Izinhlelo zikaBill Gates zokwenza kabusha izinhlelo zokudla zizolimaza isimo sezulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan

Encwadini yakhe entsha yokuthi ungagwema kanjani inhlekelele yesimo sezulu, usozigidi owayenikela ngezimali uBill Gates uxoxa ngezinhlelo zakhe zoku imodeli yokudla kwase-Afrika phezu "kwenguquko eluhlaza" yaseNdiya, lapho usosayensi wezitshalo enyusa isivuno sezitshalo futhi wasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi eziyinkulungwane, ngokusho kukaGates. Uthi, isithiyo sokuqalisa ukulungiswa okufanayo e-Afrika ukuthi abalimi abaningi emazweni ampofu abanayo imali yokuthenga umanyolo.  

"Uma singasiza abalimi abampofu ukuthi bakhulise isivuno sabo, bazothola imali eningi futhi bazodla okuningi, futhi izigidi zabantu kwamanye amazwe ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni zizokwazi ukuthola ukudla okwengeziwe nezakhi zomzimba ezizidingayo," kusho uGates kuphetha. Akazibheki izinto eziningi ezisobala ngenkinga yendlala, njengoba nje eqa izinto ezibalulekile mpikiswano ngesimo sezulu, njengoba uBill McKibben esho Ukubuyekezwa kweNew York Times yencwadi kaGates Indlela Yokugwema Inhlekelele Yesimo Sezulu. 

Amasango ahluleka ukusho, ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi indlala yimbangela enkulu yokuthi ubumpofu nokungalingani, hhayi ukushoda. Futhi ubonakala engazi ukuthi "inguquko eluhlaza" edonse amashumi eminyaka yezolimo zezimboni eNdiya ishiye i- ifa elibi lokulimaza Kokubili i-ecosystem kanye nabalimi abasafufusa, abake baba ukubhikisha ezitaladini kusukela ngonyaka odlule.   

"Imibhikisho yabalimi eNdiya ibhala umlando wesifuba seGreen Revolution," kusho u-Aniket Aga wabhala kwiScientific American ngenyanga edlule. Emashumini eminyaka kusetshenzelwa isu eliluhlaza, “kusobala ukuthi izinkinga ezintsha zezolimo zezimboni zengeze ezinkingeni zakudala ze ukulamba futhi ukungondleki, ”Kubhala u-Aga. "Azikho izingqinamba ezingaba khona emkhakheni wokumaketha ezizolungisa imodeli yokukhiqiza eyisisekelo nesimeme."

Le modeli okushukumisela abalimi ekusebenzeni okulima okuya ngokuya kukhule futhi kungafani okwehlukile thembela kuzibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokulimaza kwesimo sezulu umanyolo wamakhemikhali - ingenye yeGates Foundation ebilokhu igqugquzela e-Afrika iminyaka eyi-15, ngaphezu kokuphikisana nokunyakaza kokudla kwase-Afrika abathi isisekelo sicindezela izinto eziseqhulwini ezinkampanini zezamabhizinisi ezolimo zomhlaba wonke zilimaza imiphakathi yazo.  

Amakhulu ezinhlangano zomphakathi ayabhikisha iGates Foundation's amasu ezolimo kanye nomthelela wazo kwiNgqungquthela Yezwe Yezokudla Yezwe ezayo. Abangaphakathi bathi lobu buholi busongela ukuphazamisa imizamo ebonakalayo yokuguqula uhlelo lokudla, e umzuzu obalulekile lapho iningi le-sub-Saharan Africa likhona ukuxega ekushayweni okuningi futhi ukukhula kwenkinga yendlala ngenxa yobhadane kanye nezimo zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. 

Konke lokhu akubonwanga yimithombo yezindaba emikhulu ekhipha ukhaphethi obomvu wencwadi kaGates. Nazi ezinye zezizathu abagxeki abathi uhlelo lweGates Foundation lokuthuthukisa ezolimo alulungile esimweni sezulu. Isisekelo asiphendulanga ezicelweni eziningi zokuphawula. 

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene: Kungani silandela izinhlelo zikaBill Gates zokuvuselela uhlelo lokudla 

Ukunciphisa ukukhishwa kwegesi lokushisa

UGates akanamahloni ngokuthanda kwakhe umanyolo wokwenziwa, njengoba naye kuchaza kule blog ngokuvakasha kwakhe e- Isitshalo sokuhambisa umanyolo i-Yara eDar es Salaam, eTanzania. Lesi sitshalo esisha ngesikhulu kunazo zonke zalolu hlobo eMpumalanga Afrika. Umanyolo “yinto eyenziwe ngomlingo engasiza ukukhipha izigidi zabantu ebuphofini,” kubhala uGates. "Ukubuka abasebenzi bagcwalisa izikhwama ngamapelle amancane amancane amhlophe aqukethe i-nitrogen, phosphorus, nezinye izakhamzimba zezitshalo kwaba yisikhumbuzo esinamandla sokuthi wonke umanyolo unamandla okuguqula impilo e-Afrika."

ICorp Watch ichaza uYara ngokuthi “umanyolo omkhulu odala inhlekelele yesimo sezulu. ” I-Yara ingumthengi omkhulu wezimboni waseYurophu omkhulu wegesi yemvelo, enxenxa ngenkuthalo ukuthosa, futhi ingumkhiqizi ophambili womanyolo wokwenziwa ososayensi bathi banesibopho ngoba ukukhathazeka kuyanda ekukhishweni kwe-nitrous oxide. I- igesi yokushisa okuwukuthi Amandla aphindwe kathathu kune-carbon dioxide ekufudumaleni kweplanethi. Ngokombiko othile iphepha le-Nature lakamuva, ukukhishwa kwe-nitrous oxide okuqhutshwa kakhulu ezolimo kuyanda ngokwanda kwempendulo yempendulo okusibeka ku-a indlela embi kakhulu yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu.

UGates uyavuma ukuthi umanyolo wokwenziwa ulimaza isimo sezulu. Njengesixazululo, uGates uthemba ukwakheka kwezobuchwepheshe emkhathizwe, kufaka phakathi iphrojekthi yokulinga yokwenza onjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ukulungisa i-nitrogen enhlabathini. "Uma lezi zindlela zisebenza," kubhala uGates, "bazosinciphisa kakhulu isidingo sikamanyolo nakho konke ukungcola okubhekene nakho." 

Okwamanje, ukugxila okuyinhloko kwemizamo kaGates yokuguqula indawo eluhlaza okwenziwe e-Afrika kukhulisa ukusetshenziswa kukamanyolo wokwenziwa ngenhloso yokwandisa isivuno, noma ngabe kukhona abukho ubufakazi bokukhombisa ukuthi iminyaka eyi-14 yale mizamo isize abalimi abancane noma abampofu, noma ikhiqize inzuzo enkulu yesivuno.

Ukunweba izindlela ezilimaza isimo sezulu ezilimaza isimo sezulu uqobo 

IGates Foundation isebenzise ngaphezulu kwe- $ 4 billion kusukela ngo-2006 ukuze "sisize ekuqhubeni uguquko kwezolimo”E-Afrika. Ubuningi be- imali iya ku ucwaningo lobuchwepheshe kanye nemizamo yokuguqula abalimi base-Afrika basebenzise izindlela zezimboni zezolimo futhi bandise ukufinyelela kwabo ezimbewini zentengiso, umanyolo nokunye okokufaka. Abaxhasi bathi le mizamo nika abalimi izinqumo abazidingayo ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa futhi bazikhuphule ebuphofini. Abagxeki bathi "inguquko eluhlaza" amasu alimaza i-Afrika ngokwenza izimiso zemvelo zintekenteke kakhudlwana, ukufaka abalimi ezikweletini, Futhi ukuphambukisela izinsiza zomphakathi kude kusukela izinguquko ezijulile zesistimu kwakudingeka ukubhekana nesimo sezulu kanye nezinkinga zendlala. 

"IGates Foundation igqugquzela uhlobo lokulima ngohlobo olulodwa lwezimboni nokulungiswa kokudla okungabondli abantu bethu," iqembu labaholi bezenkolo abavela e-Afrika ubhale a incwadi eya esisekelweni, kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isisekelo "sokwesekwa kokunwetshwa kwezolimo olunzulu lwezimboni sijulisa inkinga yabantu." 

Isisekelo, bathi, "Kukhuthaza abalimi base-Afrika ukuthi basebenzise indlela ephezulu yokufaka okokufaka esezingeni eliphezulu esekwe kumodeli yebhizinisi eyakhiwe endaweni yaseNtshonalanga" futhi "ifaka ingcindezi kubalimi ukuthi batshale isivuno esisodwa noma ezimbalwa ngokususelwa ekuthengiseni okuphezulu noma okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo ( GM) imbewu. ”

Uhlelo lwezolimo oluhamba phambili lwamaGates, i-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), kuqondisa abalimi emmbileni nakwezinye izitshalo eziyinhloko ngenhloso yokukhulisa isivuno. Ngokusho kwe-AGRA uhlelo lokusebenza lwe-Uganda (kugcizelelwa okwabo):

  • Inguquko kwezolimo ichazwa njenge inqubo lapho abalimi besuka ekukhiqizweni okuhlukahlukene kakhulu, okuziphilisa besiya ekukhiqizweni okukhethekile okugxile emakethe noma kwezinye izindlela zokushintshisana, okubandakanya ukuthembela okukhulu ezinhlelweni zokulethwa kokufakwa kanye nokukhishwa kanye nokwanda kokuhlanganiswa kwezolimo neminye imikhakha yezomnotho wasekhaya nowamazwe omhlaba.

