I-Bayer ibeka i-US Roundup, i-dicamba kunye ne-PCB yezimangalo ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi

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Kucoceko olubizayo lweMonsanto yezimangalo, u-Bayer AG uthe ngolwesiThathu uya kuhlawula ngaphezulu kwe- $ 10 yezigidigidi ukulungisa amashumi amawaka amabango e-US aziswe ngokuchasene neMonsanto ngenxa ye-Roundup herbicide, kunye ne- $ 400 yezigidi ukusombulula amatyala ngaphezulu kweMonsanto I-dicamba herbicide kunye ne- $ 650 yezigidi ze-PCB zamabango ongcoliseko.

Izigqibo kuza kwiminyaka emibini emva kokuba iBayer ithenge iMonsanto nge $ 63 yezigidigidi kwaye phantse kwangoko yabona amaxabiso ezabelo ehla ngenxa yetyala leRoundup.

U-Bayer ubhengeze ukuba uza kuhlawula i-10.1 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-10.9 yezigidigidi zeedola ukusombulula iipesenti ezingama-75 zamabango ngabantu abaqikelelwa kwi-125,000 abathi batyholwa ngababulali bokhula baseMonsanto's Roundup kubangele ukuba baphuhlise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Esi sivumelwano sibandakanya abamangali abagcinayo amagqwetha ngenjongo yokufaka isimangalo kodwa amatyala abo engekafakwa, utshilo uBayer. Ngaphakathi kuloo mali iyonke, ukuhlawulwa kwe- $ 8.8 yezigidigidi ukuya kwi-9.6 yezigidigidi kuya kusombulula isimangalo sangoku kwaye i-1.25 yezigidigidi ibekelwe bucala ukuxhasa isimangalo esinokubakho kwixesha elizayo, utshilo inkampani.

Abamangali ababandakanyiwe ekuhlawuleni abo batyikitywa kunye neefemu zomthetho ebezikhokele i-Roundup federal multi-district litigation (MDL) kwaye zibandakanya iMiller Firm yaseVirginia, Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman inkampani yaseLos Angeles kunye neAndrus Wagstaff firm waseDenver, eColorado.

"Emva kweminyaka yokulwa nzima kunye nonyaka wokulamla okunzulu ndiyavuya ukubona abaxumi bethu ngoku beza kubuyekezwa," utshilo uMike Miller, wefemu yezomthetho yaseMiller.

Inkampani yakwaMiller kunye neBaum Hedlund basebenze kunye ukuphumelela ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni, elalimi wase-California uDewayne “Lee” Johnson. U-Andrus Wagstaff uphumelele ityala lesibini kwaye iMiller Firm yaphumelela ityala lesithathu lokuya enkundleni. Lilonke, la matyala mathathu akhokelela kwizigwebo ze-jury ezingaphezulu kwe- $ 2.3 yezigidigidi, nangona iijaji zetyala kwityala ngalinye zathoba izigwebo.

Amajaji kuzo zontathu izilingo afumanisa ukuba i-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicides, enje ngeRoundup, yabangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kwaye iMonsanto yagubungela umngcipheko kwaye yahluleka ukulumkisa abasebenzisi.

Isigwebo ngasinye kwezi zithathu sihamba kwinkqubo yokubhena ngoku kwaye uBayer uthe abamangali kula matyala abafakwanga kulungiso.

U-Bayer uthe amabango e-Roundup exesha elizayo aya kuba yinxalenye yesivumelwano seklasi ngokuxhomekeke ekuvunyweni nguJaji Vince Chhabria weNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili saseMantla saseCalifornia, oyalele inkqubo yolamlo yonyaka wonke ekhokelele kulungiso.

Isivumelwano siza kuthatha nakuphi na ukufunyanwa kwexesha elizayo kumabango omhlaza ezandleni zamajaji, utshilo uBayer. Endaweni yoko, kuya kubakho ukuyilwa kwe "Class Science Panel" ezimeleyo. IPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi iya kugqiba ukuba ngaba i-Roundup inokubangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kwaye ukuba kunjalo, ngawaphi amanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa. Bobabini abamangali kwizenzo zeklasi kunye neBayer baya kubotshelelwa kukuzimisela kweCandelo lezeNzululwazi. Ukuba iPhaneli yeNzululwazi yeklasi igqiba ukuba akukho nxu lumano phakathi kwe-Roundup kunye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma emva koko amalungu eklasi aya kuthintelwa ekubangeleni ngenye indlela nakweyiphi na imbambano nxamnye neBayer.

U-Bayer uthe ukuzimisela kweClass Science Panel kulindeleke ukuba kuthathe iminyaka eliqela kwaye amalungu eklasi awayi kuvunyelwa ukuba aqhubeke namabango e-Roundup ngaphambi kokuzimisela. Kananjalo abanakho ukufuna ukohlwaywa, utshilo uBayer.

"Izivumelwano zeRoundup ™ ziyilelwe njengesisombululo esakhayo nesifanelekileyo kwisimangalo esingaqhelekanga, utshilo uKenneth R. Feinberg, umlamli owonyulwe yinkundla kwezi ntetho zokuhlala.

Nangona babhengeza ukuhlala, amagosa aseBayer aqhubeka nokukhanyela i-Monsanto's glyphosate herbicides ebangela umhlaza.

"Inzululwazi enkulu ibonisa ukuba iRoundup ayibangeli mhlaza, kwaye ke, ayinaxanduva lezigulo ekutyholwa ngazo," utshilo umphathi weBayer uWerner Baumann kwingxelo.

Isivumelwano seDicamba

U-Bayer ukwabhengeze isivumelwano se-tort tortoge, esichaphazela amabango amafama asebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides ephuhliswe yi-Monsanto kunye ne-BASF ukuba itshizwe kwizityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yi-Monsanto zibangele ukulahleka kwesityalo nokwenzakala.

Kwilingo elingasekuqaleni konyaka, iMonsanto kwathiwa makahlawule I-265 yezigidi zeedola kumlimi wepesika waseMissouri ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift kwigadi yakhe yeziqhamo.

Ngaphezu kwe-100 amanye amafama enze amabango afanayo asemthethweni. U-Bayer uthe uzakuhlawula ukuya kuthi ga kwi-400 yezigidi zeedola ukusombulula isimangalo se-dicamba esimi kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US kwi-Mpuma yeSithili sase-Missouri, kunye namabango eminyaka yezityalo ka-2015-2020. Abenzi bamabango baya kucelwa ukuba babonelele ubungqina bomonakalo kwizivuno zezityalo kunye nobungqina bokuba bekudalwe yicicamba ukuze kuqokelelwe. Inkampani ilindele igalelo kulowo ubambisene naye, i-BASF, kule ndawo yokuhlala.

Indawo yokuhlala iza kubonelela "ngezixhobo ezifuneka kakhulu kumafama" athe afumana ilahleko yezityalo ngenxa yokubaleka kwemichiza yokubulala iintsholongwane, utshilo igqwetha uJoseph Peiffer wenkampani yamagqwetha yasePeiffer Wolf, emele amafama amabango e-dicamba.

"Ukuhlala kubhengezwe namhlanje linyathelo elibalulekileyo lokwenza izinto zilunge kumafama afuna nje ukwazi ukubeka ukutya etafileni yaseMelika kunye nehlabathi," utshilo uPeiffer.

Kwangoko kulenyanga a Inkundla yomanyano igwebe ukuba i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho xa isamkela i-dicamba herbicides eyenziwe nguMonsanto, BASF kunye neCorteva Agriscience. Inkundla ifumanise ukuba i-EPA ayihoyanga umngcipheko womonakalo wedicamba.

Indawo yokuhlala yongcoliseko lwePCB

I-Bayer ikwabhengeze uthotho lwezivumelwano ezisombulula amatyala enkampani athi zimele ukubhencwa kwabo kumatyala abandakanya ukungcoliswa kwamanzi yi-PCBs, eyathi yenziwa yiMonsanto kwada kwangowe-1977. IiPCB. U-Bayer uthe uza kuhlawula i-650 yezigidi zeerandi kwiklasi, eya kuthi ixhomekeke kwinkundla.

Ukongeza, uBayer uthe ungene kwizivumelwano ezahlukileyo neeGqwetha Jikelele laseNew Mexico, Washington, kunye neSithili seColumbia ukusombulula amabango e-PCB. Kule mvumelwano, eyahluliweyo eklasini, iBayer iya kwenza intlawulo ngokupheleleyo malunga ne- $ 170 yezigidi.

U-Bayer uthe ukuphuma kwemali okuza kubakho akuyi kudlula i-5 yezigidigidi zeedola ngo-2020 kunye ne-5 yeebhiliyoni zeerandi ngo-2021 ngemali eseleyo eza kuhlawulwa ngo-2022 okanye kamva.

Amaphepha eDicamba: amaXwebhu aphambili noHlahlelo

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Amafama amaninzi ajikeleze i-United States amangalela i-Monsanto Co yangaphambili, ethengwe ngo-2018 ngu-Bayer AG, kunye ne-BASF ye-conglomerate kwiinzame zokwenza iinkampani ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wezityalo amafama athi kungenxa yokusetyenziswa ngokungekho mthethweni i ukhula lubulala ikhemikhali dicamba, Ukusetyenziswa okunyuswe ziinkampani.

Ityala lokuqala lokuya enkundleni lafaka phakathi iiFama zaseMissouri ezichaseneyo neenkampani kwaye kwaphumela kwisigwebo sezigidi ezingama-265 zeenkampani. Inkqubo ye- ijaji yanikezelwa $ 15 yezigidi kwimbuyekezo yomonakalo kunye ne- $ 250 yezigidi kumonakalo owohlwayayo.

Ityala lafakwa kwi Inkundla yeSithili sase-US kwiSithili seMpuma saseMissouri, kwiCandelo laseMpuma-mpuma, kwiDokhethi yaseKhaya # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanini beeFama zeBader batyhola ukuba iinkampani zenza iyelenqe lokwenza "intlekele yendalo" eya kuthi inyanzele amafama ukuba athenge iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba. Amaxwebhu aphambili kwityala anokufunyanwa ngezantsi.

IOfisi ye-EPA yoMhloli-Jikelele (i-OIG) uceba ukuphanda Ukuvunywa kwe-arhente ye-dicamba herbicides entsha ukumisela ukuba i-EPA iyayithobela na imimiselo yomdibaniso kunye "nemigaqo yesayensi efanelekileyo" xa ibhalisa i-dicamba herbicides.

Intshukumo yaseburhulumenteni

Ngokwahlukeneyo, nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences kunye ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo efuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Imibutho emininzi yasezifama ijoyine iCorteva, iBayer kunye ne-BASF ekuceleni inkundla ukuba inganyanzelisi ngokukhawuleza ukuthintelwa. Amaxwebhu afumaneka apha ngezantsi.

imvelaphi

I-Dicamba ibisoloko isetyenziswa ngamafama ukusukela ngee-1960s kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ukuthambeka kwemichiza ukukhukhumala kunye nokuhamba-hamba kude ukusuka apho wafafazwa khona. Xa iimveliso zokubulala ukhula ezithandwayo zeMonsanto, ezinje ngeRoundup, ziqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa iimbewu ezinyamezelayo ngeglyphosate kunye ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezeliyo yemfuza banokunyanga ngokulula ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nditsho nakwiinyanga ezikhulayo ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo. IMonsanto uxele intsebenziswano kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkela ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF iphuhlise eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IMonsanto yaqala ukuthengisa imbewu yayo enganyamezelekiyo nge-dicamba kwi-2016, kwaye ibango eliphambili labamangali kukuba ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunywa ngokusemthethweni kwe-dicamba herbicides kukhuthaze amafama ukuba atshize amasimi ngeendlela ezindala, ezinobunzima be-dicamba. Isimangalo esibi esithi: “Unobangela wentshabalalo kwizityalo zePlaintiffer Bader's yiMmangalelwa uMonsanto ukukhululwa ngabom nokungakhathali kwenkqubo yesityalo esineziphene - ezizezi iimbotyi zesoya iRoundup Ready 2 Xtend eguqulweyo kunye neBollgard II Xtend yembewu yomqhaphu (“ izilimo zeXtend ” - ngaphandle kokuhamba ne-dicamba herbicide.

