I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

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Izifundo Eziyinhloko Zesayensi ku-Aspartame
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Imininingwane ebalulekile Ngokwe-Diet Soda Chemical 

Yini i-Aspartame?

  • I-Aspartame yi-sweetener esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Iphinde idayiswe njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin ne-AminoSweet.
  • I-Aspartame ikhona kokungaphezulu kwe- 6,000 imikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi iDiet Coke neDiet Pepsi, iKool Aid, iCrystal Light, iTango nezinye iziphuzo ezenziwe ngoshukela; Imikhiqizo ye-Jell-O engenashukela; I-Trident, i-Dentyne kanye neminye imikhiqizo eminingi yezinsini ezingenashukela; Amaswidi aqinile angenashukela; iziphuzo ezinoshukela ophansi noma ongenashukela njengama-ketchups nokugqoka; imithi yezingane, amavithamini kanye namaconsi okukhwehlela.
  • I-Aspartame yikhemikhali lokwenziwa elenziwe ngama-amino acid phenylalanine ne-aspartic acid, ene-methyl ester. Lapho idliwe, i-methyl ester yehla ibe yi-methanol, engaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde.

Iminyaka eyishumi yezifundo iphakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-Aspartame

Njengoba i-aspartame yaqala ukwamukelwa ngo-1974, bobabili ososayensi be-FDA kanye nososayensi abazimele baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela yezempilo engaba khona kanye nokushiyeka kusayensi ethunyelwe ku-FDA ngumenzi, uGD Searle. (IMonsanto ithenge iSearle ngo-1984).

Ngo-1987, i-UPI yashicilela uchungechunge lwama-athikili okuphenya nguGregory Gordon ebika ngalezi zinto ezikhathazayo, kufaka phakathi izifundo zakuqala ezixhumanisa i-aspartame nezinkinga zempilo, izinga elibi locwaningo oluxhaswe imboni olwaholela ekuvunyelweni kwalo, kanye nobudlelwano bomnyango obuzungezayo phakathi kwezikhulu ze-FDA kanye nemboni yokudla. Uchungechunge lukaGordon luyisisetshenziswa esibaluleke kakhulu kunoma ngubani ofuna ukuqonda umlando we-aspartame / NutraSweet:

Amaphutha ekuhlolweni kwe-European Food Safety Authority

NgoJulayi 2019 iphepha ku-Archives of Health Public, Abaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseSussex banikeze ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe kokuhlolwa kokuphepha kwe-aspartame kwe-EFSA ngonyaka ka-2013 bathola ukuthi iphaneli linciphise njengokungathembeki esifundweni ngasinye kwezingu-73 ezikhombisa ukulimala, futhi lasebenzisa izindlela zokuxegisa kakhulu ukwamukela ukuthembeka okungu-84% wezifundo lokho akubutholanga ubufakazi bokulimala. "Uma kubhekwa ukushiyeka kokuhlolwa kobungozi be-aspartame kwe-EFSA, kanye nokushiyeka kwakho konke ukuhlolwa kwangaphambilini okuyingozi okusemthethweni kwe-aspartame, kungaphambi kwesikhathi ukuphetha ngokuthi kuphephile ngokwamukelekayo," kuphetha ucwaningo.

Bona Impendulo ye-EFSA nokulandelwa ngabaphenyi u-Erik Paul Millstone no-Elizabeth Dawson ku-Archives of Public Health, Kungani i-EFSA yehlise i-ADI yayo ye-aspartame noma yancoma ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwayo kungabe kusavunyelwa? Ukusabalala kwezindaba:

  • Ochwepheshe bathi “isiphuzo sopopayi esithandwa kakhulu emhlabeni kufanele sinqatshelwe. Ochwepheshe ababili bezokuphepha kokudla bacele ukuthi iswidi yokufakelwa esetshenziswa kabanzi, i-aspartame, ivinjelwe e-UK futhi babuze ukuthi kungani kubonakale kwamukelekile kwasekuqaleni, ” I-New Food Magazine (11.11.2020) 
  • "'Ukuthengiswa kwe-aspartame kufanele kumiswe': I-EFSA esolwa ngokwenzelela ekuhloleni ukuphepha," nguKaty Askew, I-Navigator Yezokudla (7.27.2019)

