlasela imboni ephilayo njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha; ezintweni zalo zokumaketha zombiko, i-Academics Review ithi izimele futhi ayizange iveze ukuxhaswa kwayo embonini yezolimo.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

"Imiklamo kahulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne" yokuthwebula izintatheli

Ukunxenxa kukaByrne nokusebenza kwe-PR kweGMO kanye nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane kuhlangana ezindaweni eziningi nomsebenzi we UJon Entine, omunye umuntu osemqoka emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhakha wezolimo. U-Entine uqondisa i-Genetic Literacy Project, ayisungula ngo-2011 ngesikhathi iMonsanto isiyi- iklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. (I-Entine's PR firm ESG MediaMetrics ibhale iMonsanto njengekhasimende kuwebhusayithi yayo ku 2010, 2011, 2012 kuze kufike kuJanuwari 2013, ngokusho kwezinqolobane ze-inthanethi zisatholakala online.)

Ngo-December 2013, U-Entine ubhalele uMax T. Holtzman, owayeyibamba lesekela likanobhala ngaphansi koMnyango Wezolimo e-US, ukuze aphakamise ukusebenzisana ochungechungeni lwezinto azichaza ngokuthi “yimisebenzi kahulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne” ukukhuthaza ama-GMO. U-Entine ubhalele uHoltzman:

Isiphakamiso sika-Entine “Uhulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne”Amaphrojekthi afaka phakathi“ Ithimba leBoot Camp ne-Response Swat Team ”ukulungiselela izifundiswa ezivela eceleni ukuthi“ zibambe iqhaza ekushayweni komthetho ezindlebeni [ze-GMO] nakwezinye izindaba ezihlobene nazo, ”“ umhlangano wobuntatheli ”ukuqinisa ukusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nezinselelo zokuphepha kokudla kanye“ nokuhlinzeka ngoqeqesho kwizintatheli ezisencane, ”umkhankaso wokufinyelela kwabezindaba emhlabeni wonke wokukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwe-biotechnology, kanye" nokuqukethwe kwemidiya eminingi nokubekwa okuvela emithonjeni ethembekile "kuqinisa izingqikithi ezibalulekile" ngamasegmenti nemibhalo etholakalayo etholakala kumawebhusayithi kahulumeni wase-US, i-GLP namanye amapulatifomu. "

UHoltzman uphendule, “Ngiyabonga Jon. Bekukuhle ukuhlangana nawe futhi. Ngicabanga ukuthi uhlaka lwakho olungezansi luhlinzeka ngamaphoyinti ezimpambanweni zemvelo lapho imiyalezo ye-usda / USG nemizamo yakho ihlangana kahle. Ngingathanda ukuqhubekisela phambili futhi ngixegise abanye abantu lapha e-usda hhayi nje kuphela abavela ezindaweni zobuchwepheshe / ezentengiselwano kodwa nasezitolo zethu zokuxhumana. ”

Amavidiyo aqondiswe ngabakhokhi bentela, aqondaniswe neMonsanto ukukhuthaza ama-GMO

Uchungechunge lwabakhokhi bentela oluxhaswe ngemali videos okwakhiqizwa ngo-2012 ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kunikeza esinye isibonelo sendlela izifundiswa namanyuvesi abephusha ngayo imiyalezo ehambisana nezinkampani. Inkampani ka-Byrne i-PR v-Fluence isize ekwakheni ama-video “abeklanyelwe ukuvela njengesabelomali esincane kanye nezimfundamakhwela,” ngokusho kwe-imeyili evela kuSolwazi uBruce Chassy wase-University of Illinois.

UDkt Chassy yabhalela abasebenzi baseMonsanto ngo-Ephreli 27, 2012:

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto uphendule wathi:

AmaSachs anikele ngokusiza ngokuthumela imiyalezo ngamavidiyo wesikhathi esizayo ngokwabelana ngemiphumela yokuhlolwa kweqembu okwakugxilwa kulo okwenziwa uMonsanto. UDkt. Chassy umeme iSachs ukuthi inikeze iziphakamiso ngezihloko zevidiyo ezizayo futhi yamcela ukuthi athumele imiphumela yeqembu lokugxila leMonsanto.

Ukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano mayelana nama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides

Ngo-2014 nango-2015, uByrne wasiza uJon Entine ukuhlela ifayili le- Izinkambu zeBiotech Literacy Project ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo futhi ibanjwe ngokubambisana ngamaqembu amabili angaphambili embonini, Iphrojekthi ye-Entine's Genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo KukaBruce Chassy. Abahleli bedukise bachaza uxhaso lwalemicimbi njengokuqhamuka emithonjeni yezemfundo, kahulumeni neyezimboni, kodwa i okuwukuphela komthombo wokuthola imali owawungalandeleka kwakuyimboni yezolimo, ngokusho kombiko kaPaul Thacker. Inhloso yamakamu ama-boot, kusho uThacker, "kwakuwukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuthi bahlele impikiswano ngama-GMO nangobuthi be-glyphosate."

UByrne wayeseqenjini elalihlela, kanye noCami Ryan (manje osebenzela iMonsanto) noBruce Chassy (owayethola izimali ezivela eMonsanto lokho akuzange kuvezwe obala), ngokusho kwama-imeyili avela ku- Faka futhi Ryan.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

I-Bonus Eventus: ikamelo lezokuxhumana lomkhakha wezolimo lomkhakha wezolimo

Umsebenzi obalulekile uByrne ahlinzeka ngawo emizamweni yokwenyusa yezolimo ngumphakathi wakhe "we-Bonus Eventus" onikeza izifundiswa nabanye ababambisene nabo embonini ngamaphoyinti okukhuluma namathuba wokuphromotha. Ngaphakathi imibhalo (ikhasi 9) ichaza i-Bonus Eventus ngokuthi "ingosi yokuxhumana nabantu yangasese esebenza njengendawo yokubambisana kwezokuxhumana kososayensi abathanda ezolimo, abenza izinqubomgomo nabanye ababambe iqhaza." Amalungu athola incwadi yezindaba kaByrne, kanye nokufinyelela kulabhulali yakhe eyinkomba yezihloko zebhizinisi lezolimo, "imininingwane yababambiqhaza" yabantu abanethonya empikiswaneni ye-GMO, nokuqeqeshwa nokwesekwa kokuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zenhlalo.

Izibonelo zale ncwadi zingatholakala kulokhu inqolobane yama-imeyili asuka eByrne aya kuPeter Phillips, onguprofesa wase-University of Saskatchewan oke waba egxekwa ngozakwabo ngenxa yakhe vala ubudlelwano neMonsanto. Encwadini yezindaba kaNovemba 7, 2016, uByrne unxuse uPhillips nabanye abamukeli ukuthi babelane ngokuqukethwe mayelana "namaphutha nokushiyeka" ku Indaba yeNew York Times lokho kwabika ngokwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ukukhuphula isivuno kanye nokunciphisa izibulala-zinambuzane, futhi "imibuzo ekhulayo" ebhekene neqembu lomhlaba wonke lososayensi bomdlavuza ababika ukuthi i-glyphosate yi-carcinogen mhlawumbe yabantu ehambisana nohlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ihlaze iphaneli lokucwaninga ngomdlavuza. (Bheka ne- iphepha lamaqiniso likaPeter Phillip imfihlo yochungechunge "ilungelo lokwazi").

U-Byrne unxuse umphakathi we-Bonus Eventus ukuthi wabelane ngokuqukethwe ngalezi zingqikithi kubalobi abaxhumene nomkhakha, njenge UJulie Kelly, UDkt. Henry Miller, UKavin Senapathy, I-Sci Babe futhi Hank campbell we Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu leMonsanto lalikhona ukukhokha ukusiza ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi bomdlavuza. Ku-2017, iForbes isuse inqwaba yama-athikili kaDkt.Miller - kufaka phakathi amaningana awabhala nawo Kelly, Senapathy neByrne - ngemuva kwe- I-New York Times ibike ukuthi uDkt. Miller wayeshicilele udaba eForbes ngaphansi kwegama lakhe okwakubhalwe ngalo isipoki nguMonsanto.

Umlindisango ngokuhlaselwa kweGreenpeace

Lapho iqembu labathola izindondo zikaNobel linxusa iGreenpeace ukuba iyeke ukuphikisa irayisi elenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kwabukeka njengomzamo ozimele. Kepha ngemuva kwekhethenisi lezimpawu ezihlaba umxhwele bekungukusizwa kwabadlali ababalulekile emkhankasweni wezokuxhumana we-PR wemboni yezolimo: UJay Byrne kanye nelungu lebhodi le-Genetic Literacy Project. Byrne bekuposwe emnyango emcimbini we-2016 National Press Club okhuthaza iqembu elibizwa Sekela i-Precision Agriculture. Uhlobo lwe-.com lwaleyo webhusayithi luqondiswe kabusha iminyaka ku-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu langaphambili elisebenzayo neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho. 

Ngakho-ke ngubani okhokhele umcimbi wezindaba we-anti-Greenpeace? USir Richard Roberts, isazi samakhemikhali ezinto eziphilayo owathi wahlela incwadi yabathole umklomelo kaNobel, uchaze le ndaba kwi-FAQ kuwebhusayithi: "umkhankaso ubusungabizi kakhulu kuze kube manje," ubhale, kubandakanya iningi lomholo wakhe okhokhelwe umqashi wakhe iNew England Biolabs kanye "nezindleko eziphuma ephaketheni" ezikhokhwe nguMatt Winkler. UWinkler, umsunguli nosihlalo wenkampani ye-biotech i-Asuragen, naye ungumxhasi futhi ilungu lebhodi yeGenetic Literacy Project, ngokusho kwewebhusayithi yeqembu. URoberts uchaze ukuthi uWinkler “ubhalise umngani, uVal Giddings,” (the iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP) “ophakamise uJay Byrne” (owayengumphathi wezokuxhumana kuMonsanto) owanikeza ukwesekwa kwe-pro bono logistical for the event.

U-Byrne no-Giddings baphinde basiza ukuhlela uhlelo lwe-Academics Review oluxhaswe yimboni, iqembu langaphambili abalisungula ukuthi livele lizimele ngenkathi lisebenza njengemoto yokuheha imali yezinkampani ukuze kutholakale abagxeki abahlaselayo bemikhiqizo ye-ag-biotech, ngokusho kwe ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know. Kuma-imeyili, uByrne waqamba igama elithi Greenpeace ku- Uhlu “lwamatshegethi” abelubhalela iMonsanto. Enye kaByrne amakhasimende yi-International Rice Research Institute, okuyiqembu eliyimboni eliyinhloko elizama ukuthengisa i-GMO Golden Rice, obekugxilwe kuyona yi-Greenpeace critique. Ucwaningo olwenziwe nguGlenn Davis Stone waseWashington University eSt. Louis luthole lokho isivuno esiphansi nobunzima bezobuchwepheshe babambe iGolden Rice, hhayi ukuphikiswa ngamaqembu ezemvelo.

Embuzweni wakhe we-FAQ, uDkt. Roberts waluchitha ucwaningo oluzimele lukaDkt. UJulie Kelly, Henry Miller futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa. Umcimbi wabezindaba wenzeke ngesikhathi esibucayi sezepolitiki, futhi waba usizo indaba eWashington Post, isonto ngaphambi kokuba iCongress ivote ukuvimbela amazwe ukuthi afake ilebuli yama-GMO.

