I-Aspartame: Iminyaka elishumi yeSayensi ibhekisa kwiingozi eziMandla zeMpilo

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Imbali emide yeeNkxalabo
Izifundo eziPhambili zeNzululwazi kwiAspartame
Imizamo ye-PR yoShishino
Iingqinisiso zeSayensi

Iinyani eziphambili malunga nokutya kweSoda Chemical 

Yintoni iAspartame?

  • I-Aspartame yeyona ndawo iswiti esetyenziswa ngokubanzi emhlabeni. Ikwathengiswa njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin kunye neAminoSweet.
  • I-Aspartame ikhona ngaphezulu kwe- iimveliso 6,000, kubandakanya iDiet Coke kunye neDiet Pepsi, iKool Aid, iCrystal Light, iTango kunye nezinye iziselo ezinencasa; Iimveliso ezingenashukela zeJell-O; I-Trident, i-Dentyne kunye nezinye iimveliso zentsini engenashukela; iilekese ezinzima ezingenashukela; i-condiments eswekile esezantsi okanye engenaswekile enje nge ketchups kunye nokunxiba; amayeza abantwana, iivithamini kunye nokuhlahlela kokukhohlela.
  • I-Aspartame yimichiza eyenziweyo eyenziwe zii-amino acid ze-phenylalanine kunye ne-aspartic acid, ene-methyl ester. Xa isetyenzisiwe, i-ester ye-methyl yehla iye kwi-methanol, enokuguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde.

Iminyaka elishumi yezifundo iphakamisa inkxalabo malunga neAspartame

Ukusukela ukuba i-aspartame yavunywa okokuqala ngo-1974, bobabini oososayensi be-FDA kunye noososayensi abazimeleyo baphakamise inkxalabo malunga neziphumo ezinokubakho kwezempilo kunye nokusilela kwisayensi engeniswe kwi-FDA ngumenzi, uGD Searle. (UMonsanto wathenga iSearle ngo-1984).

Kwi-1987, i-UPI yapapasha uthotho lwamanqaku ophando nguGregory Gordon enika ingxelo ngezi zinto zixhalabisayo, kubandakanya nezifundo zokuqala ezinxibelelanisa i-aspartame neengxaki zempilo, umgangatho ophantsi wophando oluxhaswa ngemali lushishino olukhokelele ekuvunyelweni kwalo, kunye nobudlelwane bokungena emnyango phakathi kwamagosa e-FDA. kunye nomzi mveliso wokutya. Uthotho lukaGordon sisixhobo esixabisekileyo kuye nabani na ofuna ukuqonda imbali ye-aspartame / Nutra

Iziphene kuvavanyo lweGunya loKhuseleko loKutya lwaseYurophu

NgoJulayi 2019 iphepha kwiVimba yoLuntu lwezeMpilo, Abaphandi kwiYunivesithi yaseSussex banikezela uhlalutyo olunzulu lovavanyo lwe-aspartame lwe-EFSA ngo-2013 kwaye bafumanisa ukuba iphaneli isaphulelo njengongathembekiyo kwizifundo ezingama-73 ezibonisa ukwenzakala, kwaye zisebenzise iikhrayitheriya ezingaphezulu kakhulu zokwamkela njengezithembekileyo ezingama-84% zezifundo obufumene ubungqina bokwenzakala. “Ngenxa yeziphene zovavanyo lomngcipheko we-EFSA we-aspartame, kunye nokusilela kuko konke ukuvavanywa kobungozi obusemthethweni be-aspartame, kuya kuba ngaphambi kwexesha ukugqiba ukuba ikhuselekile ngokwamkelekileyo,” ligqibe isifundo.

khangela Impendulo ye-EFSA kunye nokulandelelwa ngabaphandi uErik Paul Millstone noElizabeth Dawson kuVimba weeMpilo zikaRhulumente, Kutheni le nto i-EFSA iyinciphisile i-ADI yayo kwi-aspartame okanye icebisa ukuba ukusetyenziswa kwayo akufuneki kuvunyelwe? Ukusasazwa kweendaba:

  • Iingcali zithi: “Eyona nto ithandwa ehlabathini lonke siswiti kufuneka ingavunyelwa. Iingcali ezimbini zokhuselo lokutya ziye zacela ukuba iswiti eyenziwayo esetyenziswayo, i-aspartame, ivinjelwe e-UK kwaye ibuze ukuba kutheni ibonwa yamkelekile kwasekuqaleni, ” Imagazini eNtsha yokutya (11.11.2020) 
  • "'Ukuthengiswa kwe-aspartame kufuneka kunqunyanyiswe': i-EFSA ityholwa ngokuthatha icala kuvavanyo lokhuseleko," nguKaty Askew, Ukutya okuKhokelela kwi-Navigator (7.27.2019)

Iziphumo zeMpilo kunye neziFundo eziPhambili kwiAspartame 

Ngelixa uninzi lwezifundo, ezinye zazo zishishini ezixhaswe ngemali, ziye zabika akukho ngxaki nge-aspartame, uninzi lwezifundo ezizimeleyo eziqhutywa kumashumi eminyaka ziye zadibanisa i-aspartame kuluhlu olude lweengxaki zempilo, kubandakanya:

Cancer

Kuphando olunzulu lomhlaza ukuza kuthi ga ngoku kwi-aspartame, izifundo ezintathu zobomi eziqhutywa yiCesare Maltoni Cancer Research Centre yeZiko iRamazzini, zibonelela ubungqina obuzinzileyo be-carcinogenicity kwiintonga ezivezwe kwinto leyo.

  • I-Aspartame "yiarhente ye-carcinogenic ephindaphindayo, nakwidosi yemihla ngemihla ye-… incinci kakhulu kunendlela eyamkelekileyo yemihla ngemihla yokutya," ngokophando lwempuku lwe-2006 Imiba yezeMpilo.1
  • Uphononongo olulandelayo ngo-2007 lwafumana ukonyuka okubalulekileyo okunxulumene nedosi kwizicubu ezinobungozi kwezinye iigundane. "Iziphumo… ziqinisekisa kwaye zomeleza umboniso wokuqala wovavanyo lwe- [aspartame's] carcinogenicity kwinqanaba lokufumana idosi kufutshane nokutya okwamkelekileyo kwemihla ngemihla ebantwini ... phakathi Imiba yezeMpilo.2
  • Iziphumo zophononongo lobomi be-2010 "ziqinisekisa ukuba [i-aspartame] yiarhente ye-carcinogenic kwiindawo ezininzi kwizikrekrethi, kwaye esi siphumo sibangelwa ziindidi ezimbini, iigundane (amadoda nabasetyhini) kunye neempuku (amadoda)," Ijenali yaseMelika yoNyango lwezoShishino.3

Abaphandi baseHarvard ngo-2012 baxela umanyano olungileyo phakathi kokutya i-aspartame kunye nokwanda komngcipheko we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kunye ne-myeloma emininzi emadodeni, kunye neleukemia emadodeni nakwabasetyhini. Iziphumo ezifunyanisiweyo “zigcina ukubakho kwesiphumo esibi… zomhlaza okhethiweyo” kodwa “azikuvumeli ukugwetywa ngengozi njengenkcazo,” babhala abaphandi kwi I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition.4

Kwinkcazo ka-2014 kwi Ijenali yaseMelika yoNyango lwezoShishino, Abaphandi beZiko leMaltoni babhale ukuba izifundo ezingeniswe ngu-GD Searle ukuze zamkelwe kwimarike “aziboneleli ngenkxaso yezenzululwazi eyaneleyo kukhuseleko lwe- [aspartame]. Ngokuchasene noko, iziphumo zamva nje zobomi be-carcinogenicity bioassays kwiigundane kunye neempuku ezipapashwe kwiijenali ezijongwa ngoontanga, kunye nophando olunokubakho lwezifo, zinika ubungqina obungaguqukiyo [be-aspartame] be-carcinogenic. Ngokwesiseko sobungqina bezinto ezinokubangela umdlavuza… ukuphinda kujongwe imeko yangoku yeearhente zolawulo kufuneka kuthathwe njengomba ongxamisekileyo wezempilo yoluntu. ”5