I-AGRA isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 524, ikakhulukazi ezinhlelweni zokwandisa ukufinyelela kwabalimi ezimbewini zentengiso nakumanyolo. Le phakethe yezobuchwepheshe "yokuguqula okuluhlaza" iphinde ixhaswe ngamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ngonyaka kwizibonelelo ezivela kohulumeni base-Afrika, ngokusho kuka ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngonyaka odlule by ITufts Global Development and Environment Institute kanye nombiko ohambisanayo Amaqembu ase-Afrika nawaseJalimane

Abaphenyi abatholanga sibonakaliso sokwanda komkhiqizo; idatha ikhombisa ukuzuza okuncane kwesivuno sika-18% kwezitshalo eziyisisekelo emazweni abhekiswe kuwo yi-AGRA, ngenkathi imali engenayo imile futhi nokuvikeleka kokudla kube kubi kakhulu, ngenani labantu abalambile nabangondlekile kahle lenyuke ngama-30%. I-AGRA uphikise ucwaningo kepha ayikaze inikeze ukubikwa okuningiliziwe kwemiphumela yayo eminyakeni eyi-15. Okhulumela i-AGRA usitshele ukuthi umbiko uzovela ngo-Ephreli.

Abaphenyi abazimele nabo ibike ukwehla kwezitshalo zendabuko, njengamabele, okuyikhona okumelana nesimo sezulu futhi okunye umthombo obalulekile wama-micronutrients ezigidi zabantu.

"Umfuziselo we-AGRA owafakwa ekulimeni kwaseRwanda okwakungafani nhlobo cishe wacekela phansi izindlela zokulima zendabuko ezinomsoco futhi ezisimeme, ”kusho uJomo Kwame Sundaram, owayengumsizi kanobhala-jikelele we-UN kwezentuthuko yezomnotho, wabhala endatshaneni echaza ngocwaningo.  Iphakethe le-AGRA, uyaphawula, 'wabekwa isandla esindayo ”eRwanda, lapho kuthiwa uhulumeni uvimbela ukutshalwa kwezinye izitshalo eziyisisekelo kwezinye izindawo.”  

Ukuphambukisa izinsizakusebenza kwi-agroecology 

"Uma izinhlelo zokudla zomhlaba wonke zizosimama, izindlela zokutshala ezisebenzisa kakhulu okokufaka nezindawo zokudla kumele zingasebenzi," kubhala abaholi bezenkolo base-Afrika. khalaza kwiGates Foundation.

Ngempela, eziningi ongoti bathi a Ukushintshwa kwepharadigm kuyadingeka, kude ne iyunifomu, amasistimu wokutshala i-monoculture ekubhekaneni nezindlela ezahlukahlukene, zezolimo ukuthi ingabhekana nezinkinga nemikhawulo yezolimo zezimboni kufaka phakathi ukungalingani, ukwanda kobuphofu, ukungondleki kanye nokucekelwa phansi kwemvelo.  

URupa Marya, MD, onguprofesa wezokwelapha e-UCSF, uxoxa nge-agroecology engqungqutheleni ye-EcoFarm yango-2021

Inhlangano Yezizwe Yezokudla Nezolimo umbiko wepaneli yezazi nge-agroecology ngokusobala kudinga ukuthi kususwe indlela “yezinguquko ezimbonini” kwezolimo ezimbonini nasezenzweni zemvelo yezolimo ezikhonjiswe ukukhulisa ukwehluka kwezitshalo zokudla, ukunciphisa izindleko nokwakha ukuqina kwesimo sezulu. 

Kepha izinhlelo zokukhulisa i-agroecology zilambele ukuthola imali njengoba izigidigidi zosizo nemixhaso izokwenyusa izindlela zezolimo zezimboni. 

Izintandokazi zabanikeli zenzuzo, ezingahlehli kanye nemiphumela yesikhathi esifushane ibuyisela emuva ukutshalwa kwezimali kwi-agroecology ngokusho kombiko wango-2020 kusuka ku-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food). Ama-85% wamaphrojekthi we-Gates Foundation axhaswe yi-Afrika kule minyaka edlule anqunyelwe ekusekeleni ezolimo zezimboni, kusho umbiko, kuyilapho kuphela u-3% wamaphrojekthi afaka izinto zokuhlelwa kabusha kwe-agroecological.

Abacwaningi qaphela, “i-agroecology ayi azilingani ngezindlela ezikhona zokutshala imali. Njengabanikeli abaningi abasiza umphakathi, iBMGF [iBill and Melinda Gates Foundation] ifuna izinzuzo ezisheshayo nezibonakalayo ekutshalweni kwezimali, ngaleyo ndlela ithande izixazululo ezibhekiswe kwezobuchwepheshe. ” 

Lezi zinketho zinesisindo esinzima ezinqumweni zokuthi amadola ocwaningo abiwa kanjani ezinhlelweni zokudla zomhlaba wonke. Umamukeli omkhulu kunabo bonke Imali yezolimo yeGates Foundation yi-CGIAR, inhlanganisela yezikhungo zocwaningo eziyi-15 eziqashe izinkulungwane zososayensi futhi ziphethe amabhange ayi-11 abaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni

Eminyakeni yamuva nje, ezinye izikhungo ze-CGIAR zithathe izinyathelo zokubheka izindlela ezihlelekile nezisuselwa kumalungelo, kepha uhlelo oluhlongozwayo lokwakha kabusha i- "One CGIAR" enebhodi elilodwa namandla amasha wokusetha i-ajenda liphakamisa ukukhathazeka. Ngokusho kokudla kwe-IPES, isiphakamiso sokuhlelwa kabusha isongela "ukunciphisa ukuzimela kwama-ajenda ocwaningo lwesifunda futhi iqinise ukubamba kwabaxhasi abanamandla kakhulu," njengeGates Foundation, "enqena ukwehluka kumasu wenguquko oluhlaza."

The inqubo yokwakhiwa kabusha eholwa ngummeli weGates Foundation futhi owayengumholi weSyngenta Foundation, "Aama-ppears kufanele aqhutshekelwe phambili ngendlela ephoqelelayo, "kusho i-IPES," ngokuthengwa okuncane kulabo okucatshangwa ukuthi bazozuza eNingizimu Yomhlaba wonke, ngokungafani okwanele phakathi kwesiyingi sangaphakathi sabashisekeli bezinguquko, futhi ngaphandle kokucatshangelwa okufanele ukushintsha kwezinhlelo zokudla. ”

Okwamanje, iGates Foundation inayo wakhahlela enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 310 ku-CGIAR “ukusiza abalimi abayizigidi ezingama-300 ukuba bazijwayeze ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu.” 

Ukusungula ukusetshenziswa okusha kwezitshalo ze-GMO zokubulala izinambuzane

Umlayezo wokuthatha uBill Gates incwadi entsha ukuthi intuthuko yezobuchwepheshe singondla umhlaba futhi silungise isimo sezulu, uma nje sikwazi tshala izinsiza ezanele ngalezi zinto ezintsha. Izinkampani ezinkulu zokubulala izinambuzane / imbewu zikhuthaza ingqikithi efanayo, ukuziphendulela kabusha kusuka kwabenqabayo besimo sezulu kuya ekuxazululeni izinkinga: ukuthuthuka kwezolimo ezidijithali, ukunemba kwezolimo kanye nobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo kuzonciphisa imvelo yezolimo futhi "kunike amandla abalimi abancane abayizigidi eziyikhulu" ukujwayela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, “konke ngonyaka ka-2030,” ngokusho kuka I-Bayer CropScience.

IGates Foundation nemboni yamakhemikhali “ukuthengisa okwedlule njengezinto ezintsha e-Afrika, ”Kusho uTimothy Wise, umcwaningi osebenza ne-Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, ku-a iphepha elisha leTufts GDAE. UWise uthe, "Ukwenzeka kwangempela, kuyenzeka emikhakheni yabalimi njengoba besebenza nososayensi ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kwezinhlobonhlobo zezitshalo zokudla, ukunciphisa izindleko, kanye nokwakha ukubekezela kwesimo sezulu ngokwamukela imikhuba yezolimo." 

Njengesibikezelo sokuqhamuka kwezobuchwepheshe okuzayo, uGates ukhomba encwadini yakhe ethi Impossible Burger. Esahlukweni esithi "Sizikhulisa Kanjani Izinto," uGates uchaza ukwaneliseka kwakhe nge-veggie burger eyophayo (ku okungukuthi ungumtshali-zimali omkhulu) kanye nethemba lakhe lokuthi ama-burger asezitshalweni nenyama esekelwa ngamaseli azoba yizixazululo ezinkulu zokushintsha kwesimo sezulu. 

Uqinisile, kunjalo, ukuthi ukusuka enyameni efuywe efektri kubalulekile kwisimo sezulu. Kepha ingabe i-Impossible Burger iyisixazululo esimeme, noma nje iyindlela yokuthengisa yokuguqula izitshalo ezikhiqizwe ngokwemboni imikhiqizo yokudla enelungelo lobunikaziNjengo-Anna Lappe Uchaza, Ukudla Okungenakwenzeka “Konke kungena ku-GMO soy,” hhayi nje njengesithako esiyinhloko se-burger kodwa futhi njengesihloko se- uphawu lokuqina lwenkampani.  