Amafama athi iinkampani ziyazi kwaye zilindele ukuba imbewu entsha izakukhuthaza ukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukuhamba kuya konakalisa amasimi amafama angakhange ayithenge imbewu ye-dicamba eyinyamezelayo. Amafama atyhola ukuba oku kwakuyinxalenye yesikimu sokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ehambelana nemfuza yedicamba. Uninzi lutyhola ukwenziwa kwe-dicamba entsha ethengiswe ziinkampani nayo ikhukhumele kwaye ibangele ukonakala kwesityalo njengoko kwenziwe iinguqulelo ezindala.

Ngolwazi oluthe kratya malunga nedicamba, nceda ubone eyethu iphepha leenkcukacha ze-dicamba.

Amaqela ama-Big Ag athi inkundla ayinakuxelela i-EPA ukuba iyayivala nini i-dicamba

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Esona sigebenga sikhulu sika-Big Ag sixelele inkundla yomanyano ukuba mayingazami ukuyekisa amafama omqhaphu e-GMO kunye nabalimi beembotyi zesoya ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba ngokungekho mthethweni ukuphela kukaJulayi, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga wokuvalwa kwangoko.

Imibutho yesithandathu yezorhwebo yesizwe, yonke inamaqhina emali emide eMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani ezithengisa iimveliso ze-dicamba ekubhekiswa kuzo, zifake isikhalazo ngolwe-Lwesithathu kwiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba icela inkundla ukuba ingazami ukuphazamisa. ngesibhengezo se-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (EPA) sokuba amafama angaqhubeka nokusebenzisa iimveliso ze-dicamba nge-31 kaJulayi.

Baye bacela inkundla ukuba ingayibambi indelelo i-EPA njengoko kuceliwe ngamaqela aphumelele Nge-3 kaJuni umyalelo wenkundla ukukhupha isibhengezo.

"Abalimi beembotyi zesoya kunye nabomqhaphu baseMelika bangabeka emngciphekweni omkhulu xa bengathintelwa ekusebenziseni iiMveliso zeDicamba ngeli xesha lokukhula," itshilo ingxelo emfutshane efayilishwe yiAmerican Farm Bureau Federation, American Soybean Association, National Cotton Council of America, National Association of Wheat Growers, National Umbutho wabaLimi boMbona, kunye nabavelisi beSorghum baSizwe.

Ngokwahlukeneyo, i-CropLife America, i-lobbyist enefuthe kwishishini lezolimo, wafaka ingxelo emfutshane  isithi ifuna ukunika "Iinkcukacha eziLuncedo kwiNkundla." UCropLife uxele kwifayile ukuba inkundla ayinalo igunya malunga nendlela i-EPA eqhubeka ngayo ukurhoxisa ukusetyenziswa kweemveliso zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezifana nababulali bokhula lwe-dicamba.

Iintshukumo kodwa zezakutshanje kumnyhadala omangalisayo weziganeko ezilandele isigwebo seSithoba seSekethe, efumanise ukuba i-EPA yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso zedicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kunye neemveliso ezithengiswa yiBASF, kunye UDuPont, ophethwe nguCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yeenkampani, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka esichengeni kakhulu ubungozi" beemveliso eziya kumafama alima ezinye izityalo ngaphandle komqhaphu kunye ne-soy.

I-EPA ibonakala ngathi iyayilahla iodolo, nangona kunjalo, xa uxelele abalimi bekotoni kunye ne soy Banokuqhubeka nokutshiza iyeza lokubulala ukhula elichaphazelekayo ngoJulayi 31.

IZiko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS) kunye namanye amaqela athe athatha i-EPA enkundleni malunga nalo mbandela abuyela kwinkundla kwiveki ephelileyo, efuna ukuba isekethe ye-9 bamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla ngoku ithathela ingqalelo eso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA kunye neenkampani zezibulali zinambuzane zizamile ukudida umba kwaye zizama ukoyikisa iNkundla," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell, umlawuli wezomthetho weCFS kunye nommeli wabakhalazi. "Inkundla ibambe ukuba imveliso isebenzisa ukungekho mthethweni kwaye ubuqhetseba be-EPA abunakukutshintsha oko."

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza ezenziwa nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kulawo masimi ngamayeza okubulala ukhula e-dicamba enziwe iinkampani ezintathu. Izityalo ziyayinyamezela i-dicamba ngelixa ukhula lusifa.

Amaqela okuphembelela amafama athi kwisishwankathelo sabo ukuba izigidi ezingama-64 zeehektare zatyalwa ngembewu eyonyamezelayo dicamba ngeli xesha lonyaka. Bathe ukuba abo balimi abanakho ukutshiza amasimi abo ngeemveliso ze-dicamba baya kuba "bengazikhuselanga kukhula olumelana neminye imichiza yokubulala ukhula, ebangela
ezinokubakho iziphumo ezinokubakho kwimali ngenxa yelahleko yemveliso. ”

Xa iMonsanto, i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont / Corteva bakhupha i-dicamba herbicides kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo babanga ukuba iimveliso azizukuhamba zize ziye kumhlaba oselumelwaneni njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zezityalo ezingezonjineli zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba kwathiwa zonakalisiwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18, inkundla yomanyano yathi kwisigqibo sayo.

“Injongo ye-EPA kukukhusela impilo yoluntu kunye nokusingqongileyo…” utshilo uMongameli webhodi yeSizwe yoMbutho weFama yeeFama uJim Goodman. "Ukuwudelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungachazeki ngokucacileyo kunokungasihoyi kwabo isigwebo seNkundla yesithoba yeSibheno seZibheno sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu ze-dicamba ngokukhawuleza ukuthintela izigidi zeehektare zezityalo zamafama ukuba zingatshatyalaliswa."

NgoFebruwari, a Ijaji yaseMissouri iyalele I-Bayer kunye ne-BASF ukuhlawula umfama wepesika i-15 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo womonakalo we-dicamba kwizitiya zomlimi. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo

Iingxilimbela zamachiza ezothusayo zifuna indlela yokuvalwa kwenkundla ngababulali babo bokhula

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Bacaphula “imeko yongxamiseko,” izigebenga zemichiza i-BASF kunye ne-DuPont bacele inkundla yomanyano ukuba ibavumele ukuba bangenelele kwimeko apho inkundla ekuqaleni kwale nyanga yayalela ukuba i-dicamba herbicides ivalwe kwangoko kunye nemveliso ye-dicamba eyenziwe ngumnini-Monsanto uBayer AG .

Intshukumo yeenkampani zemichiza ilandela a Isigwebo se-3 kaJuni yiNkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba eyathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yaphule umthetho xa ivuma iimveliso ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF kunye neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkundla iyalele ukuvalwa kwangoko kokusetyenziswa kwemveliso nganye yenkampani ye-dicamba, ifumanisa ukuba i-EPA "ibubeka ecaleni ubungozi" bemithi yokubulala ukhula kwaye "isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela eminye imingcipheko."

I-EPA ukutyeshela loo myalelo, Nangona kunjalo, ukuxelela abalimi ukuba bangaqhubeka nokutshiza ngemichiza yokubulala ukhula ekuthethwa ngayo ukuphela kukaJulayi.

Umanyano lwamaqela asefama kunye nabathengi abathi ekuqaleni bafaka ityala ngokuchasene ne-EPA babuyele enkundleni kwiveki ephelileyo, ukucela umyalelo ongxamisekileyo ibambe i-EPA ngendelelo. Inkundla inike i-EPA kude kube sekupheleni kosuku Lwesibini, nge-16 kaJuni, ukuba iphendule.

Uqhushululu kwiLizwe laseFama

Umyalelo wokuthintela iimveliso ze-dicamba zeenkampani ubangele isiphithiphithi kwilizwe lasefama kuba abalimi abaninzi beembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu batyale izigidi zeehektare zezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe nguMonsanto ngenjongo yokunyanga ukhula kula masimi ngemithi ye-dicamba eyenziwe zezi zintathu. iinkampani.

"Inkqubo yesityalo se-dicamba" ibonelela amafama ukuba atyale amasimi abo ngezityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-dicamba, abanokuthi emva koko batshize "ngaphezulu-phezulu" ngombulali we-dicamba. Inkqubo ityebise iinkampani ezithengisa imbewu kunye neekhemikhali kwaye yanceda amafama ukuba akhule umqhaphu okhethekileyo wokunyamezela i-dicamba kunye ne-soy malunga nokhula olunenkani olunganyangekiyo kwimveliso ye-Roundup esekwe kwi-glyphosate.

Kodwa kwinani elikhulu lamafama angazityali izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza, ukusetyenziswa gabalala kwe-dicamba herbicides kuye kwathetha ukonakala kunye nelahleko yezityalo kuba i-dicamba ithambekele ekunyukeni nasekuhambeni kude apho inokubulala izityalo, imithi kunye namatyholo ayitshintshiswanga ngokwemfuza ukumelana nemichiza.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba drift. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla yomanyano yaphawula kwisigqibo sayo.

Amafama amaninzi ekuqaleni abhiyozela isigwebo senkundla kwaye bakhululeka ekubeni iifama zabo kunye neigadi zabo zingasindiswa kweli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba abaye bahlangabezana nawo ehlotyeni elingaphambili. Kodwa uncedo lwaluhlala ixesha elifutshane xa i-EPA isithi ayizukunyanzela kwangoko ukuthintelwa kwenkundla.

Kwifayile eyenziwe ngolwesiHlanu, I-BASF iyicenge inkundla ukunganyanzelisi ukuvalwa kwangoko kwaye uxelele inkundla ukuba iyakudinga ukuvala indawo yokuvelisa eBeaumont, eTexas, okwangoku "esebenza iiyure ezingama-24 ngosuku phantse ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" ukuba ayikwazi ukuvelisa uphawu lwayo lwe-dicamba olubizwa ngokuba Engenia. I-BASF ichithe i-370 yezigidi zeedola kule minyaka idlulileyo ukuphucula isityalo kwaye iqeshe abantu abayi-170 apho, utshilo inkampani.

Iphawula "utyalo-mali olubalulekileyo" kwimveliso yayo, i-BASF ikwatshele nenkundla ukuba yanele imveliso yayo okwangoku kuyo yonke "ijelo labathengi" lokunyanga ii-26.7 zezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu. I-BASF inezigidi ezongezelelekileyo ze- $ 44 yezigidi zeemveliso ze-Engenia dicamba, eyaneleyo yokunyanga ii-6.6 yezigidi zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu, utshilo inkampani.

UDuPont / uCorteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, ukuxelela inkundla ekufayeleni kwayo ukuba ukuvalwa "kuyonakalisa ngokuthe ngqo" inkampani "kunye nabalimi abaninzi kulo lonke eli lizwe eliphakathi kwexesha lokukhula." Iya konakalisa "igama" lenkampani ukuba ukubulala iyeza kuvaliwe, inkampani ixelele inkundla.