Izibilini zeBongo

Ngo-1996, abaphandi baxela Ijenali yeNeuropathology kunye novavanyo lweNeurology kubungqina obusisifo obudibanisa ukuqaliswa kwe-aspartame kunye nokwanda kohlobo olundlongondlongo lwezidumbu ezinobungozi. "Xa kuthelekiswa neminye imiba yokusingqongileyo edityaniswe namathumba ebuchwephesha, i-aspartame yeswekile eyenziweyo ngumgqatswa othembisayo wokuchaza ukwanda okwenzekayo kunye nenqanaba lokudumba kwamathumba ebuchotsheni… Sigqiba kwelokuba kukho imfuneko yokuvavanya amandla e-carcinogenic aspartame."6

  • Isazi nge-Neuroscientist uGqirha John Olney, umbhali ophambili wesifundo, uxelele Imizuzu engama-60 ngo-1996: “Kubekho ukonyuka okumangalisayo kwizigulo ezinobungozi (kwiminyaka emithathu ukuya kwemihlanu emva kokuvunywa kwe-aspartame)… kukho izizathu ezaneleyo zokurhanela i-aspartame ekufuneka iphinde yavavanywa. I-FDA kufuneka iyiphonononge kwakhona, kwaye ngeli xesha, i-FDA kufuneka iyenze kakuhle. ”

Izifundo zakwangoko kwi-aspartame kwii-1970s zafumana ubungqina bamathumba obuchopho kwizilwanyana zaselebhu, kodwa ezo zifundo khange zilandelwe.

Izifo Zeenhliziyo 

Uhlalutyo lwe-meta lwango-2017 lophando kwizithambisi ezingezizo, ezipapashwe kwi I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, akafumananga bungqina bucacileyo bokulahleka kobunzima bezinto zokuthambisa ezilungeleleneyo kuvavanyo lweklinikhi, kwaye waxela ukuba izifundo ezenziwa ngamaqela zidibanisa izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo kunye "nokunyuka kobunzima kunye nokujikeleza kwesinqe, kunye neziganeko eziphezulu zokutyeba kakhulu, uxinzelelo lwegazi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lweswekile yesifo seswekile kunye nentliziyo iziganeko. ”7 Bona kwakho:

  • “Izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo azincedi ekunciphiseni umzimba kwaye zingakhokelela ekufumaneni iiponti,” ngu-Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "Kutheni enye i-cardiologist isele ukutya kwayo kokugqibela kwesoda," nguHarlan Krumholz, Ijenali yeWall Street (9.14.2017)
  • “Le ngcali yeentliziyo ifuna ukuba usapho lwayo lunciphise i-diet soda. Ngaba eyakho ifanele ukuba nayo? ” NguDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly wabuza (9.12.2017)

 Iphepha le-2016 kwi I-Physiology kunye nokuziphatha uxele, "kukho ukungqinelana okuthe kratya phakathi kweziphumo zophando lwezilwanyana kunye nenani elikhulu lezifundo ezikhulu, zokujonga ixesha elide ebantwini, ekufumaneni ukwanda komzimba, ukutyeba, imeko yokutya kakhulu, umngcipheko we-cardiometabolic, kunye nokufa kwabantu abantu abanezifo ezinganyangekiyo, zemihla ngemihla kwizinto ezinencindi ekwiikhalori ezisezantsi - kwaye ezi ziphumo ziyaxhalabisa. ”8

Abasetyhini abasele ngaphezu kwezimbini iziselo zokutya ngemini "babenomngcipheko ophezulu [wezifo sentliziyo] iziganeko… [isifo sentliziyo] ukusweleka… kunye nokufa jikelele," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2014 kwiPhulo lezeMpilo laBasetyhini elipapashwe kwi I-Journal ye-General Medicine.9

Stroke, isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo kunye Izifo ze-Alzheimer's

