Aspartame: Nā Makahiki Makahiki o ka ʻEpekema e hōʻike i nā olakino olakino koʻikoʻi

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Moʻolelo Lōʻihi o nā hopohopo
Nā ʻepekema ʻepekema nui ma Aspartame
ʻO nā hana PR ʻoihana
Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

Nā mea nui e pili ana i ka Diet Soda Chemical 

He aha ka Aspartame?

  • ʻO Aspartame ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni hoʻohana nui ʻia o ka honua. Kūʻai ʻia aku ʻo ia e like me NutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin a me AminoSweet.
  • Aia ʻo Aspartame ma mua o 6,000 huahana, me Diet Coke a me Diet Pepsi, Kool Aid, Crystal Light, Tango a me nā mea inu ʻono noʻeau ʻē aʻe; nā huahana Jell-O manuahi kō ʻole; Trident, Dentyne a me nā mana ʻē aʻe o ka gum-free sugar; nā candies ʻoʻoleʻa kō; nā mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a ʻaʻ ʻole kō e like me nā ketchup a me nā ʻaʻahu; nā kauka lāʻau a nā keiki, nā wikamina a me nā kulu hā.
  • ʻO Aspartame kahi kemika synthetic i haku ʻia o nā amino acid phenylalanine a me aspartic acid, me kahi ester methyl. Ke hoʻopau ʻia, haki ka methyl ester i methanol, a hiki ke hoʻolilo ʻia i formaldehyde.

Hāpai nā Kūkākūkā he mau makahiki e pili ana iā Aspartame

Ma muli o ka ʻae ʻia ʻana o aspartame ma 1974, ua hāpai nā ʻepekema ʻelua o ka FDA a me nā ʻepekema kūʻokoʻa i nā hopohopo e pili ana i nā hopena olakino hiki a me nā hemahema i ka ʻepekema i waiho ʻia i ka FDA e ka mea hana, ʻo GD Searle. (Ua kūʻai ʻo Monsanto iā Searle i ka makahiki 1984).

I ka 1987, ua paʻi ʻo UPI i kahi mau ʻatikala noiʻi na Gregory Gordon e hōʻike nei e pili ana i kēia mau hopohopo, e like me nā noiʻi mua e pili ana i ka aspartame i nā pilikia olakino, ka maikaʻi maikaʻi ʻole o ka noiʻi kālā i loaʻa i ka ʻoihana e alakaʻi ai i kāna ʻae ʻia, a me nā pilina pili puka ma waena o nā luna o FDA a me ka ʻoihana meaʻai. ʻO Gordon's series kahi waiwai nui no kēlā me kēia e ʻimi nei e hoʻomaopopo i ka mōʻaukala o aspartame / NutraSweet:

Flaws i ka loiloi ʻana o ka Mana Maluhia o ʻEulopa

Ma Iulai 2019 pepa ma ka Waihona Palapala Ola, ua hāʻawi nā kānaka noiʻi ma ke Kulanui o Sussex i kahi anamanaʻo kikoʻī o ka loiloi palekana EFSA's 2013 o aspartame a ua ʻike ʻia ua hōʻemi ʻia ka panela me he mea lā ʻaʻole hiki ke hilinaʻi ʻia i kēlā me kēia 73 o nā haʻawina i hōʻike i ka ʻino, a hoʻohana i nā pae lax ʻoi aku ka maikaʻi e ʻae he 84% kūpono o nā noi ʻaʻole i loaʻa kahi hōʻike o ka hōʻino. "Hāʻawi ʻia i nā hemahema o kā EFSA hōʻike loiloi weliweli o ka aspartame, a me nā hemahema o nā loiloi kūpilikiʻi kūpilikiʻi kūlohelohe mua o aspartame, he mea maʻa mau loa ka hoʻopau ʻana e ʻae ʻia ka palekana," hoʻopau ʻia ke aʻo ʻana.

ike Ka pane a EFSA a me ka ukali e nā mea noiʻi ʻo Erik Paul Millstone lāua ʻo Elizabeth Dawson i ka waihona o ka Health Public, No ke aha i hoʻoliʻiliʻi ai ʻo EFSA i kāna ADI no aspartame a paipai paha e hoʻohana hou ʻole ʻia kāna hoʻohana? Hōʻike hou:

  • "Pono e pāpā ʻia nā mea hoʻonaninani kaulana loa o ka honua, i ʻōlelo ʻia e nā loea. Ua kāhea nā mea loea palekana i ka meaʻai no ka mea hoʻonani ʻimi hoʻopunipuni i hoʻohana nui ʻia, aspartame, e pāpā ʻia ma UK a me nā nīnau no ke aha i manaʻo ʻia he ʻoluʻolu ia i ka mua. Nūpepa Mea Hou Meaʻai (11.11.2020) 
  • "'E kāpae ʻia ke kūʻai aku ʻana o aspartame': hoʻopiʻi ʻia ʻo EFSA no ka bias i ka loiloi palekana," na Katy Askew, Mea Hoʻokele Meaʻai (7.27.2019)

Nā hopena olakino a me nā noi nui ma Aspartame 

ʻOiai nā noiʻi he nui, ua kākoʻo kekahi o lākou ʻoihana, ʻaʻohe pilikia me ka aspartame, he nui o nā noiʻi kūʻokoʻa i mālama ʻia i loko o nā makahiki he nui i hoʻopili i ka aspartame i kahi papa inoa lōʻihi o nā pilikia olakino, e like me:

Cancer

I loko o ka noiʻi maʻi ʻaʻai piha loa i kēia lā ma aspartame, ʻekolu mau aʻo ola i mālama ʻia e ka Cesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center o ka Ramazzini Institute, hāʻawi mau i ka hōʻike o ka carcinogenicity i nā rodents i hōʻike ʻia i ka lāʻau.

