Iphepha lokwenyani leDicamba

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Iindaba zamva: I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaseMelika ubhengeze u-Okthobha 27 izakuvumela amafama ase-US ukuba aqhubeke nokutshiza izityalo nge-Bayer AG's weedkiller esetyenziswa kwi-dicamba-resistant GMO soybeans and cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkundla othintela ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkundla yezibheno yakugweba oko I-EPA “ibeka umngcipheko omkhulu” kubabulali bokhula lwe-dicamba. Amashumi amafama ajikeleze i-US amangalela iBayer (eyayisakuba yiMonsanto) kunye ne-BASF kumzamo wokubamba iinkampani ukuba ziphendule kwizigidi zeehektare zomonakalo wesityalo amafama athi zibangelwa kukusetyenziswa gwenxa kwe-dicamba. Sithumela amaxwebhu okufumanisa kunye nohlalutyo lwezilingo kuthi Iphepha leDicamba Papers.

isishwankathelo

Dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) lubanzi olubanzi utywala okokuqala kubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-Dicamba ikwabhaliselwe ukusetyenziswa okungezizo ezolimo kwiindawo zokuhlala nakwezinye iindawo, ezinje ngegalufa apho isetyenziselwa ikakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamagqabi abanzi anje ngeedandelions, ichickweed, i-clover kunye ne-ivy yomhlaba.

Ngaphezulu kweemveliso ezili-1,000 XNUMX ezithengiswa e-United States ezibandakanya i-dicamba, ngokwe-National Pesticide Information Centre Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-aginist ye-auxin: ivelisa ukukhula okungalawulekiyo okukhokelela kukufa kwezityalo.

Iingxaki zokusiNgqongileyo 

Iinguqu ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ukuba zihamba kude nalapho zisetyenziswe khona, kwaye zazingasetyenziswanga ngokubanzi ngexesha leenyanga ezikhulayo xa benokubulala izityalo okanye imithi.

I-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yamkele ukubhaliswa kweefomula ezintsha ze-dicamba ngo-2016, nangona kunjalo, ivumela ukusetyenziswa ngokutsha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ekukhuleni kwezityalo zekotoni nezinyamezelayo zedicamba. Izazinzulu zilumkise ukuba ukusetyenziswa okutsha kuya kukhokelela kumonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ukusetyenziswa okutsha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuphuhliswa kokuchasana nokhula ngokubanzi kwi-glyphosate-based herbicides, kubandakanya uphawu oludumileyo lweRoundup, olwaziswa nguMonsanto kwii-1970s. Ngama-1990, iMonsanto yazisa izityalo ezinganyamezeliyo i-glyphosate, yaze yakhuthaza abantu abadumileyo ukuba basebenzise iinkqubo zokulima “iRoundup Ready”. Abalimi banokutyala iMonsanto yemfuza eyinyamezelayo yemfuza eyinyamezelo lweglyphosate, umbona, umqhaphu kunye nezinye izityalo, emva koko bafafaze i-glyphosate herbicides efana neRoundup ngokuthe ngqo ngaphezulu kwezityalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Inkqubo yenza ukhula lula kubalimi njengoko benokutshiza imichiza ngqo kumasimi abo onke ngexesha lokukhula, kususa ukhula olwalukhuphisana nezityalo ukufuma kunye nezondlo zomhlaba.

Ukuthandwa kwenkqubo yeRoundup Ready kukhokelele kukonyuka kokhula, nangona kunjalo, kushiya amafama ngamasimi okhula oluqinileyo olungasayi kuphinda lufe xa lufafazwe ngeglyphosate.

Kwi-2011 iMonsanto yabhengeza ukuba i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Bethembele kwixesha elide kakhulu” kwaye wathi icwangcise ukusebenzisana ne-BASF kwaye iphuhlise inkqubo yokulima izityalo ezenziwe ngobunjineli ezinokunyamezela ukutshizwa nge-dicamba. Yathi iyakwazisa uhlobo olutsha lwe-dicamba herbicide engayi kuhamba kude namasimi apho yafafazwa khona.