Sekuyiminyaka engama-30 imboni yamakhemikhali ithembisa ukuthi izitshalo ze-GMO zizothuthukisa isivuno, zinciphise izibulala-zinambuzane futhi zondle umhlaba ngokusimama, kepha akwenzekanga kanjalo. Njengoba uDanny Hakim abike ku New York Times, Izitshalo ze-GMO azange zikhiqize isivuno esingcono,  futhi baqhuba ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-khula, ikakhulukazi i-glyphosate, okuxhunyaniswe nomdlavuza phakathi kwezinye impilo nezinkinga zemvelo. Njengoba ukhula luba lukhuni, imboni yathuthukisa imbewu enokubekezelela okusha kwamakhemikhali. I-Bayer, isibonelo, iqhubekela phambili ngezitshalo ze-GMO yakhelwe ukusinda ukubulala ukhula okuyisihlanu.

IMexico isanda kumemezela uhlela ukuvimbela ukungeniswa kommbila we-GMO, bethi izitshalo “azithandeki” futhi “azidingeki.”

ENingizimu Afrika, elinye lamazwe ambalwa ase-Afrika avumela ukutshalwa kwezentengiselwano kwezitshalo ze-GMO, ngaphezu kwe- I-85% yommbila nesoya manje seyakhiwe, futhi iningi lifuthwa nge-glyphosate. Abalimi, amaqembu omphakathi, abaholi bezombusazwe futhi odokotela baphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nokwenyuka kwamazinga omdlavuza. Futhi fukungavikeleki kwe-ood liyakhuphuka, futhi.  Isipiliyoni seNingizimu Afrika ngamaGMO kube “Iminyaka engama-23 yokwehluleka, ukulahleka kwemvelo kanye nendlala ekhulayo, ”Kusho i-African Centre for Biodiversity.

Inguquko ehlaza okwesibhakabhaka e-Afrika, kusho umsunguli waleli qembu uMariam Mayet, "iyisiphetho" esiholela ekwehliseni impilo yomhlabathi, ukulahleka kwezinhlobonhlobo zezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, kanye nokuvalela abalimi base-Afrika ohlelweni olungakhelwanga bazuze, kodwa bazuze ikakhulukazi izinkampani zamazwe amaningi aseNyakatho. ” 

“Kubalulekile ukuthi manje, kulesi sikhathi esibaluleke kakhulu emlandweni,” kusho i-African Center for Biodiversity, “ukuthi siguqule umkhondo, siqede ezolimo zezimboni futhi siguqulele ohlelweni lwezolimo nokudla okunobulungiswa futhi oluzwakalayo.”  

UStacy Malkan uphethe umhleli futhi ungumsunguli we-US Right to Know, iqembu locwaningo eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi. Bhalisela iphephandaba leLungelo Lokwazi ngezibuyekezo ezijwayelekile.

 

Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Glyphosate, i-herbicide yokwenziwa enelungelo lobunikazi ngonyaka we-1974 yiMonsanto Company futhi manje eyenziwe futhi ithengiswa yizinkampani eziningi emikhiqizweni engamakhulu, ihlotshaniswa nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa kakhulu njengesithako esisebenzayo kuma-herbicides anohlobo lwe-Roundup, kanye ne-herbicide esetshenziswa ne-"Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs).

Ukubekezelelana kwe-Herbicide kuyisici esande kakhulu se-GMO esenziwe izitshalo zokudla, kanti amanye ama-90% ommbila nama-94% kabhontshisi wase-US enzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kwabantu baseMelika ku-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe 500 amaphesenti selokhu kwethulwa izitshalo ze-Roundup Ready GMO e-US ngo-1996. Nawa amanye amaqiniso abalulekile nge-glyphosate:

I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ngokombiko othile NgoFebhuwari 2016 isifundo, i-glyphosate yiyona isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu: "E-US, asikho isibulala-zinambuzane esiseduze kakhulu nokusetshenziswa okunamandla nokusakazeke kangaka." Okutholakele kufaka phakathi:

  • AbaseMelika basebenzise amathani ayi-1.8 wezigidi ze-glyphosate selokhu yethulwa ngo-1974.
  • Emhlabeni wonke kufuthwe amathani ayizigidi eziyi-9.4 amakhemikhali emasimini - anele ukufafaza cishe isigamu sephawundi seRoundup kuwo wonke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.
  • Emhlabeni jikelele, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe izikhathi eziyi-15 selokhu kwethulwe izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Izitatimende ezivela kososayensi nabahlinzeki bokunakekelwa kwempilo 

Ukukhathazeka Ngomdlavuza

Imibhalo yesayensi kanye neziphetho zokulawula maqondana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ikhombisa ukuxubana kokutholakele, okwenza ukuphepha kwe-herbicide kube yindaba ephikisanayo. 

Ngo 2015, the I-International Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njengo-mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu”Ngemuva kokubukeza iminyaka yocwaningo lwesayensi olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ontanga. Ithimba lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba lithole ukuthi kukhona ukuhlangana okuthile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izinhlangano ze-US: Ngesikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yayiqhuba ukubuyekeza ukubhalisa. IKomidi Lokubuyekeza Umdlavuza we-EPA (CARC) ukhiphe umbiko ngoSepthemba 2016 siphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate "bekungeke kwenzeke ukuthi ibe yi-carcinogenic kubantu" ngemithamo efanele impilo yomuntu. NgoZibandlela wezi-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigungu Sabeluleki Besayensi ukuze sibuyekeze lo mbiko; amalungu ayekhona ihlukaniswe ekuhloleni kwabo umsebenzi we-EPA, abanye bathola ukuthi i-EPA yenze iphutha ekutheni iluhlole kanjani ucwaningo oluthile. Ngokwengeziwe, iHhovisi Lezokucwaninga Nentuthuko le-EPA linqume ukuthi iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA ayilandelwa imigomo efanele ekuhloleni kwayo i-glyphosate, futhi yathi ubufakazi bungathathwa njengobusekela ubufakazi “obungenzeka” bomdlavuza noma “obusikisela” bokwehlukaniswa kwe-carcinogenicity. Noma kunjalo i-EPA ukhiphe umbiko osalungiswa ku-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuthi ikhemikhali akunakwenzeka ukuthi libe yi-carcinogenic. Ngo-Ephreli 2019, i-EPA kwaqinisekisa isikhundla sayo leyo glyphosate ayibeki bungozi empilweni yomphakathi. Kepha ekuqaleni kwenyanga efanayo, i-US Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry (ATSDR) ibike ukuthi kunokuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza. Ngokusho kwe- umbiko wokusalungiswa ovela ku-ATSDR, "Ucwaningo oluningi lubike izilinganiso zobungozi ezinkulu kunezinye zezinhlangano eziphakathi kokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate kanye nengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma noma i-myeloma eminingi." 

I-EPA ikhiphe i- Isinqumo Sokubukeza Okwesikhashana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi olusha mayelana nokuma kwalo ku-glyphosate. 

Iyuniyani yase-Europe: The Isiphathimandla Sezokuphepha KwaseYurophu futhi I-European Chemicals Agency bathe i-glyphosate ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic kubantu. A Umbiko ka-Mashi 2017 ngamaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi abalawuli bathembele ngokungafanele ocwaningweni olwaluqondiswa futhi lusetshenziswa imboni yamakhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ithole ukuthi umbiko weFederal Institute for Risk Assessment waseJalimane ngeglyphosate, ongatholanga ubungozi bomdlavuza, ubufaka phakathi izingxenye zombhalo kukhishwe izifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebhuwari 2020, kwavela imibiko yokuthi izifundo zesayensi ezingama-24 ezithunyelwe kubalawuli baseJalimane ukufakazela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate zaqhamuka elabhorethri enkulu yaseJalimane osolwa ngokukhwabanisa nokunye okungalungile.

Umhlangano ohlangene we-WHO / FAO wezinsalela ze-Pesticide kunqunywe ngo-2016 ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingenakwenzeka ukufaka ingozi ye-carcinogenic kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni ngokudla, kepha lokhu kutholakala kungcoliswe ngu ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo ukukhathazeka ngemuva kokuvela ukuthi usihlalo kanye nosihlalo weqembu nabo babephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elixhaswe ngokwengxenye yiMonsanto nenye yezinhlangano zalo zokunxenxa.

California OEHHA: Ngo-Mashi 28, 2017, iHhovisi Lezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-California Environmental Protection Agency laqinisekisa ukuthi kuzokwenzeka engeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwe-Proposition 65 lwaseCalifornia lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba lesi senzo kodwa icala lachithwa. Kwelinye icala, inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ayinakudinga izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo equkethe i-glyphosate. NgoJuni 12, 2018, iNkantolo yesiFunda e-US yasenqaba isicelo se-California Attorney General sokuthi inkantolo isiphinde icubungule lesi sinqumo. Inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ingadinga kuphela inkulumo yezentengiso edalula "imininingwane eyiqiniso futhi engenakuphikiswa," futhi nesayensi ezungeze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayizange itholakale.

Isifundo Sezempilo Kwezolimo: Ucwaningo lukahulumeni wase-US olwalusekelwa isikhathi eside oluzoxhaswa yimindeni yasepulazini e-Iowa naseNyakatho Carolina alutholanga ukuxhumana phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abacwaningi babika ukuthi “phakathi kwabafaka izicelo ku-quartile yokuvezwa okuphezulu kakhulu, kwakukhona ingozi eyengeziwe ye-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uma iqhathaniswa nabangakaze basebenzise… ”Ukubuyekezwa kwakamuva kakhulu okushicilelwe ocwaningweni yenziwa umphakathi ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zakamuva ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Endocrine, ukukhathazeka nokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Ucwaningo lwango-2017 luhambisana nokuchayeka okungapheli, okunezinga eliphansi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingenawo utshwala kumagundane. Ngokusho kwabaphenyi, imiphumela "isho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okungapheli kwamazinga aphansi kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwe-GBH (Roundup), ezindaweni ezivumelekile ezilingana ne-glyphosate, kuhlotshaniswa nokuguqulwa okuphawulekayo kwe-proteome yesibindi ne-metabolism," ama-biomarkers we-NAFLD.