  • ʻO Aspartame "kahi māhoe carcinogenic multipotential, ʻoiai ma kahi o kēlā me kēia lā o ka… ʻoi aku ka liʻiliʻi ma mua o ka lawe ʻia o kēlā me kēia lā," e like me ka 2006 i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka ʻiole ola i Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.1
  • Ua loaʻa kahi noiʻi ukali i ka makahiki 2007 i ka piʻi ʻana o ka maʻi maʻi i loko o kekahi o nā ʻiole. "Nā hualoaʻa ... hōʻoia a hoʻokūpaʻa i ka hōʻike hoʻokolohua mua loa o ka [aspartame] multipotential carcinogenicity ma kahi pae ma kahi kokoke i ka ʻai o kēlā me kēia lā no nā kānaka ... ke hoʻomaka ke ola ʻana i ke ola i ka wā o ke fetal life, ua hoʻonui ʻia nā hopena carcinogenic," i kākau nā mea noiʻi. i loko o Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.2
  • ʻO nā hopena o kahi noiʻi ola 2010 "e hōʻoia i ka [aspartame] kahi mea hana carcinogenic i nā pūnaewele he nui i nā rodents, a ua hoʻokomo ʻia kēia hopena i nā ʻano ʻelua, nā ʻiole (kāne a wahine) a me nāʻiole (kāne)," i hōʻike ʻia e ka poʻe noiʻi. Ka Nupepa ʻAmelika o ka Lapaʻau Hana.3

Ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi Harvard ma 2012 i kahi hui maikaʻi ma waena o ka lawe ʻana o aspartame a me ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka pilikia o ka lymphoma non-Hodgkin a me nā myeloma he nui i nā kāne, a no ka leukemia i nā kāne a me nā wahine. ʻO nā hopena "mālama i ka hopena o kahi hopena maikaʻi ʻole ... ma nā maʻi ʻūlū koho" akā "ʻaʻole e ʻae i ka hoʻoholo ʻana ma waho o kahi manawa he wehewehe," i kākau nā mea noiʻi i ka Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.4

I loko o kahi manaʻo 2014 i Ka Nupepa ʻAmelika o ka Lapaʻau Hana, ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi ʻo Maltoni Center i nā noiʻi i waiho ʻia e GD Searle no ka ʻae ʻia o ka mākeke “ʻaʻole e hāʻawi i ke kākoʻo ʻepekema kūpono no ka palekana [aspartame]. I ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana, nā hopena hou o ke ola ʻana o ke ola kino olaola i nāʻiole a me nāʻiole i paʻi ʻia i loko o nā puke pai i nānā ʻia e nā hoa, a me kahi noiʻi epidemiological e hiki mai ana, e hāʻawi i nā hōʻike kūpaʻa o ka hiki i ka carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ma ke kumu o nā hōʻike e pili ana i nā hopena carcinogenic kūpono… a me ka loiloi hou ʻana i ke kūlana o nā keʻena hoʻonohonoho kūwaho e pono ai e noʻonoʻo ʻia he mea nui o ke olakino lehulehu. "5

Brain hikoko

I ka makahiki 1996, ua hōʻike nā kānaka noiʻi i ka Ka Nupepa o Neuropathology & Neurology Hoʻokolohua ma nā hōʻike epidemiological e pili ana i ka hoʻolauna ʻana o aspartame i ka hoʻonui ʻana i kahi ʻano kūpikipiki o nā tumors lolo malignant. "Hoʻohālikelike ʻia i nā kumuwaiwai ʻē aʻe e pili pili ana i nā tumors lolo, ʻo ka aspartame mea hoʻonaninani he moho hoʻohiki e wehewehe i ka piʻi hou ʻana o ka hanana a me ke ʻano o ka maʻi ʻōpū o ka lolo.6

  • Ua haʻi ʻia e Neuros Scientist ʻo Kauka John Olney, ka mea kākau o ke aʻo ʻana 60 mau minuke i ka makahiki 1996: "Ua nui ka piʻi ʻana o ka hanana o nā puʻuwai lolo malignant (i loko o ʻekolu a ʻelima mau makahiki ma hope o ka ʻae ʻia o ka aspartame) ... lawa pono ke kumu e manaʻo ai i ka aspartame e pono e hōʻoia hou ʻia. Pono ʻo FDA e hoʻoponopono hou iā ia, a i kēia manawa, pono e hana ʻo FDA. ”

Ua loaʻa nā ʻike mua i ka aspartame i nā makahiki 1970 i ka ʻike o nā tumors lolo i loko o nā holoholona laboratory, akā ʻo kēlā mau noiʻi ʻaʻole i ukali ʻia.

