I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiQembu Lezimboni Zokudla

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) yinhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa yinkampani ezinze eWashington DC, enamahluko ayi-17 ahlangene emhlabeni jikelele. ILSI ichaza ngokwayo njengeqembu elenza “isayensi ukuze kuzuze umphakathi” futhi “lithuthukisa impilo nenhlalakahle yabantu futhi livikele imvelo.” Kodwa-ke, uphenyo olwenziwe yizifundiswa, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezintshisekelo zomphakathi lukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yiqembu lokungenela elivikela izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, hhayi impilo yomphakathi.

Izindaba zakamuva

  • ICoca-Cola inqamule ubuhlobo bayo besikhathi eside ne-ILSI. Lesi sinyathelo "sihlasela inhlangano enamandla yokudla eyaziwa ngocwaningo nezinqubomgomo zayo ezixhasa ushukela," I-Bloomberg ibike ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • ILSI isize iCoca-Cola Company ukubumba inqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, ngokusho kocwaningo lwangoSepthemba 2020 Ijenali Yezombusazwe Yezempilo, Inqubomgomo kanye Nomthetho nguProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphansi kokuxoxwa esidlangalaleni kwe-ILSI ngesayensi engachemile futhi kungekho nqubo yokugqugquzela inqubomgomo kubeka izingqinamba zezinkampani zeziteshi ezifihliwe ezisetshenziselwa ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zazo. Ukusebenza ngalezo ziteshi, uCoca Cola waba nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwesayensi nenqubomgomo eChina phakathi nazo zonke izigaba zenqubo-mgomo, kusukela ekubekeni izingqinamba ekubhaleni inqubomgomo esemthethweni, ”kuphetha leli phephandaba.

  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ingeza obunye ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla. UMeyi 2020 funda ku-Public Health Nutrition ngokuya ngemibhalo yembula “iphethini yomsebenzi lapho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukwethembeka kososayensi nezifundiswa ukuqinisa izikhundla ezimbonini kanye nokukhuthaza okuqukethwe okusungulwe umkhakha emihlanganweni yayo, emaphephandabeni nakweminye imisebenzi.” Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yokudla neziphuzo ifuna ukuthonya ososayensi nezifundiswa, kukhonjiswa ngama-imeyili  (5.22.20)

  • Umbiko Wokuziphendulela Kwenkampani wango-Ephreli 2020 ihlola ukuthi izinkampani zokudla neziphuzo zisebenzise kanjani i-ILSI ukungena ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee, kanye nenqubekela phambili ekhubazekile kunqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke. Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yezokudla neziphuzo ezinethonya eliningi kakhulu kunemihlahlandlela yokudla yaseMelika, kusho umbiko (4.24.20) 

  • Uphenyo lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs uveza ukuthi umphatheli we-ILSI ongenzi nzuzo oxhaswe yimboni weluleke uhulumeni waseNdiya ukuthi aqhubeke ngokuletha amalebula okuxwayisa ngokudla okungenampilo. Izikhathi kuchazwe i-ILSI "njengeqembu lezimboni elinethunzi" futhi "njengeqembu elinamandla kakhulu embonini yokudla ongakaze uzwe ngalo." (9.16.19) IThe Times icaphune a Isifundo sikaJuni ku-Globalization and Health obhalwe ngokuhlanganyela nguGary Ruskin we-US Right to Know ebika ukuthi i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokwamukela abaxhasi bayo bezimboni zokudla kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

  • The I-New York Times yembula izibopho ze-ILSI ezingadalulwanga zikaBradley C. Johnston, ongumbhali-mbumbulu wezifundo ezinhlanu zakamuva ezithi inyama ebomvu nocubunguliwe azilethi izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo. UJohnston usebenzise izindlela ezifanayo ocwaningweni oluxhaswe yi-ILSI ukufuna ushukela akuyona inkinga. (10.4.19)

  • Ibhulogi Yezombusazwe Yezokudla kaMarion Nestle, ILSI: kuvezwe imibala yangempela (10.3.19)