Ngaphaya koko, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukuvelisa "ingeniso ebalulekileyo" kwintengiso ye-dicamba herbicide, ebizwa ngokuba yiFeXapan kwaye iyakuphulukana naloo mali ukuba ukuvalwa kuyanyanzeliswa, utshilo inkampani.

IMonsanto yayisebenza kwimeko exhasa ukuvunywa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesigwebo, kodwa bobabini i-BASF kunye neDuPont baqinisekisa ngokungachanekanga ukuba ityala lenkundla lisebenza kuphela kwiimveliso zikaMonsanto hayi ezabo. Inkundla ikucacisile, nangona kunjalo, ukuba i-EPA yamkele ngokungekho mthethweni iimveliso ezenziwe zezi nkampani zontathu.

Ikhokelwe liZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, uxwebhu lwezikhalazo ngokuchasene ne-EPA lwaziswa ngumbutho weSizwe weFama yoMbutho, iZiko lokwahluka kweBioloji, kunye neNethiwekhi yokuSebenza kweZinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Xa ibuza inkundla ukuba ifumane i-EPA ngokudelela, iqumrhu liye lalumkisa ngomonakalo wezityalo oza kubakho ukuba iimveliso ze-dicamba azithintelwa kwangoko.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukutshizwa kwezigidi ezili-16 zeepiccic ze-dicamba kunye nomonakalo kwizigidi zeehektare, kunye nomngcipheko obonakalayo kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini," utshilo umdibaniso. Enye into isemngciphekweni nayo: umthetho. Inkundla kufuneka ithathe amanyathelo ukuthintela ukungabikho kobulungisa kwaye ixhase ukuthembeka kwenkqubo yokugweba. Ngenxa yokungahoywa ngokucacileyo kwe-EPA kwisigqibo seNkundla, abafaki-zikhalazo bayabongoza iNkundla ukuba iyidelele i-EPA. ”

Iphepha lokwenyani leDicamba

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iindaba zamva: I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaseMelika ubhengeze u-Okthobha 27 izakuvumela amafama ase-US ukuba aqhubeke nokutshiza izityalo nge-Bayer AG's weedkiller esetyenziswa kwi-dicamba-resistant GMO soybeans and cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla othintela ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkundla yezibheno yakugweba oko I-EPA “ibeka umngcipheko omkhulu” kubabulali bokhula lwe-dicamba. Amashumi amafama ajikeleze i-US amangalela iBayer (eyayisakuba yiMonsanto) kunye ne-BASF kumzamo wokubamba iinkampani ukuba ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wesityalo amafama athi zibangelwa kukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba. Sithumela amaxwebhu okufumanisa kunye nohlalutyo lwezilingo kuthi Iphepha leDicamba Papers.

isishwankathelo

Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) lubanzi olubanzi utywala okokuqala kubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-Dicamba ikwabhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa okungezizo ezolimo kwiindawo zokuhlala nakwezinye iindawo, ezinje ngegalufa apho isetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamagqabi abanzi anje ngeedandelions, ichickweed, i-clover kunye ne-ivy yomhlaba.

Ngaphezulu kweemveliso ezili-1,000 XNUMX ezithengiswa e-United States ezibandakanya i-dicamba, ngokwe-National Pesticide Information Centre Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-aginist ye-auxin: ivelisa ukukhula okungalawulekiyo okukhokelela kukufa kwezityalo.

Iingxaki zokusiNgqongileyo 

Iinguqu ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ukuba zihamba kude nalapho zisetyenziswe khona, kwaye zazingasetyenziswanga ngokubanzi ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo xa benokubulala izityalo okanye imithi.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkele ukubhaliswa kweefomula ezintsha ze-dicamba ngo-2016, nangona kunjalo, ivumela ukusetyenziswa ngokutsha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ekukhuleni kwezityalo zekotoni nezinyamezelayo zedicamba. Izazinzulu zilumkise ukuba ukusetyenziswa okutsha kuya kukhokelela kumonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ukusetyenziswa okutsha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuphuhliswa kokuchasana nokhula ngokubanzi kwi-glyphosate-based herbicides, kubandakanya uphawu oludumileyo lweRoundup, olwaziswa nguMonsanto kwii-1970s. Ngama-1990, iMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-glyphosate, yaze yakhuthaza abantu abadumileyo ukuba basebenzise iinkqubo zokulima “iRoundup Ready”. Abalimi banokutyala iMonsanto yemfuza eyinyamezelayo yemfuza eyinyamezelo lweglyphosate, umbona, umqhaphu kunye nezinye izityalo, emva koko bafafaze i-glyphosate herbicides efana neRoundup ngokuthe ngqo ngaphezulu kwezityalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Inkqubo yenza ukhula lula kubalimi njengoko benokutshiza imichiza ngqo kumasimi abo onke ngexesha lokukhula, kususa ukhula olwalukhuphisana nezityalo ukufuma kunye nezondlo zomhlaba.

Ukuthandwa kwenkqubo yeRoundup Ready kukhokelele kukonyuka kokhula, nangona kunjalo, kushiya amafama ngamasimi okhula oluqinileyo olungasayi kuphinda lufe xa lufafazwe ngeglyphosate.

Kwi-2011 iMonsanto yabhengeza ukuba i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Bethembele kwixesha elide kakhulu” kwaye wathi icwangcise ukusebenzisana ne-BASF kwaye iphuhlise inkqubo yokulima izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ezinokunyamezela ukutshizwa nge-dicamba. Yathi iyakwazisa uhlobo olutsha lwe-dicamba herbicide engayi kuhamba kude namasimi apho yafafazwa khona.

Ukusukela oko kwaziswa le nkqubo intsha, izikhalazo malunga nomonakalo we-dicamba ukwanda kwiindawo ezininzi zasezifama, kubandakanya nezikhulu zezikhalazo ezivela e-Illinois, e-Indiana, e-Iowa, eMissouri nase-Arkansas.

Kwingxelo yomhla ka-Novemba. 1, 2017, i-EPA yathi ifumene uphando malunga nokwenzakala kwezityalo ezingama-2,708 ezisemthethweni ezinxulumene nesicamba (njengoko kuchaziwe ngamasebe karhulumente wezolimo). Iarhente ithe zingaphezulu kwe-3.6 yezigidi iihektare zesoya ezichaphazelekileyo ngelo xesha. Ezinye izityalo ezichaphazelekileyo yayiziitumato, ivatala, icantaloupe, izidiliya, amathanga, imifuno, icuba, izitiya zokuhlala, imithi kunye namatyholo.

NgoJulayi 2017, iSebe lezoLimo laseMissouri lakhupha okwexeshana "ukuThengisa ukuThengisa, ukuSebenzisa okanye ukuSusa uMyalelo," kuzo zonke iimveliso ze-dicamba eMissouri. Urhulumente waphakamisa iodolo ngoSeptemba 2017.

Ezi ziimveliso zedicamba:

Nge-Okthobha 31, 2018, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US (i-EPA) yabhengeza ukongezwa kwe-Engenia, i-XtendiMax kunye ne-FeXapan yobhaliso nge-2020 yokusetyenziswa "ngaphezulu" kokusebenzisa indawo yecicamba enganyamezeliyo yomqhaphu kunye neembotyi zesoya. I-EPA ithe iphucule iilebheli zangaphambili kwaye yabeka ukhuselo olongezelelweyo kumzamo wokunyusa impumelelo kunye nokusetyenziswa okukhuselekileyo kwemveliso ebaleni.

Ubhaliso lweminyaka emibini lusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA ichaze la magatya alandelayo:

  • Abafaki zicelo abaqinisekisiweyo kuphela abanokufaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (abo basebenza phantsi kweliso lomenzi wesicelo oqinisekisiweyo abanakuphinda benze izicelo)
  • Ukuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kwiintsuku ezingama-45 emva kokutyala okanye ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokukhula le-R1 (intyatyambo yokuqala), nokuba yeyiphi eza kuqala
  • Thintela ngaphezulu kwesicelo se-dicamba kwi-cotton kwiintsuku ezingama-60 emva kokutyala
  • Kwikotoni, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu ukusuka kwezine ukuya kwezimbini
  • Kwiimbotyi zesoya, inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu lihlala kwisibini
  • Izicelo ziya kuvunyelwa kuphela ukusuka kwiyure enye emva kokuphuma kwelanga ukuya kwiiyure ezimbini phambi kokutshona kwelanga
  • Kwiindawo apho iintlobo zezilwanyana ezisemngciphekweni zinokubakho, i-downwind buffer iya kuhlala kwi-110 yeenyawo kwaye kuyakubakho i-buffer entsha yeenyawo ezingama-57 ezijikeleze amanye amacala endle (i-110-foot-downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izicelo, hayi kwiibalo kuphela apho Izilwanyana ezisengozini yokubakho)
  • Ukuphuculwa kwemiyalelo yetanki yokucoca yonke inkqubo
  • Ukuphuculwa kwelebheli yokuphucula ulwazi lokufaka isicelo kwifuthe le-pH esezantsi kwimeko yokungazinzi kwe-dicamba
  • Ukucocwa kwelebheli kunye nokungaguquguquki ukuphucula ukuthotyelwa nokunyanzeliswa

Inkundla yezibheno yase-US Isigqibo se-9 seSekethe 

Nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences. Inkundla ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo ukufuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokujongela phantsi i-EPA.

Iinkcukacha ezithe kratya zinokuba njalo ifunyenwe apha.

Intsalela yokutya 

Njengokuba izicelo ze-glyphosate kwimihlaba yeefama ziye zafunyanwa zishiya intsalela ye-glyphosate kunye nasekutyeni okugqityiweyo, njenge-oatmeal, isonka, iisiriyeli, njl., Iintsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuba zishiye intsalela ekutyeni. Amafama emveliso yawo ibingcoliswe ziintsalela ze-dicamba ngokusebenzisa i-drift bavakalise inkxalabo yokuba iimveliso zabo zinokukhatywa okanye zonzakaliswe ngorhwebo ngenxa yomcimbi wentsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amanqanaba okunyamezelana nedicamba ziinkozo ezininzi kunye nenyama yemfuyo etya iinkozo, kodwa hayi iziqhamo kunye nemifuno. Ukunyamezelana kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kusetwe kwiindawo ezili-10 kwisigidi, umzekelo, eUnited States, kunye neenxalenye ezi-2 kwisigidi sengqolowa. Ukunyamezeleka kunako zibonwe apha. 