ʻO ka maʻi Cardiovascular 

A 2017 meta-analysis o ka noiʻi ʻana e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana, i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka PepaʻAiā Leka o ka Huilepaʻiʻo Canada, ʻaʻohe hōʻike maopopo e pili ana i nā pono pohō kaumaha no nā mea hoʻonaninani hoʻowalewale i nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia, a ua hōʻike ʻia e pili ana nā loiloi cohort i nā mea ʻono hana me ka "hoʻonui i ke kaupaona a me ka pūhaka, a me nā hanana kiʻekiʻe o ka momona, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes a me ka maʻi puʻuwai hanana. ”7 E nānā i kekahi:

  • "ʻAʻole kōkua nā mea hoʻonanea i ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi kaumaha a alakaʻi ʻia i ka loaʻa ʻana o nā paona," na Catherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "No ke aha i inu ai kahi mea maʻi puʻuwai i kāna sodaʻai hope loa," na Harlan Krumholz, Puka Puka Puka (9.14.2017)
  • "Makemake kēia cardiologist i kona ʻohana e ʻokiʻoki i ka sodaʻai. E pono anei i kāu? na David Becker, MD, Philly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 He pepa 2016 ma Physiology & Hana ua hōʻike ʻia, "aia kahi hui like ʻana ma waena o nā hopena mai ka noiʻi holoholona a me nā helu nui o ka nānā ʻana i nā wā lōʻihi i nā kānaka, i ka loaʻa ʻana o ka hoʻonui nui ʻana o ke kaupaona, adiposity, incidence of obesity, cardiometabolic risk, a me ka make paha ma waena o nā kānaka me ka maʻi mau, hōʻike i kēlā me kēia lā i nā mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa calorie haʻahaʻa - a pīhoihoi kēia mau hopena. "8

ʻO nā wahine i ʻai i nā mea inu iʻoi aku ma mua o ʻelua mau inu inu i kēlā me kēia lā "ua ʻoi aku ka nui o ka hopena o ka hanana [maʻi maʻi maʻi] ... Ka Buke Helu o ke Olakino Lapaʻau Launa.9

Hahau, Dementia a ʻO ka maʻi o Alzheimer

ʻO ka poʻe e inu nei i ka soda ʻai i kēlā me kēia lā ʻaneʻane ʻekolu mau manawa e hoʻomohala i ka hahau a me ka dementia e like me ka poʻe i ʻai ia pule i kēlā me kēia pule a ʻoi iki paha. Ua komo kēia i kahi kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻi ischemic stroke, kahi i ʻauʻa ʻia ai nā kīʻaha koko i loko o ka lolo, a ʻo Alzheimer ka maʻi dementia, ke ʻano maʻamau o ka dementia, i hōʻike ʻia 2017 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma Stroke.10

  • E nānā i kekahi: Ke Kula Kaiapuni Kula Nui o Boston o ke aʻo ʻana e ka neurologist ʻo Matthew Pase, "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana i kēlā me kēia lā ʻo Sodas, nā wai huaʻai a me nā Sodas sweetening ʻona e hoʻopili i ka lolo."
  • "Loulou nā loulou i ka sodaʻai i mea e ʻoi aku ai ke kiʻekiʻe o ka maʻi ahulau, dementia," na Fred Barbash, ʻO Washington Post (4.21.2017)

I ke kino, ka methyl ester i aspartame metabolize i loko metanola a laila hiki ke hoʻohuli ʻia i formaldehyde, i pili i ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer. Ua aʻo ʻia kahi ʻaoʻao ʻelua i ka makahiki 2014 i ka Ka Nūpepa o ka maʻiʻo Alzheimer hoʻohui i ka methanol mau loa i ka nalowale hoʻomanaʻo ʻana a me nā ʻōuli o ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer i nāʻiole a me nā mōʻī.

  • "Ua hōʻike ʻia nā ʻiole ʻai like ʻole me ka ethanol [M] me nā ʻōuli AD-like… Ua hoʻohui kēia mau mea i ka nui o nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka formaldehyde i ka maʻi o [Alzheimer] maʻi." (Part 1)11
  • "ʻO ka hānai ʻana o ka etanol ka mea i hana i nā hoʻololi kūlohelohe lōʻihi a hoʻomau e pili ana i ka maʻi o [Alzheimer]… Kākoʻo kēia mau hopena i kahi kino e ulu nei i nā hōʻike e pili ana i ka methanol a me kāna metabolite formaldehyde i [ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer]." (Part 2)12

Ka hopu

"Aspartame ʻike ʻia e hoʻonui i ka nui o ka nalu ʻo EEG spike i nā keiki me ka hopu ʻole ʻia. Pono e aʻo hou e hoʻokumu inā loaʻa kēia hopena ma nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa a me nā ʻano hopu ʻē aʻe, "e like me kahi noiʻi 1992 i ʻO ke olakino.13

ʻO Aspartame "kahi hana e hāpai ana i ka hopu ʻana i nā hiʻohiʻona holoholona i hoʻohana ākea ʻia e ʻike ai i nā mea hoʻohui e pili ana… ka hopena hopu," e like me kahi noi 1987 i Nā Manaʻo Ola Ola.14

ʻO nā mahele aspartame kiʻekiʻe loa "hiki paha ke hoʻopili i ka likelike o ka hopu ʻana i ka simptomless akā maʻalahi ka poʻe," e like me kahi noiʻi 1985 i ʻO ka Lancet. Hoʻomaopopo ka noiʻi i ʻekolu mau mākua olakino olakino i loaʻa i ka maʻi nui i nā wā ke hoʻopau lākou i nā kaona kiʻekiʻe o ka aspartame.15

ʻO Neurotoxicity, Pōʻino lolo a me nā maʻi Mood

Ua hoʻopili ʻia ʻo Aspartame i nā pilikia pili i ka lawena a me ka noʻonoʻo me ka pilikia o ke aʻo ʻana, ka ʻeha poʻo, ka hopu ʻana, ka migraines, nā ʻano huhū, ka pīhoihoi, ke kaumaha, a me ka hiamoe ʻole, ua kākau nā mea noiʻi o kahi noi 2017 ma ʻO Neuroscience Nutritional. "Pono e hoʻokokoke me ka akahele ma muli o ka hoʻohana ʻana o ka aspartame ma muli o nā hopena e hiki ai i ke olakino neurobeh behavioral."16