Imiphumela Yezempilo Nezifundo Eziyinhloko ku-Aspartame 

Ngenkathi izifundo eziningi, ezinye zazo zixhasiwe, azibikanga zinkinga nge-aspartame, inqwaba yezifundo ezizimele ezenziwa amashumi eminyaka zixhumanise i-aspartame nohlu olude lwezinkinga zempilo, kufaka phakathi:

Cancer

Ocwaningweni olunzulu lomdlavuza kuze kube yimanje nge-aspartame, izifundo ezintathu zokuphila ezenziwa yiCesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center yeRamazzini Institute, zinikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bokuba nomdlavuza kumagundane adalulwe kulokho.

  • I-Aspartame “ingumenzeli we-carcinogenic onamandla amaningi, noma ngabe isilinganiso sansuku zonke se-… singaphansi kakhulu kokudla kwansuku zonke okwamukelekayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwempilo ka-2006 Impilo Yemvelo.1
  • Ucwaningo olulandelwayo ngo-2007 luthole ukwanda okuphathelene nomthamo okuphawulekayo kumaqhubu amabi kwamanye amagundane. "Imiphumela ... iqinisekisa futhi iqinisa ukubonakaliswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe- [aspartame's] okungajwayelekile kwe-carcinogenic ezingeni lomthamo eliseduze kokudla okwamukelekayo kwabantu nsuku zonke ... lapho ukuvezwa kwesikhathi sokuphila kuqala ngesikhathi sokuphila kwengane, imiphumela yayo ebanga umdlavuza iyanda," kubhala abacwaningi. phakathi Impilo Yemvelo.2
  • Imiphumela yocwaningo lwempilo yango-2010 "iqinisekisa ukuthi [i-aspartame] iyisakhi se-carcinogenic ezindaweni eziningi kumagundane, nokuthi lo mphumela wenziwa ezinhlotsheni ezimbili, amagundane (abesilisa nabesifazane) kanye namagundane (abesilisa)," kusho abacwaningi ku Ijenali YaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni.3

Abaphenyi baseHarvard ngo-2012 babika ubudlelwano obuhle phakathi kokudla kwe-aspartame kanye nengozi eyengeziwe ye-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ne-myeloma eminingi emadodeni, kanye ne-leukemia kwabesilisa nabesifazane. Okutholakele "kugcina amathuba okuba nomthelela omubi ... kumdlavuza okhethiwe" kepha "akuvumeli isinqumo esiphume njengenhlanhla," kubhala abacwaningi ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.4

Encazelweni ka-2014 ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni, Abaphenyi be-Maltoni Center babhala ukuthi izifundo ezithunyelwe yi-GD Searle ukuze zivunyelwe emakethe “azihlinzeki ngosizo olwanele lwesayensi kwezokuphepha [kwe-aspartame]. Ngokuphambene nalokho, imiphumela yakamuva ye-life-span carcinogenicity bioassays kumagundane namagundane ashicilelwe kumajenali abuyekezwa ngontanga, kanye nocwaningo olulindelekile lwe-epidemiological, lunikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bamandla we-carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ngokwesisekelo sobufakazi bemiphumela engaba khona ye-carcinogenic… ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwesimo samanje sezinhlangano ezilawula umhlaba wonke kufanele kuthathwe njengendaba ephuthumayo yezempilo yomphakathi. ”5

Brain izimila

Ngo-1996, abacwaningi babika ku- Ijenali yeNeuropathology & Yokuhlola Neurology kubufakazi besifo esixhuma ukwethulwa kwe-aspartame ekwandeni kohlobo olunolaka lwamathumba anobuchopho. "Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye izinto ezithinta ezemvelo ezixhunyaniswe nezicubu zobuchopho, i-aspartame yokufakelwa ingumlingisi othembisayo ochaza ukwanda kwamuva kwesimo kanye nezinga lokulimala kwezicubu zobuchopho… Siphetha ngokuthi kunesidingo sokuhlaziya amandla we-aspartame we-carcinogenic."6

  • Isazi sezinzwa uDkt John Olney, ongumlobi oholayo wocwaningo, utshele Imizuzu engama-60 ngo-1996: “Kube nokwanda okumangazayo kwezehlakalo zamathumba anobuchopho (eminyakeni emithathu kuya kwemihlanu kulandela ukuvunyelwa kwe-aspartame)… kunesisekelo esanele sokusola i-aspartame ukuthi kumele ihlolwe kabusha. I-FDA idinga ukuyihlola kabusha, kulokhu, i-FDA kufanele ikwenze kahle. ”

Izifundo zakuqala ze-aspartame ngawo-1970 zathola ubufakazi bamathumba obuchopho ezilwaneni zaselebhu, kepha lezo zifundo azilandelwanga.