Kusukela ngoJanuwari 2019, inguqulo ye- .com ye-Support Precision Agriculture iphinde yaqondiswa ku-Genetic Literacy Project. Ku-FAQ yakhe, uRoberts uthe akanabo ubudlelwano ne-GLP futhi wathi "umuntu ongaziwa" uthenge indawo efanayo "ngomzamo obonakalayo" wokuyixhumanisa ne-GLP. Uthe lesi yisibonelo sokuthi "amaqhinga angcolile eqembu eliphikisayo awanamkhawulo."
(Ukuqondisa kabusha kwenziwa kwasebenza esikhathini esithile ngemuva kokuthi lokhu okuthunyelwe kuqale ukusebenza.)

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Ukwenza iwebhu isebenze ngabantu namawebhusayithi mbumbulu

Ukubikwa kwe UGuardian ngo-2002, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze iqhinga lokucasha ukuthi izinkampani zezolimo kanye nezinhlangano zabo ze-PR bezikade zisebenzisa amashumi eminyaka ukukhuthaza nokuvikela imikhiqizo yabo: ukudala ubuntu obungebona obusobala namawebhusayithi mbumbulu ukuze kuthuliswe abagxeki futhi kube nomthelela emiphumeleni yokusesha eku-inthanethi.

UMonbiot ubike ukuthi “izakhamizi mbumbulu” (abantu abebengekho empeleni) “bebehlasela amabhokisi asohlwini lwe-inthanethi ngemiyalezo esola ososayensi kanye nabezemvelo abebegxeka izitshalo ze-GM” - kanti izakhamizi mbumbulu zalandelwa zabuyiselwa enkampanini i-PR kaMons Bivings.

UMonbiot uchaze ukuxhumana kukaJay Byrne neBivings:

"Cabanga nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni… kukhona ozobulawa."

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. ' Ngenkathi esasebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi wow ukuthi 'uchitha isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ebambe iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhethe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona'. I-AgBioWorld yindawo lapho [isakhamuzi mbumbulu] uSmetacek eqale khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Okuningi okuvela kuJay Byrne

A Isethulo se-Power Point sika-2013 ibonisa indima edlalwa nguByrne kumakhasimende akhe embonini yezolimo. Lapha uchaza imibono yakhe ngabasekeli bezemvelo, ubeka ithonya labo online futhi unxusa izinkampani ukuthi zihlanganise izinsiza zazo ukubhekana nazo, ukuze kugwenywe "izingqinamba zokulawula nezimakethe."

The 2006 ibhuku “Bayekeni Badle Ukuqapha,” enyatheliswa yi- I-American Enterprise Institute futhi yahlelwa yimboni yezolimo Umsebenzi we-PR uJon Entine, iqukethe isahluko sikaByrne esihloko sithi, "Ukwakha kabusha i-Agricultural Biotechnology Protest Industry."

U-Byrne uyilungu le- "AgBioChatter," a uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo ukuthi abasebenzi abaphezulu embonini yezolimo, abeluleki kanye nezifundiswa basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know khombisa uByrne ekhuthaza amalungu e-AgBioChatter ukuthi azame ukudicilela phansi isithunzi sabantu namaqembu ayegxeka ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides. Uhlelo lwe-Monsanto PR lwango-2015 olubizwa nge-AgBioChatter njengenye ye "Abalingani bezimboni" uMonsanto uhlele ukuzibandakanya ukusiza ukuhlazisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza mayelana ne-glyphosate.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Izibopho zikaPamela Ronald's to Chemical Industry Front Groups

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kubuyekezwe ngoJuni 2019

UPamela Ronald, PhD, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, uDavis nombhali wencwadi yango-2008 ethi “Tomorrow's Table,” ungummeli owaziwayo wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Okungaziwa kakhulu iqhaza likaDkt. Ronald ezinhlanganweni eziziveza njengabantu abazimele ngaphandle kwezimboni, kodwa empeleni basebenzisana nezinhlangano zamakhemikhali ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ezinhlelweni ezingafihli lutho emphakathini. 

Ixhumana neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo

UPamela Ronald unobudlelwano obuningi neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo, i IGenetic Literacy Project, kanye nomqondisi wayo omkhulu, uJon Entine. Ubasize ngezindlela eziningi. Ngokwesibonelo, imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi ngonyaka wezi-2015, UDkt. Ronald uqoke u-Entine njengomuntu ophakeme futhi ofundisa ezokuxhumana kwezesayensi e-UC Davis, futhi wabambisana ne-Genetic Literacy Project ukusingatha imboni yezolimo exhaswe ngemali umcimbi womlayezo abaqeqeshe abahlanganyeli ukuthi bangayikhangisa kanjani imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ichazwe ku umklomelo Okwezwe uphenyo njenge “website eyaziwayo yenkulumo-ze” eyadlala indima enkulu emkhankasweni weMonsanto wokuhlambalaza umbiko wenhlangano yocwaningo lomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ngeglyphosate. Kwi Idokhumenti ka-2015 PR, IMonsanto ikhombe i-Genetic Literacy Project phakathiabalingani bemboni ” inkampani ihlele ukuzibandakanya "nokuhlela ukukhala" ngombiko womdlavuza. I-GLP kusukela lapho isishicilele izindatshana eziningi ezihlasela ososayensi bomdlavuza njenge- "anti-chemical enviros" eyaqamba amanga futhi yazibandakanya nayo inkohlakalo, ukuhlanekezela, ukufihla nokukhwabanisa.

I-Entine inezibopho zesikhathi eside embonini yamakhemikhali; umsebenzi wakhe uhlanganisa ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane, industrial Amakhemikhali, amapulasitiki, ukukhwabanisa, Kanye imboni kawoyela, imvamisa nge ukuhlaselwa kososayensi, izintatheli futhi izifundiswa.  Faka umkhankaso i-Genetic Literacy Project ngo-2011 lapho UMonsanto wayeyikhasimende yenkampani yakhe yezobudlelwano nomphakathi. I-GLP ekuqaleni ehlotshaniswa ne-STATS, izintatheli zeqembu elingenzi nzuzo zichaze njenge- “umkhankaso we-disinformation”Lokho imbewu ingabaza isayensi futhi “eyaziwa ngokuvikela kwayo imboni yamakhemikhali. " 

Ngo-2015, i-Genetic Literacy Project yathuthela enhlanganweni entsha yabazali, i-Science Literacy Project. Ukufakwa kwentela kwe-IRS ngalowo nyaka kubonisiwe ukuthi uDkt. Ronald wayeyilungu lebhodi eyasungula i-Science Literacy Project, kodwa ama-imeyili kusuka ngo-Agasti 2018 khombisa ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uqinisekise u-Entine ukuthi asuse igama lakhe kwifomu lentela ngemuva kokuthi kwaziwe ukuthi ubhalwe lapho (ifomu elichitshiyelwe lentela selikhona manje kuyatholakala lapha). UDkt. Ronald ubhalele u-Entine, “Angizange ngisebenze kuleli bhodi futhi angizange nginike mvume yokuthi igama lami libhalwe. Ngicela uthathe izinyathelo ngokushesha ukwazisa i-IRS ukuthi igama lami lifakwe ohlwini ngaphandle kwemvume. ” U-Entine ubhale ukuthi unezinkumbulo ezihlukile. “Ngikhumbula kahle ukuthi wavuma ukuba yingxenye yebhodi futhi wahola ibhodi lokuqala… Wawunomdlandla futhi ungisekela empeleni. Akukho kungabaza engqondweni yami ukuthi uvumelane nalokhu. ” Yize kunjalo wavuma ukuzama ukususa igama lakhe embhalweni wentela.

Laba bobabili baphinde baxoxa ngefomu lentela ngoDisemba 2018 ngemuva kokuthi kuthunyelwe leli phepha. Kubhale u-Entine, “Ngikubhalile ku-original 990 ngokususelwa engxoxweni yocingo lapho uvumile ukuba khona ebhodini. Ngesikhathi ungimelela ukuthi awuvumelani nalokhu, ngicishe irekhodi njengoba ubucelile. ” Ku- enye i-imeyili ngalolo suku, ukhumbuze uDkt. Ronald ukuthi “empeleni ubuhlangene nale 'nhlangano: njengoba besisebenza ndawonye, ​​ngaphandle komzamo nangokwakhayo, ekwenzeni ikamu lamabhuzu enyuvesi yakho libe yimpumelelo enkulu.”  

Amafomu entela eSayensi Literacy Project manje abala amalungu amathathu ebhodi: Entine; UDrew Kershen, owayenguprofesa wezomthetho futhi owayesebhodini le- “Academics Review,” iqembu elalithi lizimele ngenkathi ithola izimali zayo ezinkampanini zezolimo; futhi UGeoffrey Kabat, ingcweti yezifo ezisebenza ku ibhodi labeluleki besayensi Okwe Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu lelo uthole imali evela kuMonsanto ngomsebenzi wayo wokuvikela ama-pesticides kanye nama-GMO.

Isungulwe, yahola iqembu le-UC Davis eliphakamisa imizamo ye-PR yomkhakha

UDkt Ronald wayengumqondisi osungula iWorld Food Center's Isikhungo Sokufunda Nokufunda Kwezolimo (IFAL), iqembu elasungulwa e-2014 e-UC Davis lokuqeqesha ubuhlakani kanye nabafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Leli qembu alizivezi ngokugcwele izimali zalo.

Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald unikele UJon Entine neqembu lakhe eliphambili embonini I-Genetic Literacy Project yesikhulumi e-UC Davis, ukuqoka i-Entine njengomuntu omkhulu ongakhokhiwe we-IFAL kanye nomfundisi nomeluleki ohlelweni lokuthweswa iziqu kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi. U-Entine akaseyena umngani e-UC Davis. Bona incwadi yethu yango-2016 eya kwiWorld Food Center ebuza ngezimali ze-Entine ne-IFAL kanye nabo incazelo engacacile mayelana nokuthi uxhaso lwabo luvelaphi.

NgoJulayi 2014, uDkt. Ronald waveza ku-imeyili asebenza naye ukuthi u-Entine wayeyi- umhlanganyeli obalulekile ongabanika iziphakamiso ezinhle zokuthi bangaxhumana nobani ukuze bathole imali eyengeziwe ngomcimbi wokuqala we-IFAL. NgoJuni 2015, i-IFAL yabamba iqhaza "Ikamu lokuqala le-Biotech Literacy Project”Nge-Genetic Literacy Project kanye ne- Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu leMonsanto. Abahleli bathi lo mcimbi uxhaswe yimithombo yezemfundo, kahulumeni neyezimboni, kepha imithombo engeyona eyezimboni iyenqabile ukuxhasa le micimbi kanye ne kuphela umthombo wokuthola imali ongalandeleka uvela embonini, ngokusho kokubikwa kukaPaul Thacker ku-The Progressive.

Amarekhodi entela akhombisa lokho kubuyekezwa kwezifundo, okwakuthola okwayo imali evela embonini yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba, lisebenzise u- $ 162,000 engqungqutheleni yezinsuku ezintathu e-UC Davis. Inhloso yekamu ebhuthini, ngokwe-ajenda, bekuzoqeqesha nokuxhasa ososayensi, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezemfundo ukuze banxenxe umphakathi kanye nabenzi benqubomgomo ngezinzuzo zama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Izikhulumi enkanjini yebhuthi i-UC Davis zifakiwe UJay Byrne, Owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ezinkampanini kaMonsanto; Hank campbell yezimali ezixhaswa yiMonsanto Umkhandlu waseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo; osolwazi abanezibopho zomkhakha ezingadalulwanga ezifana USolwazi Emeritus Bruce Chassy wase-University of Illinois futhi USolwazi Kevin Folta waseYunivesithi yaseFlorida; UCami Ryan, manje osebenzela iMonsanto; UDavid Ropeik, umxhumanisi wokuqonda ngobungozi onenkampani ye-PR amaklayenti afaka iDow neBayer; kanye nabanye ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo.