Ukuphazanyiswa kweMicrobiome

  • November 2020 iphepha ku-Journal of Materials Hazardous ibika ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisenkabeni ye-gut gut microbiome "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamabhaktheriya esiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho abalobi ephepheni labo. 
  • A 2020 ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi kwemiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome iphetha ngokuthi, "izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni zingadala i-dysbiosis, uma kubhekwa ukuthi amagciwane angosomathuba amelana kakhulu ne-glyphosate uma kuqhathaniswa nama-bacteria asebenzayo." Leli phephandaba liyaqhubeka, “IGlyphosate ingase ibe yisici esibucayi kwezemvelo ku-etiology yezifo eziningana ezihambisana ne-dysbiosis, kufaka phakathi isifo se-celiac, isifo samathumbu esivuthayo kanye nesifo samathumbu esivele sicasuke. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate nakho kungaba nemiphumela empilweni yengqondo, kufaka phakathi ukukhathazeka nokudangala, ngokushintsha kwesisu segciwane. ”
  • Ucwaningo lwama-rat lwango-2018 olwenziwe yiRamazzini Institute lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamazinga aphansi ku-Roundup emazingeni athathwa njengaphephe kakhulu kushintshe i-gut microbiota kwamanye amazinyane egundane.
  • Olunye ucwaningo lwango-2018 lubike ukuthi amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate afakwa kumagundane aphazamisa i-gut microbiota futhi kubangele ukukhathazeka nokuziphatha okufana nokudana.

Imiphumela emibi yezinyosi nezimvemvane ze-monarch

Amacala omdlavuza

Bangaphezu kuka-42,000 abantu abafake isimangalo eMonsanto Company (manje eyiBayer) bethi ukutholakala kwe-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), nokuthi iMonsanto yamboza izingozi. Njengengxenye yenqubo yokutholwa, iMonsanto kudingeke ukuthi ivule izigidi zamakhasi amarekhodi angaphakathi. Singa ukuthumela la Maphepha eMonsanto njengoba ezotholakala. Ukuze uthole izindaba namathiphu mayelana nomthetho oqhubekayo, bheka uCarey Gillam's I-Roundup Trial Tracker. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaphetha ngemiklomelo emikhulu kwabamangali ngesikweletu nomonakalo, amajaji athatha isinqumo sokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba nomthelela omkhulu ekubangeleni ukuthi bathuthukise i-NHL. IBayer iyasidlulisa lesi sinqumo. 

Ithonya leMonsanto ocwaningweni: Ngo-Mashi 2017, ijaji lenkantolo yombuso livule imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto leyo kwaphakamisa imibuzo emisha mayelana nethonya likaMonsanto kunqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bocwaningo abathembele kulo. Le mibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi izimangalo zikaMonsanto ezimi isikhathi eside mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ne-Roundup musa ukuthembela kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani iqinisekisa, kepha ivuliwe imizamo yokusebenzisa isayensi

Imininingwane engaphezulu ngokugxambukela kwesayensi

Ososayensi baseSri Lankan banikeze umklomelo wenkululeko we-AAAS wocwaningo lwezifo zezinso

I-AAAS inikeze ososayensi ababili baseSri Lankan, uDkt. UChanna Jayasumana noSarath Gunatilake, the Umklomelo we-2019 Wenkululeko Yesayensi Nokuzibophezela ngomsebenzi wabo "wokuphenya ukuxhumana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-glyphosate nesifo esingapheliyo sezinso ngaphansi kwezimo eziyinselele." Ososayensi babike ukuthi i-glyphosate idlala indima enkulu ekuhambiseni izinsimbi ezisindayo ezinso zalabo abaphuza amanzi angcolile, okuholela emazingeni aphezulu esifo esingapheliyo sezinso emiphakathini yokulima. Bona amaphepha ku-  I-SpringerPlus (2015), I-BMC Nephrology (2015), Health Environmental (2015), Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Wocwaningo Lwezemvelo kanye Nezempilo Yomphakathi (2014). Umklomelo we-AAAS ubukade ukhona imisiwe phakathi komkhankaso ophikisayo wokuphikisana wabalingani bemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wososayensi. Ngemuva kokubuyekezwa, i-AAAS ubuyisele umklomelo

Ukwehliswa: omunye umthombo wokuchayeka ekudleni 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate ezitshalweni ezingezona eze-GMO ezifana nokolweni, ibhali, i-oats, nama-lentile ukomisa isivuno ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kusheshiswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-desiccation, kungaba ngumthombo obalulekile wokuchayeka ekudleni kwe-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekudleni: I-US idonsa izinyawo zayo ekuhlolweni

I-USDA yehlisa buthule uhlelo lokuqala ukuhlola ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate ngo-2017. Imibhalo ye-ejensi yangaphakathi etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi yayihlele ukuqala ukuhlola amasampula angaphezu kuka-300 wesiraphu yommbila i-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2017. Kodwa i-ejensi yabulala iphrojekthi ngaphambi kokuthi iqale. Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa e-US kwaqala uhlelo lokuhlola olunomkhawulo ngo-2016, kodwa umzamo wawugcwele impikiswano nobunzima bangaphakathi kanti uhlelo lwalunjalo yamiswa ngoSepthemba 2016. Womabili la ma-ejensi anezinhlelo ezivivinya minyaka yonke ukudla kwezinsalela ze-pesticides kodwa zombili ziye zeqa ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate.

Ngaphambi kokumiswa, kutholakale isazi samakhemikhali esisodwa se-FDA amazinga ashaqisayo e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi oju lwase-US, amazinga ayengavumelekile ngokomthetho ngoba awekho amazinga avunyelwe ukusetshenziselwa uju yi-EPA. Nayi impinda yezindaba mayelana ne-glyphosate etholakala ekudleni:

Ama-pesticides ekudleni kwethu: Ikuphi idatha yokuphepha?

Idatha ye-USDA yango-2016 ikhombisa amazinga atholakala ngezibulala-zinambuzane kokungu-85% kokudla okungaphezulu kuka-10,000 XNUMX okusampuli, konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Uhulumeni uthi zincane izingozi zezempilo, kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Bona “Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma "kuphephile" kungahle kungaphephi ngempela: Ukuhlolwa kwesayensi kwensalela ye-pesticin ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

IGates Foundation iphinda kabili emkhankasweni wokwaziswa okungelona iqiniso eCornell njengoba abaholi base-Afrika befuna i-agroecology 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubika okuhlobene: Ukuguquka okuluhlaza okwehlulekayo kweGates Foundation e-Afrika (7.29.20)

I-Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation unikeze omunye u- $ 10 million ngesonto eledlule kwiCornell Alliance for Science eyimpikiswano, a umkhankaso wezokuxhumana obuseCornell ukuthi izitimela abafo e-Afrika nakwezinye izindawo ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nezolimo. Isibonelelo esisha siletha izibonelelo zeBMGF eqenjini zifike ku- $ 22 million.

Utshalomali lwe-PR luza ngesikhathi lapho iGates Foundation isolwa ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika abagxeki abathi zigxilisa izindlela zokulima ezisiza izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Abaholi bezenkolo banxusa iGates Foundation 

NgoSepthemba 10, abaholi bezenkolo e-Afrika bathumela i- incwadi evulekile eya eGates Foundation ukuyicela ukuthi ibuyekeze amasu ayo okwenza izibonelelo e-Afrika. 

“Yize sibonga iBill and Melinda Gates Foundation ngokuzinikela kwayo ekunqobeni ukungabi nokudla, kanye nokwamukela usizo lwezingqalasizinda olunikezwa ohulumeni bezwekazi lethu, sibhala ngokukhathazeka okukhulu ukuthi ukwesekwa yiGates Foundation ekwandiseni ezolimo ezinamandla zezimboni zijulisa inkinga yezenhlalakahle, ”kusho incwadi yokusayinwa eqondiswa yi- Isikhungo Sezemvelo SaseNingizimu Afrika Sokholo (SAFCEI).  

Incwadi ibalula i-Alliance eholwa yiGates Alliance for a Green Revolution (AGRA) ngokusekelwa kwayo "okuyinkinga kakhulu" kwezinhlelo zembewu ezentengiselwano ezilawulwa izinkampani ezinkulu, ukusekelwa kwayo kwemithetho yokuhlwanyela kabusha imbewu ukuvikela imbewu eqinisekisiwe nokwenza ubugebengu imbewu engaqinisekisiwe, kanye ukwesekwa kwabathengisi bezimbewu abanikeza izeluleko ezincanyana mayelana nemikhiqizo yezinkampani ngezinsizakalo zokwandiswa komkhakha womphakathi ezidingeka kakhulu 

Iphephandaba laseUganda eliphuma nsuku zonke libike ngokungaphumeleli kwephrojekthi ye-AGRA

"Sinxusa iGates Foundation ne-AGRA ukuthi bayeke ukukhuthaza ubuchwepheshe obuhlulekile nezindlela zokuphelelwa yisikhathi futhi baqale ukulalela abalimi abathuthukisa izixazululo ezifanele zezimo zabo," kusho abaholi bezenkolo.

Yize kusetshenziswe izigidigidi zamaRandi neminyaka engu-14 yezethembiso, i-AGRA yehlulekile ukufeza izinhloso zayo zokunciphisa ububha nokukhuphula imali yabalimi abancane, ngokusho NgoJulayi kubika Izithembiso Zamanga. Ucwaningo lwenziwe umfelandawonye wamaqembu ase-Afrika nawaseJalimane kanti lubandakanya nemininingwane evela ku- iphepha elimhlophe lakamuva enyatheliswa yiTufts Global Development and Environment Institute. 