Abantu abasela isoda yokutya yonke imihla phantse baphantse babe kathathu amathuba okuba nesifo sokubethwa sisifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo njengabo basitya rhoqo ngeveki okanye ngaphantsi. Oku kubandakanya umngcipheko ophezulu wokubethwa sischemic, apho imithambo yegazi kwingqondo iye yaphazamiseka, kunye nesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo i-Alzheimer, eyona ndlela ixhaphakileyo yesifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo. Isifundo se-2017 eStroke.10

  • Bona kwakho: Ividiyo yaseBoston University of Medicine kolu phando olwenziwe yingcali yemithambo-luvo uMatthew Pase, “Ukusetyenziswa kweSodas kwemihla ngemihla, iiJusi yeziqhamo kunye neeSodas ezenziwe ngobumnandi zichaphazela uBongo.”
  • "Uphononongo lunxibelelanisa isoda yokutya kunye nomngcipheko ophezulu wokubetha, isifo sengqondo esixhalabisayo," nguFred Barbash, IWashington Post (4.21.2017)

Emzimbeni, i-ester ye-methyl kwi-aspartame idibanisa ngaphakathi methanol emva koko inokuguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde, enxulunyaniswe nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Isifundo esinamacandelo amabini esipapashwe kwi-2014 kwi Ingxelo yeZifo ze-Alzheimer's kunxulunyaniswa nokuvezwa kwemethanol engapheliyo kwimemori yokulahleka kunye neempawu zesifo se-Alzheimer kwiimpuku nakwiinkawu.

  • "[M] Iimpuku ezondliwa yi-ethanol ziboniswe ngeempawu ezifana ne-AD… Ezi zinto zifunyanisiweyo zongeza kubungqina obukhulayo obudibanisa i-formaldehyde ne- [Alzheimer's disease] pathology." (Icandelo 1)11
  • "[Ukutya kwe-ethanol kubangele utshintsho olwenzeka ixesha elide kwaye oluqhubekekayo olunxulumene [nesifo se-Alzheimer] ... ezi ziphumo zixhasa ubungqina obukhulayo obudibanisa i-methanol kunye ne-metabolite formaldehyde yayo kwisifo se-Alzheimer's." (Icandelo 2)12

Ukuxhamla

"I-Aspartame ibonakala iyandisa inani le-EEG spike wave kubantwana ngokungabikho koxinzelelo. Izifundo ezizezinye ziyafuneka ukufumanisa ukuba ingaba oku kwenzeka ngeedosi ezisezantsi nakwezinye iintlobo zokubanjwa, ”ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1992 Neurology.13

I-Aspartame "inomsebenzi okhuthaza ukuhluthwa kwiimodeli zezilwanyana ezisetyenziswa kakhulu ekuchongeni izinto ezichaphazela… izehlo zokubanjwa," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1987. Imiba yezeMpilo.14

Amanani aphezulu kakhulu e-aspartame “anokuchaphazela nokubakho kokuxhuzula kubantu abangenampawu kodwa abasesichengeni,” ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1985. Lancet. Olu phononongo luchaza abantu abadala abathathu ababesempilweni ababekhe baxhuzula ngexesha lokudla kwabo i-aspartame.15

Neurotoxicity, Ukonakala kweBongo kunye nokuphazamiseka kweMood

I-Aspartame inxulunyaniswe neengxaki zokuziphatha kunye nokuqonda kubandakanya iingxaki zokufunda, intloko ebuhlungu, ukubanjwa, imigraines, iimvakalelo ezinomsindo, unxunguphalo, uxinzelelo kunye nokuqaqanjelwa sisisu, babhala abaphandi besifundo se-2017. Isondlo Neuroscience. Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Aspartame kufuneka kuyiwe kuyo ngononophelo ngenxa yeziphumo ezinokubakho kwimpilo ye-neurobehaisheral. ”16

“I-aspartame yomlomo itshintshe kakhulu indlela yokuziphatha, inqanaba le-anti-oxidant kunye ne-morphology ye-hippocampus kwiimpuku; kananjalo, kusenokwenzeka ukuba ibangele i-hippocampal neurogeneis yabantu abadala, ”luchaze uphando olwenziweyo ngo-2016 I-Neurobiology yokuFunda kunye neNkumbulo.17 