I-EPA ikhuphe le nkcazo malunga nentsalela yedicamba ekutyeni: “I-EPA yenze uhlalutyo olufunwa ngumthetho iFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) kwaye yafumanisa ukuba intsalela ekutyeni“ ikhuselekile ”- okuthetha ukuba kukho isiqiniseko esifanelekileyo sokungabinabungozi ebantwini, kubandakanya konke izinto ezinokuchongwa ngokufanelekileyo, kubandakanya iintsana nabantwana, ekutyeni nakwezinye izinto ezingasebenziyo kwi-dicamba. ”

Umhlaza kunye neHypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba ngumhlaza, kodwa ezinye izifundo zifumene umngcipheko okhulayo womhlaza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Jonga ezi zifundo ngokubhekisele kwimpilo yoluntu yedicamba:

Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Dicamba kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo: uhlalutyo oluhlaziyiweyo Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe ye-Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Xa kuthelekiswa nabafaki zicelo abangachazanga ukusebenzisa i-dicamba, abo bakwi-quartile ephezulu yokuvezwa benomngcipheko ophakamileyo wesifo somhlaza wesibindi kunye ne-intrahepatic bile duct kunye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheliyo kunye nokwehla komngcipheko we-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetyenziswa kwamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye neHyodys Hypothyroidism kubaFaki beziNtsholongwane kwizifundo zeMpilo yezoLimo. Iimpembelelo zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo (9.26.18)
"Kweli qela likhulu labalimi ababesemngciphekweni wokubulala izitshabalalisi, safumanisa ukuba kusoloko kusetyenziswa ii-organochlorine zinambuzane (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ii-inseophosphate zinambuzane ezine (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, kunye ne-malathion), kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, kunye ne-2,4-D) ayanyaniswa nomngcipheko okhulayo we-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezibulali-zinambuzane phakathi kwamadoda afaka isicelo sokubulala izitshabalalisi kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo. Ijenali yezeMpilo yokuSebenza ngokusiNgqongileyo (10.1.14)
"Imichiza yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, kunye neoyile yepetroleum zonke zinxulunyaniswa nokunyuka kwe-hypothyroidism"

Ukuphononongwa kokuvezwa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwiqela lezempilo lezolimo. Ukujongwa kweMpilo yeNdalo esingqongileyo (8.1.10)
“Sihlolisise izifundo ezingama-28; uninzi lweziyobisi zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezingama-32 ezazivavanyiwe zazingadibani kakhulu neziganeko zomhlaza kwizicelo zokubulala izinambuzane. Ukonyusa umyinge (okanye ukungalingani) kunye neepateni zokuphendula ezichazayo zichazwe kwizibulali zinambuzane ezili-12 ezibhaliswe ngoku eCanada kunye / okanye eUnited States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- idipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isifo seCancer phakathi kwabaFaki beziNtsholongwane ezichazwe kwiDicamba kwiMpilo yezoLimo Isifundo. Imiba yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo (7.13.06)
Ukuchazwa kwakungadibananga neziganeko zomhlaza ngokubanzi kwaye kwakungekho mibutho yomeleleyo kunye naluphi na uhlobo lomhlaza. Xa iqela lesalathiso lalinabafaki-zicelo abatyhilekileyo abasezantsi, sabona imeko elungileyo emngciphekweni phakathi kweentsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye nomhlaza wemiphunga (p = 0.02), kodwa akukho nanye kuqikelelo lwenqaku lomntu oluphakanyisiweyo. Siye sabona imeko eyandayo yomngcipheko womhlaza wekolon kuzo zombini iintsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye neentsuku zokuphila ezinobunzima, nangona ezi ziphumo zibangelwe ngumngcipheko ophakamileyo kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokuvezwa.

I-Lymphoma ye-non-Hodgkin kunye nokuchazwa kwe-Pesticide ekhethekileyo kuMadoda: I-Cross-Canada Study of Pesticides kunye neMpilo. Umhlaza we-Epidemiology, Biomarkers kunye noThintelo (11.01)
“Phakathi kweekhompawundi ezizodwa, kuhlalutyo lwe-multivariate, umngcipheko we-NHL wanyuswa ngokweenkcukacha-manani ngokuvezwa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OKANYE, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye iimodeli ezongezayo, ezibandakanya ukubonwa kwezinye iikhemikhali eziphambili okanye iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, umhlaza wesibeleko, imbali yomhlaza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, kunye nokuvezwa kwimixube equkethe i-dicamba (OKANYE, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40- 2.75)… babengabacingeli abazimeleyo ababalulekileyo abonisa umngcipheko owandisiweyo weNHL ”

Ityala 

Inkxalabo yomonakalo we-dicamba ikhuthaze ukumangalelwa ngamafama kumazwe amaninzi ase-US. Iinkcukacha kwisimangalo ku funyanwa apha.

EPA oobhontsi bempumlo ngokomyalelo wenkundla, uthi amafama asengayisebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides engekho mthethweni

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(IINKCUKACHA ngezimvo ezivela kwi-BASF)

I-Arhente yoKhuseleko lwezeNdalo ngoMvulo wathi ngekhe usihloniphe kwangoko isigwebo senkundla esikhutshwe kwiveki ephelileyo esithi kuthintelwe ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe ziinkampani ezintathu ezinkulu zemichiza emhlabeni.

Ukuhamba kwe-EPA kufana nesipho esivulekileyo kwi-BASF, Bayer naseCorteva Agrisciences ezinama-dicamba herbicides abonwa njengenkundla ukuba yamkelwe yi-EPA ngokungekho mthethweni. Inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ikhutshwe kwiveki ephelileyo ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezi zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe laseFama.

Kodwa i-EPA ibhengeze uMvulo ukuba ikhupha "umyalelo wokurhoxisa" oza kunika amafama kude kube nguJulayi 31 ukuba asebenzise isitokhwe esele sikhona seBayer Xtendimax, i-Engenia ye-BASF, kunye ne-FeXapan yaseCorteva.

Isigwebo seNkundla yeziBheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba safumanisa ukuba i-EPA yenza iimpazamo ezininzi ekuvumeni iimveliso ze-dicamba kwaye yaphendula kwisikhalazo esiziswe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, iZiko loKhuseleko lokutya, iZiko lokwahlukahlukana kwezinto eziphilayo, kunye Inethiwekhi yokuSebenza ngezibulala-zinambuzane eMntla Melika.

Iziko loKhuseleko loKutya (i-CFS), elinamagqwetha aphikisanayo nabaceli, bathi kwingxelo yokuba isenzo se-EPA "asinasihlahla" kwaye "siyabutyeshela ubungqina obubhalwe kakuhle noboyikekayo bokulimala okukhulu kumafama avela kwelinye ixesha lokutshiza eliyingozi. . ” Isenzo se-EPA sikwabutyeshela ubungozi be-dicamba kumakhulu ezilwanyana ezisengozini, utshilo uCFS.

“Ulawulo lukaTrump luyaphinda lubonakalise ukuba aluqwalaseli mthetho. Bonke abasebenzisi abaqhubeka bengafuni ezinye iindlela kufuneka babone ukuba basebenzisa imveliso eyingozi, enesiphene, kunye nemveliso engekho mthethweni. Siza kuzisa ukungaphumeleli kwe-EPA ukuthobela umyalelo weNkundla kwiNkundla ngokukhawuleza okukhulu, ”utshilo uCFS.

Unobhala wezoLimo e-US u-Sonny Perdue kwiveki ephelileyo ukhuthaze i-EPA ukuba icinge indlela ejikeleze isigwebo senkundla, evakalisa izimvo zika-Bayer, BASF kunye no-Corteva ezibiza i-dicamba herbicides ebalulekileyo "izixhobo" zamafama akhulisa iimbotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu.

I-EPA ithe ngokuthatha isigqibo sokuvumela amafama ukuba aqhubeke nokusebenzisa i-dicamba ukuphela kukaJulayi yayiphendula "iifowuni ezininzi ezingacelwanga kunye ne-imeyile" exelela iarhente "kukho inkxalabo yokwenyani kunye nokubakho kokutshatyalaliswa kwezityalo zomqhaphu nezesoya ezinokuthi kukhokelela kwintlekele kushishino. ”

I-EPA ayikhange iwamkele amanqaku amafama akhula ngaphandle kwezityalo ngaphandle kweembotyi zesoya ezinyamezelayo kunye nekotoni abaye balahlekelwa sisityalo kwi-dicamba drift kwaye boyika elinye ihlobo lokonakaliswa kwesityalo.

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo ezinokonakalisa izityalo, iigadi, izitiya, namatyholo.

IMonsanto, eyayithengwe yiBayer kwi2018, yawuphakamisa lo mqobo xa yasungula imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, ikhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imixube emitsha yedicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zityalo zenziwe ngemfuza ngexesha lokushisa kwemozulu iinyanga ezikhulayo.

Intshukumo kaMonsanto yokudala izityalo ezinganyamezelekiyo ze-dicamba yeza emva kwesityalo esinganyamezelekiyo se-glyphosate kunye nokutshiza okuxhaphakileyo kwe-glyphosate kudala ubhubhane wokumelana nokhula kwilizwe lonke lasefama lase-US.

Amafama, izazinzulu zezolimo kunye nezinye iingcali zalumkisa uMonsanto kunye ne-EPA ukuba ukuzisa inkqubo yokunyamezela i-dicamba ayizukudala kuphela ukuxhathisa i-herbicide kodwa iya kukhokelela kumonakalo owonakalisayo kwizityalo ezingezonjongo zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba.

Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zihambe njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula ye-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakaliswe zibubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezibanzi zomonakalo we-dicamba drift kule minyaka idlulileyo. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo ze-dicamba waxelwa kunyaka ophelileyo kwi-18 ithi, inkundla iqaphele.

NgoFebruwari, ijaji evumayo yanika umfama wase-Missouri ipesika $ 15 yezigidi kumonakalo ohlawulelwayo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo ozohlawulwa yiBayer kunye ne-BASF ngomonakalo we-dicamba kwipropathi yakhe.

Kwingxelo ekhutshwe emva kwesibhengezo se-EPA, i-BASF ithe iyasixhasa isigqibo se-EPA sokuvumela ukusetyenziswa okuqhubekekayo kwezitokhwe ezikhoyo ze-BASF's Engenia herbicide nge-31 kaJulayi, kodwa yathi "ukucaca okongeziweyo kunye nokuguquguquka" kuyafuneka. Inkampani ithi ikurhoxisile kwangoko ukuthengisa kunye nokuthumela i-Engenia herbicide emva kwesigqibo seveki ephelileyo. 

Inkampani ithe izakuqhubeka nokulandela ukubhaliswa kwakhona kwe-Engenia kwi-EPA kwaye ivavanya iindlela zayo zokulandela izilungiso zomthetho zokucela umngeni kwinkundla.

KWIINKCUKACHA-Inkundla igxotha ukuvunywa kwe-EPA kweBayer dicamba herbicide; Umlawuli uthi "uthoba umngcipheko"

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

(UPHATHAZI ngeNgxelo evela kwi-BASF)

Ngokukhalima okumangalisayo kwe-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo, inkundla yomanyano ngoLwesithathu ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yeedicamba ezisekwe kwi-herbicides ezenziwe ziikhemikhali ezinkulu Bayer, BASF kunye neCorteva Agrisciences. Isigwebo esisebenzayo senza kube semthethweni ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Isigwebo seNkundla Yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe Yesithoba safumanisa ukuba i-EPA “ibubeka ecaleni kakhulu ubungozi” bokubulala ukhula i-dicamba kwaye “yasilela ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela ezinye iingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza iimpazamo ezininzi ekunikezeleni ubhaliso olunemiqathango," isigwebo senkundla sithi.

IMonsanto kunye ne-EPA babeyicelile inkundla, ukuba iyavumelana nabamangali, ukuba bangakutshintshi kwangoko ukwamkelwa kwemveliso yokubulala ukhula. Inkundla yathi: “Siyala ukwenjenjalo.”

Umgwebo waziswa nguMbutho weSizwe weFama yokuBumbana, iZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, iZiko lokwahluka kweBiological, kunye neNkqubo yokubulala izinambuzane eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali batyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ekuvavanyeni iimpembelelo zenkqubo eyilwe yiMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer kwi2018, ethe yabangela ukonakala "kwezityalo ngokubanzi" kwihlobo ezimbalwa ezidlulileyo kwaye iyaqhubeka nokusongela iifama kwilizwe liphela.