Izifo Zezinhliziyo 

Ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwe-2017 kocwaningo kuma-sweeteners wokufakelwa, okushicilelwe ku- I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, abutholanga bufakazi obucacile bezinzuzo zokwehlisa isisindo samaswidi okufakelwa ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo ezingahleliwe, futhi wabika ukuthi izifundo zeqoqo zihlobanisa okokunandisa okufakelwayo “nokwenyuka kwesisindo nobukhulu besinqe, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokukhuluphala, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2 nenhliziyo nenhliziyo imicimbi. ”7 Bona futhi:

  • "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa azisizi ekwehliseni isisindo futhi zingaholela ekutholeni amakhilogremu," nguCatherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "Kungani omunye udokotela wenhliziyo ephuze isiphuzo sakhe sokugcina sokudla," nguHarlan Krumholz, IWall Street Journal (9.14.2017)
  • “Lo dokotela wenhliziyo ufuna umndeni wakhe unciphise i-diet soda. Ingabe eyakho kufanele nayo? ” by UDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 Iphepha le-2016 ku I-Physiology nokuziphatha kubika, “kukhona ukuhlangana okuvusa amadlingozi phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo lwezilwane kanye nenqwaba yezifundo ezinkulu, zesikhathi eside zokuhlola kubantu, ekutholeni ukukhuphuka kwesisindo, ukuthambekela, ukubhebhetheka kokukhuluphala, ingozi ye-cardiometabolic, kanye nokufa okuphelele phakathi kwabantu abantu abanokuchayeka okungapheli, nsuku zonke kumakhemikhali anekhalori eliphansi - futhi le miphumela iyakhathaza. ”8

Abesifazane abaphuza iziphuzo ezingaphezu kwezimbili zokudla ngosuku “babenobungozi obukhulu bezifo [zenhliziyo nemithambo yegazi]… [isifo senhliziyo nemithambo yegazi] ukufa… kanye nokufa jikelele,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2014 lweWomen Health Initiative olushicilelwe ku I-Journal of General Medicine Internal.9

Unhlangothi, Dementia kanye Izifo ze-Alzheimer

Abantu abaphuza i-soda yokudla nsuku zonke cishe babenamathuba aphindwe kathathu okuba nesifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo njengalabo abasiphuza masonto onke noma ngaphansi. Lokhu kufaka ingozi enkulu yokushaywa yischemic, lapho kuthinteka khona imithambo yegazi ebuchosheni, kanye nesifo sengqondo i-Alzheimer's dementia, okuyindlela ejwayelekile yokuwohloka komqondo, kubika i Ucwaningo luka-2017 eStroke.10

  • Bona futhi: Ividiyo yaseBoston University School of Medicine ocwaningweni olwenziwe yisazi sezinzwa uMatthew Pase, “Ukusetshenziswa Kwansuku Zonke KwamaSodas, Iziphuzo Zezithelo kanye Nama-Sodas Okungelona Owenziwe Kuthinta Ingqondo.”
  • "Ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-diet soda engcupheni ephezulu yokushaywa yisifo sohlangothi, ukuwohloka komqondo," nguFred Barbash, IWashington Post (4.21.2017)

Emzimbeni, i-methyl ester ese-aspartame ihlangana nayo i-methanol bese-ke ingaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde, exhunywe nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Ucwaningo oluyizingxenye ezimbili olushicilelwe ngo-2014 ku I-Journal yezifo ze-Alzheimer kuxhunyaniswe nokuchayeka kwe-methanol engapheli ekulahlekelweni kwememori kanye nezimpawu ze-Alzheimer's Disease kumagundane nezinkawu.