“Ngaphambili, bekuxelwe ukuba ukusetyenziswa kwe-aspartame kunokubangela ukuphazamiseka kwemithambo-luvo nokuziphatha kubantu abanovakalelo. Intloko ebuhlungu, ukuqaqanjelwa bubuthongo kunye nokuxhuzula zezinye zeempembelelo zemithambo-luvo ekuye kwaqubiswana nazo, ”ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2008. I-European Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition. "[Sicebisa ukuba ukungeniswa kwe-aspartame okugabadeleyo kungabandakanyeka kwisifo sokuphazamiseka kwengqondo ....18 

"(N) iimpawu ze-eurological, kubandakanya ukufunda kunye neenkqubo zememori, zinokunxulunyaniswa nokuxinana okuphezulu okanye okunetyhefu ye-sweetener [aspartame] yeemetabolites," utshilo u-2006 Uphando lwezeMpilo.19

I-Aspartame "inokuphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori kunye nokonakalisa ii-hypothalamic neurons kwiimpuku zabantu abadala," ngokwe-2000 iimpuku zophando ezipapashwe kwi Iileta zetyhefu.20

"(I) abantu abanengxaki yokuphazamiseka ngokweemvakalelo banovakalelo ngokukodwa kwesi sithambisi senziweyo kwaye ukusetyenziswa kwaso kuluntu kufuneka kungakhuthazwa," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-1993. Ijenali yezebhayoloji yengqondo.21

Amanani aphezulu e-aspartame "anokuvelisa utshintsho olukhulu kwimichiza," luchaze u-1984 I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition.22

Uvavanyo lubonakalise ukonakala kwengqondo kwiimpuku zosana emva kokutya ngomlomo i-aspartate, kwaye kubonisa ukuba "i-aspartate [iyityhefu] kwimouse yeentsana kumanqanaba asezantsi okutya ngomlomo," ingxelo ka-1970 indalo.23

Intloko kunye neMigraines

“I-Aspartame, iswekile ethandwayo yokutya ukutya, inokubangela iintloko kwabanye abantu abachaphazelekayo. Apha, sichaza amatyala amathathu amabhinqa aselula ane-migraine axele ukuba iintloko zawo zinokuxhokonxwa ngokuhlafuna intshungama engenaswekile ene-aspartame, ”ngokutsho kwephepha lowe-1997. Ijenali yentloko.24

Ityala le-crossover ngokuthelekisa i-aspartame kunye ne-placebo epapashwe ngo-1994 kwi Neurology, "Ibonelela ubungqina bokuba, phakathi kwabantu abaneentloko ezixelwayo emva kokungenisa i-aspartame, iseti yeli qela inika ingxelo yentloko ngakumbi xa kuvavanywa phantsi kweemeko ezilawulwayo. Kubonakala ngathi abanye abantu ngabona basesichengeni sokuqaqanjelwa yintloko ngenxa ye-aspartame kwaye banokufuna ukunciphisa ukusebenzisa kwabo. ”25

Uvavanyo kwizigulana ezili-171 kwiZiko lonyango laseMontefiore Medical Headache Unit lafumanisa ukuba izigulana ezine-migraine "zichaze i-aspartame njenge-precipitant ephindaphindwe kathathu kunalezo zineentlobo ezithile zentloko ... ”Isifundo ngo-1989 Ijenali yentloko.26

Ulingo lwe-crossover ngokuthelekisa i-aspartame kunye ne-placebo kumaza kunye nokuqina kwe-migraines "kubonise ukuba ukungeniswa kwe-aspartame ngabagulisi be-migraineurs kubangele ukonyuka okubonakalayo kwintloko yesifo seentloko kwezinye izifundo," ingxelo ngo-1988. Ijenali yentloko.27

Umsebenzi weZintso wehla

Ukusetyenziswa kokutya okungaphezulu kwesibini ngemini yesoda eneswekile eyenziweyo "kunxulunyaniswa nokuphindaphindeka kabini kokunyuka kokusebenza kwezintso kwabasetyhini," ngokophando luka-2 kwi Ijenali yezonyango yaseMelika yoMbutho weNephrology.28

Ukufumana ubunzima, ukutya okunyukayo kunye nokutyeba kakhulu iingxaki ezinxulumene noko

Izifundo ezininzi zinxibelelana ne-aspartame ekuzuzeni ubunzima, ukonyusa ukutya, isifo seswekile, isifo se-metabolic kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokukhuluphala. Jonga iphepha lethu lenyaniso: Ukutya kweSoda Imichiza eboshwe kuTywala.