"Ua hoʻololi maoli ka aspartame waha i ka lawena, kūlana anti-oxidant a me morphology o ka hippocampus i nāʻiole; no paha, hoʻonāukiuki paha ia i ka neurogenesis mākua hippocampal, "i hōʻike ʻia i kahi noi 2016 ma ʻO Neurobiology o ke aʻo ʻana a me ka hoʻomanaʻo.17 

"Ma mua, ua hōʻike ʻia hiki i ka ʻai ʻana o aspartame ke hana i nā haunaele neurological a me nā lawena i nā poʻe pilikino. ʻO nā poʻo poʻo, ka hiamoe a me ka hopu ʻana kekahi o nā hopena neurological i loaʻa, "e like me kahi noi 2008 i ka ʻO ka European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. "Hāʻawi ʻia [W] i ke komo ʻana o ka ingartartame ingests i loko o ke pathogenesis o kekahi mau maʻi noʻonoʻo ... a i loko nō hoʻi o ka aʻo ʻana a me ka hana naʻau."18 

"(N) nā hōʻailona Eurological, me ke aʻo ʻana a me nā kaʻina hana hoʻomanaʻo, pili paha i ka kiʻekiʻe a i ʻole nā ​​mea ʻawaʻawa o ka mea hoʻomomona [aspartame] metabolites," i ʻōlelo ʻia kahi noiʻi 2006 i ʻĀina noiʻi lāʻau.19

"Hiki iā Aspartame ke hoʻopōʻino i ka paʻa ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo a hōʻino hoʻi i nā neurons hypothalamic i nāʻiole mākua," e like me kahi noiʻi mice 2000 i paʻi ʻia ma Nā Palapala Toxicology.20

"(I) ʻike nā makaʻāina me nā maʻi maʻi i ʻano koʻikoʻi loa i kēia mea hoʻoheheʻe ʻino a me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kēia heluna kanaka e pono e hoʻonāwaliwali," e like me kahi noi 1993 i ka Ka Nūpepa o ka Psychiatry Biological.21

ʻO nā lāʻau kiʻekiʻe o ka aspartame "hiki ke hana i nā hoʻololi neurochemical nui i nāʻiole," i hōʻike ʻia kahi noi ma 1984 i Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.22

Ua hōʻike nā hoʻokolohua i ka hōʻino o ka lolo i nāʻiole pēpē ma hope o ka waha o ka aspartate, a e hōʻike ana he "ʻawaʻawa ka aspartate i ka ʻiole pēpē ma nā haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa o ka lawe ʻana o ka waha," i hōʻike ʻia kahi noiʻi ma 1970. Nature.23

He wāwae a me Migraines

"ʻO Aspartame, kahi mea hoʻowalewale dietetic, e hoʻonāukiuki paha i ka ʻeha o ke poʻo i kekahi mau kanaka maʻalahi. Ma aneʻi, wehewehe mākou i ʻekolu mau hihia o nā wahine ʻōpio me ka migraine i hōʻike i ko lākou ʻeha poʻo i hiki ke hoʻonāukiuki ʻia e ka nau ʻana i ka kāpili kō ʻole i loaʻa ka aspartame, "e like me ka pepa 1997 i Puke Pai Headache.24

ʻO kahi hoʻokolokolo hoʻokalakupua e hoʻohālikelike ana i ka aspartame a me kahi placebo i paʻi ʻia ma 1994 i ʻO ke olakino, "Hāʻawi i nā hōʻike i, i waena o nā kānaka me nā maʻi poʻo ponoʻī i hōʻike ʻia iā lākou iho ma hope o ke komo ʻana o ka aspartame, kahi subset o kēia hui e hōʻike hou aku i nā poʻo hina ke hoʻāʻo ʻia ma lalo o nā kūlana i kāohi ʻia. ʻIke ʻia e maʻalahi paha kekahi poʻe i ka maʻi poʻo i hoʻokumu ʻia e aspartame a makemake paha e kaupalena i kā lākou ʻai ʻana. "25

ʻO kahi ana ʻana o nā mea maʻi he 171 ma ka Hale Mīkini Lapaʻau Lapaʻau ʻo Montefiore i ʻike ʻia ʻo ka poʻe maʻi me ka migraine “ua hōʻike ʻia ka aspartame ma ke ʻano he piʻi ʻekolu manawa ʻoi aku ka nui ma mua o nā ʻano ʻeha ʻeha ʻē aʻe ... ”1989 hoʻopaʻa haʻawina ma Puke Pai Headache.26

Hoʻohālikelike kahi hoʻokolokolo kūlike e hoʻohālikelike ana i ka aspartame a me kahi placebo ma ke alapine a me ka ikaika o ka migraines. Puke Pai Headache.27

Hoʻoiho i nā hana hōʻino

ʻO ka ʻai ʻana ma mua o ʻelua mau lawelawe i kēlā me kēia lā o ka soda momona i hoʻopili ʻia "e pili ana me ka hoʻonui pālua he 2 no ka emi ʻana o ka hana hakuʻala ma nā wahine," e like me kahi noi 2011 i ka Ka Nūpepa Lapaʻau o ʻAmelika Hui Pū ʻIa o Nephrology.28

Loaʻa Kālā, Hoʻonui i ka Appetite a me nā pilikia e pili ana i ka nui

Loulou kekahi mau noiʻi i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona, hoʻonui i ka makemake, diabetes, derabement metabolic a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona. E ʻike i kā mākou pepa ʻoiaʻiʻo: ʻO ka Diet Soda Chemical i hoʻopili ʻia i ke Kaumaha.