Izikhulumi eziyinhloko kwakunguDkt. Ronald, UYvette d'Entremont uSci Babe, "umxhumanisi wezesayensi" ovikela izibulala-zinambuzane neziswidi zokufakelwa ngenkathi ethatha imali ezinkampanini ezidayisa leyo mikhiqizo, noTed Nordhaus we-Breakthrough Institute. (UNordhaus naye wabalwa njengelungu lebhodi leSayensi Literacy Project kwifomu lokuqala lentela lika-2015/2016, kodwa igama lakhe lasuswa kanye noDkt. Ronald's kwifomu echitshiyelwe i-Entine efakwe ngo-2018; uNordhaus uthe akakaze asebenze ebhodini.)

Ukupheka ukuduba kukaChipotle

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald noJon Entine babambisene ekuthumeleni imiyalezo ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kwesinye isikhathi, uDkt. Ronald uphakamise ukuthi ahlele ukuduba ngokumelene nechungechunge lokudlela laseChipotle ngenxa yesinqumo salo sokunikela nokuphromotha ukudla okungewona okwe-GMO.

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, uDkt Ronald wathumela i-imeyili i-Entine futhi U-Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, owayeyisisebenzi sangaphambilini seMonsanto nochwepheshe wezokweluleka ngokubambisana e-UC Davis, ukusikisela ukuthi bathole umfundi ozobhala ngabalimi abasebenzisa izibulala-zinambuzane ezinobuthi kakhulu ukutshala ummbila ongewona owe-GMO. "Ngiphakamisa ukuthi silazise leli qiniso (uma nje sesithole imininingwane) bese sihlela ukuduba kwe-chipotle, ”Kubhala uDkt Ronald. U-Entine wayalela umlingani wakhe ukuthi abhale i-athikili ye-Genetic Literacy Project ngesihloko esithi "ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kuvame ukukhuphuka" lapho abalimi beshintshela kwimodeli engeyona eye-GMO ukuhlinzeka izindawo zokudlela ezinjengeChipotle. I- esihlokweni, obhaliswe ngokuhlanganyela ngu-Entine futhi etusa ubulungu bakhe be-UC Davis, wehluleka ukufakazela leso simangalo ngedatha.

Iqembu le-biotech spin elenziwe ngokubambisana iBioFortified

UDkt. Ronald wasungula futhi wakhonza njengelungu lebhodi (2012-2015) le I-Biology Fortified, Inc. (i-Biofortified), iqembu elithuthukisa ama-GMO kanye ineqembu lesishoshovu sozakwethu lokho kuyahlela imibhikisho yokubhekana nabagxeki baseMonsanto. Abanye babaholi beBiofortified kufaka phakathi ilungu lebhodi lokusungula uDavid Tribe, isazi sezofuzo e-University of Melbourne owasungula Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo, iqembu elalizimele ngenkathi ethola izimali zezimboni, futhi esebenzisana ne-IFAL ukusingatha iBiotech Literacy Project “camp boot” e-UC Davis.

Owayelilungu lebhodi uKevin Folta (2015-2018), usosayensi wezitshalo eNyuvesi yaseFlorida isihloko sendaba yeNew York Times ebika ukuthi udukise umphakathi ngokusebenzisana kwemboni okungadalulwanga. Ama-blogger ase-Biofortified afaka uSteve Savage, owake waba khona Isisebenzi saseDuPont saphenduka umxhumanisi wemboni; UJoe Ballanger, a umxhumanisi weMonsanto; no-Andrew Kniss, one uthole imali evela kuMonsanto. Imibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi amalungu eBiofortified axhumene nge imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane emkhankasweni wokunxenxa ukuphikisa imikhawulo yezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii.

Udlale indima ehamba phambili kumabhayisikobho e-propaganda axhaswa ngezimboni

UDkt. Ronald uveze ngokugqamile kwiFood Evolution, ifilimu eliwumbhalo mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuxhaswa yiqembu lezokuhweba i-Institute for Food Technologists. Inqwaba yezifundiswa zinayo wabiza inkulumo-ze yefilimu, nabantu abambalwa okwaxoxwa nabo ngefilimu ichaze inqubo ekhohlisayo yokuqopha ifilimu futhi wathi imibono yabo ikhishwe kumongo.

https://www.foodpolitics.com/2017/06/gmo-industry-propaganda-film-food-evolution/

Umeluleki womkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi obususelwa eCornell

UDkt Ronald usebhodini lokweluleka leCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso we-PR ozinze eCornell University okhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane usebenzisa imiyalezo yezimboni zezolimo. Ixhaswe ngokuyinhloko yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, iCornell Alliance for Science inayo waphikisana nokusetshenziswa koMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi ukuphenya izikhungo zikahulumeni, udukise umphakathi ngolwazi olungaqondile nezithunywa eziphakeme ezingathembekile; bheka imibhalo ekhasini lethu lamaqiniso.

Uthola imali evela embonini yezolimo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald uthola isinxephezelo ezinkampanini zezolimo ukuze akhulume emicimbini lapho ekhuthaza khona ama-GMO kubabukeli abakhulu izinkampani ezifuna ukubathonya, njengodokotela bezokudla. Ama-imeyili asuka kuNovemba 2012 ahlinzeka ngesibonelo sendlela uDkt Ronald asebenza ngayo nezinkampani.

Umsebenzi waseMonsanto uWendy Reinhardt Kapsak, udokotela wezokudla owake wasebenzela imboni yokudla spin iqembu IFIC, wamema uRonald ukuba azokhuluma ezingqungqutheleni ezimbili ngo-2013, iFood 3000 kanye ne-Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Food and Nutrition Conference ne-Expo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi laba ababili kuxoxiswane ngezimali nokuthengwa kwezincwadi futhi wavuma ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uzokhuluma eFood 3000, ingqungquthela eyayihlelwe yinkampani ye-PR uPorter Novelli uKapsak athi izofinyelela "kwabezindaba abaphezulu abangama-90 ababa nomthelela wokudla kanye nabadlondlobele." (UDkt. Ronald ukhokhe u- $ 3,000 kulo mcimbi). UKapsak ucele buyekeza amaslayidi kaDkt. Ronald bese usetha ucingo lokuxoxa ngemiyalezo. Futhi kuphaneli bekukhona umongameli uMary Chin (udokotela wezokudla okwathi ubonisana neMonsanto), kanye nabamele iBill & Melinda Gates Foundation neMonsanto, noKapsak enikeza izinkulumo zokuvula. UKapsak ubike kamuva ukuthi iphaneli lithole ukubuyekezwa okukhulu ngabahlanganyeli bethi bazokwabelana ngombono wokuthi, "Kufanele sibe ne-biotech yokusiza ukondla umhlaba. "

Ezinye izingxoxo zokuxhaswa kwezimboni zikaDkt Ronald zifake owe-2014 inkulumo eMonsanto ngoba $ 3,500 kanye namakhophi wencwadi yakhe ayi-100 yena unqabile ukuthumela ku-tweet mayelana; nokubandakanyeka kokukhuluma ngo-2013 akubhalisele IBayer AG nge $ 10,000.

Amaphepha ahoxisiwe

I-Watch Retraction ibike ukuthi, “u-2013 ubungunyaka onzima kusazi sezinto eziphilayo uPamela Ronald. Ngemuva kokuthola iprotheni ebonakala ivusa amasosha omzimba elayisi ukuvikela isifo esivamile sebhaktheriya - esikisela indlela entsha yokwakha izitshalo ezingamelana nezifo - yena nethimba lakhe kwadingeka bahoxise amaphepha amabili ngo-2013 ngemuva kokuthi bengakwazanga ukuphindaphinda abakutholile. Amacala: uhlobo lwebhaktheriya olubhalwe kabi kanye ne-assay eguquguqukayo kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, ukunakekela nokusebenza obala akubonisile kwamzuzela 'ukwenza okulungile'wavuma kithi ngaleso sikhathi. "

Bona ukumbozwa:

"Wenzani ngokuhlehlisa okubuhlungu? I-Q & A enoPamela Ronald noBenjamin Swessinger, " I-Watch Retraction (7.24.2015)

"Ngabe isithunzi sesayensi sikaPamela Ronald, ubuso bomphakathi bamaGMOs, singasindiswa?”NguJonathan Latham, Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi (11.12.2013)

"UPamela Ronald wenza okulungile futhi, ehoxisa iphepha leSayensi, " I-Watch Retraction (10.10.2013)

"Ukwenza okulungile: Abaphenyi bahoxisa iphepha lokuzwa ikhoramu ngemuva kwenqubo yomphakathi, " I-Watch Retraction (9.11.2013)

I-Val Giddings: Ukusebenza Okuphezulu Kwemboni Yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Val Giddings, i-PhD, ingumdlali ophambili emizamweni yezimboni yezolimo yokuphikisana nemithetho ebonakalayo kanye nezokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi athunyelwa ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF kukhombisa ukuthi uDkt. Giddings usize ukusungula iqembu eliphambili lezinkampani futhi wadlala indima ebalulekile ekusithekeni kweminye imisebenzi ukuphoqa uhlelo lokususa izinkampani ezinkulu zezolimo emhlabeni.

UDkt Giddings wayeyiphini likamongameli we-Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), okuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezinkampani ze-agrichemical kanye ne-biotechnology. Manje uphethe inkampani yabeluleki i-PrometheusAB, futhi ungumuntu ophakeme ku-Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF).

I-ITIF iyithangi lokucabanga ixhaswe izimboni zemithi, ezingenantambo, ezokuxhumana ngocingo, ezamafilimu nezama-biotech, aziwa kakhulu nge ukuphikisana “nokungathathi hlangothi ngokuphelele"Futhi ukugqugquzela i-ajenda yomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe. Iqembu yathuthela ku-biotechnology ngo-2011 noDkt. Giddings. Amalungu eCongress asebenza "njengosihlalo abahloniphekile" be-ITIF, kufaka phakathi nabameli baseMelika U-Anna Eshoo (D-CA), UDarrell Issa (R-CA) kanye namaSenat I-Orrin Hatch (R-UT) futhi UChris Coons (D-DE), kubonakala sengathi bayasekela futhi basiza amasu kagwayi uDkt Giddings awasebenzisile ukuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Kuphekwe iqembu eliphambili lezemfundo ukudicilela phansi abagxeki beMonsanto

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi uDkt. Giddings ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekumiseni Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa njengeqembu eliphambili owathi ngamanga wazimela ngenkathi ethatha imali yezimboni zezolimo futhi ezama ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe.

Abanye abahleli abakhulu babekhona UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ezinkampani eMonsanto; UBruce Chassy, ​​PhD, uprofesa osafufusa eNyuvesi yase-Illinois e-Urbana-Champaign; futhi U-Eric Sachs, PhD, umqondisi wenqubomgomo yokulawula nezindaba zesayensi eMonsanto.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kungamanga izimangalo kuwebhusayithi yayo ukuthi ayemukeli imali yenkampani noma icela iminikelo yemisebenzi ethile; kepha ngokusho kwamafomu entela, iningi lemali yokuxhaswa kwe-Academics Review ivela kuMkhandlu Wezolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo, iqembu lokuhweba elixhaswe futhi liphethwe izinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali emhlabeni: I-BASF, iBayer / iMonsanto, iDowDuPont neSyngenta / ChemChina.

Umugqa wesikhathi wemicimbi ebalulekile yokubuyekezwa kwezifundo:

NgoMashi 11, 2010: Byrne noDkt Chassy uxoxe ngokusungula ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengeqembu langaphambili ukukhomba abagxeki bama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane ngosizo oluvela kuDkt Giddings. U-Byrne uthe yena noDkt. Giddings bangasebenza "njengezimoto ezithengiswayo" ukuxhuma amabhizinisi ezinkampani kuphrojekthi "ngendlela esiza ukuqinisekisa ukuthembeka nokuzimela (futhi ngaleyo ndlela kube nenani) labanikeli / abanikazi bokuqala ..." UByrne uqaphele ukuthi uyathuthuka yeMonsanto uhlu lwabagxeki bezimboni zezolimo abazolubhekisa:

NgoMashi 24, 2010:  UDkt Chassy umkhankaso iwebsite ye-Academics Review kanye noDavid Tribe, PhD, umfundisi omkhulu eNyuvesi yaseMelbourne, e-Australia, bobabili abesilisa ababalwe njengabaqambi bezifundo.