"Isigqibo sanamhlanje siphumelele kakhulu kumafama nakwindalo esingqongileyo," utshilo uGeorge Kimbrell weZiko loKhuseleko loKutya, igqwetha elikhokelayo kwityala. “Kulungile ukukhunjuzwa ukuba iinkampani ezinje ngeMonsanto kunye neTrump Administration azinakho ukubaleka umthetho, ngakumbi ngexesha lobunzima obunjengale. Ufikile umhla wabo wokuziphendulela. ”

Inkundla ifumanise ukuba phakathi kwezinye iingxaki, i-EPA “iyala ukuqikelela isixa somonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza umonakalo 'njengonokubakho' kunye 'nokutyholwa,' xa ubungqina berekhodi bubonisa ukuba i-dicamba ibangele umonakalo omkhulu kwaye awunakuphikiswa.”

Inkundla ikwafumanise ukuba i-EPA ayiphumelelanga ukuvuma ukuba izithintelo ezibekwa kusetyenziso lwe-dicamba ayizukulandelwa, kwaye yafumanisa ukuba i-EPA “isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko omkhulu wokuba ubhaliso luya kuba neziphumo zoqoqosho imizi-mveliso yeembotyi zesoya nomqhaphu. ”

Okokugqibela, inkundla ithe, i-EPA isilele ngokupheleleyo ukwamkela umngcipheko wokusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba herbicides esekwe yi-Monsanto, BASF kunye neCorteva "iyakudiliza imeko yentlalo yoluntu."

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo ezinokonakalisa izityalo, iigadi, izitiya, namatyholo.

IMonsanto iwuphakamisile lo mqobo xa yayisungula imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu kwiminyaka embalwa eyadlulayo, ikhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imixube emitsha ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zityalo zenziwe ngemfuza ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo zemozulu.

Intshukumo kaMonsanto yokudala izityalo ezinyamezelayo zemfuza zenziwe ngemfuza emva kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-glyphosate kunye nokutshiza okuxhaphakileyo kwe-glyphosate kudala ubhubhane wokumelana nokhula kumhlaba wonke weefama wase-US.

Amafama, izazinzulu zezolimo kunye nezinye iingcali zalumkisa uMonsanto kunye ne-EPA ukuba ukuzisa inkqubo yokunyamezela i-dicamba ayizukudala kuphela ukuxhathisa i-herbicide kodwa iya kukhokelela kumonakalo owonakalisayo kwizityalo ezingezonjongo zemfuza ukunyamezela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezilumkiso, iMonsanto, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa imveliso entsha ye-dicamba herbicides kolu hlobo lubanzi lokutshiza. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza. Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwesigidi esinye seehektare zomonakalo wezityalo ezichazwe kunyaka ophelileyo kwiindawo ze-18, inkundla iqaphele.

Njengoko bekuxelwe kwangaphambili, kukho amawakawaka ezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodwe kwiindawo ezininzi. Kwisigwebo sayo, inkundla iqaphele ukuba kwi-2018, kwizigidi ezili-103 zeehektare zesoya kunye nomqhaphu otyalwe e-United States, malunga ne-56 yezigidi zeehektare zatyalwa nembewu ene-Micanto dicamba-ukunyamezelana, ukusuka kwi-27 yezigidi zeehektare kunyaka ongaphambili. Ngo-2017.

NgoFebruwari, ijaji evumayo yanika umfama wase-Missouri ipesika $ 15 yezigidi kumonakalo ohlawulelwayo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo ozohlawulwa yiBayer kunye ne-BASF ngomonakalo we-dicamba kwipropathi yakhe.

U-Bayer ukhuphe ingxelo elandela esi sigwebo esithi akavumelani kwaphela nesigwebo senkundla kwaye uvavanya ukhetho.

Isigqibo esisekwe kwisayensi esisekwe kwi-EPA siyasiqinisekisa ukuba esi sixhobo sibalulekile kubalimi kwaye asibeki mngcipheko wokungahambi kakuhle xa sisetyenziswa ngokwemikhombandlela yeelebheli, utshilo inkampani. "Ukuba isigwebo simi, siza kusebenza ngokukhawuleza ukunciphisa nayiphi na impembelelo kubathengi bethu kule sizini."

UCorteva ukwathe i-dicamba herbicides yayidinga izixhobo zomfama kwaye yayivavanya ukhetho lwayo.

I-BASF ibize lo mthetho wenkundla "ngendlela engazange ibonwe ngaphambili" kwaye ithi "inokuba namandla okuphazamisa amashumi amawaka amafama."

Abalimi banokuphulukana "nengeniso ebalulekileyo" ukuba abakwazi ukubulala ukhula kwiindawo zabo zesoya kunye nekotoni kunye ne-dicamba herbicides, utshilo inkampani.

"Siza kusebenzisa zonke iindlela ezisemthethweni zokufumana lo mngeni," utshilo uBASF.

Isithethi se-EPA sithe i-arhente ngoku ijonga isigqibo senkundla kwaye "izakuhamba ngokukhawuleza ukujongana nomyalelo weNkundla."

Inkundla isamkele isigqibo singanendleko kumafama asele ethengile kunye / okanye atyale imbewu ye-dicamba enganyamezelekiyo ngelixesha lonyaka kwaye icwangcise ukusebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula kuyo ngenxa yokuba isigwebo asikuvumeli ukusetyenziswa kweyeza.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima obunokubangelwa ngaba balimi ekufumaneni amayeza okubulala ukhula asebenzayo nakwezomthetho ukukhusela izityalo zabo (ezinyamezelayo) ..." isigwebo sitsho. “Babekwe kule meko kungekho siphoso sabo. Nangona kunjalo, ukungabikho kobungqina obuninzi obuxhasa isigqibo se-EPA kusinyanzela ukuba siphume kubhaliso. ”

UDicamba: Amafama oyika elinye ixesha lomonakalo wezityalo; Kulindelwe isigwebo senkundla

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ngokujika kwekhalenda ukuya kuJuni, amafama aseMelika eMidwest asonga ukutyala izityalo zesoya ezintsha kunye nokujonga amasimi akhulayo ezityalo zengqolowa kunye nemifuno. Kodwa baninzi abakwalungiselela ukubethwa lutshaba olungabonakaliyo oluye lwadala umonakalo kwilizwe lasezifama ihlobo lokugqibela- ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umfama oqinisekisiweyo wase-Robinson, e-Kansas, uchaza amaxesha okugqibela okukhula ehlotyeni njengoko ephawulwe "sisiphithiphithi," kwaye uthe waphulukana nesiqinisekiso sentsimi enye yezityalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efafazwe kude. Ngoku uyabongoza abamelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula kumasimi abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuba ikhemikhali ihlala kude kwipropathi yakhe.

"Kukho dicamba kuyo yonke indawo," utshilo uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomnye kuphela wamakhulu amafama ajikeleze iMidwest West yase-US kunye namazwe aliqela asezantsi athe axela ukonakaliswa kwesityalo kunye nelahleko abathi zibangelwe kukukhukuliseka kwe-dicamba kule minyaka imbalwa idlulileyo.

Amafama ebesebenzisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kuthintelwe ukufaka iyeza lokutshabalalisa ukhula kwiinyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni, kwaye kunqabile ukuba kunokubakho kumhlaba omkhulu ngenxa yokuxhaphaka okwaziwayo kwemichiza ukukhukuliseka kude neendawo ekujoliswe kuzo.

Olo thintelo lwabuyiselwa umva emva kokuba uMonsanto ephehlelele imbewu yeembotyi zesoya kunye nembewu yomqhaphu ukukhuthaza amafama ukuba atshize imichiza ye-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwezi zilimo zenziwe ngemfuza. IMonsanto, ngoku eyeyeBayer AG, kunye neBASF kunye ICorteva AgriScience Zonke zifumene imvume kwi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA) yokuthengisa iimveliso ezintsha ze-dicamba herbicides zokutshiza ngaphezulu kweentlobo zezityalo ezikhulayo ezinganyangekiyo. Iinkampani zibanga ukuba iinguqulelo zabo ezintsha ze-dicamba azizukuhamba kwaye zibaleke njengoko iinguqulelo ezindala zemveliso yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba zaziwa ukuba ziyazenza.

Kodwa ezo ziqinisekiso zibonakalise ubuxoki phakathi kwezikhalazo ezixhaphakileyo zomonakalo we-dicamba okokoko ukusungulwa kwezityalo ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba kunye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umanyano lwamaqela amafama kunye nabathengi amangalele i-EPA malunga nokuxhasa kwayo ukusetyenziswa okuphezulu kweyeza ze-dicamba kwaye ngoku balindele isigwebo senkundla yesithoba yesibheno sezibheno eSan Francisco malunga nemfuno yabo yokuba inkundla iguqule i-EPA Ukuvunywa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Iingxoxo zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Epreli.

Abathengi kunye namaqela ezendalo atyhola i-EPA ngokwaphula umthetho ngokusilela ukuhlalutya "iindleko zentlalo noqoqosho kunye nezoqoqosho kumafama" ekhokelela kumanqanaba "obubi" omonakalo wezityalo.

Amaqela athi i-EPA ibonakala inomdla ngakumbi ukukhusela umdla kwishishini zeMonsanto kunye nezinye iinkampani kunokukhusela amafama.

Amagqwetha eMonsanto, amele inkampani njengeyunithi yaseBayer, bathi abamangali abanangqiniseko ethembekileyo. Idicamba herbicide yenkampani entsha, ebizwa ngokuba yiXtendiMax, “incede abalimi ekusombululeni ingxaki enkulu yokhula kwilizwe lonke, kwaye isivuno seembotyi zesoya kunye nomqhaphu zifikelele kwinqanaba eliphezulu kwilizwe lonke ngeli xesha lesimangalo,” ngokufutshane ifayilishwe ngamagqwetha enkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Abaceli besicelo somyalelo wokumisa kwangoko konke ukuthengisa kunye nokusetyenziswa kwento yokubulala izitshabalalisi kumema impazamo yomthetho kunye neempembelelo ezinokubakho eziyinyani kwilizwe liphela," yatsho inkampani.

Njengoko belinde isigqibo senkundla yomanyano, amafama athemba ukuba izithintelo ezitsha ezibekwe ngamanye amazwe ziya kubakhusela. ISebe lezoLimo lase-Illinois ucebisile Abafakizicelo abangenako ukutshiza emva komhla wama-20 kuJuni, nokuba akufuneki batshize iimveliso ze-dicamba ukuba amaqondo obushushu angaphezulu kwe-45 degrees Fahrenheit, kwaye kufuneka basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba xa umoya uvuthuza usuka kwiindawo “ezibuthathaka”. IMinnesota, iIndiana, iNyakatho yeDakota kunye noMzantsi Dakota ziphakathi kwamanye amazwe zibeka imihla yokuphelisa ukutshiza i-dicamba.

U-Steve Smith, umlawuli wezolimo e-Red Gold Inc, iprosesa enkulu yeetamati enkonkxiweyo, uthe nangemida karhulumente "uxhalabile kakhulu" malunga nexesha elizayo. Iihektare ezininzi zokutyala kunye neembotyi zesoya ezinyamezelayo ze-dicamba eziphuhliswe yiMonsanto ke kusenokwenzeka ukuba kuyakubakho ukutshizwa kwe-dicamba, utshilo.