Ke hoʻopili nei kēia ʻepekema i ka aspartame i ke kaupaona ʻana a me nā maʻi e pili ana i ka momona e hāpai i nā nīnau e pili ana i ke kūpono o ke kūʻai ʻana i nā huahana aspartame-i loaʻa he "ʻai" a i ʻole kōkua kōkua kaumaha. I ka makahiki 2015, ua noi ʻo USRTK i ka FederalʻIliahi Komikina a FDA e nānā i nā hana kūʻai aku a me nā hoʻolaha ʻana o nā huahana "ʻai" i loaʻa kahi kemika i hoʻopili ʻia i ka loaʻa kaumaha. E ʻike nūhou pili uhi, pane mai FTC, a pane mai FDA.

Diabetes a me ka Metabolic Derangement

Wāwahi ʻo Aspartame i kahi ʻāpana i ka phenylalanine, kahi mea hoʻopilikia i ka hana o ka enzyme ʻōpū alkaline phosphatase (IAP) i hōʻike mua ʻia e pale aku ai i ka maʻi metabolic (kahi hui o nā ʻōuli e pili ana i ka maʻi diabetes type 2 a me ka maʻi maʻi maʻi) e like me kahi noi ma 2017 i Pili ʻOihana Pilikino, Nutr a me Metabolism. I kēia noi ʻana, ua loaʻa nā ʻiole i loaʻa i ka aspartame i kā lākou wai inu i ka nui o ke kaupaona a hoʻomohala i nā ʻōuli ʻē aʻe o ka metabolic syndrome ma mua o nā holoholona i hānai ʻia i nā papaʻai like nele i ka aspartame. Hoʻopau ke aʻo ʻana, "ʻo nā hopena pale IAP e pili ana i ka maʻi metabolic e pāpā ʻia e phenylalanine, kahi metabolite o aspartame, e wehewehe ana paha i ka nele o ke kaupaona ʻana i manaʻo ʻia a me nā hoʻomaikaʻi metabolic e pili ana i nā mea inu."29

ʻO ka poʻe e ʻai mau ana i nā mea ʻono hana hoʻopunipuni i ka makaʻu nui o ka "loaʻa nui o ke kaupaona ʻana, ka maʻi metabolic, ʻano diabetes he 2, a me nā maʻi puʻuwai," e like me ka loiloi 2013 Purdue ma kahi o 40 mau makahiki i paʻi ʻia ma Nā hana i Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

I loko o kahi noiʻi i ukali ʻia ma hope o 66,118 mau wahine ma mua o 14 mau makahiki, ua pili nā mea inu kō a me nā mea inu ʻono i hana ʻia me ka pilikia o ka maʻi diabetes Type 2. "Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hana maikaʻi maikaʻi ma ka hopena T2D ma waena o nā quartiles o ka hoʻohana ʻana no nā ʻano mea inu ʻelua ... ʻAʻole i ʻike ʻia kahi hui no 100% inu wai huaʻai, ”i hōʻike ʻia ma ka noi 2013 i paʻi ʻia ma Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali.31

ʻO Intestinal Dysbiosis, Metabolic Derangement a me ka momona

Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani hiki ke hoʻoulu i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o glucose ma o ka hoʻololi ʻana i ka microbiota ʻōpū, e like me a Ke aʻo 2014 ma ʻAno. Ua kākau nā kānaka noiʻi, "pili kā mākou hopena i ka ʻai ʻana o NAS [non-calorical sweetener] ʻai, dysbiosis a me nā mea pono ʻole o ka metabolic, no laila ke noi nei e hoʻoponopono hou ʻia ka hoʻohana nui ʻana o NAS ... Hōʻike kā mākou mea i loaʻa ua kōkua pololei ʻo NAS i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka maʻi kūpilikiʻi [momona] ua manaʻo ʻia lākou e hakakā. ”32

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "Hiki i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻoniʻoni ke hoʻololi i kā mākou bacteria i nā ala weliweli," na Ellen Ruppel Shell, ʻAmelika ʻEpekema (4.1.2015)

Ke aʻo 'ia nei he 2016 Nā Nūhou Physiology i noi ʻia a me ka Metabolism ua hōʻike ʻia, "Ua hoʻohuli nui ka loaʻa ʻana o Aspartame i ka pilina ma waena o ka helu nui o ke kino (BMI) a me ke ahonui glucose ... ʻo ka ʻai ʻana o ka aspartame e pili pū me nā hōʻino e pili ana i ka momona ma ka hoʻomanawanui ʻana o ka glucose."33

Wahi a kahi moʻo ʻiole 2014 ma PLOS ONE, "Ua hoʻokiʻekiʻe ka aspartame i nā pae kō glucose a me kahi hoʻowalewale hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i hōʻike iā aspartame e hōʻino i ka haʻalele ʻana o ka glucose stimulate i ka insulin ... Ua hōʻike ka nānā ʻana i ka fecal o ka haku mele bacteria i ka aspartame e hoʻonui i ka nui o nā koʻohune…"34