ILSI izibophezela neCoca-Cola 

ILSI yasungulwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayeyiphini likamongameli omkhulu eCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke kusuka ngo-1969-2001. UCoca-Cola ugcine ubuhlobo obuseduze ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-VP kaCoca-Cola yezindaba zomhlaba zesayensi nezomthetho kusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI kusukela ngonyaka ka-2009-2011. Ngo 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI kwakunguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlalaphansi emsebenzini wakhe njengesikhulu esiphezulu seCoca-Cola sezempilo kanye nesayensi (futhi kusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 ngemuva kwe- New York Times futhi Associated Press ibike ukuthi uCoke uxhase i-Global Energy Balance Network engenzi nzuzo ukusiza ukususa icala lokukhuluphala kude neziphuzo ezinoshukela.  

Uxhaso lwezinkampani 

ILSI ixhaswe yiyo amalungu ezinkampani nabasekeli benkampani, kufaka phakathi izinkampani ezihola phambili zokudla nezamakhemikhali. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuthi ithola uxhaso embonini kodwa ayivezi obala ukuthi ngubani onikelayo noma unikela malini. Ucwaningo lwethu lwembula:

  • Iminikelo yebhizinisi ku-ILSI Global okufika ku- $ 2.4 million ngo-2012. Lokhu kwafaka ama- $ 528,500 kwaCropLife International, umnikelo ongu- $ 500,000 ovela eMonsanto kanye no- $ 163,500 waseCoca-Cola.
  • A kubhalwa intela ye-ILSI yango-2013 kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ithole u- $ 337,000 kusuka kwaCoca-Cola futhi ngaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 lilinye lisuka eMonsanto, Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience neBASF.
  • A okusalungiswa ukubuyiswa kwentela kwe-ILSI yonyaka we-2016 ikhombisa umnikelo ongu- $ 317,827 ovela kwaPepsiCo, iminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 200,000 evela kwaMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, neminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 evela kwaGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Isobho le-Uniliver neCampbell.  

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ifuna ukuthonya kanjani inqubomgomo yokukhuthaza imibono yezimboni 

A Ucwaningo lwangoMeyi 2020 ku-Public Health Nutrition ungeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha wezokudla. Ucwaningo, olususelwa emibhalweni etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso zamarekhodi womphakathi, lwembula ukuthi i-ILSI izikhuthaza kanjani izintshisekelo zezimboni zokudla nezolimo, kufaka phakathi iqhaza le-ILSI ekuvikeleni izithako zokudla eziyimpikiswano nokucindezela imibono engathandeki embonini; ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neCoca-Cola zingabeka iminikelo ku-ILSI ezinhlelweni ezithile; futhi, nokuthi i-ILSI izisebenzisa kanjani izifundiswa ngegunya labo kepha ivumela imboni ithonya elifihliwe ezincwadini zabo.

Ucwaningo luphinde lwembule imininingwane emisha yokuthi yiziphi izinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI namagatsha ayo, ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi eminikelweni ebhalwe phansi evela ezinkampanini ezihola phambili zokudla okungenamsoco, isoda namakhemikhali.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 ku-Globalization and Health inikeza izibonelo eziningana zokuthi i-ILSI izithuthukisa kanjani izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, ikakhulukazi ngokukhuthaza isayensi nezimboni ezisebenzisana nomkhakha kubenzi bezinqubomgomo. Ucwaningo lususelwa kwimibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngemithetho yamarekhodi womphakathi.  