"Sisebenze nzima ukugcina umyalezo phaya ukuze ungasondeli kuthi, kodwa umntu, ngamanye amaxesha, uza kwenza impazamo enokusibizela ishishini lethu," utshilo.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuba inkundla izakuchitha ukuvuma kwe-EPA kwaye "ayeke obu buhlanya benkqubo."

Ngokwahlukileyo kumonakalo onokubakho we-dicamba kwizityalo, uphando olutsha kutshanje kupapashwe kubonisa ukuba amafama avezwe kumanqanaba aphezulu e-dicamba kubonakala ngathi aphakame umngcipheko wesibindi kunye nezinye iintlobo zomhlaza. Abaphandi bathi idatha entsha ibonise ukuba umbutho owawubonwe ngaphambili kwidatha phakathi kwe-dicamba kunye ne-lung kunye ne-colon cancer zazingabonakali "ngedatha ehlaziyiweyo.

Isimangalo sikaDicamba ngokuchasene neBayer, i-BASF ikulungele ukuqhuma, utsho amagqwetha

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Amawakawaka amafama aphuma kumazwe amaninzi kulindeleke ukuba ajoyine amatyala amakhulu kulindelwe kwinkundla yomanyano malunga namabango okuba iimveliso zokubulala ukhula eziphuhliswe yi-Monsanto Co yangaphambili kunye nezinye iinkampani zamachiza zitshabalalisa kwaye zingcolisa izityalo, kubandakanya imveliso yemveliso, iqela lamagqwetha kunye batsho abalimi ngoLwesithathu.

Inani lamafama afuna ukumelwa ngokusemthethweni ukuba afake isimangalo ngokuchasene neMonsanto kunye ne-BASF inyukile kwiveki ephelileyo enesiqingatha emva kwebhaso le-jury yezigidi ezingama-265 Umlimi wepesika waseMissouri otyhola ukuba ezi nkampani zimbini zazibekek 'ityala ngokuphulukana nobomi bakhe, ngokukaJoseph Peiffer wenkampani yamagqwetha yasePeiffer Wolf Carr & Kane. U-Peiffer uthe ngaphezulu kwama-2,000 amafama kulindeleke ukuba babe ngabangqina.

Sele kukho ngaphezulu kwamafama ali-100 enza amabango ngokuchasene neenkampani ezidityanisiweyo Isimangalo semimandla emininzi kwiNkundla yeSithili sase-US eKapa Girardeau, eMissouri.

Kwangoko kule nyanga bellwether ityala Kweso simangalo siphele nge-juri evumelekileyo yokunikezela ngeefama zosapho lwe-Bader Farms eyi- $ 15 yezigidi kumonakalo wembuyekezo kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeedola kumonakalo owohlwayayo, eza kuhlawulwa yiBayer AG, inkampani yaseJamani eyathenga iMonsanto kwi-2018, kunye ne-BASF. Ijaji yagqiba ukuba iMonsanto kunye ne-BASF baceba ukwenza izinto ababesazi ukuba ziya kukhokelela ekonakaleni kwezityalo kuba babelindele ukuba iyonyusa inzuzo yabo.

"Ngoku sinemephu yendlela yokufumana ubulungisa kumaxhoba edicamba. Isigwebo seBader eMissouri sathumela umqondiso ocacileyo wokuba awunakufumana nzuzo ngokwenzakalisa amafama amsulwa uze uphume kuwo, ”utshilo uPeiffer. "Uphando lomonakalo wezityalo kunye nezikhalazo ezandayo zabalimi zixela ingxaki enkulu kunokuba iMonsanto / Bayer kunye neBASF befuna ukuyamkela."

Ilungelo laseMelika laseMelika lokucela i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA), evume i-dicamba herbicides ngaphandle kobungqina besayensi bobungozi, ukubonelela ngesibalo sikazwelonke senani elipheleleyo lezikhalazo ze-dicamba drift. Kodwa ngelixa i-EPA isithi ithatha iingxelo "ngokungathí sina," iyalile ukubonelela ngamanani kwaye yathi i-arhente zikarhulumente ukusingatha ezo zikhalazo.

I-EPA ikwabonakalise ukuba akuqinisekanga ukuba umonakalo ochazwe ngamafama, phofu, ubangelwa yicicamba.

"Oonobangela beziganeko ezahlukeneyo zomonakalo abakazicaci, nanjengoko uphando lusaqhubeka," utshilo isithethi se-EPA. “Kodwa i-EPA ijonga lonke ulwazi olufumanekayo ngononophelo.

"Ukukhahlela ibhombu yexesha"

Njengokuba iMonsanto kunye neBayer beye bajongana nokulahla amaxwebhu angaphakathi ekulahlekelweni kwezilingo ezintathu ngenxa yamabango e-Monsanto's glyphosate-based herbicides abangela umhlaza, maninzi amaxwebhu enkampani angaphakathi afunyenwe kwisimangalo se-dicamba esincede ukukholisa inkundla yecala lenkampani, ngokuka Bader Ummeli weefama uBill Randles.

IRandles ifumene amakhulu eerekhodi zangaphakathi zeMonsanto kunye ne-BASF ezibonisa ukuba iinkampani beziyazi ingozi eziyakuthi ziveliswe ziimveliso zabo nanjengoko bebexele esidlangalaleni okuchasene noko. Uthe olunye uxwebhu lwe-BASF lubhekisa kwizikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba njengesiqhushumbisi sexesha "esele liqhushumbe."

I-Bader kunye namanye amafama atyhola ukuba iMonsanto yayingakhathali ekukhupheleni umqhaphu wobunjineli kunye neembotyi zesoya ezinokusinda zitshizwe nge-dicamba herbicides kuba kwakusaziwa ukuba ukusebenzisa izityalo kunye neekhemikhali njengoko ziyilelwe kungakhokelela kumonakalo.

I-Dicamba isetyenziswe ngamafama ukusukela nge1960s kodwa ngemida ethathela ingqalelo ubungakanani bemichiza yokubalekela kude apho wafafazwa khona. Xa imveliso yokhula yokubulala ukhula eMonsanto efana neRoundup yaqala ukuphulukana nokusebenza kwayo ngenxa yokuxhathisa ukhula, iMonsanto yathatha isigqibo sokumilisela inkqubo yokulima i-dicamba efana nenkqubo yayo eyaziwayo yeRoundup Ready, eyayibhangqa imbewu enganyamezelekiyo ye-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides.

Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ye-dicamba enganyamezelekiyo ngokulula inokunyanga ukhula olunenkani ngokutshiza amasimi onke nge-dicamba, nokuba ngeenyanga ezishushu ezishushu, ngaphandle kokonakalisa izityalo zabo, ngokweMonsanto, ethi Yazisa ngentsebenziswano yedicamba kunye ne-BASF ngo-2011. Iinkampani zithe i-dicamba herbicides yabo iya kuba mbalwa kakhulu kwaye ingathambekisi kangako kuneendlela ezindala zedicamba. Kodwa bala ukuvumela uvavanyo oluzimeleyo lwenzululwazi.

I-EPA yavuma ukusetyenziswa kweMonsanto's dicamba herbicide "XtendiMax" ngo-2016. I-BASF yavelisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza ngokuba yi-Engenia. Zombini iXtendiMax kunye ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala eMelika ngo-2017.

IDuPont nayo yazisa iyeza lokubulala ukhula i-dicamba kwaye unokujongana nezimangalo ezininzi zamafama, ngokwegqwetha labamangali.

Kumabango abo asemthethweni, amafama atyhola ukuba bafumene umonakalo kokubini ukusuka ekuguqulweni kweenguqulelo ezindala ze-dicamba kunye nokukhupha iinguqulelo ezintsha ngokunjalo. Amafama athi iinkampani zinethemba loloyiko lokonzakala okunganyanzela amafama ukuba athenge imbewu ekhethekileyo ye-GMO dicamba ukuze ikhusele amasimi abo omqhaphu kunye neembotyi zesoya.

Abalimi abakhulisa ezinye iintlobo zezityalo abanazo iindlela zokukhusela amasimi abo.

Umlimi waseNyakatho Carolina uMarty Harper, okhula malunga neehektare ezingama-4,000 200,000 zecuba kunye namandongomane, umqhaphu, umbona, iimbotyi zesoya, ingqolowa kunye neebhatata, utshilo umonakalo onxulumene nedicamba kumasimi akhe wecuba ungaphezulu kwe- $ XNUMX. Uthe inxalenye yesityalo sakhe samandongomane sonakalisiwe.

Ngaphezulu kweefama ezingama-2,700 XNUMX ezinazo wafumana umonakalo wedicamba, ngokutsho kweYunivesithi yaseMissouri uprofesa wezesayensi uKevin Bradley.

Iikhemikhali ekutyeni kwethu: Xa "kukhuselekile" kusenokungabi nakukhuseleka ngokwenyani

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ukuqwalaselwa kwesayensi kwentsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kukutya kuyakhula; ukhuseleko lolawulo lubuzwa

Eli nqaku lapapashwa okokuqala kwi Iindaba zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo.

NguCarey Gillam

Ababulali bokhula kwiingqolowa zengqolowa kunye neenkozo, izinambuzane kwijusi yeapile kunye nomxube wezinambuzane ezininzi kwisipinatshi, iimbotyi zomtya kunye neminye imifuno - zonke ziyinxalenye yokutya kwemihla ngemihla kwabantu abaninzi baseMelika. Kumashumi eminyaka, amagosa aseburhulumenteni abhengeze umkhondo omncinci wezi zinto zingcolileyo ukuba zikhuselekile. Kodwa umtsalane omtsha wovavanyo lwenzululwazi ucelomngeni kwezo ziqinisekiso.

Nangona abathengi abaninzi besenokungayazi loo nto, unyaka nonyaka, oososayensi bakarhulumente babhala ngendlela amakhulukhulu eekhemikhali ezisetyenziswa ngabalimi emasimini abo nakwizityalo zabo zishiya intsalela kukutya okutyiwa kakhulu. Ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-75 zeziqhamo kunye nangaphezulu kwama-50 epesenti yemifuno ethathwe kwisampuli yezibulala-zinambuzane zakutshanje isampulu ingxelo ngoLawulo lokuTya kunye noLawulo lweziyobisi. Nkqu nentsalela ye-DDT yokubulala i-bug ethintelweyo ifunyenwe ekutyeni, kunye noluhlu lwezinye izinambuzane zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezaziwa ngoososayensi ukuba inxulunyaniswa noluhlu lwezifo kunye nezifo. I-pesticide endosulfan, ivaliwe kwihlabathi liphela ngenxa yobungqina bokuba inokubangela iingxaki zemithambo-luvo kunye nokuzala, kwafunyanwa nakwiisampulu zokutya, yatsho ingxelo ye-FDA.

Abalawuli baseMelika kunye neenkampani ezithengisa amachiza kubalimi banyanzelisa ukuba intsalela yezibulali zinambuzane ingabi sisoyikiso kwimpilo yabantu. Uninzi lwamanqanaba entsalela afunyanwa kukutya awela phantsi kwamanqanaba asemthethweni "okunyamezelana" abekwe yi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo (i-EPA), abalawuli bathi.

"Abantu baseMelika baxhomekeke kwi-FDA ukuqinisekisa ukhuseleko lweentsapho zabo kunye nokutya abakutyayo," Umkomishinara we-FDA uScott Gottlieb uthe kumaphepha ndaba Ukuhamba ne-arhente ka-Okthobha 1 ukukhutshwa kwengxelo yayo yentsalela "Njengakwezinye iingxelo zakutshanje, iziphumo zibonisa ukuba intsalela yemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi ingaphantsi kokunyamezelwa yi-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo, ngenxa yoko ayibeki mngcipheko kubathengi."