Ngo-Novemba 23, 2010: UDkt Giddings noDkt Chassy baxoxe ngokuthi yiziphi izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni kungenzeka "iponele" Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa ukuphikisa iphepha lokho kwagxeka u-soy owenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

  • "Ngibheja ukuthi singaletha ukusekelwa okuhloniphekile ngakho," kusho uDkt. Giddings ebhalela uDkt. Chassy.
  • UChassy uphendule ngokwengxenye, "Ngibheja abangani bethu eMonsanto bazovuma ukubhala lesi sinqumo bese besikhokhela ukuthi sikuthumele."
  • UGiddings ubhale wathi, "Ngicabanga ukuthi abafana bakasoya bangase bazimisele ukwenza iphoyinti elithile ukuze babhale ukuphikiswa… Uma senza lokhu kahle singasebenzisa i-AcaRev Brand lapha kancane."

Ngemuva kwesonto, UDkt Chassy ubuze u-Eric Sachs uma uMonsanto ehlela ukuphikisa iphepha le-soy, futhi watshela iSachs: "IBhodi lase-US Soybean lizojabulisa isiphakamiso esivela kimi noGraham Brookes sokuphendula kuleso siqephu." (Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo kuthumele i- impendulo kusuka kwaCassy naseBrookes ngonyaka wezi-2012 kungadalulwa lutho ngabaxhasi.)

Ngo-Novemba 30, 2010: Ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili noDkt. Chassy, ​​u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto uthe angasiza ekugqugquzeleni umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane kanye ne-GMO amaqembu okuhweba embonini ukuxhasa ukubukezwa kwezifundo. "Ukhiye kuzoba ukugcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi," kubhala uSachs.

Agasti 2011: UDkt Giddings ufake isiphakamiso ku iqembu lezokuhweba elixhaswe ngezimboni yi-CBI kwephrojekthi: "esikwenzayo ngonyaka ozayo ngqo kungumsebenzi wokuxhaswa esingakuthola," ubhalele uMqondisi Ophethe we-CBI u-Ariel Gruswich, nge-imeyili ekopishelwe uDkt. I-Chassy ne-Tribe. UGruswich unxuse la madoda ukuba ahlanganyele ucingo neqembu lakhe: "Ngikholwa ngempela ukuthi ukuzwa ngqo kini nonke kuzokhulisa amathuba okuxhaswa ezinkampanini," ubhale kanje. Amarekhodi entela akhombisa ukuthi i-CBI exhaswe yinkampani inikeze i-Academics Review $ 650,000 kusuka 2014 kuya 2016 "ukufinyelela kwesayensi."

April 2014: I-Academics Review ishicilele umbiko ohlasela imboni yezimboni njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha, futhi abathi bayiqembu elizimele elingenakho ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo. Bona: "Izigxivizo zeminwe zeMonsanto zitholakale yonke indawo ihlaselwa ngokudla okunemvelo, ” nguStacy Malkan, Huffington Post

Ososayensi abaqeqeshwe ngezimboni abaqeqeshwe yizintatheli, izintatheli ukuthi zingawajikisa kanjani ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides  

Imali engaphezulu kwama- $ 300,000 embonini yamakhemikhali uDkt Giddings isize ukukhulisa i-Academics Review yaya ukukhokhela izingqungquthela ezimbili ezibizwa nge- Izinkambu zebhuthi ze- “Biotech Literacy Project”, ebanjelwe University of Florida e 2014 futhi UC Davis ngo-2015, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela. Amakamu ama-boot - ahlelwe yi-Academics Review nelinye iqembu eliphambili embonini,  Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project - izintatheli eziqeqeshiwe nososayensi ukuthi bangayiqamba kanjani kabusha impikiswano mayelana nama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Bona: “Ukuhlwanyela ama-GMO: Imboni ye-Biotech iyikhulisa kanjani imithombo yezindaba efanelekile - futhi ayikukhuthazi ukugxekwa, ”NguPaul Thacker, I-Progressive

Ukususa ama-GMO kokulawula: "shaya yonke into embi"

Kuma-imeyili angoFebhuwari 2015, uDkt. Giddings uxoxe ngezifundiswa eziningana ngohlelo lokubhala amaphepha amahlanu ephephabhuku aphikisana nesidingo sokususwa komthetho embonini ye-biotech. UDkt. Giddings ubhale ukuthi la maphepha kufanele abambe, “lokhu engikubiza ngokuthi ingxabano kaHenry ethi 'Blow the whole damn thing up', okuyicala engicabanga ukuthi kufanele lenziwe.” Uprofesa wezomthetho wase-University of Arizona uGary Marchant, owaqala ukushintshana ngama-imeyili, wachaza, "iphepha 1 kuhloswe ngalo ukuthi kube yilo elihlasela isihloko sonke."

Alan McHughen, uthisha womkhakha womphakathi e-UC Riverside futhi “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali umkhankaso wokumaketha Izimpendulo ze-GMO, unikele ukubhala iphepha 1. UHenry Miller, MD, uthe angasiza kepha kuningi abengakusebenzisa ukuze abe ngumbhali oyinhloko. (Ngemuva kwenyanga, uMiller wathumela isihloko ku Forbes ukuthi the New York Times kamuva wembula kwakubhalwe ghost nguMonsanto.)

Abanye abakopishe nge-imeyili mayelana namaphepha wephephabhuku babe UDrew Kershen weYunivesithi yase-Oklahoma College of Law; UGuy Cardineau, UYvonne Stevens futhi ULauren Burkhart wase-Arizona State University; USteven Strauss Oregon State University; UKevin Folta weYunivesithi yaseFlorida; UShane Morris we Ezemvelo Canada; U-Alison Van Eenennaam ka-UC Davis; UJoanna Sax weCalifornia Western School of Law; futhi UThomas Reddick we-Global Environmental Ethics Council.

Incwadi esayinwe ngusosayensi edidiyelwe ephikisana nocwaningo lweSeralini

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt Giddings uxhumanise incwadi yokungena ngemvume yososayensi kunxusa uWallace Hayes, umhleli oyinhloko we Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo, ukucabanga kabusha ngephepha likaSepthemba 2012 ngumcwaningi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini owabika izicubu kumagundane ezondla ukudla kommbila we-Roundup-tolerant GM. Leli phepha lahlehliswa ngemuva konyaka futhi laphinde lashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Ukusiza ukuxhumanisa isibonakaliso encwadini, uDkt. esetshenziselwa ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Omunye uprofesa osayine le ncwadi, uChris Leaver, uqaphele ukuthi "ubekade enza ngemuva kwezigcawu echaza ngeSense About Science" mayelana nocwaningo lwaseSéralini. I-Sense About Science inomlando omude of ukuphotha isayensi ukuze kuzuze izintshisekelo zebhizinisi.

Ababhalisi be- Incwadi kuya Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo ngamashumi URobert Wager, U-Alda Lerayer, UNina Fedoroff, Giddings, USteve Strauss, UChris Leaver, Shanthu Shantharam, Ingo Potrykus, UMarc Fellous, Moises Burachik, UKlaus-Dieter Jany, U-Anthony Trewavas, C Kameswara Rao, CS Prakash, Henry Miller, UKent Bradford, ISelim Cetiner, U-Alan McHughen, ULuis De Stefano-Beltrán, UBruce Chassy, ISalbah Al-Momin, UMartina Newell-McGloughlin, UKlaus Ammann, URonald Herring, ULucia de Souza.

Okuhlobene:Ama-imeyili atholakele: IMonsanto ixhunywe emkhankasweni wokuhoxisa iphepha le-GMO, " I-Watch Retraction

Abalimi abangomama abaphakanyisiwe kufanele bafake ama-GMO

Ezingxoxweni ne-lobbyist yeMonsanto mayelana nokuthi ingahlulwa kanjani imikhankaso yokufaka ilebula ye-GMO eColorado nase-Oregon ngo-2014, uDkt. Giddings uphakamise ukuthi “abalimi abangomama” ababukeka kahle bazoba yizithunywa ezinhle kakhulu zokudambisa ukukhathazeka ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. “Okudingwa yisimo ukuthi indawo yezindawo ze-TV ezinabesifazane abasha abakhangayo, okungcono abalimi bomama, echaza ukuthi kungani ukudla okutholwe nge-biotech kuphephe kakhulu futhi kuluhlaza kunazo zonke emlandweni we-ag futhi okufanele ukwesekwa, ”uDkt. Giddings ubhalele uLisa Drake, umkhokheli kaMonsanto wezindaba zikahulumeni.

NgoSepthemba 2015 ikhasi lokuqala New York Times story, ophumelele amahlandla amathathu iPulitzer Prize Eric Lipton uchaze ama-imeyili:

"Ku lokhu kunwetshwa kwe-imeyili okunwetshiwe, abanye bososayensi nezifundiswaabaye baqashwa ukusiza iMonsanto ukuthi iphushe umbuzo wayo wokuthi ngabe bayizithunywa ezihamba phambili yini. Ababili basikisela ukuthi iMonsanto isebenzise izikhangiso eziningi zethelevishini ezinabalimi esikhundleni salokho. I-Monsanto lobbyist iphendula ukuthi ukuvota kukhombisa ukuthi umphakathi uyakholelwa ososayensi. Empeleni le nkampani isivele inezikhangiso ze-TV ezinabalimi besifazane. ”

Bona: “Imboni yezokudla ibhalise izifundiswa kwi-GMO ebeka impi, ama-imeyili akhombisa, ”Ngu-Eric Lipton, New York Times.

UKeith Kloor: Indlela intatheli yesayensi esebenza ngayo ekusithekeni nabalingani bemboni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UKeith Kloor uyintatheli ezisebenza ngokuzimela futhi uyilungu le-adjunct journalism faculty e University of New York obhalele i- Imvelo, Isayensi Ngaphakathi, Isilayidi kanye nezindatshana eziningi ze- Thola Umagazini ukugqugquzela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuhlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo, kuyilapho kusizwa nabalingani bemboni ekusithekeni.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, athunyelwe ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF, iveze izimo lapho uKloor aqeqesha futhi ahlela khona imithombo yakhe, afihla izimboni zomthombo womthombo, futhi abike ngokukhethekile ngolwazi ngezindlela eziqinisa ukulandisa kwemboni. UKloor unqabile ukuphendula imibuzo yalesi sihloko.

Ukukhululwa kokukhetha, okukhethiwe kwama-imeyili we-FOIA

Kusukela ngo-2015 kuya ku-2017, iKloor ibike ukuthi Nature, Isayensi Insider, Discover, Izinkinga Kwezesayensi Nobuchwepheshe, Futhi Slate on a uphenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi yi-US Right to Know eveze ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga phakathi kwemboni yezolimo kanye nezifundiswa ezixhaswe esidlangalaleni ezithuthukisa imikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi USolwazi Kevin Folta wase-University of Florida. Kuzozonke izingcezu ezishicilelwe, uKloor wafaka izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi njengomthwalo ongadingekile kwizifundiswa.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso aveza ukuthi uKloor uqobo wayeyingxenye yendaba ayebika ngayo; ubekade ehambele izingqungquthela zokuqeqesha imiyalezo ezixhaswe umkhakha wezolimo noDkt. Folta futhi wasiza uDkt Folta ngokuthumela imiyalezo. Ukuxhumana kukhombisa ukuthi uDkt Folta welule isandla kuKloor ukuze asikisele ukuthi akhululwe ama-imeyili akhe “ngaphambi kokulungiselela” ukusiza ukunciphisa umonakalo wamadokhumende - uKloor akwenzayo, kumagazini Nature. Ngesikhathi esifanayo lapho uKloor ebekhuluma ngendaba yezincwadi eziphambili zesayensi, amadokhumende akhombisa ukuthi wabamba iqhaza ezingxoxweni nabangaphakathi embonini mayelana nezinselelo ezibangelwa izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi.