IGates Foundation ayikaphenduli ezicelweni zokuphawula ngale ndatshana kodwa yathi nge-imeyili yangaphambilini, "Siyazeseka izinhlangano ezifana ne-AGRA ngoba zisebenzisana namazwe ukuwasiza ukuthi asebenzise izinto eziseqhulwini nezinqubomgomo eziqukethwe kumasu abo kazwelonke wokuthuthukisa ezolimo."

Ukushabalala kwezithembiso zenguquko eluhlaza 

Yethulwe ngo-2006 yiGates and Rockefeller Foundations, i-AGRA sekuyisikhathi eside ithembise ukuphinda kabili isivuno nemali engenayo emindenini yokulima eyizigidi ezingama-30 e-Afrika ngo-2020. Kepha iqembu lisuse ngokuthula lezo zinhloso kuwebhusayithi yalo esikhathini esithile ngonyaka odlule. UMphathi Wezabasebenzi we-AGRA u-Andrew Cox uthe nge-imeyili ukuthi leli qembu alisinciphisanga isifiso sakhe kodwa liyalungisa izindlela zalo nokucabanga kwalo ngamamethrikhi. Uthe i-AGRA izokwenza ukuhlolwa okuphelele ngemiphumela yayo ngonyaka ozayo. 

I-AGRA yenqabile ukuhlinzeka ngemininingwane noma ukuphendula imibuzo ebalulekile evela kubaphenyi bombiko Wezithembiso Zamanga, kusho ababhali bayo. Abamele iBIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia neHOMEF Nigeria bathumele i- incwadi eya kuCox Septhemba 7 becela impendulo kulokho abakutholile ocwaningweni. I-Cox kuphendule uSepthemba 15 ngalokho omunye umcwaningi akuchaze ngokuthi “ngokuyisisekelo amakhasi amathathu e-PR.” (Bheka ngokugcwele izincwadi lapha kufaka impendulo ye-BIBA ka-Okthoba 7.)

"Abalimi base-Afrika bafanelwe yimpendulo evela ku-AGRA," kusho incwadi eya ku-Cox ivela ku-Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima noNgimmo Bassay.  “Kanjalo nabaxhasi bomkhakha kahulumeni be-AGRA, ababonakala sengathi bathola imbuyiselo embi kakhulu kutshalomali lwabo. Ohulumeni base-Afrika nabo kudingeka banikeze ukubalwa kwezimali okucacile ngemithelela yesabelomali sabo esisekela izinhlelo zeGreen Revolution. ”

Ohulumeni base-Afrika basebenzisa cishe u- $ 1 billion ngonyaka kwizibonelelo zokuxhasa imbewu yokuhweba kanye nezolimo. Ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu kuzuzo lokukhiqiza kwezolimo, indlala inyuke ngamaphesenti angamashumi amathathu phakathi neminyaka ye-AGRA, ngokusho kombiko weFalse Promises.

Ukutshalwa kwezimali kweGates Foundation kunomthelela omkhulu ekutheni izinhlelo zokudla zakhiwe kanjani e-Afrika, ngokusho kukaJuni umbiko ovela kwi-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES). Iqembu libike ukuthi izigidigidi zamaRandi kwizibonelelo zeGates Foundation zikhuthaze ezolimo zezimboni e-Afrika futhi zabuyisa notshalomali ezinhlelweni zokudla ezizinzile, ezilinganayo.  

"IBMGF ibheka izimbuyiselo ezisheshayo nezibonakalayo kutshalo-mali, ngaleyo ndlela ithande izixazululo ezihlosiwe," kusho i-IPES.

Abakhiqizi bendawo namaketanga okudla amafushane 

Indlela yokuthuthukisa ezolimo yeGates Foundation yokwakha izimakethe zezitshalo ezinkulu, ezinokufakwa okuphezulu kuyibeka ekuphikisaneni nokucabanga okuvelayo ngokuthi ungabhekana kanjani kangcono nezimo eziguquguqukayo ezibangelwa izingqinamba ezimbili zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nobhadane lweCovid-19.

NgoSepthemba, I-UN Food and Agriculture Organisation ithe kubalulekile ukwakha amasistimu okudla asendaweni aqinile njengoba lolu bhubhane “lubeke izinhlelo zokudla zasendaweni engcupheni yokuphazamiseka kulo lonke uchungechunge lokudla.” Umbiko ubhala izingqinamba ezihlobene nobhubhane nezifundo ezivela ocwaningweni lomhlaba wonke olwenziwe ngo-Ephreli nangoMeyi ezadonsa izimpendulo ezingama-860. 

“Umyalezo ocacile ngukuthi, ukuze sikwazi ukubhekana nokwethuka okufana ne-COVID-19, amadolobha anezimo ezifanele zenhlalo-mnotho nezomnotho kufanele amukele izinqubomgomo nezinhlelo zokunika amandla abakhiqizi bendawo ukuthi batshale ukudla, futhi bakhuthaze amaketanga okudla amafushane ukuze bakwazi ukwenza izakhamizi ezisemadolobheni ukuthola imikhiqizo yokudla, ”kuphetha lo mbiko. "Amadolobha kufanele ahlukanise ukudla kwawo kanye nemithombo yawo yokudla, aqinise imithombo yendawo lapho kungenzeka khona, kodwa ngaphandle kokuvala ukunikezwa kukazwelonke nasemhlabeni jikelele."

Njengoba ubhadane lusongela imiphakathi yabalimi esivele inenkinga yokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, i-Afrika isesiphambanweni, kubhala uMillion Belay, umxhumanisi we-African Food Ubukhosi Alliance, noTimothy Wise, ongumcwaningi oholayo wokuhlaziywa kweTufts kwe-AGRA, ku Septhemba 23 ivuliwe. “Ngabe abantu bayo kanye nohulumeni babo bazoqhubeka nokuzama ukuphindaphinda izindlela zokulima zezimboni ezithuthukiswa amazwe athuthukile? Noma bazongena ngesibindi esikhathini esizayo esingaqinisekile, bamukele ezolimo nemvelo? ”

UBelay noWise bachaze ezinye izindaba ezinhle ezivela ocwaningweni lwakamuva; "Amazwe amabili e-AGRA anciphise isibalo nesabelo sabantu abangondlekile - i-Ethiopia neMali - bakwenze lokhu ngenxa yezinqubomgomo ezisekela ezolimo."

Indaba enkulu kakhulu yempumelelo, iMali, ibone ukuthi indlala yehle isuka ku-14% yaya ku-5% kusukela ngo-2006. Ngokocwaningo lwamacala ku Umbiko wezithembiso ezingamanga, “Inqubekela phambili ayivelanga ngenxa ye-AGRA kepha yingoba uhulumeni nezinhlangano zabalimi bakuphikisile ukusebenza kwayo,” kubhala uBelay noWise, bekhomba imithetho yomhlaba kanye nembewu eqinisekisa amalungelo abalimi okuzikhethela izilimo zabo kanye nemikhuba yabo yokulima, nezinhlelo zikahulumeni ukuthi gqugquzela hhayi nje ummbila kepha izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezitshalo zokudla.

"Isikhathi sokuthi ohulumeni base-Afrika babuyele emuva ku-Green Revolution ehlulekayo futhi bahlele uhlelo olusha lokudla oluhlonipha amasiko nemiphakathi yasendaweni ngokugqugquzela ezolimo ezingabizi kakhulu, ezinomthelela ophansi kwezolimo," babhala. 

Ukuphinda kabili umkhankaso we-PR obuseCornell 

Ngokuphikisana nalokhu okwenzeka ngemuva, iGates Foundation iphinda kabili ekutshalweni kwayo kuCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), umkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi owasungulwa ngonyaka we-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates futhi uthembisa "ukudicilela phansi impikiswano" ezungeze ama-GMO. Ngama- $ 10 million amasha, I-CAS ihlela ukukhulisa ukugxila kwayo "Ukulwa nemibono yozungu kanye nemikhankaso yokukhipha imininingwane engavimbeli inqubekela phambili ekuguqukeni kwesimo sezulu, i-synthetic biology, ezolimo." 

Kepha iCornell Alliance for Science isiphenduke amandla okuqhakambisa nomthombo wolwazi okungelona njengoba iqeqesha abafo emhlabeni wonke ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo, iningi labo e-Afrika. 

Izitshudeni eziningi, amaqembu okudla kanye nochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo bamemeze iqembu imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo. Amaqembu omphakathi asebenzela ukulawula ama-pesticides kanye ne-biosafety asole i-CAS ngokuthi usebenzisa amaqhinga okuhlukumeza eHawaii futhi ukuxhaphaza abalimi e-Afrika emikhankasweni yalo yokuphromotha neyokungenisa izivakashi.  

A Isihloko se-July 30 nguMark Lynas, umuntu ovakashele eCornell osebenzela i-CAS, ukhanyisa impikiswano mayelana nemiyalezo yeqembu. Icaphuna okwakamuva ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwezolimo lokongiwa kwemvelo, kusho uLynas,  "I-agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu futhi yenze kube nokulingana ngokobulili e-Afrika." Ukuhlaziywa kwakhe kwakukhathalelwe kabanzi ngochwepheshe kulo mkhakha.

UMarc Corbeels, isazi sezolimo nomhlaba owabhala ukuhlaziywa kwe-meta, uthe lo mbhalo wenza "ukwenziwa okwandile. ” Ezinye izifundiswa zichaze udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “inamaphutha ngempela, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""demagogic futhi okungezona ezesayensi, ”Ukungqubuzana okuyiphutha okugxumela ku“iziphetho zasendle, ”Kanye no “Okuyihlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi. ”

Lesi sihloko kufanele ihoxiswe, kusho uMarci Branski, owayenguchwepheshe kwezokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu e-USDA futhi UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezombangazwe eQueen's University.