Ukusukela oko kwaziswa le nkqubo intsha, izikhalazo malunga nomonakalo we-dicamba ukwanda kwiindawo ezininzi zasezifama, kubandakanya nezikhulu zezikhalazo ezivela e-Illinois, e-Indiana, e-Iowa, eMissouri nase-Arkansas.

Kwingxelo yomhla ka-Novemba. 1, 2017, i-EPA yathi ifumene uphando malunga nokwenzakala kwezityalo ezingama-2,708 ezisemthethweni ezinxulumene nesicamba (njengoko kuchaziwe ngamasebe karhulumente wezolimo). Iarhente ithe zingaphezulu kwe-3.6 yezigidi iihektare zesoya ezichaphazelekileyo ngelo xesha. Ezinye izityalo ezichaphazelekileyo yayiziitumato, ivatala, icantaloupe, izidiliya, amathanga, imifuno, icuba, izitiya zokuhlala, imithi kunye namatyholo.

NgoJulayi 2017, iSebe lezoLimo laseMissouri lakhupha okwexeshana "ukuThengisa ukuThengisa, ukuSebenzisa okanye ukuSusa uMyalelo," kuzo zonke iimveliso ze-dicamba eMissouri. Urhulumente waphakamisa iodolo ngoSeptemba 2017.

Ezi ziimveliso zedicamba:

Nge-Okthobha 31, 2018, i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo e-US (i-EPA) yabhengeza ukongezwa kwe-Engenia, i-XtendiMax kunye ne-FeXapan yobhaliso nge-2020 yokusetyenziswa "ngaphezulu" kokusebenzisa indawo yecicamba enganyamezeliyo yomqhaphu kunye neembotyi zesoya. I-EPA ithe iphucule iilebheli zangaphambili kwaye yabeka ukhuselo olongezelelweyo kumzamo wokunyusa impumelelo kunye nokusetyenziswa okukhuselekileyo kwemveliso ebaleni.

Ubhaliso lweminyaka emibini lusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA ichaze la magatya alandelayo:

  • Abafaki zicelo abaqinisekisiweyo kuphela abanokufaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (abo basebenza phantsi kweliso lomenzi wesicelo oqinisekisiweyo abanakuphinda benze izicelo)
  • Ukuthintela ukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kwiintsuku ezingama-45 emva kokutyala okanye ukuya kuthi ga kwinqanaba lokukhula le-R1 (intyatyambo yokuqala), nokuba yeyiphi eza kuqala
  • Thintela ngaphezulu kwesicelo se-dicamba kwi-cotton kwiintsuku ezingama-60 emva kokutyala
  • Kwikotoni, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu ukusuka kwezine ukuya kwezimbini
  • Kwiimbotyi zesoya, inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu lihlala kwisibini
  • Izicelo ziya kuvunyelwa kuphela ukusuka kwiyure enye emva kokuphuma kwelanga ukuya kwiiyure ezimbini phambi kokutshona kwelanga
  • Kwiindawo apho iintlobo zezilwanyana ezisemngciphekweni zinokubakho, i-downwind buffer iya kuhlala kwi-110 yeenyawo kwaye kuyakubakho i-buffer entsha yeenyawo ezingama-57 ezijikeleze amanye amacala endle (i-110-foot-downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izicelo, hayi kwiibalo kuphela apho Izilwanyana ezisengozini yokubakho)
  • Ukuphuculwa kwemiyalelo yetanki yokucoca yonke inkqubo
  • Ukuphuculwa kwelebheli yokuphucula ulwazi lokufaka isicelo kwifuthe le-pH esezantsi kwimeko yokungazinzi kwe-dicamba
  • Ukucocwa kwelebheli kunye nokungaguquguquki ukuphucula ukuthotyelwa nokunyanzeliswa