Umugqa wesikhathi wokubika nokusebenzisana:

Ukuqeqesha, ukuhlela imithombo; kufihla ubuhlobo bemboni

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor usebenze nemithombo yakhe ekusithekeni ukucija imiyalezo yabo ukusekela imbangela yezimboni yezolimo: ukukholisa abathengi abaqaphile ukwamukela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Enye yale mithombo kwakungu UDkt Kevin Folta, iNyuvesi yaseFlorida uprofesa owayengumuntu osemqoka uKloor evezwe ezindabeni azibhalela ezincwadini zesayensi ngokusebenza obala kwezemfundo.

Umkhankaso wokuguqula uBill Nye

NgoNovemba 2014, uKloor wasebenzisa eyakhe Discover blog ukufaka inselelo Ukugxeka kukaBill Nye mayelana nama-GMO nge "Incwadi evulekile eya kuBill Nye evela kuSosayensi Wezitshalo" esayinwe nguDkt. Folta. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor ubuzile UDkt Folta ukuphonsela inselelo uNye, weza nomqondo wencwadi evulekile futhi uqeqeshe uDkt Folta ukuthi abhalwa kanjani. Wabe-ke kuhlelwe i-biography kaDkt Folta ukugwema ukubalula imali yezimboni, ngokusho kwama-imeyili.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor wabhalela uDkt. Folta uhlu lwezinto eziphilayo olufaka phakathi umugqa othi, “Alukho ucwaningo oluxhaswe yiMonsanto.” UDkt. Folta umcele ukuthi alungise leso sigwebo, ebona ukuthi iMonsanto ngokungaqondile ixhase eminye yemizamo yakhe yokufinyelela kubantu nge-biotech nokuthi uthole imali yocwaningo enkampanini encane ye-biotech. UKloor uthathe isinqumo ngomlando ongagwegwesi ukubalula ngezimali zemboni kaDkt Folta ngokuphelele: “Ucwaningo lwakhe luxhaswe yizinhlangano zombuso nezikahulumeni.”

Ku-imeyili engezansi, uKloor unikeze uDkt Folta umhlahlandlela wokuthi uyibhalela kanjani uNye incwadi:

Cishe ngaleso sikhathi, iMonsanto nayo yayinxenxa uNye ukuthi ashintshe isikhundla sakhe kuma-GMO, ekugcineni waphumelela ukwenza. Mashi 2015 Washington Post indaba mayelana nokuguquka kukaNye kwasho ukuthi ukugxeka kukaNye amaGMO “kwacasula ososayensi abaningi,” kodwa kwaxhunyaniswa kuphela nencwadi kaDkt Folta kubhulogi likaKloor.

Thola: "Akuyona inqubomgomo yethu yokwazisa imithombo"

Ama-imeyili avela ngo-Agasti 2014 akhombisa uKloor enikeza iseluleko semiyalezo kuDkt Folta kanye nomunye umthombo, uDkt Karl Haro von Mogel, umqondisi wezindaba Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO iBiofortified. UKloor ubacele ukuba bahlaziye udaba lukaCarole Bartolotto, udokotela wezokudla obebhale ngokugxeka ngama-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa lokho UKloor ukuhlelile ukuphawula nezindlela eziphakanyisiwe zokuqinisa imiyalezo: “Iseluleko sami: gcina ulimi lungathathi hlangothi futhi lungahluleli ngangokunokwenzeka. Ubheke abantu abahlala kocingo, abangahle bavinjwe ulimi olukhulunywa kabi. ”

UKloor uthumele ukugxekwa kweBartolotto kweyakhe Discover blog futhi wachaza uDkt. Folta no-von Mogel "njengososayensi ababili abangalutholi uxhaso embonini ye-biotech." Ama-imeyili kamuva aveze ukuthi, emasontweni ambalwa ngaphambili, iMonsanto yayinayo uvumile ukuxhasa ezikaDkt. Folta imizamo yokukhangisa yama-GMO; futhi, ehlobo eledlule, uDkt Folta wahlela ukuvakashela eHawaii eyonxenxa imingcele yokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane ohambweni ihlelwe futhi ikhokhelwa yiqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane (UDkt von Mogel naye wayefakiwe kulawo ma-imeyili). I-athikili kaKloor isavela ku- Discover iwebhusayithi ngaphandle kokuvuselelwa noma ukulungiswa.

Okwe-2017 Isihloko sokubhalwa kukaHuffington, kubuza intatheli uPaul Thacker Discover umhleli wephephabhuku u-Becky Lang ukuze aphawule ngama-imeyili eBartolotto. ULang unqabile ukuphawula ngokuningiliziwe, kodwa wathi: “Impela, akusiyo inqubomgomo yethu manje, futhi akukaze kube njalo, ukugqugquzela imithombo ukuthi ibhale ukugxeka, ukuhlela ukugxeka, bese ikwenza njengokuzimela. Futhi akuyona inqubomgomo yethu ukuthi imithombo yosizo izame ukufihla ubudlelwane bayo bemboni. ” (EzikaKloor Discover I-blog yaphela ngo- yaphela ngo-Ephreli 2015.)

UJon Entine, uxhumano lweProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project  

Imibhalo emikhulu kaKloor evikela imboni yezolimo ingabukwa kuwebhusayithi ye I-Genetic Literacy Project, iwebhusayithi yokwazisa yomkhakha wezolimo lokho izindatshana eziningi ebhalwe nguKloor noma ecaphuna umsebenzi wakhe. IGenetic Literacy Project ilawulwa nguJon Entine, osebenza isikhathi eside PR okhuthaza futhi avikele izintshisekelo zemboni yamakhemikhali. U-Entine unguthishanhloko we-PR firm ESG MediaMetrics, amaklayenti akhe afaka iMonsanto. AbakwaKloor no-Entine basebenzisa imiyalezo efanayo futhi babeke izingqinamba ngezindlela ezifanayo, futhi babonakala benobudlelwano obusondelene, ngokusho kwama-imeyili.

Nge-imeyili kaJulayi 2013 eya eqenjini lokwamukela izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane, u-Entine uchaze uKloor njenge “umngani wami omuhle kakhulu”Ngubani ongasiza ekuthengiseni umhlangano nomunye Discover blogger ukubhala ngemisebenzi yezimboni yezolimo eHawaii. Enye i-imeyili ikhombisa i-Entine exhuma iKloor noRebecca Goldin eGeorge Mason University ukuxoxa "ngokuhlukunyezwa kwe-FOIA." UGoldin usebenza nowayengumqashi we-Entine i-STATS, iqembu lezintatheli elizichaze njengeumkhankaso we-disinformation”Lokho isebenzisa amaqhinga kagwayi kuya kwakha ukungabaza ngengozi yamakhemikhali.

Kwenye i-imeyili evela ngo-Okthoba 2014, uKloor wayeyintatheli kuphela owayefakwe kwi-imeyili exwayisa inkampani yakwaKetchum yezobudlelwano bomphakathi mayelana ukusebenza okungenzeka kube nokugenca kumawebhusayithi ezinkampani yiqembu elingaziwa. I-imeyili ithunyelwe ngu- U-Adrianne Massey, umphathi omkhulu weBiotechnology Industry Association (BIO), eqenjini lababambisene nabo embonini, kufaka phakathi i-Entine.

“Angazi nakancane ukuthi hlobo luni lokuhlaselwa. Izinhlangano ezizimele kungenzeka kube yizo kuphela ezihlose ukuzenza, kepha angifuni ukuthi kulimale noma ngubani kini onibona njengabalingani bezimboni, ”kubhala uMassey.

U-Kloor ungenile ku-imeyili ngu UDkt. Channapatna Prakash, ummeli nomphathi weGMO eTuskegee University. Okunye okufakwe ku-imeyili kwakunguJay Byrne (owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto), I-Val Giddings (owayeyisekela likamongameli wenhlangano yezohwebo ye-biotech), UKarl Haro von Mogel (umqondisi wezindaba we Kwenziwe kabusha), UBruce Chassy noDavid Tribe (ababambisene nabo Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu eliphambili leMonsanto), kanye nabanye ababambisene nomkhakha abalulekile abakhuthaza ama-GMO baphinde bagqugquzele ukwehliswa kwemithetho UKevin Folta, Henry Miller, UDrew Kershen, UKlaus AmmannUPiet van der Meer futhi UMartina Newell-McGloughlin.

Abasizi bemboni bavame ukuthuthukisa umsebenzi kaKloor; bona ama-tweets ngo URobb Fraley waseMonsantoUJon Entine, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project kanye nemboni yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba i-CBI.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nomgqugquzeli wezimboni zezolimo kanye ne-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, i-PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelisana ngokubambisana ku-genomics yezilwane kanye ne-biotechnology e-University of California, e-Davis, ungumgqugquzeli oholayo wezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezihamba nazo, kanye nommeli wokwehliswa kwemithetho.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uthi izilwane ze-GE akumele zibe ngaphansi kokubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe noma amalebula.

UDkt Van Eenennaam uyi- owayekade esebenza eMonsanto ophikisana nodinga izifundo zokuphepha ezilwaneni ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela futhi aziphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi okubandakanya ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ukuhlolwa kwakhe kwelebhu kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa i-CRISPR, inqubo yobunjiniyela, ukuze susa izimpondo zezinkomo zobisi futhi zizale “zonke izinkomo zokuphela kwamadoda”Ukuba ngubaba wezingane zesilisa kuphela - iphrojekthi ayibiza ngokuthi“ Abafana Kuphela. ” Isiphakamiso se-US Food and Drug Administration sokudinga izifundo zokuphepha nokusebenza ngempumelelo kwezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo uyahlanya, ngokusho kukaDkt Van Eenennaam.

Bheka futhi: I-Wall Street Journal (12.14.2018),            Izilimi ezinkulu kanye ne-Vertebrae eyengeziwe: Imiphumela Engalindelekile Yokuhlelwa Kofuzo Lwezilwane 

Yize evame ukwethulwa kwabezindaba njengososayensi ozimele, uDkt. Van Eenennaam uxhumana nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo e-PR ekuthumeleni imiyalezo, ukunxenxa nokwenza imisebenzi ye-PR, ngokusho kwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi manje athunyelwe ku Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF. Izibonelo zokubambisana zifaka:

UMonsanto uhlele ukuphawula kwakhe ngenkulumo mpikiswano ye-Intelligence Squared 

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uLee Quarles, umholi wezokuxhumana emhlabeni wonke kaMonsanto, kanye noTony Zagora, iphini likamongameli ophakeme kanye nomlingani wenkampani yeFleishmanHillard PR, kuhlelwe ukuphawula kukaDkt. Van Eenennaam kwe-December 2014 Intelligence Squared (IQ2) mpikiswano lapho aphikisana nokwamukelwa komphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye noRobb Fraley waseMonsanto.