Impikiswano mayelana i-agroecology uyafudumala

Impikiswano iphinde yavela kuleli sonto nge-webinar CAS ibamba NgoLwesine uMfumfu 1 ngesihloko se-agroecology. Ukucaphuna ukukhathazeka ukuthi iqembu elizinze eCornell "alizimisele ngokwanele ukuthi lingabamba iqhaza engxoxweni evulekile, engachemile", ochwepheshe ababili bohlelo lokudla bahoxile kwi-webinar ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto.

Ososayensi ababili bathi bavumile ukubamba iqhaza kwi-webinar ngemuva kokubona amagama abo phakathi kwama-panelists; "Lokho kwanele ukuthi sobabili sithembe nenhlangano eyenze lo mcimbi," kubhala UPablo Tittonell, PhD, Principal Research Scientist eMkhandlwini Kazwelonke Wezesayensi Nobuchwepheshe e-Argentina (CONICET) kanye USieglinde Snapp, I-PhD, uProfesa Wezomhlaba kanye Nezinqubo Zokutshalwa Kwezitshalo eMichigan State University, ukuze abe ngumongameli wephaneli uJoan Conrow, umhleli we-CAS. 

“Kepha ngifunda amanye ama-blogs nemibono ekhishwe yi-Alliance, okushicilelwe ngamanye ama-panelists, ngifunda ngezinsolo zokuchema nezingazi ngokumelene ne-agroecology, i-push-ideated technologies yezobuchwepheshe obuthile, njll. safika esiphethweni sokuthi le ndawo ayifanele ngokwanele ukuba ihlanganyele engxoxweni evulekile, engakhethi, eyakhayo futhi, okubaluleke kakhulu, ingxoxo yesayensi enolwazi, ”uTittonell noSnapp babhalela IConrow.

"Ngakho-ke siyazihoxisa kule mpikiswano." UConrow akaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono.

 I-webinar izoqhubeka phambili ne- Nassib Mugwanya, ongumfundi ofunda nobudokotela emhlabeni wonke we-CAS ka-2015 eNorth Carolina State University, naye osolwa ngokuhlasela ngokungafanele i-agroecology. Kwi Isihloko se-2019 we-Breakthrough Institute, uMugwanya wathi, "imikhuba yendabuko yezolimo ayikwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika." 

Lo mbhalo ukhombisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile yomkhakha we-biotech: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla “se-pro-science” ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge- 'anti-science,' engenasisekelo futhi eyingozi,” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

“Okuphawuleka kakhulu esihlokweni,” kusho leli qembu, “ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezifenqo (isib. I-agroecology ifaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokungalungi okuningana okuyiqiniso.”

Njengoba uTittonell noSnapp besusiwe ohlwini lwewebhu ngoLwesine, uMugwanya uzojoyina uPamela Ronald, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, eDavis, izibopho embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu angaphambili, Futhi UFrédéric Baudron, usosayensi omkhulu e-International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), iGates Iqembu elixhaswe yisisekelo. 

Ukucela 'ukulwa okulungile'

UMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Center for Biodiversity, ubheka imikhankaso ye-PR eshubile "njengobufakazi bokuphelelwa yithemba" lokuthi "abakwazi ukuyithola kahle ezwenikazi." 

Iqembu lakhe linayo iminyaka ibhala “Imizamo yokusabalalisa i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, neziphetho zayo kuzoholela kulokhu: ukuncipha kwempilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwemvelo yezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, nokuvalelwa kwabalimi base-Afrika ohlelweni olungakhelwanga inzuzo yabo , kodwa inzuzo yabantu abaningi baseNyakatho yamazwe ngamazwe. ”

ICornell Alliance for Science kumele ibuse, kusho uMayet ku-webinar ka-Agasti mayelana negalelo leGates Foundation e-Afrika, “ngenxa yolwazi olungelona iqiniso (nangendlela) abangahloniphi ngokweqile futhi abangenalo iqiniso.” Wabuza, “Kungani ungalwi nathi?”

UStacy Malkan ungumsunguli nentatheli ye-US Right to Know, iqembu labacwaningi elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ezindabeni zezempilo zomphakathi. Ungumbhali wencwadi yango-2007 ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.” Mlandele ku-Twitter @StacyMalkan 

Abathengi beCargill's GMO Stevia Hoodwinks

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inhlanganisela yamazwe omhlaba yokudla iCargill iyi ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kwezinga lokuhweba we-sweetener yalo eyenziwe ngofuzo, i-EverSweet, endaweni entsha yokukhiqiza engu- $ 50 million eqale ukusebenza kuleli sonto eBlair, eNebraska. Lesi sitshalo "sizokhiqiza i-EverSweet eyanele yokunambitha izigidi eziningi zamabhodlela / amathini eziphuzo ezibandayo noma ukunikezwa kweyogathi inyanga ngayinye," kusho okhulumela iCargill. 

Isitshalo esisha sikaCargill se-GMO stevia

UCargill ukhangisa indawo yakhe entsha ye-stevia njenge “okungezona okwenziwe. ” Kusho ukuthini lokho? Abathengi abachofoza ku- kunikezwe isixhumanisi ekukhululweni kwabezindaba ngeke kuthole impendulo eqondile. Ikhasi le-web liyazisonga lifake amafindo lizama ukuchaza inqubo entsha, efaka imvubelo yobunjiniyela bokuguqula imolekyuli kashukela ibe yinto elingisa ukunambitheka kwe-stevia, njenge "ndlela yakudala yamakhulu eminyaka" - ngaphandle kokukhuluma ngobunjiniyela noma i-genetic modified izinto eziphilayo (ama-GMO) asetshenziselwa ukwenza umkhiqizo. 

I-Cargill utshele i Star Tribune ayimakethi i-EverSweet ngokuthi "ingeyendalo" - ngakho-ke "ayiyona eyokufakelwa". Ubuqili abugcini lapho. 

Cargill, iqembu lezeMvelo likaKhongolose uHenry Waxman alibiza ngokuthi “inkampani embi kakhulu emhlabeni”Ku-2019 (phakathi kwezinye izinto)" ukuphikelela kwayo okuphindaphindiwe kokuma endleleni yenqubekela phambili yomhlaba ekusimameni, "izimakethe ze-EverSweet njengokukhiqizwe" okusimeme ". Leso simangalo, njengoba sibikile Isihloko se-Huffington Post sika-2017, iphekwe ngosomaqhinga be-PR abanikezwe umsebenzi wokuthola ukuthi izithako ezingenziwa kanjani ezenziwa nge-vat zizwakala zinambitheka kanjani kubathengi abafuna ukudla okusha, kwemvelo okunamalebula acacile nelula.

Izinkampani nabatshalizimali ngokubuka kwabo kusethwe ekuhambeni kwe-stevia - namanye amanani aphezulu ama-flavour asekelwe ezitshalweni namakha - ukuphuma emapulazini nakumalebhu ahlangane ku Iseshini yamasu ka-2014 ukuxoxa ukuthi uwuthengisa kanjani lo mqondo kubathengi. Ochwepheshe be-PR kulo mhlangano bancome ukuthi kugwenywe amagama anjenge- “synthetic biology” nelithi “genetic engineering” (okwethusa kakhulu, ukubuyela emuva ngokweqile), futhi baphakamisa ukuhamba ngezincazelo ezingacacile ezinjengokuthi “ukuvutshelwa okutholakele” nokuthi “uhlobo olufanayo.”  Bancome ukuthi kugxilwe izintatheli ezindabeni zethemba nezethembisayo, nokwenza izishoshovu zokudla “zizwe sengathi sonke simasha ngaphansi kwesibhengezo esifanayo” ukuze kube nokusimama kokudla, ukwenza izinto obala kanye nobukhosi bokudla.

Izinkampani nabathengi abakhathalela ngempela leyo miqondo bazokwenza kahle ukubheka ngemuva kwe-hype. Kuhlaka lukaCargill, i-Eversweet "iyaqhubeka" ngoba isusa ukukhiqizwa ezweni. Kepha akusho; indawo entsha yenkampani engu- $ 50 million “yokuvutshelwa,” esenhliziyweni ye I-GMO Roundup Ready izwe lommbila, kuzoncika kulezo zilimo ezifuthwe ngezibulala-zinambuzane - noma omunye umthombo kashukela otshalwe emhlabeni - ukondla imvubelo ezitsheni zayo ukwenza i-EverSweet. Ukukhishwa kwayo kwabezindaba kusebenzisa ama-buzzwords okusimama kepha akunikezi imininingwane yokuxhasa izimangalo. Sithinte inkampani sicela imininingwane eyengeziwe; akukho mpendulo okwamanje kepha sizofaka noma imiphi imibono esiyitholayo. 

Okwamanje, abalimi emazweni afana neParaguay bebelokhu belima i-stevia izizukulwane ngezizukulwane, futhi benza imali enhle ngokutshala lesi sitshalo, kubika i-ETC Group. Isithangami Sezomnotho Emhlabeni kuphawulwe ocwaningweni lwezingcuphe zomhlaba ezihamba phambili zokuthi “ukusungulwa kwezindlela ezishibhile, zokwenziwa ezithunyelwa ngaphandle ezinenani eliphakeme… kungahle kungazinze umnotho osengozini ngokususa umthombo wemali abalimi abathembele kuyo.” Ngaphezu kwalokho, abalimi abampofu bakhuthazwe ngenkuthalo ukuthi batshale imali kwi-stevia, ngoba ukutshalwa kwayo kungasiza ekulondolozeni imvelo ebuthakathaka futhi eyingqayizivele. 