I-EPA iqinisekile ukuba umkhondo wezibulali zinambuzane ekutyeni ukhuselekile kangangokuba iarhente inikezele ngezicelo ezininzi zenkampani yemichiza yokunyusa ukunyamezelana okuvumelekileyo, ngokubonelela ngesiseko esisemthethweni kumanqanaba aphezulu entsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ukuba ivunyelwe kukutya kwaseMelika.

Kodwa izifundo zakutshanje zesayensi ziye zakhokelela kwizazinzulu ezininzi ukuba zilumkise ukuba iminyaka yezithembiso zokhuseleko isenokuba ayilunganga. Ngelixa kungekho mntu kulindeleke ukuba alahle phantsi esitya isitya sokutya esineentsalela zokubulala izitshabalalisi, ukuvezwa okuphindaphindayo kwinqanaba lokulandela umkhondo wezibulali zinambuzane ekutyeni kunokuba negalelo kuluhlu lweengxaki zempilo, ngakumbi ebantwaneni, zitsho izazinzulu.

“Zininzi ezinye iziphumo zempilo; khange sizifunde nje ”

Iqela lezenzululwazi laseHarvard lipapashiwe uluvo Ngo-Okthobha echaza ukuba uphando oluthe kratya malunga nokunxibelelana okunokubakho phakathi kwezifo kunye nokusetyenziswa kweentsalela ze-pesticide "zifuneka ngokungxamisekileyo" njengoko ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-90 zabemi base-US zinentsalela yokubulala izinambuzane kumchamo nakwigazi labo. Eyona ndlela iphambili yokuvezwa kwezi zinambuzane kukutya okutyiwa ngabantu, utshilo iqela lophando laseHarvard.

Iinzululwazi ezininzi ezinxulumene neHarvard zipapashe isifundo kwangoko kulo nyaka wabasetyhini ababezama ukukhulelwa. Iziphumo zicebise ukuba ukuvezwa kwento yokutya yezibulali zinambuzane kuluhlu "oluqhelekileyo" kunxulunyaniswa neengxaki zokukhulelwa kwabasetyhini kunye nokuzala abantwana abaphilayo, zitsho izazinzulu.

“Ngokucacileyo amanqanaba akhoyo okunyamezelana asikhusela kwityhefu ebukhali. Ingxaki kukuba akucaci ukuba lixesha elingakanani ixesha elide lokuchaphazeleka kwintsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ngokutya kunokuba yingozi empilweni, utshilo uGqirha Jorge Chavarro, unjingalwazi onxulumene neSebe leZondlo kunye ne-Epidemiology eHarvard Isikolo i-TH Chan seMpilo kaRhulumente, kunye nomnye wababhali bokufunda.

“Ukubhencwa kwintsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ngokutya kunxulunyaniswa [nezinye] neziphumo zokuzala kubandakanya ubudoda kunye nomngcipheko omkhulu wokuphulukana nokukhulelwa phakathi kwabasetyhini abaphantsi konyango lokungachumi. Zininzi ezinye iziphumo zempilo; khange sizifunde ngokwaneleyo ukwenza uvavanyo lomngcipheko olwaneleyo, ”utshilo uChavarro.

Ugqirha wezobisi uLinda Birnbaum, okhokela i-US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), naye uphakamise inkxalabo malunga neengozi zemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi ngokuveza izinto ekucingelwa ukuba zikhuselekile. Kunyaka ophelile uye wabiza "Ukuncitshiswa kokusetyenziswa kwemichiza yokubulala izitshabalalisi yezolimo" ngenxa yokuxhalaba okuninzi kwimpilo yabantu, esithi "imigaqo ekhoyo yase-US khange ihambisane nenkqubela phambili kwezenzululwazi ezibonisa ukuba iikhemikhali ezisetyenziswa kakhulu zibangela iingxaki zempilo kumanqanaba ngaphambili ebecinga ukuba akhuselekile."

Kudliwanondlebe no-Birnbaum wathi iintsalela zamayeza e-pesticide ekutyeni nasemanzini ziphakathi kweentlobo zokuveza okufuna ukuphononongwa ngakumbi.

“Ngaba ndicinga ukuba amanqanaba abekiweyo ngoku akhuselekile? Mhlawumbi akunjalo, ”utshilo uBirnbaum. "Sinabantu abachanekileyo, nokuba kungenxa yemfuza yabo, okanye ubudala babo, nantoni na enokubenza babenakho ukubanazo ezi zinto," utshilo.

“Ngelixa sijonga amachiza ngexesha, kukho ubungqina obuninzi bezinto ezisebenza ngendlela ehambelanayo. Uninzi lweenkqubo zethu zovavanyo ezisemgangathweni, uninzi lwazo zaphuhliswa kwiminyaka engama-40 ukuya kwengama-50 eyadlulayo, azibuzi imibuzo ekufanele ukuba siyayibuza, utshilo.

Umthetho awuthethi ukhuselekile

Amanye amaphepha esayensi akutshanje akhomba kwiziphumo ezibi. Inye yeqela lezenzululwazi zamazwe apapashwe ngoMeyi ifumene i-glyphosate herbicide ngeedosi njengangoku “ezikhuselekileyo” ziyakwazi ukubangela iingxaki zempilo ngaphambi kokufikisa. Olunye uphando luyafuneka ukuqonda ubungozi obunokubakho ebantwaneni, ababhali bophando bathi.

Kwaye ephepheni Ipapashwe i-Oct. 22 kwi-JAMA yangaphakathi yoNyango, abaphandi baseFrance bathi xa bejonga intsalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ezinxibelelana nomhlaza kufundo lokutya kwabantu abangaphezulu kwama-68,000, bafumanise ukuba ukusetyenziswa kokutya okungafunekiyo, okunqabileyo ukuba kuphathe iintsalela zokwenziwa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunokutya okwenziweyo kunye nezityalo ezikhule ngokwesiqhelo, zazayanyaniswa nokwehla komngcipheko womhlaza.

Iphepha le2009 epapashwe ngumphandi waseHarvard kunye noososayensi ababini be-FDA bafumene iisampulu zokutya ezili-19 kwezili-100 abantwana abasoloko besitya eziqulathe ubuncinci isinambuzane esinye esaziwa ngokuba yi-neurotoxin. Ukutya abaphandi abakujongayo yimifuno emitsha, iziqhamo kunye nejusi. Ukusukela ngoko, ubungqina bukhulile malunga nefuthe elibi kwimpilo yabantu ngokubulala izinambuzane, ngakumbi.

Amanqanaba angamkelekanga

"Imigangatho emininzi yangoku yomthetho yamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni nasemanzini ayikhuseli ngokupheleleyo impilo yoluntu, kwaye ayibonisi inzululwazi yakutshanje," utshilo u-Olga Naidenko, umcebisi omkhulu kwezenzululwazi kwiQela eliSebenzayo lezeNdalo, nelikhuphe iingxelo ezininzi Ukujonga iingozi ezinokubakho kumayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni nasemanzini. "Umthetho awuthethi ukuba ukhuselekile," utshilo.

Omnye umzekelo wendlela ukuqinisekiswa kokhuseleko kufunyenwe kusilela ngayo xa kufikwa kwintsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi yimeko yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngokuba yi-chlorpyrifos. Ithengiswa yi-Dow Chemical, eyaba yinkampani ye-DowDuPont ngo-2017, i-chlorpyrifos isetyenziswa ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-30 zama-apile, i-asparagus, i-walnuts, itswele, iidiliya, i-broccoli, iitsheri kunye nekholifulawa ekhuliswe e-US kwaye ihlala ifumaneka kukutya okutyiwa ngabantwana. . I-EPA ithe kangangeminyaka ukubhencwa ngaphantsi kokunyamezelwa ngokwasemthethweni okusetiweyo kwakungekho nto inokukhathazeka ngayo.

Kunjalo uphando lwezenzululwazi Kwiminyaka yakutshanje ibonakalise unxibelelwano phakathi kokuchazwa kwe-chlorpyrifos kunye nokusilela kwengqondo ebantwaneni. Ubungqina bokwenzakala kwengqondo ezisakhulayo bunamandla kangangokuba i-EPA ngo-2015 wathi ukuba "ayinakufumanisa ukuba naluphi na unyamezelo lwangoku lukhuselekile."

I-EPA ithe ngenxa yamanqanaba angamkelekanga okubulala izinambuzane ekutyeni nakumanzi okusela acwangcise ukuthintela isibulali zinambuzane ekusebenziseni ezolimo. Kodwa uxinzelelo oluvela kwiDow kwaye iikhemikhali zeshishini lobby igcine ikhemikhali isetyenziswa kakhulu kwiifama zaseMelika. Ingxelo yakutshanje ye-FDA iyifumene i-11th ezona zinambuzane zixhaphakileyo kukutya kwaseMelika ngaphandle kwamakhulu kubandakanywa kuvavanyo.

A inkundla yomanyano ngo-Agasti uthe ukuba uLawulo lukaTrump lwalubeka emngciphekweni impilo yoluntu ngokugcina ii-chlorpyrifos zisetyenziselwa ukuveliswa kokutya kwezolimo. Inkqubo ye- Inkundla icatshulwe "Ubungqina benzululwazi bokuba intsalela yayo ekutyeni ibangela ukonakala kwe-neurodevelopmental ebantwaneni" kwaye yayalela i-EPA ukuba irhoxise konke ukunyamezelana kwaye inqande ikhemikhali kwintengiso. I-EPA kusafuneka isebenze kuloo myalelo, kwaye kunjalo efuna ukumanyelwa ngaphambi kwe-9 epheleleyoth ISekethe yeNkundla yeziBheno.

Xa ebuzwa ukuba angazichaza njani iindawo eziguqukayo kwi-chlorpyrifos, isithethi se-arhente sathi i-EPA "iceba ukuqhubeka nokujonga kwakhona isayensi ejongene neziphumo ze-neurodevelopmental" zekhemikhali.

Inyaniso yokuba isasetyenziswa ngokubanzi iyabacaphukisa kwaye iyabacaphukisa oogqirha abagxile kwimpilo yabantwana kwaye ibashiye bezibuza ukuba loluphi olunye unyango lokubulala izinambuzane ekutyeni olunokuthi lwenze ebantwini.

"Eyona nto iphambili kukuba eyona nkxalabo inkulu yezempilo yoluntu ye-chlorpyrifos ivela kubukho bayo ekutyeni," utshilo uGqirha Bradley Peterson umlawuli weZiko leNgqondo ePhuhlisayo kwiSibhedlele saBantwana eLos Angeles. Nokuba ukubhentsiswa okuncinci kunokuba nemiphumo emibi. ”

Isigqibo se-EPA sokuqhubeka nokuvumela ii-chlorpyrifos kwizidlo zaseMelika "luphawu lokuchithwa ngokubanzi kobungqina besayensi" obucela umngeni kwimpilo yabantu kunye nokunyaniseka kwesayensi, ngoku ka Dr. ULeonardo Trasande, olawula iCandelo lePediatrics yokuSingqongileyo kwiSebe lezeMpilo kwiYunivesithi yaseNew York yeLangone Health.

Ugqirha wezifo uPhillip Landrigan, umlawuli weKholeji yase-Boston ye-Global Public Health, kunye nowayesakuba sisazinzulu kwi-US Centers for Disease Control, ukhuthaza ukuvalwa kwazo zonke i-organophosphates, iklasi yezibulali zinambuzane ezibandakanya iichlorpyrifos, ngenxa yengozi eziyibeka ebantwaneni. .