Ama-Quarles abuye axhuma uDkt Van Eenennaam nabaphezulu eMonsanto naseFleishmanHillard ukuxoxa ngezikhundla eziyinhloko yena noFraley okufanele bahambisane nazo, futhi wahlela ukuthi uZagora ne-ejensi ye-PR bamnikeze umhlahlandlela mayelana "nendlela, iphimbo, ukulethwa kanye nokwethulwa komuntu siqu. Lokhu kuzokusiza uqonde kangcono ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibalulekile iqembu lethu okufanele lizibheke njengoba sisebenzela ukunqoba abantu abasegumbini, kanye nabo bonke labo abathengi ekusakazweni kabusha kwe-NPR komcimbi. ”

Okunye ukuhlela kukaMonsanto kumazwi kaProfesa Van Eenennaam kuboniswa ekushintsheni kwethrekhi:

 

Imibhalo yomthombo exhunywe lapha

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne kanye nemboni yezimboni ze-PR uKetchum banikeze ukuqeqesha izingxoxo zabezindaba 

Ngo-2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wasiza umkhakha oxhaswe ngemali nguNo kwiProposition 37 eCalifornia ukuze phikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abasebenzi bomkhankaso we “No on 37” wahlela ukuthi uDkt Van Eenennaam avele kuDkt Oz Show ukukhuluma ngokungahambisani nokufakwa amalebuli, waphinde wahlela ukuthi athole ukuqeqeshwa kwezokuxhumana kanye nokuthumela imiyalezo evela kuJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana ezinkampanini. (Ama-imeyili abuye aveze ukuthi uJay Byrne usebenze neMonsanto ukusungula iqembu langaphambili ukuhlasela abagxeki be-GMO kanye nomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo ngenkathi “ukugcina iMonsanto ngemuva“.)

Ngo-2014, imboni yezolimo ehola phambili kwezobudlelwano nomphakathi, uKetchum, yafaka uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo futhi yamsiza lungiselela ingxoxo yomsakazo ukwenza ucwaningo oluxhumanise okuphakelayo kwezilwane okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuvuvukala kwesisu. UKetchum unikeze uDkt. Van Eenennaam amaphuzu okukhuluma avela kubambisene naye embonini echaza isifundo sesisu ngokuthi "isayensi engenamsoco."

Kuvele isithangami saseHill esihlelwe yiqembu lesayensi yezulu 

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wavela ku- Umncintiswano wenhlangano ye-Competitive Enterprise Institute ukuphikisana nokwehliswa kwemithetho yezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo. ICompetitive Enterprise Institute iyiqembu elixhaswa ngezimboni lelo kuthuthukisa ukungabaza kwesayensi yezulu futhi uyaphikisana imithethonqubo yomkhakha wamakhemikhali. Ngo 2013, abaxhasi ku-Competitive Enterprises Institute ngonyaka wokuqoqa imali kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iSyngenta, i-FMC Corporation, iBiotechnology Industry Organisation kanye neGoogle, kanye nezinkampani zikawoyela nogwayi nezisekelo ezihlobene neKoch Industries. Ngo-2016, uMqondisi Wezamandla Nezemvelo we-CEI u-Myron Ebell, isazi esivelele sesayensi yezulu esithe icala lokufudumala kwembulunga "liwubuwula," wakhethwa yiTrump Administration's to hola iqembu lenguquko ye-Environmental Protection Agency.

Imizamo yokubambisana yokunxenxa; ivikela ama-pesticides 

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uqondise ukunxenxwa kokuqedwa kwezitshalo nezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nokuzigcina zingenamagama. Ngo-2012, wabhala i- incwadi eya ku-Obama Administration egameni lekomidi lenqubomgomo yomphakathi ye-American Society of Animal Science ephikisana nokuvunywa kwe-salmon yezakhi zofuzo i-Aqua Bounty ngaphandle kokuhlolwa noma ukuphawulwa okunzima. Ngo-2015, yena kwaqashwa oprofesa abazosekela ukwehliswa kwemithetho amazambane amazambane afakelwe u-Simplot Innate 2.0. "USimplot ufuna ukuphawula mayelana nokuqedwa komthetho wabo ... ama-antis azama ukuthi isikhathi sokuphawula sandiswe njengenjwayelo," ubhalele oprofesa.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uphinde avikele i-glyphosate, i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kanye ne-carcinogen yabantu ngokusho kwe-World Health Organisation yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Okwe thumela kuwebhusayithi yakhe, wasebenzisa imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane imithombo futhi i-infographics ukuqagela ngemiphumela yemakethe yokuvimbela i-glyphosate, kanye nabantu ababonakala beveza ukukhathazeka ngokuthi "banothile abakhathazekile." Iwebhusayithi yeMonsanto (manje eyiBayer) ithuthukisa uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza isifundo esixhumene glyphosate kuya kwesifo sesibindi ngamanani aphansi.

Abanye baka-Alison Van Eenennaam's oukusebenzisana komkhakha we-ther 

  • Ingabe a ilungu le- "AgBioChatter," Uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo lusebenzela ukuthi izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, abasebenzi abaphezulu bezinkampani zezolimo kanye nabaluleki bezobudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa.

Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan (kubuyekezwe ngoMeyi 17, 2019)

UDeWayne Johnson, ubaba oneminyaka engama-46 obulawa yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, waba ngumuntu wokuqala ukubhekana IMonsanto ecaleni ngoJuni odlule ngenxa yezinsolo inkampani yafihla ubufakazi ngezingozi ezibangelwa umdlavuza ze-Roundup weedkiller yayo. Amajaji aselokhu abuya nawo ezintathu ngazwi linye izinqumo ukuthola ukuthi i-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides iyimbangela enkulu yomdlavuza, futhi yalinganisa umonakalo omkhulu wokujeziswa kweBayer (manje esingeyaseMonsanto). Izinkulungwane eziningi zabantu zimangalele izinkantolo zombuso nezikahulumeni, kanye nemibhalo yezinkampani ephuma ezivivinyweni ikhanya kakhulu kumaqhinga anzima iMonsanto esetshenziselwa ukuphika ingozi yomdlavuza nokuvikela ikhemikhali elaliyi lynchpin yenzuzo yayo.

“IMonsanto kwakungumbhali waso wesipoki ngokubuyekezwa kokuphepha, ”kubika iBloomberg, kanye nesikhulu se-EPA kubikwa ukuthi wasiza uMonsanto “Bulala” ucwaningo lomdlavuza lwenye i-ejensi (lokho kuphuma, manje kuphelile qinisekisa isixhumanisi somdlavuza ku-glyphosate). An uphenyo olwawina imiklomelo eLe Monde Imininingwane yokuthi uMonsanto uzame kanjani “ukubhubhisa i-ejensi yomdlavuza yeZizwe Ezihlangene nganoma iyiphi indlela” ukusindisa i-glyphosate. Izindatshana zeJenali ezisuselwa ekubukezweni kombiko wemibhalo yokutholwa kwesilingo seRoundup ukuphazamiseka kwebhizinisi encwadini yesayensi kanye nenhlangano elawula umthetho, nezinye iziboneloukufaka ubuthi emthonjeni wesayensi. "

“Ukubhalwa kwesipoki kukaMonsanto nokuqinisa izikhali kusongela isayensi yomsindo nomphakathi, "Kubhala uSolwazi waseTufts University uSheldon Krimsky ngoJuni 2018. Uthe imibhalo etholakele," yembula ukuthunjwa kwesayensi okuyinkampani, okubeka impilo yomphakathi kanye nesisekelo sentando yeningi engcupheni. "

Kusukela lapho, njengoba sekuqhubeka izivivinyo, sekuvele eminye imibhalo mayelana ne ubukhulu bokukhohlisa kukaMonsanto kwenqubo yesayensi, izinhlaka zokulawula, nezimpikiswano zomphakathi. NgoMeyi 2019, izintatheli eFrance uthole imfihlo "Ifayela leMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iFleishmanHillard ibala "inqwaba yolwazi" cishe izintatheli ezingama-200, osopolitiki, ososayensi nabanye ababonakala bengaba nomthelela empikiswaneni ye-glyphosate eFrance. Abashushisi eFrance bavule uphenyo lobugebengu futhi IBayer ithe iphenya inkampani yayo i-PR.

Le mpi yenkampani yesayensi inomthelela omkhulu kithi sonke, uma kubhekwa ukuthi uhhafu wabo bonke abesilisa e-US kanye nowesithathu kwabesifazane bazotholakala benomdlavuza esikhathini esithile sokuphila kwethu, ngokusho kwe I-National Cancer Institute.

Imibhalo imboni yokudla ayifuni ukuthi uyibone

Sekuyiminyaka, izimboni zokudla nezamakhemikhali zibheke ngqo kokuhlosiwe okukodwa emhlabeni wesayensi: i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), iqembu elizimele locwaningo elisebenze iminyaka engama-50 khomba izingozi zomdlavuza ukwazisa izinqubomgomo ezingavimbela umdlavuza.

“Kade ngilwa i-IARC unomphela !!! :) ”omunye usosayensi owayenguKraft Foods wabhalela owayengusosayensi waseSyngenta ku-imeyili itholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi esivulekile sombuso. “Ukudla ne-ag sekuvinjezelwe kusukela eGlyphosate ngoMashi 2015. Sonke kudingeka sihlangane ngandlela-thile siveze i-IARC, njengoba nina nenze ephepheni. Izinto eziza kuqala kakhulu yizo zonke izithako zokudla: i-aspartame, i-sucralose, i-iron yokudla, i-B-carotene, i-BPA, njll. I-IARC iyasibulala! ”

Isazi se-IARC isinqumo sephaneli ukuhlukanisa i-glyphosate ngokuthi “mhlawumbe ibanga umdlavuza kubantu” kudale indawo yokuhlangana yezitha zephaneli ukuqoqa amabutho. Umbhalo osemqoka weMonsanto okhishwe ngamacala wecala wembula uhlelo lokuhlaselwa: ihlazisa ososayensi abanomdlavuza ngosizo lwabalingani embonini yezokudla.

Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lokuxhumana nomphakathi unikeze abasebenzi abangu-20 bezinkampani ukulungiselela umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity on glyphosate, ngezinhloso ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela," "ukubeka umbono womphakathi nge-IARC," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa i-MON POV" kanye "nokubandakanya izinhlangano zezimboni" "ekuthukutheleni. ”

Lo mbhalo ukhombe izigaba ezine "zabalingani bemboni" ukusiza ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso ezintathu ezishiwo ohlelweni lwe-PR: ukuvikela isithunzi se-Roundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono ovamile, kanye "nokuhlinzeka ngezembozo ezinhlanganweni ezilawulayo" ukuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate.

Ukuthola inethiwekhi kaMonsanto "yabalingani bemboni"

The amaqembu abalingani bemboni uMonsanto uthephiwe ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi be-IARC babandakanya izinhlangano ezinkulu zokubulala izinambuzane kanye nezimboni zokudla; amaqembu e-spin axhaswa ngezimboni aziveza njengemithombo ezimele efana Izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi Umkhandlu Wemininingwane Yomhlaba Wokudla; futhi "isayensi-y" kuzwakala amaqembu angaphambili afana Umuzwa weSayensi, lo Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa - konke kusetshenziswa imilayezo efanayo futhi kuvame ukubhekiswa komunye nomunye njengemithombo.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe yi-US Right kuya Yazi uphenyo khanyisa ukuthi la maqembu abalingani asebenzisana kanjani ukukhuthaza i- "MON POV" mayelana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo semithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO.

Iqoqo elilodwa lemibhalo lembula ukuthi izinkampani zikaMonsanto ze-PR zahlela kanjani “Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo” njengenkundla ezwakala ingathathi hlangothi lapho ingaqala khona ukuhlaselwa uhlu lwezitha, kufaka phakathi iSierra Club, umbhali uMichael Pollan, i-movie ethi Food, Inc. kanye ne- imboni yemvelo.