 Nā Abnormalities o ka hāpaiʻana: hānau mua o ka wā hānau 

Wahi a kahi hui pūʻulu 2010 o 59,334 Denemaka wahine hāpai i paʻi ʻia i loko o ka Ka NupepaʻAmelika Hui Pūʻali, "Aia kahi hui ma waena o ka lawe ʻana i nā mea inu momona a me nā wai ʻole noncarbonated a me ka hoʻonui ʻia o ka makaʻi o ka lawe mua ʻana." Ua pau ke aʻo ʻana, "ʻO ka lawe ʻana i kēlā me kēia lā o nā mea inu momona momona i hoʻonui ʻia ka makaʻu o ka lawe mua ʻana."35

  • E nānā hoʻi: "Downing Diet Soda i hoʻopaʻa ʻia i ka hānau mua ʻole," na Anne Harding, Reuters (7.23.2010)

ʻO nā pēpē momona

Hoʻopili ʻia ka inu mea inu me ka mea inu i ka wā o ka hāpai ʻana i ka papa inoa nui o ke kino no nā pēpē, e like me kahi noi 2016 i Nā Jedia Pediatrics. "I ko mākou ʻike, hāʻawi mākou i ka hōʻike kanaka mua loa i ka ʻai ʻana o ka makuahine i nā mea hoʻonaninani i ka wā hāpai e hoʻohuli i ka BMI pēpē," i kākau ai nā mea noiʻi.36

  • E nānā pū kekahi: "ʻO Diet Soda i ka hāpai ʻana e pili ana i nā pēpē momona," na Nicholas Bakalar, New York Times (5.11.2016)

ʻO Menarche mua

ʻO ka National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study i ukali i nā kaikamahine 1988 no 10 mau makahiki e nānā i nā hui e kū nei ma waena o ka ʻai ʻana o ke kō a me nā kō ʻole i caffeine ʻia - a me nā mea inu momona a me nā menarche mua. "ʻO ka ʻai ʻana o nā mea inu momona momona caffeine a ʻoluʻolu hoʻi e pili pono me ka makaʻu o nā menarche mua i kahi cohort o ʻAmelika ʻAmelika a me nā kaikamahine Caucasian," i pau i ka noi i paʻi ʻia ma 2015 i Ka Nūpepa o ka ʻAi Lapaʻau ʻAmelika.37

Pōʻino Sperm

"Ua ʻike ʻia kahi hōʻemi nui o ka hana spermame o nā holoholona i mālama ʻia aspartame ke hoʻohālikelike ʻia me ka kaohi a me ka MTX kaohi," e like me kahi noi 2017 i ka Ka Palapala'Ōiwi Aupuni o kaʻIke. "… Hōʻike kēia mau hopena i hiki i nā metabolite aspartame ke lilo i mea kōkua no ka hoʻomohala ʻana i ke koʻikoʻi oxidative i ka epididymal sperm."38

ʻO ka hōʻino a me ka make ʻana o Glutathione

Ua paʻi ʻia kahi noi iole ma 2017 ma ʻO Biology Redox ua hōʻike ʻia, "ʻO ka lawelawe pinepine ʻana o aspartame… ua hōʻeha ʻia ka ate a me ka hoʻoliʻiliʻi ʻia o nā pae hepatic o ka glutathione i hoʻemi ʻia, glutathione oxidized, γ-glutamylcysteine, a me ka hapa nui o nā metabolites o ke ala trans-sulphuration ..."39

Ua paʻi ʻia kahi noi iole ma 2017 ma Nānāʻau Nutrition ʻike ʻia, "Loaʻa i ka inu inu a aspartame paha i hyperglycemia a me hypertriacylglycerolemia… Ua ʻike ʻia kekahi mau hoʻololi cytoarchitecture i ke akepaʻa, e like me ka hoʻohaʻahaʻa, infiltration, nekrosis, a me fibrosis, me ka aspartame. Hōʻike kēia mau ʻike i ka lawe lōʻihi ʻana o ka inu momona a i ʻole aspartame-i hoʻokomo ʻia i ka hōʻino hepatic ma o ka hoʻokomo ʻana i ka hyperglycemia, ka hōʻiliʻili lipid, a me ke koʻikoʻi oxidative me ke komo pū ʻana o adipocytokines. "40

Ka akahele no nā heluna kanaka maʻalahi

He hōʻike moʻokalaleo 2016 e pili ana i nā mea ʻono hana kuʻi i ka ʻO India Journal of Pharmacology ua hōʻike ʻia, “aia kekahi manaʻo paʻa ʻole nā hōʻike e kākoʻo i ka hapa nui o kā lākou hoʻohana a me kekahi mau noiʻi hou ʻana e hōʻike nei i kēia mau pōmaikaʻi i hoʻokumu mua ʻia ... ʻaʻole paha ia he ʻoiaʻiʻo. " ʻO nā heluna kūpono e like me nā wahine hāpai a lactating, nā keiki, nā diabetic, migraine, a me nā mea maʻi epilepsy "pono ​​e hoʻohana i kēia huahana me ke akahele loa."41

ʻO nā hana PR ʻoihana a me nā pūʻulu mua 

Mai ka hoʻomaka, GD Searle (ma hope ʻo Monsanto a me ka NutraSweet Company) hoʻolauna i nā hana PR mehana e kūʻai aku i ka aspartame ma ke ʻano he huahana palekana. I ʻOkakopa 1987, Gregory Gordon i hōʻike ʻia ma UPI:

"Ua uku aku ka NutraSweet Co. a $ 3 miliona i kēlā me kēia makahiki no ka hana 100-kanaka i nā pilina lehulehu e nā keʻena ʻo Chicago o Burson Marsteller, kahi limahana o ka New York PR firm i ʻōlelo ai. Ua ʻōlelo ka limahana ua hoʻolimalima ʻo Burson Marsteller i nā ʻepekema a me nā kauka he nui, he $ 1,000 mau i kēlā me kēia lā, e pale aku i ka mea momona ma nā nīnauele nūhou a me nā kolamu lehulehu. Ua hōʻole ʻo Burson Marsteller e kūkākūkā i kēia mau mea. ”

Hōʻike nā hōʻike hou e pili ana i nā palapala ʻoihana kūloko e hōʻike ana i ka uku ʻana o nā ʻoihana inu e like me Coca-Cola i nā ʻelele o ka ʻaoʻao ʻekolu, e like me nā kauka a me nā ʻepekema, e paipai i kā lākou huahana a hoʻololi i ka hewa ke hoʻopaʻa nā ʻepekema i kā lākou huahana i nā pilikia olakino koʻikoʻi.

E ʻike i ka hōʻike a Anahad O'Connor i ka New York Times, Candice Choi i ka hui pu Press, a me nā mea i loaʻa mai ka Nānā ʻo USRTK e pili ana i ka hoʻolaha ʻoihana kō a me nā hoʻolaha lobbying.

Nā ʻatikala nūhou e pili ana i nā pāʻina PR ʻoihana soda:

Nā moʻolelo kūkala nūhou e pili ana i aspartame:

Nā Pepa Pono ʻo USRTK

Nā hōʻike ma nā pūʻulu mua a me nā hoʻolaha PR

Nā Manaʻo ʻepekema

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[2] Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Tibaldi E, Esposti DD, Lauriola M. "ʻO ke ola ākea i nā lāʻau haʻahaʻa o ka aspartame e hoʻomaka ana i ke ola prenatal e hoʻonui i nā hopena maʻi ʻaʻai i nāʻiole." ʻIke Ola ʻOhana. 2007 Sep; 115 (9): 1293-7. PMID: 17805418. (Haawina)