U-Landrigan uthi: "Abantwana bachanabeke kakhulu kwezi khemikhali." Oku malunga nokukhusela abantwana. ”

Ukonyuka kokunyamezelana kwisicelo seshishini

Umthetho weFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ugunyazisa i-EPA ukuba ilawule ukusetyenziswa kwezibulali zinambuzane ekutyeni ngokwemigangatho ethile yezomthetho kwaye inike i-EPA igunya elilinganiselweyo lokumisela ukunyamezelwa kweziqinisekiso zemihlangano yokubulala izitshabalalisi.

Ukunyamezelana kuyahluka ukusuka ekutyeni ukuya ekutyeni kunye nasekubizeni i-pesticide, ngenxa yoko iapile inokuthwala ngokusemthethweni uhlobo oluthile lwentsalela yezinambuzane kune plam, umzekelo. Ukunyamezelana kwahluka ngokwamazwe, ke oko i-US iseta njengonyamezelo olusemthethweni lwentsalela yokubulala izinambuzane ekutyeni okuthile-kwaye ihlala ihluke kakhulu kunemida ebekwe kwamanye amazwe. Njengengxenye yokuseta ezo nyamezelo, abalawuli bavavanya idatha ebonisa ukuba ingakanani intsalela eqhubekayo emva kokuba isibulali zinambuzane sisetyenzisiwe njengoko kulindelwe kwisityalo, kwaye benza uvavanyo lomngcipheko wokutya ukuqinisekisa ukuba amanqanaba entsalela yezinambuzane ayibeki nkxalabo yezempilo yabantu. .

Iarhente ithi ibangela inyani yokuba ukutya kweentsana nabantwana kunokuba kwahluke kakhulu koku kwabantu abadala kwaye batye ukutya okungaphezulu kobungakanani babo kunabantu abadala. I-EPA ikwatsho ukuba idibanisa ulwazi malunga neendlela zokuvezwa kwezinambuzane - ukutya, amanzi okusela okusetyenziselwa ukuhlala-ngolwazi malunga nobutyhefu bokubulala izinambuzane nganye ukumisela umngcipheko onokubangelwa ziintsalela zezibulali zinambuzane. Iarhente ithi ukuba umngcipheko "awamkelekanga," ngekhe uvume ukunyamezelana.

I-EPA ikwathi xa isenza izigqibo zokunyamezelana, "ifuna ukulungelelanisa ukunyamezelana kwe-US kunye nemigangatho yamazwe aphesheya xa kunokwenzeka, ngokuhambelana nemigangatho yokhuseleko lokutya e-US kunye nezolimo."

IMonsanto, eyaba yeyunithi yeBayer AG ekuqaleni konyaka, icele ngempumelelo i-EPA ukuba yandise amanqanaba eentsalela zeglyphosate ezivunyelwe kukutya okuninzi, kubandakanya ingqolowa kunye nehabile.

Ngo-1993, umzekelo, i-EPA ibinonyamezelo ye-glyphosate kwii-oats kwiindawo eziyi-0.1 kwisigidi ngasinye (ppm) kodwa ngo-1996 UMonsanto ubuze i-EPA ukunyusa ukunyamezelana ukuya kwi-20 ppm kunye I-EPA yenze njengoko ibuziwe. Ngo-2008, kwisiphakamiso sikaMonsanto, I-EPA kwakhona ijonge ukuphakamisa unyamezelo ye-glyphosate kwi-oats, ngeli xesha ukuya kwi-30 ppm.

Ngelo xesha, ikwatsho ukuba iyakuphakamisa ukunyamezelwa kwe-glyphosate kwirhasi ukusuka kwi-20 ppm ukuya kwi-30 ppm, inyuse ukunyamezelwa kumbona wentsimi ukusuka kwi-1 ukuya kwi-5 ppm kunye nokuphakamisa ukunyamezelwa kwentsalela ye-glyphosate kwingqolowa ukusuka kwi-5 ppm ukuya kwi-30 ppm, ukwanda ngama-500 epesenti. I-30 ppm yengqolowa ithelekiswa namanye amazwe angaphezu kwama-60, kodwa ingaphezulu kokunyamezelwa okuvunyelwe kumazwe angaphezu kwama-50, ngokwe unyamezelo database isekwe ngenkxaso mali ye-EPA kwaye igcinwe ngoku liqela labacebisi ngemicimbi yabucala.

"I-Arhente igqibe ekubeni ukunyamezeleka okwandileyo kukhuselekile, oko kukuthi, kukho isiqiniseko esifanelekileyo sokuba akukho monakalo uya kubangelwa kukuvezwa ngokubanzi kumthamo wamachiza okubulala izitshabalalisi," utshilo u-EPA kwi-Meyi 21, 2008 Federal Register.

“Zonke ezi ngxelo zivela kwi-EPA- sithembe ukuba ikhuselekile. Kodwa ke inyaniso asazi ukuba ikhuselekile na, ”utshilo uGqirha Bruce Lanphear, isazinzulu kwezonyango e-Child & Family Research Institute, kwisibhedlele sabantwana i-BC, nakwinjingalwazi yecandelo lezenzululwazi zezempilo kwiYunivesithi yaseSimon Fraser e IVancouver, iBritish Columbia. U-Lanphear uthe ngelixa abalawuli becinga ukuba ziyanda iziphumo zetyhefu, ubungqina bezenzululwazi bubonisa ukuba ezinye iikhemikhali zinetyhefu kumanqanaba asezantsi okuvezwa. Ukukhusela impilo yoluntu kuya kufuna ukuphinda uqwalasele iingcinga ezisisiseko malunga nendlela iiarhente ezilawula ngayo iikhemikhali, watsho ephepheni ipapashwe kunyaka ophelileyo.

Kwiminyaka yakutshanje zombini iMonsanto kunye neDow zifumene amanqanaba amatsha okunyamezelana nedicamba kunye ne-2,4-D ekutyeni ngokunjalo.

Ukunyusa ukunyamezelana kuvumela amafama ukuba asebenzise amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo ezinokushiya intsalela, kodwa loo nto ayoyikisi impilo yabantu, ngokweMonsanto. Kwibhlog ethunyelwe kunyaka ophelileyo, Isazinzulu seMonsanto uDan Goldstein uqinisekisile ukhuseleko lwentsalela yokubulala izinambuzane ekutyeni ngokubanzi nakwiiglyphosate ngokukodwa. Nokuba sele begqithile kwimida esemthethweni, intsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi ayibangeli bungozi, ngokukaGoldstein, othumele ibhlog yakhe ngaphambi kokuba athathe umhlala phantsi eMonsanto kulo nyaka.

Malunga nesiqingatha sokutya okwenziwe kwisampulu inezinto zokubulala izitshabalalisi

Ngexesha leenkxalabo zesayensi, i idatha yakutshanje ye-FDA kwiintsalela zamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi ekutyeni kufunyaniswe ukuba phantse isiqingatha sokutya isampulu ye-arhente inezinto zokubulala izinambuzane, iyeza lokubulala ukhula, ukungunda kunye nezinye iikhemikhali eziyityhefu ezisetyenziswa ngamafama ekukhuliseni ukutya okwahlukeneyo.

Ngaphezulu kweepesenti ezingama-90 zeejusi zeapile ezazisampuliwe zafunyanwa ziqulathe izibulali zinambuzane. I-FDA ikwaxele ukuba ngaphezulu kwe-60 yepesenti yecantaloupe ephethe intsalela. Ngokubanzi, iipesenti ezingama-79 zeziqhamo zaseMelika kunye neepesenti ezingama-52 zemifuno ziqulethe iintsalela zemithi yokubulala izitshabalalisi - uninzi lwazo lusaziwa ngoososayensi inxulunyaniswa noluhlu lwezifo kunye nezifo. Amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi afunyanwa nakwisoya, umbona, i-oat kunye neemveliso zengqolowa, kunye nokutya okugqityiweyo okufana neecereal, ii-crackers kunye ne-macaroni.

Uhlalutyo lwe-FDA "phantse ngokukodwa" lujolise kwiimveliso ezingabhalwanga njenge-organic, ngokutsho kwesithethi se-FDA uPeter Cassell.

I-FDA ihlehlisa ipesenti yokutya okuqulethe intsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi kwaye igxile kwipesenti yeesampulu ekungekho kophula amanqanaba okunyamezelana. Kwingxelo yayo yakutshanje, I-FDA ithe ngaphezulu kwe "99% yamakhaya neyama-90% yokungenisa ukutya kwabantu kuthobela imigangatho yomanyano."

Ingxelo ibonakalise ukumiliselwa kwe-arhente yokuvavanya i-glyphosate yokubulala ukhula ekutyeni. I-Ofisi yoXanduva lukaRhulumente yathi ngo-2014 ukuba bobabini i-FDA kunye neSebe lezoLimo lase-US kufuneka baqale ukuvavanya rhoqo ukutya kwe-glyphosate. I-FDA yenze uvavanyo olulinganiselweyo kuphela olukhangela intsalela ye-glyphosate, nangona kunjalo, isampulu yengqolowa kunye nesoya kunye nobisi kunye namaqanda kumbulali wokhula, utshilo umbutho. Akukho ntsalela ye-glyphosate eyafunyanwa kubisi okanye amaqanda, kodwa iintsalela zafunyanwa kwiipesenti ezingama-63.1 zeesampulu zombona kunye neepesenti ezingama-67 zeesampulu zesoya, ngokweedatha ze-FDA.

Iarhente khange ichaze okufunyaniswe yenye yeekhemisti zeglyphosate kwi-oatmeal kwaye iimveliso zobusi, nangona i-FDA chemist yenza ukuba iziphumo zakhe zaziwe ngabaphathi kunye nezinye izazinzulu ngaphandle kwe-arhente.

UCassell uthe iziphumo zobusi kunye ne-oatmeal bezingeyonxalenye yesabelo se-arhente.

Lilonke, ingxelo entsha ye-FDA igubungele isampulu eyenziwe ngo-Okthobha 1, 2015, ukuya nge-30 kaSeptemba, 2016, kwaye yaquka uhlalutyo lweesampulu ezingama-7,413 zokutya ezivavanywe njengenxalenye yenkqubo ye-FDA "yokujonga izilwanyana." Uninzi lweesampulu yayikukutya okuza kutyiwa ngabantu, kodwa iisampulu ezingama-467 yayikukutya kwezilwanyana. Iarhente ithe iintsalela zezitshabalalisi zifunyenwe kwiipesenti ezingama-47.1 zeesampulu zokutya zabantu eziveliswe ekhaya kunye neepesenti ezingama-49.3 zokutya okungeniswe kwamanye amazwe amiselwe ukutya kwabathengi. Imveliso yokutya kwezilwanyana yayifana, kunye nentsalela yokubulala izitshabalalisi efumaneka kwiipesenti ezingama-57 zeesampulu zasekhaya kunye neepesenti ezingama-45.3 zokutya kwamanye amazwe kwezilwanyana.

Uninzi lweesampulu zokutya ezingenisiweyo zibonise intsalela yezibulali zinambuzane eziphakamileyo ngokwaneleyo ukuba zingaphula umda osemthethweni, utshilo uFDA. Phantse iipesenti ezingama-20 zeesampulu zeemveliso eziziinkozo ezingeniswe elizweni zabonisa amanqanaba aphezulu ngokungekho semthethweni amayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi, umzekelo.