Le sayensi idibanisa i-aspartame ekuzuzeni ubunzima kunye nezifo ezinxulumene nokukhuluphala iphakamisa imibuzo malunga nokuba semthethweni kweemveliso zentengiso ze-aspartame njenge "ndlela yokutya" okanye izixhobo zokunciphisa umzimba. Ngo-2015, i-USRTK yacela i Federal Trade Commission kwaye FDA ukuphanda intengiso kunye nentengiso yeemveliso "zokutya" eziqukethe ikhemikhali enxulunyaniswe nokuzuza kobunzima. Yabona iindaba ezinxulumene ukugubungela, Impendulo evela kwi-FTC, yaye impendulo evela kwi-FDA.

Isifo seswekile kunye nokuDanjiswa kweMetabolic

I-Aspartame yehla ngokwenxalenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa isenzo se-enzyme emathunjini e-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebonakaliswe ngaphambili ukuthintela isifo se-metabolic syndrome (iqela leempawu ezinxulunyaniswa nohlobo lwesibini lweswekile kunye nesifo sentliziyo) ngokutsho ko-2 I-Physiology esetyenzisiweyo, isondlo kunye neMetabolism. Kolu phononongo, iimpuku ezifumana i-aspartame emanzini okusela ziye zafumana ubunzima ngakumbi kwaye zaphuhlisa ezinye iimpawu zesifo se-metabolic syndrome kunezilwanyana ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Uphononongo luqukumbela ngelithi, "Iziphumo zokhuselo ze-IAP ngokubhekisele kwisifo se-metabolic syndrome zinokuthintelwa yi-phenylalanine, imetabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbi ichaza ukungabikho kwethamo lokunciphisa ubunzima kunye nokuphuculwa kokutya okunxulumene neziselo zokutya."29

Abantu abahlala besitya iilekese ezingezizo ezomngcipheko basemngciphekweni omkhulu wokufumana ubunzima obuninzi, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lweswekile sesifo seswekile, kunye nesifo sentliziyo, ngokutsho kovavanyo lwe-2 yePurdue ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-2013 epapashwe Iindlela eziqhubekayo kwi-Endocrinology kunye neMetabolism.30

Kwisifundo esilandele abafazi abangama-66,118 ngaphezulu kweminyaka eli-14, zombini iziselo ezineswekile kunye neziselo ezinencasa ezinxulumene nobungozi zinxulunyaniswa nomngcipheko wohlobo lwe-2 lweswekile. Iimpawu eziqinisekileyo zomngcipheko we-T2D umngcipheko ziye zaqwalaselwa kuzo zonke ii-quartiles ze ukuselwa kwezi ntlobo zombini zesiselo… Akukho mbutho waqwalaselwayo nge-100% yokusetyenziswa kweziqhamo, ”luchaze uphando lwango-2013 olupapashwe ngo I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition.31

I-Dysbiosis yangaphakathi, ukuDanjiswa kweMetabolic kunye nokuTyeba kakhulu

Izinto zokuthambisa ezingezizo ezenziweyo zinokubangela ukunganyamezelani kweswekile ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokwe-a Uphononongo luka-2014 kwiNdalo. Abaphandi babhale, "iziphumo zethu zidibanisa ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS [non-caloric sweetener], ukusetyenziswa kwesifo se-dysbiosis kunye nokungaqheleki kokutya emzimbeni, ngokwenza njalo kucelwa ukuba kuphononongwe ukusetyenziswa kwe-NAS enkulu… Iziphumo zethu zibonisa ukuba i-NAS inokuba negalelo elithe ngqo ekwandiseni ubhubhane [ukutyeba] ukuba bona bebenzelwe ukulwa. ”32

