Ama-imeyili amasha akhombisa izingxoxo zososayensi zokuxoxa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ama-imeyili asanda kuthola anikela amazwibela okuthi ukulandisa kokuqiniseka kuthuthuke kanjani ngemvelaphi yemvelo yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ngenkathi kusala imibuzo ebalulekile yesayensi. Izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi yososayensi zikhombisa ochwepheshe bexoxa ngezikhala zolwazi nemibuzo engaphenduliwe ngemvelaphi yelabhu, njengoba abanye bebefuna ukucindezela imibono “engemuva” yokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Ososayensi abanethonya nezindawo eziningi zezindaba bachaze ubufakazi ngokuthi “nzima”Ukuthi leli gciwane lavela ezilwaneni zasendle, hhayi ebhodini. Kodwa-ke, ngemuva konyaka amacala okuqala abikiwe we-SARS-CoV-2 edolobheni laseChina iWuhan, kuncane okwaziwayo kanjani noma kuphi kwavela igciwane. Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2, obangela isifo i-COVID-19, kungabaluleka ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo.

Ama-imeyili ochwepheshe be-coronavirus USolwazi Ralph Baric - etholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi omphakathi yi-US Right to Know - khombisa izingxoxo phakathi kwabamele iNational Academy of Sciences (NAS), kanye nochwepheshe bokungavikeleki kwezifo ezithathelwanayo emanyuvesi ase-US nase Umanyano we-EcoHealth.

NgoFebhuwari 3, i-White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) kubuziwe iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) ukuze “ibize umhlangano wochwepheshe… ukuze kuhlolwe ukuthi iyiphi idatha, ulwazi namasampula adingekayo ukubhekana nokungaziwa, ukuze kuqondwe imvelaphi yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ye-2019-nCoV, futhi iphendule ngempumelelo kokubili ukugqashuka kwanoma yikuphi ukwaziswa okungaqondile okuba umphumela. ”

I-Baric nezinye izazi zezifo ezithathelwanayo zazibandakanyeka ekubhaleni impendulo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi zochwepheshe kanye ne okusalungiswa kusenesikhathi yangomhla kaFebhuwari 4.

Umbhalo wokuqala wachaza "imibono yokuqala yochwepheshe" ukuthi "imininingwane etholakalayo ye-genomic iyahambisana nokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokuthi okwamanje abukho ubufakazi bokuthi igciwane lenzelwe ukusabalala ngokushesha okukhulu phakathi kwabantu." Lo musho osalungiswa waphakamisa umbuzo, kubakaki: “[cela ochwepheshe ukuthi bangeze imininingwane ethile yamasayithi okubopha?]” Iphinde yafaka umbhalo waphansi kubakaki: ukuvela kwama-coronaviruses ahlobene]. ”

In i-imeyili eyodwa, yangomhla kaFebruwari 4, uchwepheshe wezifo ezithathelwanayo uTrevor Bedford waphawula: “Ngeke ngikhulume ngezindawo zokubopha lapha. Uma uqala ukukala ubufakazi kuningi okufanele ucabange ngakho kuzo zombili lezi zimo. ” Ngazo “zombili lezi zimo,” kubonakala sengathi iBedford ibhekisa kuzimo zelebhu kanye nemvelaphi yemvelo.

Umbuzo wezindawo ezibophezelayo ubalulekile engxoxweni mayelana nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. Izindawo ezihlukanisayo ezibophayo ku-SARS-CoV-2's spike protein confer “Okuseduze” ukubopha nokungena kwegciwane emangqamuzaneni omuntu, nokwenza i-SARS-CoV-2 itheleleke kakhulu kune-SARS-CoV. Ososayensi baphikise ngokuthi izingosi ezihlukile zokubopha zeSARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka ukuthi zivele ngenxa ye- zemvelo spillover endle noma ngamabomu I-laboratory ukulungisa kabusha kokhokho wemvelo ongakadalulwa okwamanje we-SARS-CoV-2.