Inkundla yezibheno yase-US Isigqibo se-9 seSekethe 

Nge-3 kaJuni ka-2020. Inkundla yezibheno yase-US kwiSekethe yesithoba yathi i-Arhente yokuKhuselwa kokusiNgqongileyo yaphule umthetho ngokuvuma ukubulawa kwe-dicamba yi-Bayer, BASF kunye ne-Corteva Agrisciences. Inkundla ukuchithile ukuvunywa kwe-arhente yamachiza abulala amayeza e-dicamba-based athandwayo ayenziwe ziikhemikhali ezintathu ezinkulu. Isigwebo senza ukuba amafama aqhubeke nokusebenzisa imveliso.

Kodwa i-EPA yasikhaba isigqibo senkundla, ikhupha isaziso nge-8 kaJuni yatsho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa i-dicamba herbicides yeenkampani kude kube ngu-Julayi 31, ngaphandle kokuba inkundla ithe ngqo ngolungelelwano ukuba ayifuni kulibaziseka ukuphuma kwezo zicelo. Inkundla icaphule umonakalo owenziwe kukusetyenziswa kwe-dicamba kwihlobo elidlulileyo kwizigidi zeehektare zezityalo, iziqhamo kunye nemifuno kwilizwe lase-US.

NgoJuni 11, 2020, Abakhalazi ecaleni wafaka isindululo esingxamisekileyo ukufuna ukunyanzelisa umyalelo wenkundla kunye nokujongela phantsi i-EPA.

Iinkcukacha ezithe kratya zinokuba njalo ifunyenwe apha.

Intsalela yokutya 

Njengokuba izicelo ze-glyphosate kwimihlaba yeefama ziye zafunyanwa zishiya intsalela ye-glyphosate kunye nasekutyeni okugqityiweyo, njenge-oatmeal, isonka, iisiriyeli, njl., Iintsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuba zishiye intsalela ekutyeni. Amafama emveliso yawo ibingcoliswe ziintsalela ze-dicamba ngokusebenzisa i-drift bavakalise inkxalabo yokuba iimveliso zabo zinokukhatywa okanye zonzakaliswe ngorhwebo ngenxa yomcimbi wentsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amanqanaba okunyamezelana nedicamba ziinkozo ezininzi kunye nenyama yemfuyo etya iinkozo, kodwa hayi iziqhamo kunye nemifuno. Ukunyamezelana kwe-dicamba kwiimbotyi zesoya kusetwe kwiindawo ezili-10 kwisigidi, umzekelo, eUnited States, kunye neenxalenye ezi-2 kwisigidi sengqolowa. Ukunyamezeleka kunako zibonwe apha. 

I-EPA ikhuphe le nkcazo malunga nentsalela yedicamba ekutyeni: “I-EPA yenze uhlalutyo olufunwa ngumthetho iFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) kwaye yafumanisa ukuba intsalela ekutyeni“ ikhuselekile ”- okuthetha ukuba kukho isiqiniseko esifanelekileyo sokungabinabungozi ebantwini, kubandakanya konke izinto ezinokuchongwa ngokufanelekileyo, kubandakanya iintsana nabantwana, ekutyeni nakwezinye izinto ezingasebenziyo kwi-dicamba. ”

Umhlaza kunye neHypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba ngumhlaza, kodwa ezinye izifundo zifumene umngcipheko okhulayo womhlaza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Jonga ezi zifundo ngokubhekisele kwimpilo yoluntu yedicamba:

Ukusetyenziswa kwe-Dicamba kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo: uhlalutyo oluhlaziyiweyo Ijenali yaMazwe ngaMazwe ye-Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Xa kuthelekiswa nabafaki zicelo abangachazanga ukusebenzisa i-dicamba, abo bakwi-quartile ephezulu yokuvezwa benomngcipheko ophakamileyo wesifo somhlaza wesibindi kunye ne-intrahepatic bile duct kunye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheliyo kunye nokwehla komngcipheko we-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetyenziswa kwamayeza okubulala izitshabalalisi kunye neHyodys Hypothyroidism kubaFaki beziNtsholongwane kwizifundo zeMpilo yezoLimo. Iimpembelelo zezeMpilo kokusiNgqongileyo (9.26.18)
"Kweli qela likhulu labalimi ababesemngciphekweni wokubulala izitshabalalisi, safumanisa ukuba kusoloko kusetyenziswa ii-organochlorine zinambuzane (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ii-inseophosphate zinambuzane ezine (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, kunye ne-malathion), kunye namayeza okubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, kunye ne-2,4-D) ayanyaniswa nomngcipheko okhulayo we-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism kunye nokusetyenziswa kwezibulali-zinambuzane phakathi kwamadoda afaka isicelo sokubulala izitshabalalisi kwisifundo sempilo yezolimo. Ijenali yezeMpilo yokuSebenza ngokusiNgqongileyo (10.1.14)
"Imichiza yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, kunye neoyile yepetroleum zonke zinxulunyaniswa nokunyuka kwe-hypothyroidism"

Ukuphononongwa kokuvezwa kwezibulali zinambuzane kunye neziganeko zomhlaza kwiqela lezempilo lezolimo. Ukujongwa kweMpilo yeNdalo esingqongileyo (8.1.10)
“Sihlolisise izifundo ezingama-28; uninzi lweziyobisi zokubulala izitshabalalisi ezingama-32 ezazivavanyiwe zazingadibani kakhulu neziganeko zomhlaza kwizicelo zokubulala izinambuzane. Ukonyusa umyinge (okanye ukungalingani) kunye neepateni zokuphendula ezichazayo zichazwe kwizibulali zinambuzane ezili-12 ezibhaliswe ngoku eCanada kunye / okanye eUnited States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- idipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isifo seCancer phakathi kwabaFaki beziNtsholongwane ezichazwe kwiDicamba kwiMpilo yezoLimo Isifundo. Imiba yezeMpilo yokusiNgqongileyo (7.13.06)
Ukuchazwa kwakungadibananga neziganeko zomhlaza ngokubanzi kwaye kwakungekho mibutho yomeleleyo kunye naluphi na uhlobo lomhlaza. Xa iqela lesalathiso lalinabafaki-zicelo abatyhilekileyo abasezantsi, sabona imeko elungileyo emngciphekweni phakathi kweentsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye nomhlaza wemiphunga (p = 0.02), kodwa akukho nanye kuqikelelo lwenqaku lomntu oluphakanyisiweyo. Siye sabona imeko eyandayo yomngcipheko womhlaza wekolon kuzo zombini iintsuku zokuvezwa kobomi kunye neentsuku zokuphila ezinobunzima, nangona ezi ziphumo zibangelwe ngumngcipheko ophakamileyo kwinqanaba eliphezulu lokuvezwa.

I-Lymphoma ye-non-Hodgkin kunye nokuchazwa kwe-Pesticide ekhethekileyo kuMadoda: I-Cross-Canada Study of Pesticides kunye neMpilo. Umhlaza we-Epidemiology, Biomarkers kunye noThintelo (11.01)
“Phakathi kweekhompawundi ezizodwa, kuhlalutyo lwe-multivariate, umngcipheko we-NHL wanyuswa ngokweenkcukacha-manani ngokuvezwa kwemichiza yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OKANYE, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye iimodeli ezongezayo, ezibandakanya ukubonwa kwezinye iikhemikhali eziphambili okanye iyeza lokubulala izitshabalalisi, umhlaza wesibeleko, imbali yomhlaza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, kunye nokuvezwa kwimixube equkethe i-dicamba (OKANYE, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40- 2.75)… babengabacingeli abazimeleyo ababalulekileyo abonisa umngcipheko owandisiweyo weNHL ”

Ityala 

Inkxalabo yomonakalo we-dicamba ikhuthaze ukumangalelwa ngamafama kumazwe amaninzi ase-US. Iinkcukacha kwisimangalo ku funyanwa apha.