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “ILSI ifuna ukuthonya abantu, izikhundla nenqubomgomo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe omhlaba, futhi amalungu ayo ezinkampani ayisebenzisa njengethuluzi lokuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zawo emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuhlaziywa kwethu kwe-ILSI kuyisixwayiso kulabo ababambe iqhaza ekuphathweni kwezempilo emhlabeni wonke ukuthi bawaqaphele amaqembu ocwaningo azimele, futhi benze ngokuzimisela ngaphambi kokuthembela ezifundweni zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kanye / noma ukuzibandakanya ebudlelwaneni nalawo maqembu. ”   

I-ILSI ibukele phansi impi yokukhuluphala eChina

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabili ngo UProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh iveze ithonya elinamandla le-ILSI kuhulumeni waseChina ezindabeni eziphathelene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abhala ukuthi uCoca-Cola nezinye izinkampani basebenze kanjani egatsheni lase-China le-ILSI ukuthonya amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseChina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokudla ezifana nohlobo 2 sikashukela kanye nomfutho wegazi ophezulu. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kahle eChina kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwesikhungo sikahulumeni Sokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaSolwazi Geenhalgh abhala ukuthi iCoca-Cola nezinye iziqhwaga zaseNtshonalanga zokudla neziphuzo “zasiza kanjani ekulolongeni amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseShayina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala nezifo ezihlobene nokudla” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukuhlakulela izikhulu eziyinhloko zaseChina “ngomzamo wokuvimbela ukunyakaza okukhulayo kokulawulwa kokudla nentela yesoda ebilokhu ishanela entshonalanga, ”kubika i New York Times.  

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe lwezifundo oluvela e-US Right to Know mayelana ne-ILSI 

Isiphelile i-UCSF ye-UCSF Industry Documents Archive Imibhalo engama-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI.  

Ucwaningo lwe-ILSI lukashukela “luphume encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi”

Ochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi basola i-ILSI exhaswa ngemali isifundo sikashukela eshicilelwe ephephabhukwini lezokwelapha elivelele ngo-2016 lokho kwaba "ukuhlaselwa okunamandla kwezeluleko zezempilo zomhlaba wonke zokudla ushukela omncane," kubika u-Anahad O'Connor kuThe New York Times. Ucwaningo oluxhaswe yi-ILSI luthi izexwayiso zokusika ushukela zisekelwe ebufakazini obuthakathaka futhi azinakuthenjwa.  

Indaba ye-Times icaphune uMarion Nestle, uprofesa waseNew York University ocwaninga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekucwaningweni kokudla, ocwaningweni lwe-ILSI: "Lokhu kuphuma ngqo encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi: kubeka ukungabaza ngesayensi," kusho uNestle. “Lesi yisibonelo sakudala sokuthi ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kukhetha imibono. Kuyihlazo. ” 

Izinkampani zikagwayi zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuvimba inqubomgomo 

Umbiko wangoJulayi 2000 wekomidi elizimele leWorld Health Organisation uveze izindlela eziningi imboni kagwayi ezame ngayo ukubukela phansi imizamo ye-WHO yokulawula ugwayi, kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa amaqembu esayensi ukuthonya izinqumo ze-WHO nokusebenzisa impikiswano yesayensi ezungeze imiphumela yezempilo. kagwayi. I-ILSI ibambe iqhaza elibalulekile kule mizamo, ngokusho kocwaningo lwe-ILSI oluhambisana nombiko. "Okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yayisetshenziswa izinkampani ezithile zikagwayi ukuvimbela izinqubomgomo zokulawulwa kukagwayi. Abaphathi abasezikhundleni eziphezulu ku-ILSI babambe iqhaza ngqo kulezi zenzo, ”ngokusho kocwaningo lwamacala. Bona: 

Isigcini Semibhalo Yezimboni Zogwayi i-UCSF sine ngaphezu kwemibhalo eyizi-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI

Abaholi be-ILSI basize ukuvikela i-glyphosate njengezihlalo zephaneli ebalulekile 

NgoMeyi 2016, i-ILSI yahlolisiswa ngemuva kwezambulo zokuthi iphini likamongameli we-ILSI Europe, uSolwazi Alan Boobis, futhi wayengusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elathola ikhemikhali likaMonsanto glyphosate bekungenakwenzeka ukuthi kube nomdlavuza ngokudla. Usihlalo obambisene we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uSolwazi Angelo Moretto, wayeyilungu lebhodi le-ILSI's Health and Environment Services Institute. Azikho izihlalo ze-JMPR ezimemezele izindima zazo zobuholi be-ILSI njengezingxabano zentshisekelo, yize iminikelo ebalulekile yezezimali ILSI eyitholile kusuka eMonsanto kanye neqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwano obuhle be-ILSI ezikhungweni zase-US Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo e-US  