The incwadi yokugcina eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 6 ayizange isho izingosi ezibophezelayo noma ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ivela kulabhorethri. Kuyacaca ukuthi kuneminye imininingwane edingekayo yokuthola umsuka weSARS-CoV-2. Incwadi ithi, “Ochwepheshe basazise ukuthi imininingwane eyengeziwe yokulandelana kwe-genomic evela kumasampula egciwane ngokwendawo - nangokwesikhashana - ayadingeka ukunquma umsuka nokuvela kwegciwane. Amasampula aqoqwe kusenesikhathi ekuqhamukeni kweWuhan namasampula avela ezilwaneni zasendle abaluleke kakhulu. ”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa abanye ochwepheshe bexoxa ngesidingo solimi olucacile ukuphikisana nalokho okuchazwe ngokuthi yi "crackpot theories" yemvelaphi yelabhu. UKristian Andersen, umbhali oholayo we iphepha elinomthelela leMvelo Medicine egomela imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2, uthe okusalungiswa kwasekuqaleni “kwakukukhulu, kodwa ngiyazibuza ukuthi ngabe sidinga yini ukuqina kakhulu embuzweni wobunjiniyela.” Uqhube wathi, “Uma enye yezinhloso zalo mbhalo kungukuphikisana nalezi zinkolelo-mbono, ngicabanga ukuthi kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi sikwenze lokho ngokuqinile nangolimi olucacile…”

In impendulo yakhe, IBaric ihlose ukudlulisa isisekelo sesayensi ngemvelaphi yemvelo yakwaSARS-CoV-2. “Ngicabanga ukuthi sidinga ukusho ukuthi isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu naleli gciwane (96%) satholwa kumalulwane azungeza emhumeni waseYunnan, eChina. Lokhu kwenza isitatimende esiqinile ngemvelaphi yezilwane. ”

Okokugcina Incwadi kusuka kubongameli be-NASEM abathathi hlangothi ngemvelaphi yegciwane. Ithi, “Ucwaningo lwezocwaningo ukuqonda kangcono imvelaphi ye-2019-nCoV nokuthi ihlobana kanjani namagciwane atholakala kumalulwane nakwezinye izinhlobo zezinto eseziqalile. Isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-2019-nCoV sibonakala njenge-coronavirus ekhonjwe kumasampula athathwe ngamalulwane aqoqwe eChina. ” Incwadi ibhekisiwe ezimbili izifundo lokho kwenziwa yi-EcoHealth Alliance neWuhan Institute of Virology. Zombili ziveza imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Emasontweni ambalwa kamuva, incwadi kaMongameli yeNASEM yavela njengomthombo onegunya lomuntu onethonya Isitatimende sabososayensi esishicilelwe ku I-Lancet lokho kudlulise isiqiniseko esithe xaxa ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. I-USRTK ibike ngaphambilini ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala la mazwi, aqinisekisa ukuthi "ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi… baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle." Lesi sikhundla, kusho isitatimende, "sisekelwa futhi yincwadi evela kubongameli be-US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine."

Ukuqokwa okwalandela kukaPeter Daszak nabanye ababambisene ne-EcoHealth Alliance ukuze Ikhomishini yeLancet COVID19 noDaszak kuye Uphenyo lweWorld Health Organisation Imvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2 kusho ukuthi ukwethembeka kwale mizamo kucekelwa phansi ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, nangokubukeka sengathi sebevele behlulele ngaphambi kwalolu daba.

---

“Izingqinamba okufanele sizigweme”

Ama-imeyili eBaric akhombisa nomele i-NAS ukuphakamisa kososayensi base-US kufanele “mhlawumbe bagweme” imibuzo emayelana nemvelaphi yakwa-SARS-CoV-2 emihlanganweni yamazwe womabili ababeyihlela nochwepheshe be-Chinese COVID-19. Ama-imeyili ngoMeyi nangoJuni 2020 axoxa ngezinhlelo zemihlangano. Ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseMelika, iningi labo elingamalungu e-NAS Ikomidi Elimi Ngezifo Ezithathelwanayo Eziqhamukayo Nezinsongo Zempilo Zekhulu Lama-21, kubalwa uRalph Baric, Peter Daszak, David Franz, James Le Duc, Stanley Perlman, David Relman, Linda Saif, noPeiyong Shi.

The ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseChina kufaka phakathi uGeorge Gao, uZhengli Shi, noZhiming Yuan. UGeorge Gao unguMqondisi we-China CDC. UZhengli Shi uhola ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan Institute of Virology, kanti uZhiming Yuan unguMqondisi weWIV.

In i-imeyili kubahlanganyeli baseMelika mayelana neseshini yokuhlela, Isikhulu Sezinhlelo Eziphezulu se-NAS uBenjamin Rusek uchaze inhloso yomhlangano: “ukukugcwalisa ngemvelaphi yengxoxo, xoxa ngezihloko / imibuzo (uhlu kuhlu lwesimemo sakho nokunamathiselwe) nezinkinga okufanele gwema (imibuzo yemvelaphi, ipolitiki)…

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Xhumanisa nama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric wase-University of North Carolina angatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (Amakhasi we-83,416)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo evela kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi ze uphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.