[3] Soffritti M et al. "Hoʻokele ʻia ʻo Aspartame i ka hānai, hoʻomaka prenatally ma o ke ola, hoʻonāukiuki i nā maʻi ʻaʻai o ke akepaʻa a me ka akemāmā i nā ʻiole Swiss kāne." ʻO Am J Ind Med. 2010 Kekemapa; 53 (12): 1197-206. PMID: 20886530. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[4] ʻO Schernhammer ES, Bertrand KA, Birmann BM, Sampson L, Willett WC, Feskanich D., "Kaʻai ʻana i nā mea hoʻonaninani ʻono - a me ka soda i loaʻa i ke kō a me ka makaʻu o ka lymphoma a me ka leukemia i nā kāne a me nā wahine." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Dec; 96 (6): 1419-28. PMID: 23097267. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[5] Soffritti M1, Padovani M, Tibaldi E, Falcioni L, Manservisi F, Belpoggi F., "Nā hopena carcinogenic o ka aspartame: Ka pono nui no ka loiloi hou ʻana i ka hoʻokele." ʻO Am J Ind Med. 2014 ʻAropa; 57 (4): 383-97. hana: 10.1002 / ajim.22296. Epub 2014 Ian 16. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[6] Olney JW, Farber NB, Spitznagel E, Robins LN. "Ke hoʻonui nei i nā helu tumo lolo: aia kekahi loulou i aspartame?" ʻO J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1996 Nov; 55 (11): 1115-23. PMID: 8939194. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[7] Azad, Meghan B., et al. Nā meaʻono nonnutritive a me ke olakino cardiometabolic: kahi loiloi ʻōnaehana a me nā aniani-aniani o nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua kaulike ʻia a me nā noi cohort prospective. KEKAHI Lulai 17, 2017 mahuka ana. 189 ʻaʻole. 28 doi: 10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[8] ʻO Fowler SP. Hoʻohana ka mea hoʻohaʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa-calorie a me ke kaulike ikehu: Nā hopena mai nā hoʻokolohua hoʻokolohua i nā holoholona, ​​a me nā noiʻi prospective nui i nā kānaka. ʻO Physiol Behav. 2016 ʻOkakopa 1; 164 (Pt B): 517-23. hana: 10.1016 / j.physbeh.2016.04.047. Epub 2016 Apr 26. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[9] Vyas A et al. "Ka inu inu ʻana i ka papaʻai a me ka hopena o nā hanana Cardiovascular: kahi hōʻike mai ka Initiative Health Women." J Gen Intern Med. 2015 ʻApel; 30 (4): 462-8. hana: 10.1007 / s11606-014-3098-0. Epub 2014 Dec 17. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[10] ʻO Matthew P. Pase, PhD; ʻO Jayandra J. Himali, PhD; Alexa S. Beiser, PhD; Hugo J. Aparicio, MD; ʻO Claudia L. Satizabal, PhD; Ramachandran S. Vasan, MD; Sudha Seshadri, MD; Paul F. Jacques, DSc. "ʻO nā mea inu kō a me nā mea ʻono i hana ʻono ʻia a me nā pōʻino o ka maʻi ahulau a me Dementia. Ka Haʻawina Cohort Prospective. ” Hahau. 2017 ʻApelila; STROKEAHA.116.016027 (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[11] Yang M et al. "ʻO ka maʻi o Alzheimer a me ka ʻino o ka methanol (ʻāpana 1): ʻO ka hānai ʻana o ka methanol mau loa i alakaʻi ʻia i nā hemahema hoʻomanaʻo a me ka Tau Hyperphosphorylation ma nāʻiole." ʻO J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Apr 30. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[12] Yang M et al. "ʻO ka maʻi ʻo Alzheimer a me ka ʻino o Methanol (ʻĀpana 2): Nā haʻawina mai ʻehā Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) ʻo Fed Methanol mau." ʻO J Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Apr 30. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[13] Camfield PR, Camfield CS, Dooley JM, Gordon K, Jollymore S, Weaver DF. "Hoʻonui ka Aspartame i ka EEG spike-nalu hoʻokuʻu i nā keiki me ka epilepsy absent generalised: kahi papa hoʻomalu makapō makapō." Neurology. 1992 Mei; 42 (5): 1000-3. PMID: 1579221. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[14] Maher TJ, Wurtman RJ. "Nā hopena neurologic paha o aspartame, kahi mea hoʻohui meaʻai i hoʻohana ākea ʻia." ʻIke Ola ʻOhana. 1987 Nov; 75: 53-7. PMID: 3319565. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[15] Wurtman RJ. "Aspartame: hiki i ka hopena o ka hopu ʻana i ka susceptibility." Lancet. 1985 Nov 9; 2 (8463): 1060. PMID: 2865529. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[16] Choudhary AK, Lee YY. "Nā hōʻailona Neurophysiological a me aspartame: He aha ka pilina?" Nutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 15: 1-11. hana: 10.1080 / 1028415X.2017.1288340. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[17] Onaolapo AY, Onaolapo OJ, Nwoha PU. "Aspartame a me ka hippocampus: Hōʻike i kahi alakaʻi bi-directional, dose / dependant a me ka neʻe ʻana o ka morphological i nāʻiole." Neurobiol Koʻo Mem. 2017 Mar; 139: 76-88. hana: 10.1016 / j.nlm.2016.12.021. Epub 2016 Dec 31. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[18] ʻO Humphries P, Pretorius E, Naudé H. "Nā hopena a pololei ʻole o nā cellular o ka aspartame ma ka lolo." ʻO Eur J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr; 62 (4): 451-62. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[19] Tsakiris S, Giannoulia-Karantana A, Simintzi I, Schulpis KH. "Ka hopena o nā metabolite aspartame i ka hana acetylcholinesterase membrane erythrocyte kanaka." ʻO Pharmacol Res. 2006 Ian; 53 (1): 1-5. PMID: 16129618. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[20] Pāka CH mā. "Hoʻopilikia ka glutamate a me ka aspartate i ka paʻa ʻana o ka hoʻomanaʻo a hōʻino hoʻi i nā neurons hypothalamic i nāʻiole mākua." ʻO Toxicol Lett. 2000 Mei 19; 115 (2): 117-25. PMID: 10802387. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[21] Walton RG, Hudak R, Green-Waite R. "Nā hopena maikaʻi ʻole i ka aspartame: ʻaʻa makapō makapō makapō i nā mea maʻi mai kahi lāhui nawaliwali." ʻO J. Biol Psychiatry. 1993 Jul 1-15; 34 (1-2): 13-7. PMID: 8373935. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[22] Yokogoshi H, Roberts CH, Caballero B, Wurtman RJ. "Nā hopena o ka aspartame a me ka hoʻokele glucose i ka pae o ka lolo a me ka plasma o nā amino acid kūlike ʻole a me ka lolo 5-hydroxyindoles." ʻO Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Jul; 40 (1): 1-7. PMID: 6204522. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[23] Olney JW, Ho OL. "Ka poino o ka lolo ma nāʻiole pēpē e pili ana i ka waha o ka Glutamate, Aspartate a i ʻole Cysteine." Kūlohelohe. 1970 Aug 8; 227 (5258): 609-11. PMID: 5464249. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

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[25] Van den Eeden SK, Koepsell TD, Longstreth WT Jr, van Belle G, Daling JR, McKnight B. "Hoʻokomo ʻia ka aspartame a me nā poʻo hina: kahi hoʻāʻo crossover randomized." Neurology. 1994ʻOkakopa; 44 (10): 1787-93. PMID: 7936222. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

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[27] Koehler SM, Glaros A. "ʻO ka hopena o ka aspartame i ka maʻi migraine." ʻEha poʻo. 1988 Pepeluali; 28 (1): 10-4. PMID: 3277925. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo)

[28] ʻO Julie Lin lāua ʻo Gary C. Curhan. "ʻO nā hui o ke kō a me ka Soda ʻoluʻolu ʻimi hoʻopunipuni me Albuminuria a me nā hana hakuʻala e hōʻole i nā wahine." ʻO Clin J Am Soc Nefrol. 2011 Ian; 6 (1): 160-166. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[29] Gul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Hoʻohālikelike paha ka pāpā ʻana o ka ʻōpū ʻōpū i ka phalphasease alkal i loko o ka ʻōpū pehea e hāpai ai ka aspartame i ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o ka glucose a me ka momona i nāʻiole. ʻOihana Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017 Ian; 42 (1): 77-83. hana: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. Epub 2016 Nov 18. (Hōʻuluʻulu Manaʻo / Haawina)

[30] ʻO Susan E. Swithers, "Hoʻokumu nā mea ʻono hana i ka hopena counterintuitive o ka hoʻoulu ʻana i nā derabolic metabolic." ʻO Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431–441. (Haawina)

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