  • "Amagundane aphethwe yi-ethanol anikezwe izimpawu ezifana ne-AD… Lokhu okutholakele kunezela ebuningini obukhulayo bobufakazi obuxhumanisa i-formaldehyde ne- [Alzheimer's disease] pathology." (Ingxenye 1)11
  • "Ukudla [i-ethanol] kudale ushintsho oluhlala isikhathi eside noluphikelelayo lwezifo olwaluhlobene [nesifo i-Alzheimer's]… lokhu okutholakele kusekela ubufakazi obandayo obuxhumanisa i-methanol ne-metabolite formaldehyde yayo [isifo se-Alzheimer's] pathology." (Ingxenye 2)12

ukuquleka

“I-Aspartame ibonakala inyusa inani le-EEG spike wave ezinganeni ezinokuquleka okungekho. Izifundo ezengeziwe ziyadingeka ukuthola ukuthi ngabe lo mphumela wenzeka ngamanani aphansi nakwezinye izinhlobo zokuquleka, ”ngokocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1992 ku Neurology.13

I-Aspartame “inomsebenzi okhuthaza ukuquleka ezinhlobonhlobo zezilwane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuthola izinto ezithinta… izehlakalo zokubanjwa,” ngokocwaningo lwango-1987 ku Impilo Yemvelo.14

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kakhulu kwe-aspartame “kungaphazamisa namathuba okuhlaselwa ngabantu abangenazimpawu kodwa abangenayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1985 I-Lancet. Ucwaningo luchaza abantu abadala abathathu ababephilile ngaphambili ababenesifo sokuwa okukhulu ngesikhathi besebenzisa imithamo ephezulu ye-aspartame.15

I-Neurotoxicity, Ukulimala kobuchopho kanye nokuphazamiseka kwemizwelo

I-Aspartame ixhunyaniswe nezinkinga zokuziphatha nezokuqonda kubandakanya nezinkinga zokufunda, ikhanda, ukuquleka, i-migraines, imizwa ecasulayo, ukukhathazeka, ukudangala, nokuqwasha, kubhale abacwaningi besifundo se-2017 ku I-Neuroscience Yezempilo. "Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Aspartame kudinga ukuthintwa ngokuqapha ngenxa yemiphumela engaba khona empilweni ye-neurobehavioral."16

“I-aspartame yomlomo ishintshe kakhulu ukusebenza, isimo sokulwa ne-oxidant kanye ne-morphology ye-hippocampus kumagundane; futhi, kungenzeka ukuthi idale i-hippocampal neurogenesis yabantu abadala, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2016 I-Neurobiology yokufunda neyeMemori.17 

“Phambilini, kuye kwabikwa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kungadala ukuphazamiseka kwemizwa nokuziphatha kubantu ababucayi. Ukuphathwa yikhanda, ukuqwasha nokuquleka nakho kungeminye yemithelela yezinzwa eke yabhekana nayo, ”kusho ucwaningo olwenziwe ngo-2008 ku I-European Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition. "Siphakamisa ukuthi ukungenisa ngokweqile kwe-aspartame kungabandakanyeka ekutholakaleni kwezifo ezithile zengqondo… kanye nasekufundeni okweqile nasekusebenzeni ngokomzwelo."18 

"(N) izimpawu zezemvelo, kufaka phakathi izinqubo zokufunda nezinkumbulo, kungenzeka zihlobene nokugxila okuphezulu noma okunobuthi kwe-sweetener [aspartame] metabolites," kusho ucwaningo lwango-2006 ku Ucwaningo lwezokwelapha.19

I-Aspartame "ingaphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori futhi ilimaze ama-hypothalamic neurons kumagundane amadala," ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2000 olushicilelwe ku Izincwadi Zobuthi.20

"(Mina) nabantu abanezinkinga zemizwelo bazwela kakhulu kulesi sithambisi sokuzenzela futhi ukusetshenziswa kwaso kulesi sibalo kufanele kungadikibali," kusho ucwaningo lwango-1993 kwiphephandaba. Ijenali ye-Biological Psychiatry.21

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kwe-aspartame “kungadala ushintsho olukhulu emithanjeni yegazi,” kubika ucwaningo olwenziwa ngo-1984 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.22