Abakhi bokubukeza kwezifundo - ababambisene nabo UBruce Chassy futhi UDavid Tribe, Isikhulu seMonsanto u-Eric Sachs, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne, Futhi owayeyi-VP weqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha we-biotech iVal Giddings - wakhuluma obala in ama-imeyili maqondana nokusungula ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengeqembu eliphambili lokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zemboni nokuheha imali yemboni, ngenkathi kugcinwa izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe.

I-imeyili evela ku-Eric Sachs, iMonsanto'sScience, Technology & Outreach Lead, iya kuBruce Chassy

Ngisho namanje ngebhuku labo lokudlala lidaluliwe - kanye nelabo imali eyisisekelo ikhonjisiwe njengoba ivela eqenjini lezentengiselwano elixhaswe ngabakwaMonsanto, iBayer, iBASF, iSyngenta neDowDuPont - i-Academics Review isafuna lokho iwebhusayithi ukwamukela iminikelo evela “emithonjeni okungeyona eyezinkampani” Ukubuyekezwa kwe-Academics kubuye kuthiwe "Ukubuyekezwa komdlavuza we-IARC glyphosate kwehluleka ezingxenyeni eziningi," ku okuthunyelwe itholwe yiwebhusayithi ye-PR exhaswa yimboni Izimpendulo ze-GMO, iqembu eliphambili elixhaswe yimboni Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, kanye nendatshana yeForbes ngu Henry Miller lokho kwabhalwa isipoki nguMonsanto.

UMiller nabahleli be-Academics Review Chassy, ​​Tribe, Byrne, Sachs and Giddings are amalungu e-AgBioChatter, isithangami se-imeyili sangasese esivele ohlelweni lweMonsanto lwe-PR njengomlingani womkhakha wesi-2. Ama-imeyili avela kuhlu lwe-AgBioChatter ziphakamisa ukuthi yayisetshenziselwa ukuxhumanisa ababambisene nabo embonini emisebenzini yokunxenxa neyokuphromotha ukuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane. Amalungu afaka abasebenzi abaphezulu embonini yezolimo, abeluleki be-PR kanye nezifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, iningi labo elibhalela izinkundla zezindaba zomkhakha ezifana Izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, noma badlale izindima zobuholi kwamanye amaqembu abalingani beMonsanto.

I-Genetic Literacy Project, eholwa ngumkhakha osebenza isikhathi eside wamakhemikhali i-PR UJon Entine, futhi ibambisene ne-Academics Review ukwenza uchungechunge lwezingqungquthela ezixhaswe imboni yezolimo ukuqeqesha izintatheli nososayensi ukuthi ukukhuthaza kangcono ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides baphikisane nokwehliswa kwabo emthethweni. Abahleli bebekhona abangathembeki ngemithombo yezimali zabo.

Lawa maqembu aziphonsa njengabaxazululi abathembekile besayensi njengoba besabalalisa imininingwane engamanga nezinga eliseduze nokuhlaselwa okushubile kwabososayensi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngengozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate.

Isibonelo esisemqoka singatholakala kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, ebibhalwe ukuthi “yi-tier 2 industry partner” ohlelweni lukaMonsanto lwe-PR lokuvikela i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza okuvezwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer. Ukuseshwa kwe- "IARC" kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project kuveza izindatshana ezingaphezu kwama-200, eziningi zazo ezihlasela ososayensi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza ngokuthi "ama-anti-chemical enviros" "aqamba amanga" futhi "enza uzungu lokumelela kabi" izingozi zempilo glyphosate, futhi bephikisana nokuthi i-ejensi yomdlavuza yomhlaba wonke kufanele ibuyiselwe imali futhi iqedwe.

Izindatshana eziningi ezilwa ne-IARC ezifakwe ku-Genetic Literacy Project, noma eziqhutshwa abanye abasebenza embonini, ziyishaya indiva imibiko eminingi yezindaba ngokususelwa Amaphepha eMonsanto ukubhala ukungenelela kwezinkampani ocwaningweni lwesayensi, futhi esikhundleni salokho kuthuthukiswe izimangalo zezimboni zamakhemikhali ze-PR noma ze- izindaba ezingamanga a intatheli enobudlelwano obuhle noMonsanto. Impi yezepolitiki yokulwa ifinyelele yonke indlela eya eCapitol Hill, namaRiphabhulikhi e-DRM aholwa ngu Ummeli uLamar Smith efuna kuphenywe nokuzama uku ukugodla imali yase-US kusuka kunhlangano ehamba phambili yocwaningo lomdlavuza.

Ngubani ohlangothini lwesayensi?

Ukunxenxa nokuthumela imiyalezo kukaMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iphaneli yomdlavuza we-IARC kusekelwe empikiswaneni yokuthi ezinye izinhlaka ezisebenzisa ukuhlolwa okususelwa engcupheni zikhiphe i-glyphosate engcupheni yomdlavuza. Kepha njengoba imibiko yophenyo futhi iphephandaba izihloko ngokusekelwe ku Amaphepha eMonsanto bunemininingwane eminingi, ubufakazi bufaka ukuthi ukuhlolwa kokulawulwa kwezinhlekelele ku-glyphosate, okuthembele kakhulu ocwaningweni olunikezwa yimboni, kuyekethiswa ngokungadalulwanga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, ukuthembela kusayensi engabazisayo, izinto ezibhalwe ghost nezinye izindlela zokuqinisa izikhali ezinkampanini ezibeka impilo yomphakathi engcupheni, njengoProfesa waseTufts USheldon Krimsky wabhala.

“Ukuvikela ibhizinisi lesayensi, enye yezinsika zomphakathi wentando yeningi wanamuhla, ekulweni namandla angalenza isisebenzi sezimboni noma ezepolitiki, umphakathi wethu kumele usekele izikhubekiso phakathi kwesayensi yezemfundo kanye nemikhakha yezinkampani futhi ufundise ososayensi abasha futhi abahleli bephephabhuku ngemigomo yokuziphatha esezingeni lomsebenzi wabo, ”kubhala uKrimsky.

Abenzi benqubomgomo akumele bavumele isayensi ebumbene nenkampani ukuqondisa izinqumo mayelana nokuvinjelwa umdlavuza. Abezindaba kumele benze umbiko ongcono womsebenzi futhi babheke izingxabano zentshisekelo ngemuva kwesayensi yenkampani. Isikhathi sokuqeda impi yenkampani yesayensi yomdlavuza.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi nombhali wencwadi ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.”

I-AgBioChatter: Lapho Izinkampani, Isu Elihleliwe Lezemfundo kuma-GMO, Izibulala-zinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-AgBioChatter iyi-server yangasese ye-imeyili esetshenziswa yimboni yezolimo kanye nabalingani bayo ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Amalungu ohlu afaka izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha wezimboni, abasebenza embonini ephezulu yezolimo kanye nabasebenzisana nomphakathi.

Lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i- “Academics (AgBioChatter)” “njengozakwethu bezimboni” kuTier 2 ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto zokudicilela phansi isithunzi seWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze kuvikelwe isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Izifundiswa eziningana ze-AgBioChatter nazo zidlala indima ebalulekile kwamanye amaqembu "ophathina bezimboni" aqanjwe ohlelweni lukaMonsanto lwe-PR lokuhlambalaza umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity, kufaka phakathi Izimpendulo ze-GMO, Ukuhlukaniswa, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi.

Ingemuva: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter axhunywe ngezansi - kanye neminye imibhalo etholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi futhi manje isingathwe endaweni Ingobo yomlando Yemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF - nikeza izibonelo eziningi zokuthi amaqembu ezifundiswa nezimboni asebenzisana kanjani ngezindlela ezicashile zokududula imiyalezo ehambisanayo nomkhakha kuzingxenyekazi ezahlukahlukene ukukhiqiza ukungabaza ngezingozi zezempilo nezemvelo zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nama-GMO.

Izitolo zabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele babike ngalokhu kusebenzisana ekusithekeni ukukhuthaza imibono yezimboni ngesayensi nokuphikisana nemithethonqubo.

Imizamo ye-US Right to Know yokwenza izinto obala

I-US Right to Know ithole ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter ngo-2016 nango-2017 ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. NgoJulayi 2017, i-US Right to Know wamangalela iNyuvesi yaseFlorida ngokwehluleka kwayo ukukhipha amarekhodi omphakathi aceliwe afaka imboni yezolimo kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi, kufaka phakathi imibhalo evela esithangamini se-AgBioChatter.

NgoMashi 2018, ijaji laseFlorida lalichitha leli cala, lathi ama-imeyili e-AgBioChatter “ayeyizinto zomuntu siqu ezazivela kubantu bakaKevin Folta kuphela” hhayi ibhizinisi lasenyuvesi lomphakathi. Ngemininingwane engaphezulu, bheka i- imibhalo yenkantolo.

Ukusabalala okuhlobene nabezindaba

  • Inkululeko Yokweseka I-Press, "Yeka ukuthi izinkampani zikucindezela kanjani ukudalulwa kwamarekhodi omphakathi mayelana nazo," nguCamille Fassett (2/27/18)
  • I-New York Times, “I-Food Industry Yabhalisa Izifundiswa ku-GMO labeling war, Emails Show,” ebhalwe ngu-Eric Lipton; futhi ingobo yomlando ye-imeyili, "UProfesa waseFlorida usebenza nemboni ye-Biotech" (9/5/2015)
  • I-Alternet, “Ngabe kukhona okushaya amanzi okwenzekayo phakathi kweYunivesithi yaseFlorida nemboni yezolimo? Abathengi banelungelo lokwazi, ”nguDaniel Ross, i-Alternet (2/13/18)

Okuqukethwe kohlu lwe-AgBioChatter

The Ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter atholakele ngokusebenzisa izicelo zomlando wamarekhodi womphakathi (amakhasi ayi-142) abonisa izifundiswa nabasebenzi bemboni yezolimo abaxhumanisa amaphuzu okukhuluma ukuze baphikise ukufakwa kwelebizo le-GMO, bakhuthaze futhi bavikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, bagxeke imboni, futhi bagweme izicelo zoMthetho weNkululeko Yolwazi ngemininingwane ephathelene noprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni.

Ingqikithi enkulu yama-imeyili (futhi ikakhulukazi indima yelungu lohlu uJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto) kwakuwukuhlonza abagxeka imboni yezolimo namathuba okubahlasela. Lapha kubalwa uMehmet Oz, uVandana Shiva, uDon Huber, i-Consumers Union nabanye.

Enye indikimba ebalulekile kuma-imeyili e-AgBioChatter yimizamo yokuhlela izifundo zesayensi eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngobungozi bama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ngokuthi "ziqhutshwa yi-ajenda," kanti izifundo ezibika kahle ngemikhiqizo yezimboni yezolimo "ziyi-pro science."

Ezemfundo, ukusebenzisana kwezimboni 

Ngokwama-imeyili atholakele kuze kube manje ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi, izifundiswa, abasebenzi bemboni yezolimo, abeluleki kanye nezinkampani ze-PR babambe iqhaza ohlwini lwama- "Chatter".

Abahlanganyeli abaziwayo babhalwe ngezansi kanye nezibopho zabo kokunye "Amaqembu abalingani bezimboni" iqanjwe ohlelweni lwe-PR lukaMonsanto ukuze hlela ukukhala ngokumelene nephaneli yomdlavuza we-IARC. Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngala maqembu, bheka amaphepha ethu eqiniso:

Futhi okuphawulwe ngezansi yizibopho eziya ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu langaphambili elithola imali yenkampani ukuze ukukhuthaza imibono yezimboni ngesayensi futhi bahlasele abagxeki.

Izixhumanisi ezigcinwe kulondolozo lwe-Genetic Literacy Project zinikeza umuzwa wokuthumela imiyalezo evamile, ephindaphindwayo la maqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa zisebenzisa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, zama ukudicilela phansi abagxeki, ukuphikisana nokwesulwa kanye nokuphikisana nemizamo yokwenza izinto obala.