  • Bona kwakho: “Izinto ezenza iincumfisi ezingezizo ezenziweyo zingatshintsha i-Gut Bacteria kwiindlela ezinobungozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, Inzululwazi yaseMelika (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwe-2016 I-Physiology esetyenzisiweyo Isondlo kunye neMetabolism uxele, "Ukutya kwe-Aspartame kube nefuthe elibalulekileyo kunxibelelwano phakathi kwesalathiso somzimba (BMI) kunye nokunyamezelana kweswekile ... ukusetyenziswa kwe-aspartame kunxulunyaniswa nokukhubazeka okunxulumene nokukhuluphala ekunyamezelweni kweswekile."33

Ngokwe-2014 rat rat kwi I-PLOS ONE, "I-aspartame inyuse amanqanaba eswekile yokuzila kunye novavanyo lokunyamezelwa kwe-insulin ibonakalise i-aspartame ukuphazamisa ukulahlwa kwe-glucose ekhuthazwa yi-insulin ...34

 Ukungaqhelekanga kokukhulelwa: Ukuzalwa ngaphambi kwexesha 

Ngokophando lwamaqela angama-2010 aseDanish akhulelweyo I-American Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition, "Kwakukho umanyano phakathi kokutya iziselo ezihlwahlwazayo ezingezizo ezekhaboni kunye nomngcipheko owandayo wokuhanjiswa kwangaphambi kwexesha." Olu pho nonongo luqukumbele ngelithi, “Ukutya yonke imihla iziselo ezinencasa ezinencasa kungandisa umngcipheko wokuziswa kwangaphambi kokuzalwa.”35

  • Bona kwakho: "Ukutya ukutya okwexeshana kubotshwe ukuzalwa ngaphambi kwexesha," ngu-Anne Harding, Reuters (7.23.2010)

Ukutyeba ngokugqithiseleyo abantwana

Ukusetyenziswa kwesiselo esenziwe ngobumnandi ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunxulunyaniswa nesalathiso sobunzima bomzimba kwiintsana, ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2016 JAMA Pediatrics. "Kulwazi lwethu, sinika ubungqina bokuqala bomntu ukuba ukusetyenziswa koomama ngeeswiti ezingezizo ngexesha lokukhulelwa kunokuba nefuthe kwi-BMI yabantwana," babhala abaphandi.36

  • Bona kwakho: "Ukutya okuneSoda ekukhulelweni kunxulunyaniswa neentsana eziTyebileyo," nguNicholas Bakalar, INew York Times (5.11.2016)

Ukuya esikhathini ekuqaleni

Ukukhula kweSizwe seNtliziyo, iMiphunga, kunye neGazi kwiZiko lezeMpilo kulandele amantombazana e-1988 iminyaka eli-10 ukuvavanya ubudlelwane obunokubakho phakathi kokusetyenziswa kweswekile ene-caffeine kunye ne-noncaffeine- kunye neziselo ezinencasa ezenziwe ngobumnandi kunye nokuya exesheni kwangoko. "Ukusetyenziswa kweziselo ezihlwahlwazayo ezine-caffeine kunye neziswiti bekudityaniswa ngokuqinisekileyo nomngcipheko wokuba sexesheni kwangoko kwiqela laseMelika lamantombazana ase-Afrika aseMelika nawaseCaucasus," uqukumbele uphando olwapapashwa ngo-2015 Ijenali yeAmerican Clinical Nutrition.37

Ukonakala kwesidoda

"Ukwehla okubonakalayo ekusebenzeni kwesidoda sezilwanyana eziphathwa nge-aspartame kwajongwa xa kuthelekiswa nolawulo kunye nolawulo lweMTX," ngokophando olwenziwe ngo-2017 kwi International Journal of Impotence Research. "... Ezi zinto zifunyanisiweyo zibonisa ukuba i-aspartame metabolites inokuba negalelo kuphuhliso loxinzelelo lwe-oxidative kwisidoda se-epididymal."38