Ukuhlolwa kukhombise ukulimala kobuchopho kumagundane ezingane kulandela ukungeniswa ngomlomo kwe-aspartate, futhi kukhombisa ukuthi "i-aspartate [inobuthi] kubuthi begundane ezinganeni emazingeni aphansi kakhulu okudla ngomlomo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1970 ku Nature.23

Izinsizwa ze-Head and Migraines

“I-Aspartame, isiphuzo esidumile sokudla, ingacasula ikhanda kwabanye abantu abasengozini. Lapha, sichaza izigameko ezintathu zabesifazane abasebasha abane-migraine ababika ukuthi bangaphathwa yikhanda ngokuhlafuna inhlaka engenashukela equkethe i-aspartame, ”kusho iphephandaba lango-1997. Ikhanda Journal.24

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo eshicilelwe ngo-1994 ku Neurology, “Inikeza ubufakazi bokuthi, phakathi kwabantu abanezinhlungu zokuzibika eziphathwa ikhanda ngemuva kokuminza i-aspartame, i-subset yaleli qembu ibika amakhanda amaningi lapho ihlolwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezilawulwayo. Kubonakala sengathi abanye abantu bathinteka kakhulu ekhanda elibangelwa i-aspartame futhi bangafuna ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwabo. ”25

Ucwaningo lweziguli eziyi-171 eMontefiore Medical Center Headache Unit luthole ukuthi iziguli ezine-migraine “zibike i-aspartame njenge-precipitant kaninginingi ngokuphindwe kathathu kunalezo ezinezinye izinhlobo zekhanda… Siphetha ngokuthi i-aspartame ingaba yinto ebalulekile yokudla ikhanda kwabanye abantu, ”1989 isifundo ku Ikhanda Journal.26

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo kumvamisa namandla we-migraines "kukhombise ukuthi ukungena kwe-aspartame ngama-migraineurs kubangele ukwanda okukhulu kokuvama kwekhanda kwezinye izifundo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1988 ku Ikhanda Journal.27

Umsebenzi Wezinso Uyancipha

Ukusetshenziswa kwezinsizakalo ezingaphezu kwezimbili ngosuku lwesoda eyenziwe ngoshukela “kuhlotshaniswa nokungezwani okuphindwe kabili kokuncipha kokusebenza kwezinso kwabesifazane,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2 ku I-Clinical Journal ye-American Society of Nephrology.28

Ukuzuza Isisindo, Ukudla okwengeziwe kanye nokukhuluphala Izinkinga Ezihlobene

Izifundo eziningana zixhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo, ukwanda kwesifiso sokudla, isifo sikashukela, ukuwohloka komzimba kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala. Bona iphepha lethu lamaqiniso: Ukudla kweSoda Chemical Okuboshwe Ekuzuzeni Isisindo.

Le sayensi exhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nokuba semthethweni kwemikhiqizo equkethe i-aspartame njengokudla "noma izinsiza zokwehlisa isisindo. Ngo-2015, i-USRTK ifake isicelo se- Federal Trade Commission futhi FDA ukuphenya ngezindlela zokumaketha nezokukhangisa zemikhiqizo “yokudla” equkethe ikhemikhali elixhumene nokuzuza kwesisindo. Bheka izindaba ezihlobene ukumboza, impendulo evela ku-FTC, Futhi impendulo evela ku-FDA.

Isifo Sikashukela kanye Ne-Metange Derangement

I-Aspartame ihlukaniswa ngokwengxenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa ukusebenza kwe-enzyme emathunjini ane-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebikhonjiswe phambilini ukuvimbela isifo se-metabolic syndrome (iqembu lezimpawu ezihambisana nohlobo 2 lwesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo) ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe, Ukudla okunomsoco kanye neMetabolism. Kulolu cwaningo, amagundane athola i-aspartame emanzini abo okuphuza athola isisindo esiningi futhi athuthukisa ezinye izimpawu zesifo se-metabolic kunezilwane ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi, "Imiphumela yokuvikela i-IAP maqondana ne-metabolic syndrome ingahle ivinjelwe yi-phenylalanine, i-metabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbe echaza ukungabi bikho kwesisindo esilindelekile kanye nokwenza ngcono umzimba okuhambisana neziphuzo zokudla."29

Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola “isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo,” ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2013 eyashicilelwa ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