Amalungu ohlu lwe-AgBioChatter 

Ama-imeyili atholwe ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi laba bantu abalandelayo babeku-listerver ye-AgBioChatter njengezinsuku ezikuma-imeyili.

Andrew Apel, imboni yezolimo umxhumanisi nomhleli wangaphambili yencwajana yomkhakha webhayoloji i-AgBiotech Reporter

UGraham Brooks, Isazi Sezomnotho Wezolimo, i-PG Economics Ltd, e-UK

UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto; umongameli we v-Fluence Interactive inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi

UBruce Chassy, ​​PhD, USolwazi Emeritus Wezokuphepha Kokudla kanye neSayensi Yezomsoco, iYunivesithi yase-Illinois e-Urbana-Champaign

UJon Entine, umqondisi we-Genetic Literacy Project, uMonsanto “ongumlingani wemboni”

UKevin Folta, PhD, USolwazi noSihlalo, uMnyango Wezesayensi Yezolimo, iYunivesithi yaseFlorida

I-Val Giddings, i-PhD, umxhumanisi wemboni, owayengu-VP wenhlangano yezohwebo ye-BIO

  • Umuntu omkhulu kwa-Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (exhaswe ngamaqembu emikhakha yezemithi, engenazintambo kanye neyezolimo)
  • Usizile ukusetha ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo njenge iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto
  • Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project archives

U-Andy Hedgecock, UDuPont Pioneer owayengumqondisi wezindaba zesayensi

UDrew Kershen, PhD, U-Emeritus Professor, University of Oklahoma, College of Law

UMarcel Kuntz, PhD, umqondisi wocwaningo kwa-CNRS, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Végétale, Grenoble, France 

  • Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project archives 

UChris Leaver, PhD, U-Emeritus Professor of Plant Science, eNyuvesi yase-Oxford

Adrienne Massey, PhD, IBiotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), umphathi ophethe izindaba zesayensi nezomthetho

URobert McGregor, Umhlaziyi Wezinqubomgomo, IPrince Edward Island, eCanada

Alan McHughen, PhD, ENyuvesi yaseCalifornia Riverside

UHenry Miller, MD, esikanye naye eHoover Institution, ihhovisi langaphambili le-FDA le-biotechnology

UVivian Moses, PhD, Isifo Sikashukela Nezempilo, eKing's College London

UPiero Morandini, PhD, umsizi wocwaningo, ENyuvesi yaseMilan

UWayne Parrott, PhD, UProfesa, Ukutshala Ukutshala kanye Nofuzo, University of Georgia

CS Prakash, PhD, UProfesa, i-Plant Genetics, i-Genomics ne-Biotechnology College yeSayensi yezoLimo, ezeMvelo kanye neNutrition, eTuskegee University

UCami Ryan, PhD, IMonsanto, ukuhola kwesayensi yezenhlalo, inqubomgomo yokulawula kanye nezindaba zesayensi eCanada

U-Eric Sachs, PhD, I-Monsanto, ezemvelo, ezenhlalo nezomnotho zihola phambili

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, I-Animal Genetics ne-Biotechnology Cooperative Extension Specialist, iYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis

UKarl Haro von Mogel, PhD, Umqondisi we-Biofortified wesayensi nabezindaba   

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngokutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu ezimboni nezifundiswa ezindabeni zokudla, bheka ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo yase-US Right to Know iyatholakala ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe yiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eSan Francisco.

I-Biofortified Aids Chemical Industry PR & Imizamo Yokuzama

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IBiology Fortified Inc., eyaziwa njenge “Kwenziwe kabusha, ”Inhlangano engenzi nzuzo esebenza ngokubambisana nomkhakha wezolimo kanye nabahlanganyeli bawo kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi kanye nemikhankaso yokunxenxa ukuvikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, futhi ihlasela abagxeki bemboni.

Amalungu ebhodi nama-blogger bangabalingani abakhulu bezimboni zezolimo

Amalungu ebhodi wamanje nabangaphambili nababhali be-blog abhalwe ku-Biofortified's “hlangana nochwepheshe bethu”Leli khasi linobudlelwano obuseduze nomkhakha wezezolimo kanye nemikhankaso yamaqembu aphambili embonini.

Okulandelayo yizibonelo zokunxenxa okuhambisana nomkhakha kanye nemizamo yokuxhumana nomphakathi ebandakanya iBiofortified nabaholi bayo.

"Abafana abasebenza ngokulingana" kuvikela ama-pesticides

Ngo-2013, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association (HCIA) - iqembu lokuhweba emele IDowDuPont, iMonsanto kanye neHartung Brothers - bahlele uhambo lokunxenxa ukuya eKauai ngenhloso yokuphikisana nabasebenzi bezimboni ukuze baphikisane nomthetho womphakathi owawuzothuthuka ukudalulwa emphakathini yokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nendawo edingekayo yokubulala izinambuzane ezungeze izikole, izibhedlela nezinye izindawo zomphakathi. Ngokwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, umqondisi omkhulu we-HCIA ubhekise kubasekeli abane ababemenywe ohambweni lokungenisa izivakashi njengabafana be- “Biofortified”. Kade:

  • UKarl Haro von Mogel, Umqondisi wesayensi ye-Biofortified
  • USteve Savage, Umbhali webhulogi we-Biofortified kanye nomxhumanisi wemboni yezolimo
  • UKevin Folta, Ilungu lebhodi le-Biofortified kanye noprofesa e-University of Florida
  • UJon Entine, umqondisi we-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu labalingani beMonsanto

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uRenee Kester, ongumgqugquzeli ohola wephrojekthi yokwamukela izivakashi i-HCIA, wathumela nge-imeyili la madoda amane Julayi 11, 2013 (ikhasi 10) ukubabonga “ngakho konke ukwesekwa osinikeze khona lapha eHawaii maqondana nezimpi zethu zomthetho zakamuva” nokubeka ucingo lokuxoxa ngokutholakala kwabo ukuze bathamele ukulalelwa komthetho okuzayo. U-Alicia Mulu Research, umqondisi omkhulu we-HCIA, wabe esethumela iqembu nge-imeyili (ikhasi 9) mayelana nesidingo sokuqamba amasu esikhathi esifushane nawesikhathi eside “usebenzisa abafana be-Biofortified”

Ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • New York Times, "UProfesa waseFlorida usebenza nemboni yeBiotech: Uhambo oluya eHawaii ukuyofakaza, lukhokhelwa ngabezimboni" (ikhasi 23) (9/5/2015)
  • Ukubuka kwe-GM, “Indlela 'iBiofortified Boys' evikela ngayo izimfihlo zomkhakha wokubulala izinambuzane eHawaii” (9/27/2015)

I-Biofortified efakwe ohlwini njengo "umlingani wemboni" ku-Monsanto PR doc  

Lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba uBiofortified “njengozakwethu wezimboni” ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi zikaMonsanto zokudicilela phansi igama lengalo yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuvikela isithunzi sikaRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iphaneli lochwepheshe le-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Idokhumenti yeMonsanto PR ikhonjisiwe izingxenye ezine zabalingani bemboni inkampani ihlele ukuzibandakanya “nohlelo lwayo lokulungela” ukuthola umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC. IBiofortified ibhalwe ku- “Tier 2,” kanye ne- Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, Izifundiswa ze-AgBioChatter, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi. Lawa maqembu avame ukucashunwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha njengoba uhlelo lweMonsanto nezinye izibonelo ziphakamisa, basebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi. (Ukuvuselelwa: Ngo-Okthoba 2018, iBiofortified yathumela i- isitatimende kusuka eMonsanto bethi inkampani ayikhokhi noma ayihlangani nabo.)

Ukungavumelani nokuphikisana nezicelo zombuso ze-FOIA

I-Biofortified ixhaswe ngokubambisana, kanye ne iCornell Alliance for Science, a Mashi 2015 sicelo ephikisana nokusetshenziswa kwezicelo zombuso ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuphenya ukuxhumana phakathi kwezifundiswa ezixhaswe nguhulumeni kanye nemboni yezolimo.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso ze-FOIA selivezile izibonelo eziningi yezifundiswa ezisebenza ngezindlela ezicashile nezinkampani ze-agrichemical kanye namafemu abo e-PR ukusiza i-ajenda yezimboni nokuthumela imiyalezo - ngokwesibonelo, amadokhumenti ichaza umsuka weqembu langaphambili le-Academics Review, kanye nalezo ezixoxa “ngabafana abathandekayo” uhambo lokungenisa izivakashi eHawaii. Ama-imeyili amaningi atholwe yi-US Right to Know manje asethunyelwe ku-UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Library, Iqoqo lezolimo le-USRTK. Imibhalo ikhiqize umhlaba wonke Ukusabalala kwezindaba mayelana nokusobala embonini yokudla kanye nezingozi zezempilo nezemvelo zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO.

Ukuhlaselwa okuhambisana nomkhakha kweBiofortified kubagxeki

Unodoli ojiyile omele ummbila we-GMO ogama lakhe linguFrank N. Foode yi-mascot yeBiofortified.

Ilungu lebhodi elasungula iBiofortified uDavid Tribe wasungulwa ngokuhlanganyela Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, iqembu elingaphambili elisungulwe ngosizo lweMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni, ngokusho kwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Ku-imeyili eyodwa, UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto, uxoxe ngohlu oluhlosiwe lwabagxeki bezimboni abebelwenzela iMonsanto.

Mashi Ngokumelene Nezinkoleloze mayelana nokuguqulwa (MAMyths), iphrojekthi ye-Biofortified, iphinde yaqondisa amanye amaqembu nabantu ababizwe ohlwini luka-Byrne - ngokwesibonelo, iqembu labamba iqhaza ukuphikisana noVandana Shiva futhi kubikwa ukuthi uhole a umzamo ohlulekile wokweqa umzila umcimbi obandakanya uVani Hari, i- “Food Babe,” oxhaswe yiCentre for Food Safety.

Umsunguli we-MAMyths uKavin Senapathy wayenama-athikili ambalwa isuswe yiForbes emva kwe I-New York Times yembula ukuthi umbhali wakhe, u-Henry Miller, ushicilele ikholomu e Forbes eyayibhalwe isipoki nguMonsanto. UMiller uphinde wakhonjwa njengomlingani ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukuhlasela iphaneli yomdlavuza ye-IARC.

USenapathy ungumbhali-mbhali we-2015 ibhuku mayelana neHari, "The Fear Babe," efaka phambili ebhalwe yilungu lebhodi leBiofortified uKevin Folta, lapho echaza khona inhlangano yokudla "njengeqembu lamaphekula elixhaswe kahle."

USenapathy noHaro von Mogel nabo bavela ku- Ifilimu le-propaganda ye-GMO Ukuvela Kokudla.

Amaphrojekthi ahlobene

Isizinda sedatha seGENERA luhlu lwezifundo “ukukhombisa abantu ukuthi kungakanani ucwaningo olwenziwe ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo,” ngokusho kwe- Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa kuwebhusayithi yeBiofortified. Uhlu luqale ukuqalwa nguDavid Tribe, ophinde wasungula i- Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu eliphambili leMonsanto. Iphromoshini yokuqala yeGENERA amangalelwe ngokukhohlisa ukukhombisa "imibiko ebukeziwe kontanga engaphezu kuka-600 emibhalweni yesayensi ebhala ukuphepha nokudla okunomsoco kokudla nokudla okuphakelayo." Eziningi zalezo zifundo azizange zibhekane nezinkinga zokuphepha. Ulimi lokukhangisa olungalungile luye lwasuswa kamuva, kanye nengxenye yesithathu yezifundo.