Ngo-Juni 2016, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi uDkt.Barbara Bowman, umqondisi wecandelo leCDC elibhekene nokuvimbela isifo senhliziyo nesifo sohlangothi, wazama ukusiza umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nomthelela kwizikhulu zeWorld Health Organisation ukuthi zihlehlise izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa koshukela. UBowman uphakamise abantu namaqembu ukuthi iMalaspina ikhulume nabo, futhi wacela ukuphawula kwakhe ngokufingqiwe kweminye imibiko ye-CDC, ama-imeyili akhombisa. (UBowman wehla ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwendatshana yethu yokuqala ibika ngalezi zibopho.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 funda eMilbank Quarterly ichaza ama-imeyili abalulekile eMalaspina ahlangana noDkt. Bowman. Ukuze uthole ukubikwa okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona: 

Ithonya le-ILSI ekomidini Lokweluleka Lemihlahlandlela Yokudla yase-US

umbiko weqembu elingenzi nzuzo Ukuziphendulela Kwebhizinisi ibhala ukuthi i-ILSI inethonya elikhulu kanjani kwimihlahlandlela yokudla yase-US ngokungena kwayo ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee. Umbiko uhlola ukugxambukela kwezepolitiki okusabalele kokudla neziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, nePepsiCo, nokuthi lezi zinkampani zisizakale kanjani i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inqubekelaphambili ngenqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke.

Ithonya le-ILSI eNdiya 

I-New York Times ibike ngethonya le-ILSI eNdiya esihlokweni sayo esithi, “I-Shadowy Industry Group Yakha Inqubomgomo Yokudla Emhlabeni Wonke. "

I-ILSI inobudlelwano obusondelene nezikhulu ezithile zikahulumeni waseNdiya futhi, njengaseChina, inhlangano engenzi inzuzo icindezele imiyalezo efanayo neziphakamiso zenqubomgomo njengeCoca-Cola - yehlisa iqhaza likashukela nokudla njengesizathu sokukhuluphala, futhi igqugquzela ukwanda kokuzivocavoca umzimba njengesixazululo , ngokusho kwe-India Resource Centre. 

Amalungu ebhodi labaphatheli be-ILSI India afaka phakathi umphathi we-Coca-Cola India wezomthetho kanye nabamele iNestlé ne-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyengeza ukudla, kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni ezisebenza kuma-panels esayensi anikezwe umsebenzi wokuthatha isinqumo ngezinkinga zokuphepha kokudla.  

Ukukhathazeka okude nge-ILSI 

I-ILSI igcizelela ukuthi akuyona iqembu lezimboni, kepha ukukhathazeka nezikhalazo kukude mayelana nezimo zeqembu ezisekela izimboni kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo kubaholi benhlangano. Bona, isibonelo:

Ukuxazulula amathonya embonini yokudla, Imithi Yemvelo (2019)

I-ejensi yokudla iyasiphika isimangalo sempikiswano. Kepha izinsolo zobudlelwano bezimboni zingangcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophu, Imvelo (2010)

Ukudla Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Impi Yokugcina, Gcina Ukuqina Kwezomthetho, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukudla Kwangempela Ekuvivinyweni, nguDkt Tim Noakes noMarika Sboros (Columbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukushushiswa nokushushiswa okungakaze kube khona kukaProfesa Tim Noakes, usosayensi nodokotela ovelele, ecaleni elalingaphezu kwezigidi zamarandi eladlula iminyaka engaphezu kwemine. Konke nge-tweet eyodwa enikeza umbono wakhe ngokudla okunempilo. ”