Ocwaningweni olwalandela abesifazane abangama-66,118 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-14, zombili iziphuzo ezinoshukela kanye neziphuzo ezenziwe ngobumnandi zihlotshaniswa nengozi yesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2. “Izindlela eziqinile zokubeka engcupheni i-T2D ziphinde zabonwa kuwo wonke ama-quartiles e- ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zinhlobo zombili zesiphuzo… Akukho nhlangano eye yabonwa nge-100% yeziphuzo zezithelo, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2013 olushicilelwe ku- I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.31

I-Dysbiosis yamathumbu, i-Metabolic Derangement ne-Obesity

Ama-sweeteners okufakelwa angadala ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokusho kwe-a Ucwaningo luka-2014 eMvelweni. Abaphenyi babhala, “imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe ngeswidi], i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba, ngaleyo ndlela kudinga ukuhlolwa kabusha kokusetshenziswa okukhulu kwe-NAS… Ukuthola kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka ibe negalelo ngqo ekuqiniseni ubhadane ngqo [ukukhuluphala] ukuthi zona ngokwazo zazihloselwe ukulwa. ”32

  • Bheka futhi: “Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Angashintsha Amabhaktheriya EmiGodini Ngezindlela Eziyingozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, I-Scientific American (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwango-2016 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe Nutrition kanye neMetabolism kubika, "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kube nomthelela omkhulu ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwesisindo somzimba (i-BMI) nokubekezelelana koshukela… ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokukhubazeka okukhulu okuhlobene nokukhuluphala ekubekezeleni kweglucose."33

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2014 ku I-PLOS ONE, “I-aspartame inyuse amazinga e-glucose azila ukudla kanye nokuhlolwa kokubekezelelana kwe-insulin kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhubaza ukulahlwa kwe-glucose okuvuselelwe i-insulin… Ukuhlaziywa kwe-fecal kokuqanjwa kwamabhaktheriya esiswini kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhulisa amabhaktheriya aphelele…”34

 Ukukhulelwa Okungajwayelekile: Ukuzalwa Kwangaphambi kwesikhathi 

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwango-2010 lweqembu lama-59,334 labesifazane abakhulelwe baseDenmark elishicilelwe ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic, "Bekukhona ukuhlangana phakathi kokutholwa kweziphuzo ezibandayo ezenziwe ngoshukela nezingezona ezekhaboni kanye nengozi enkulu yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi." Ucwaningo luphethe ngokuthi, "Ukuphuza nsuku zonke iziphuzo ezithambile ezinoshukela kungenza ingozi yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi."35

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Downing Diet Soda Iboshelwe Ekuzalweni Ngaphambi Kokuzalwa," ngu-Anne Harding, I-Reuters (i-7.23.2010)

Izingane Ezikhuluphele

Ukusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo esenziwe ngobuciko ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kuxhunyaniswe nenkomba yomzimba ephezulu yezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2016 I-JAMA Pediatrics. "Ngokwazi kwethu, sinikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bomuntu bokuthi ukusetshenziswa komama okokunandisa okokufakelwa ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungathonya i-BMI yezinsana," kubhala abacwaningi.36

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Diet Soda Ekukhulelweni Ixhunyaniswe Nezingane Ezikhuluphele ngokweqile," nguNicholas Bakalar, INew York Times (5.11.2016)

Ukuya esikhathini kokuqala

I-National Heart, Lung, ne-Blood Institute Growth and Health Study ilandele amantombazane we-1988 iminyaka eyishumi ukuhlola izinhlangano ezingaba phakathi kokudla ushukela one-caffeine nongeyona i-caffeine- neziphuzo ezithambile ezenziwe ngobumnandi kanye nokuya esikhathini kokuqala. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezithambile ezine-caffeine nezenziwe ngoshukela bekuhlanganiswa nobungozi bokushesha ukuya esikhathini eqenjini laseMelika lamantombazane ase-Afrika aseMelika naseCaucasus," kuphetha ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngo-10 ku Ijenali ye-American Clinical Nutrition.37