Ukonakala kwesibindi kunye nokupheliswa kweGlutathione

Isifundo sempuku esapapashwa ngo-2017 I-Redox Biology uxele, "Ukulawulwa okungapheliyo kwe-aspartame ... kubangele ukonzakala kwesibindi kunye nokuhla okuphawulweyo kwamanqanaba okunciphisa i-glutathione, i-glutathione ene-oxidized, i-γ-glutamylcysteine, kunye ne-metabolites eninzi ye-trans-sulphuration pathway ..."39

Uphononongo lweempuku olupapashwe kwi-2017 kwi Uphando lweZondlo Ndafumanisa ukuba, “Ukutya into engadibaniyo nesiselo esinxilisayo okanye i-aspartame ebangelwe kakhulu yi-hyperglycemia kunye ne-hypertriacylglycerolemia…. Ezi datha zicebisa ukuba ukusela ixesha elide kwisiselo esinxilisayo okanye umonakalo we-aspartame owenziwe nge-hepatic unokulawulwa kukungeniswa kwe-hyperglycemia, ukuqokelelwa kwe-lipid, kunye noxinzelelo lwe-oxidative ngokubandakanyeka kwe-adipocytokines. ”40

Isilumkiso kuBemi abaKhuselekileyo

Uphengululo loncwadi olwenziwe ngo-2016 kwizithambisi ezingezizo kwifayile Ijenali yeIndiya yezeTekhnoloji Kuxelwe, "akukho kungangqinelani ubungqina bokuxhasa uninzi losetyenziso lwabo kunye nolunye uphononongo lwakutsha nje luye lwabonisa ukuba ezi zibonelelo zisungulwe ngaphambili ... Abantu abakhoyo njengabafazi abakhulelweyo nabancancisayo, abantwana, abanesifo seswekile, migraine, kunye nabagulayo "kufuneka bazisebenzise ngononophelo olukhulu."41

Imizamo yeShishini PR kunye namaQela aPhambili 

Ukusukela ekuqaleni, i-GD Searle (kamva iMonsanto kunye neNkampani yeNutraSweet) basebenzise amaqhinga e-PR abukhali kwintengiso ye-aspartame njengemveliso ekhuselekileyo. Ngo-Okthobha u-1987, uGregory Gordon ixelwe kwi-UPI:

“INutraSweet Co. ikwahlawule ukuya kuthi ga kwi-3 yezigidi zeedola ngonyaka kumzamo wobudlelwane noluntu ngabantu abali-100 ziiofisi zaseChicago eBurson Marsteller, owayesakuba ngumqeshwa wenkampani ye-PR eNew York. Umqeshwa uthe uBurson Marsteller uqeshe oosonzululwazi kunye noogqirha abaninzi, uhlala eyi- $ 1,000 ngemini, ukukhusela iswiti kudliwanondlebe nemithombo yeendaba nakwezinye iiforamu zikarhulumente. UBurson Marsteller uyala ukuxoxa ngemicimbi enjalo. ”

Ingxelo yamva nje esekwe kumaxwebhu oshishino lwangaphakathi atyhila indlela iinkampani zotywala ezinje ngeCoca-Cola ezihlawula ngayo abathunywa besithathu, kubandakanya oogqirha kunye nososayensi, ukuba bathengise iimveliso zabo kwaye batshintshe ityala xa inzululwazi ibophelela iimveliso zabo kwiingxaki zempilo ezinzulu.

Jonga ukunika ingxelo ngo-Anahad O'Connor kwi ENew York Times, UCandice Choi kwi I-Press Associated, kunye neziphumo ezivela kwifayile ye- Uphando lwe-USRTK malunga nepropaganda yeshishini leswekile kunye namaphulo okuphembelela.

Amanqaku eendaba malunga nomkhankaso we-PR kwimizi-mveliso:

Amagqabantshintshi ngamabali eendaba malunga ne-aspartame:

Amaxwebhu eStTK eenyani

Iingxelo kumaQela aPhambili kunye namaPhulo e-PR

Iingqinisiso zeSayensi

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