Ukulimala Kwesidoda

"Ukwehla okuphawulekayo ekusebenzeni kwesidoda kwezilwane eziphathwa njenge-aspartame kubonwe uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawulwa kanye nokulawulwa kwe-MTX," ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-International Journal of Impotence Research. "... Lokhu okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi ama-aspartame metabolites angaba nomthelela ekuthuthukiseni ukucindezeleka okwenziwe nge-oxidative ku-epididymal sperm."38

Ukulimala Kwesibindi Nokuqedwa KweGlutathione

Ucwaningo lwegundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo I-Redox Biology kubika, "Ukuphathwa okungapheli kwe-aspartame… kubangele ukulimala kwesibindi kanye namazinga anciphisiwe we-glutathione ancishisiwe, i-glutathione ene-oxidized, i-γ-glutamylcysteine, kanye ne-metabolites eminingi yendlela ye-trans-sulphuration…"39

Ucwaningo lwamagundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo Ucwaningo Lokudla kutholakale ukuthi, “Ukudla okuphuzwayo okungatheni noma i-aspartame okubangelwe kakhulu yi-hyperglycemia kanye ne-hypertriacylglycerolemia… Kutholakale izinguquko ezimbalwa zesakhiwo se-cytoarchitecture esibindini, kufaka phakathi ukonakala, ukungena, i-necrosis, ne-fibrosis, ikakhulu i-aspartame. Le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ukuphuza isikhathi eside isiphuzo esiphuzo noma ukulimala kwe-aspartame okubangelwa i-aspartame kungahle kulandelwe ngokufakwa kwe-hyperglycemia, ukuqongelela i-lipid, kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative ngokubandakanyeka kwama-adipocytokines. ”40

Isexwayiso sabantu abasengozini

Ukubuyekezwa kwemibhalo yango-2016 kuma-sweeteners okufakelwa ku- I-Indian Journal ye-Pharmacology kubika, “kukhona okungahambelani ubufakazi bokusekela iningi lokusetshenziswa kwabo kanye nolunye ucwaningo lwamuva luye lwaveza nokuthi lezi zinzuzo ebezikhona ngaphambili… kungenzeka zingabi yiqiniso. ” Abantu abasolayo njengabesifazane abakhulelwe nabancelisayo, izingane, abanesifo sikashukela, i-migraine kanye neziguli ezinesifo sokuwa “kufanele basebenzise le mikhiqizo ngokuqapha okukhulu.”41

Imizamo Yezimboni PR namaqembu angaphambili 

Kusukela ekuqaleni, i-GD Searle (kamuva iMonsanto neNutraSweet Company) basebenzise amaqhinga e-PR anolaka ukumaketha i-aspartame njengomkhiqizo ophephile. Ngo-Okthoba 1987, uGregory Gordon kubikwe ku-UPI:

"INutraSweet Co. ibuye ikhokhe imali efinyelela ku- $ 3 million ngonyaka ngomzamo wokuxhumana nomphakathi wabantu abayi-100 ngamahhovisi aseChicago eBurson Marsteller, owake wasebenza enkampanini ye-PR eNew York. Isisebenzi sathi uBurson Marsteller uqashe ososayensi nodokotela abaningi, imvamisa eba ngu- $ 1,000 XNUMX ngosuku, ukuvikela isinambitheka ezingxoxweni zabezindaba nakwezinye izinkundla zomphakathi. UBurson Marsteller wenqabile ukuxoxa ngezinto ezinjalo. ”

Ukubika kwakamuva okususelwa emibhalweni yangaphakathi embonini kuveza ukuthi izinkampani zeziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola nazo zikhokhela kanjani izithunywa ezivela eceleni, kufaka phakathi odokotela nososayensi, ukuthi bathuthukise imikhiqizo yabo futhi basuse icala lapho isayensi ibophezela imikhiqizo yabo ezinkingeni ezinkulu zempilo.

Bona ukubikwa kuka-Anahad O'Connor kufayela le- New York Times, UCandice Choi kufayela le- Associated Press, nokutholakele kusuka ku- Uphenyo lwe-USRTK mayelana nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha kashukela nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Izindatshana zezindaba mayelana nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini yesoda:

Buka konke izindaba zezindaba mayelana ne-aspartame:

AmaSpredishithi Eqiniso e-USRTK

Imibiko ngamaqembu angaphambili nemikhankaso ye-PR

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