Kubathengi base-US, kuya kuba nzima ukugwema i- ukudla okusha okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezithulele buthule ziye ezitolo zokudla ngaphandle kokulebula okucacile. Iqinisekisiwe i-organic noma engeyona eye-GMO eqinisekisiwe ihlala ingamazinga amabili azibophezele ekugwemeni i-biology yokwenziwa kanye nezithako ezenziwe ngofuzo.

Ngokuqondene neCargill, iyinkampani enkulu kunazo zonke ephethwe ngasese e-US, enkulu ukwedlula iKoch Industries edume kabi, futhi umkhondo wayo unabela emhlabeni wonke, kuphawula lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe Waxman, ongusihlalo womkhankaso weMighty Earth, ngoJulayi wabo kubika uCargill oyiNkampani Embi Kakhulu Emhlabeni. “Siyabona ukuthi lesi yisicelo esinesibindi. Kukhona, maye, izinkampani eziningi ezingalwela le nhlonipho engabazisayo. Kodwa lo mbiko uhlinzeka ngobufakazi obubanzi nobuphoqayo bokukusekela… Emsebenzini wami weminyaka engama-40 ngiseCongress, ngathatha izinkampani ezahlukahlukene ezazenza imikhuba yokuhlukumeza. Ngizibonele ngawami umthelela olimazayo wamabhizinisi angalethi izimiso zawo zokuziphatha ukusebenza. Kodwa uCargill ugqamile. ”

Ukufundwa Okwengeziwe

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo? nguStacy Malkan, umagazini i-CommonGround (3.16.2018)

Hlangana neNew Stevia! Ama-GMO 2.0 Gqoka Impumelelo, nguStacy Malkan, uHuffington Post (6.15.2017)

Ukubheja Okubi Ku-Synthetic Biology: ICargill's Eversweet incintisana nabalimi kanye nabathengi abadukisayo, I-ETC Group (11.11.2015)  

Imboni ye-Biotech ipheka izinhlelo ze-PR zokusenza sigwinye ukudla okwenziwe nge-biology, nguDana Perls, Abangane Bomhlaba (5.22.2014)

I-Gene Editing Mishaps Gqamisa Isidingo Sokwengamela i-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imizamo yenkampani yaseMidwestern yokwakha izakhi zofuzo izinkomo zokuqala zobisi ezingenazimpondo emhlabeni ifike kwangqingetshe kuleli hlobo lapho i-US Food and Drug Administration ithola izakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni obekungafanele zibekhona. Amaphutha abanjwe yi-FDA - kepha inkampani ilahlekile - igqamisa ukubaluleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni kokudla okuhleliwe kofuzo ngesikhathi lapho amaqembu embonini efuna ukupheliswa komthetho.

Izinkomo ezingenazimpondo: umsebenzi wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo?

Abakhiqizi bengulube, isibonelo, "bathi uhulumeni wesifundazwe kufanele anciphise imithethonqubo yokusetshenziswa kokuhlelwa kofuzo emfuyweni," abathi kunciphisa ucwaningo nentuthuko, i-Wall Street Journal kubika isonto eledlule. Abakhiqizi bafuna ukwenganyelwa kususwe kwi-FDA kuye eMnyangweni Wezolimo wase-US, okuyi isivele ivumela izitshalo ezihlelwe zofuzo kufanele itshalwe futhi ithengiswe ngaphandle kokubheka okulawulayo.

Kepha i-FDA ihlela ukudinga ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo, njengoba benza ngemithi emisha yezilwane. Imithethonqubo izoqinisekisa ukuthi izinguquko zofuzo ziphephile ezilwaneni nakubathengi, futhi zisiza abathengi ukuthi bakhululeke ngobuchwepheshe, okhulumela i-FDA utshele iJournal.

Ukutholakala kwe-FDA yezakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni ezingenazimpondo, nokunye okusanda kubikwa okubi okubandakanya ulibofuzo olusha amasu wobunjiniyela, aqinise icala lokuthi uhulumeni ahlolisise, futhi abe namaqembu ezimboni alwela ukulawula i-fiasco yobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Izakhi zofuzo ezingeziwe i-Recombinetics zilahlekile

Abaphenyi benkampani ezinze eMinnesota iRecombinetics, Inc., babike ephepheni le-2016 ukuthi badale izinkomo zokuqala ezifakiwe (ezingenazimpondo) besebenzisa inqubo yokuhlela izakhi zofuzo ebizwa ngeTALENS ukushintsha ukulandelana kofuzo ezinkomeni. Abaphenyi babike ukuthi abatholanga imithelela engahlosiwe. Babhala ukuthi, "izilwane zethu azinayo imiphumela ebhekiswe ngaphandle."

Kepha lapho abacwaningi be-FDA behlola kabusha i-DNA kuleli hlobo, besebenzisa ukulandelana kofuzo okwakuthunyelwe ku-inthanethi yiRecombinetics, bathole imiphumela engeyona eyokuqondisa. Izinkomo ezimbili ezihleliwe zaziphatha amakhophi e-plasmid yebhaktheriya asetshenziswe enqubeni yokuhlela, kufaka phakathi izakhi zofuzo zokumelana nama-antibiotic cishe kuwo wonke amaseli emizimba yazo. Izakhi zofuzo azivamile ukuvela ezinkomeni.

Lokhu "kuphakamisa izingqinamba zokuphepha kokuvikela ngoba kunesidingo esiqinile somhlaba wonke sokunciphisa ukusabalala kwezakhi zofuzo ezinikeza ukumelana nemithi elwa namagciwane," kubhala uJonathan Latham, PhD, ku Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Iphinde iphakamise imibuzo ngokungabi bikho kobuciko bezindlela zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo futhi inikeze isisindo sezimpikiswano zokubhekwa kukahulumeni. Izinhlelo zokufuya izinkomo ezingenazimpondo eBrazil zachithwa ngemuva kokuvela kwemiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe, kubika i-Wired, ngoba abalawuli lapho babekwazi ayisabheki izinkomo njenge-GMO.

Abaphenyi be-FDA bathi ukutholakala kwabo “kugqamisa indawo engaba khona yezindlela ezijwayelekile zokuhlola ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo,” futhi bathi basola ukuthi amaphutha okuhlanganisa “abikiwe noma awanakwa” ekuhlolweni kokuhlela izakhi zofuzo. Baphawula ezinye izibonelo zezinguquko ezingalindelekile - a Ucwaningo lwegundane lwango-2017 othole ukususwa okuyinkimbinkimbi nokufakwa ku-genome yegundane ehleliwe, futhi ucwaningo lwe-2018 lokho kwabika ukulimala kwe-DNA emigqeni yamangqamuzana omuntu.

Ngakho-ke abacwaningi beRecombinetics bakuphuthelwa kanjani ukuhlanganiswa okungahlosiwe kwe-DNA?

“Asibukanga”

"Bekungeyona into ebilindelekile, futhi besingayifunanga," kusho uTad Sonstegard, isikhulu esiphezulu senkampani yezolimo iRecombinetics 'Acceligen, ngokusho kwe Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT Technology. Isheke eliphelele “bekufanele ngabe lenziwe,” kusho yena. Umagazini ophefumulelwe kucashunwe uSonstegard echaza, “Besingafuni ukuhlanganiswa kweplasmid. Bekufanele sibe nayo. ”

Lokho bekufanele kube yindawo esobala yokubheka, kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, Senior Scientist, Advocacy, weMibiko yabathengi. "Ukuthi noma iyiphi i-DNA evela ku-bacterial plasmid esetshenzisiwe ohlelweni lokuhlela izakhi zofuzo yathathwa yadluliselwa kuzoba ngenye yezinto zokuqala obuzozibheka uma unentshisekelo yokuthola imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe," kusho uHansen.

Ngokubona kwakhe, iqiniso lokuthi iRecombinetics ilahlekelwe yinkinga kusikisela ukuthi, “abenzanga ukwengamela okudingekayo. Yingakho sidinga ukwenganyelwa nguhulumeni, ”kubandakanya izidingo zokuhlolwa kwezokuphepha ngaphambi kwezimakethe, esho.

U-Latham, ongusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo nowayengunjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo, naye ukhomba kokutholakele kwakamuva okuvela eJapane akholelwa ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omkhulu kunalokho okutholwe yi-FDA, futhi kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekulawulweni komhlaba. Esifundweni se2019, Abaphenyi baseJapan babika ukuthi ama-genome wegundane ahleliwe athole i-DNA ku-E.coli genome, kanye ne-DNA yezimbuzi nezinkomo. Le DNA elahlekile yavela kuma-reagents wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo, indlela yokulethwa esetshenziselwa ukwenza ukuhlela.

Lokhu okutholakele "kulula kakhulu: ukusika i-DNA ngaphakathi kwamaseli, kungakhathalekile ukuthi yiluphi uhlobo oluhlelekile lokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo, kubeka ama-genome ukuthola i-DNA engafuneki,", kubhala uLatham kuzindaba ze-Independent Science. Uthe lokhu okutholakele “kusho ukuthi, okungenani, isidingo sezinyathelo eziqinile zokuvimbela ukungcoliswa yi-DNA elahlekile, kanye nokuhlolisiswa ngokuphelele kwamangqamuzana ahlelwe izakhi zofuzo kanye nezinto eziphilayo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Futhi, njengoba icala leRecombinetics liphakamisa, lezi yizidingo abathuthukisi uqobo abangase bangahlangabezani nazo.

Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo

I-Recombinetics inayo “Uphikise ngomsindo” ukwengamela kwe-FDA sonke isikhathi futhi wacela ukuphathwa kukaTrump ukulwa namandla okwengamela kude ne-ejensi yokuphepha kokudla, ngokusho kweMIT Technology Review. Futhi ngenkathi iRecombinetics isho ngo-2016 ukuthi izinkomo zayo ezingenazimpondo ezihlelwe ngofuzo "bezingenayo imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlasela," lokho kutholwa kwasetshenziswa njengethuluzi lokwamukela izivakashi emkhankasweni wokulwa nokuhlolwa kwe-FDA.

Phakathi ku ukuhlaziya ebisebenza eceleni kocwaningo lwale nkampani, abacwaningi abahlanu baseyunivesithi baphikise ngokuthi ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo kuyasinda futhi akudingeki. Omunye wabalobi, U-Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelulwa kwezilwane e-UC Davis kanye nommeli ohola phambili wokuqedwa komthetho, uchaze uhlelo lwe-FDA lokufuna ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe “njengohlanya.”

"Imiphumela yokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo ifana kakhulu nezinqubo zemvelo," kubhala abacwaningi ekuphawuleni kwabo. Noma imiphi "imiphumela engemihle engancishiswa ingancishiswa ngokwakhiwa ngokucophelela nangokuhlolwa okuningiliziwe," besho, bephawula ukuthi abacwaningi abavela eRecombinetics "abatholanga" ezinkomeni zabo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Baphinde bathi, ngokungahambisani nalokhu, ukuthi izinkomo ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziphethe i-DNA efanayo "esetshenziswe abantu iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-1,000." "Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo," babhala, kungaba ukusabalalisa ukulandelana okuhleliwe kwe-genome "kubantu bezimbuzi zomhlaba wonke."

Ukunqanyulwa phakathi kokujaha ukuthengisa ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanye nesidingo sokuzikhandla okufanelekile ukuqonda imiphumela engeyona eqondiwe yokusetshenziswa kofuzo kanye nemithelela engaba nayo empilweni nasemvelweni, sekuyisikhathi eside kuyiphuzu elinamathelayo empikiswaneni ye-GMO. Ngokudla okuningi kwe-GMO, izinkampani beziphethe ukuhlolwa kokuphepha sonke isikhathi, ngaphandle kokubheka okuncane kukahulumeni. Kepha yiziphi izikhuthazo izinkampani okufanele zibheke kuzo izinkinga?

Emuva ngo-1998, ku ingxoxo noMichael Pollan yeNew York Times, UMonsanto owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ngaleso sikhathi wayengaqondile ekuhloleni kwakhe ukuthi izimfuno zemboni zikhona kuphi: ”IMonsanto akufanele ukuthi ivikele ukuphepha kokudla kwe-biotech. Intshisekelo yethu ukuthengisa okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwayo kungumsebenzi we-FDA. ”

Ukufundwa Okwengeziwe

Ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo kudinga ukucaciswa kakhudlwana ukuze kufezekiswe isithembiso sayo - nguDavid Edgell, Ingxoxo (10.7.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwe-Gene ngokungenhloso kungeza i-DNA yezinkomo, i-DNA yezimbuzi, ne-DNA yebhaktheriya, abacwaningi begundane bathola - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent ScienceNews (9.23.19)

Izinkomo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo zine-screwup enkulu kwi-DNA yazo - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (8.28.19)

I-FDA ithola izakhi zofuzo zokumelana namagciwane ezingalindelekile ezinkomeni ezinezimpondo 'ezihleliwe' - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, no-Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

Izinguquko ezenziwa ngaphandle kokuqondisa akukhona ukuphela kokukhathazeka ezitshalweni ezihlelwe ngofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (7.10.19)

Kungani isifaniso esithi “isikelo samangqamuzana” seCRISPR sidukisa - ngu-Elinor Hortle, Ingxoxo (7.4.19)

I-CRISPR ibangela imiphumela engalindelekile ngisho nasendaweni ehlosiwe yokuguqulwa kofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (4.16.19)

Ukukhishwa kwe-CRISPR kubangela ukuguqulwa okungahlosiwe ku-DNA - Ukubuka kwe-GM (3.13.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwesisekelo se-CRISPR, okwaziwa ngokunemba, kushaya i-snag ngokuguqula okungu-off-target - nguSharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Izilimi ezinkulu nama-vertebrae angeziwe: Imiphumela engahlosiwe yokuhlelwa kofuzo lwesilwane - NguPreetika Rana noLucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

Ukulimala okungenzeka kwe-DNA okuvela ku-CRISPR 'kubhekelwe phansi kakhulu,' ucwaningo luthola - nguSharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Kuvela ukuthi ukuhlela kwe-CRISPR kungalimaza nama-genomes - Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (7.16.2018)

Isithiyo esisha esibucayi se-CRISPR: Amaseli ahleliwe angadala umdlavuza, kutholakala izifundo ezimbili - nguSharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Abahleli bezakhi zofuzo basePulazini bafuna izinkomo ezingenazimpondo, izingulube ezingenamsila, nebhizinisi ngaphandle kwemithetho - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (3.12.18)

Umbiko: Izilwane ezihlelwa yizakhi zofuzo zizoqinisa ukulima kwasezimboni kanye nenkinga yesimo sezulu, kungalimaza impilo yabantu - Abangane Bomhlaba (9.17.19)

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo? - nguStacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

I-Burger Engenakwenzeka Yehluleka Ukugqugquzela Ukuthembela Embonini ye-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan

Noma ngubani ozibuza ukuthi kungani abathengi bengaphefumulelwe ukuthi bathembe imboni ye-GMO, cabanga ngalokhu Ukuxokozela okuyinqaba kusuka ku-Impossible Foods Chief Officer wezokuXhumana uRachel Konrad ukuvikela i-Impossible Burger, i-veggie burger yenza inyama eningi nge-yeast genered genered. UKonrad kwamcasula lokho indaba eBloomberg yaphakamisa ukukhathazeka maqondana nocwaningo olunganele, ukungabi bikho kwemithethonqubo kanye nokubekwa obala obala kobuchwepheshe bokudla obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Umphathi wezokukhangisa we-Impossible we-Burger “walungisa umlando” ngolwazi olutholakala emaqenjini aphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nezinye izithunywa ezingathembekile ezihlala zidlulisa imininingwane enganembile.

Ngakho-ke uKonrad uthathe iMedium, egxeka abagxeki be-Impossible Burger njengabantu "abaphikisana nesayensi" futhi "ebeka irekhodi ngqo" ngolwazi aluthola emaqenjini angaphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nakwezinye izithunywa ezingathembeki eziphikisana nabathengi abaxhumana njalo nemininingwane enganembile ngesayensi.

IBloomberg ayiwona umthombo othembekile wokubika ngesayensi, ngokusho kukaKonrad, ngoba i-American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) usho njalo. I-ACSH iyi- iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi ukuthi ucela imali ezinkampanini zikagwayi, zamakhemikhali nezemithi ukuvikela ama-pesticides, ama-e-cigs, izimonyo neminye imikhiqizo enobuthi okungenzeka ukuthi iwine isixuku se-vegan.

Esikhundleni sokubekezelela ukwenzelela kweBloomberg, uKonrad uyasitshela, kufanele siqine ekukhuleni kwe- UMark Lynas, umgqugquzeli wama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane ezikhulumayo imininingwane enganembile mayelana nesayensi, ngokuvumelana ne ososayensi futhi ochwepheshe bezokudla. UMark Lynas usebenzela iCornell Alliance for Science, a umkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi wokukhuthaza ama-GMO uxhaswe ngokuyinhloko yiGates Foundation. (Amasango nawo umtshalizimali ku-Impossible Burger.)

The imiyalezo edukisayo la maqembu asebenzisa ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane, ukungazinaki izingozi zezempilo nezemvelo nokuthula abathengi kanye nabameli bezemvelo kuhamba ibanga elide ekuchazeni ukuthi kungani imboni ye-GMO ingazuzi ukwethenjwa kwabathengi.

I-Impossible Foods yaba nethuba lokuvula ikhasi elisha. Kuze kube manje, ukudla okuningi kwe-GMO kusungulwe ukuze kusinde ukufafazwa kwamakhemikhali okubulala ukhula: glyphosate, manje futhi dicamba, njalo njalo futhi i-2,4-D, lapho amaqembu ezemvelo abiza khona ngokuthi I-GMO yokubulala izinambuzane. Kepha Imboni ye-GMO iyashintsha ngokuvela kwamasu amasha njenge-CRISPR kanye ne-biology yokwenziwa.

Njengenye yezinkampani zokudla zokuqala eziphuma nomkhiqizo wokudla we-GM onganikela ngezinzuzo zabathengi (uma umuntu ethanda ama-burger we-veggie "opha"), i-Impossible Foods ibe nethuba lokubhala indaba entsha, nokwakha ukwethembana ngenqubo evulekile, esobala lokho kuhlonipha ukukhathazeka kwabathengi. Bayivuthele.

Kufanele sethembe umenzi ukuthi afakazele ukuphepha kweprotheni entsha eyenziwe ngofuzo ye-Impossible Burger, nokusha ekunikezelweni kokudla kwabantu. Kepha inqubo yenkampani ayikukhuthazi ukwethenjwa.

Isithako sabo se-GMO “heme” “siphephe kakhulu,” ngokusho kwe-Impossible Foods iwebhusayithi. UKonrad uyachaza kwiMedium, "Inhloso, iqembu leqembu lesithathu labaphenyi abaphezulu bezokudla kuleli ngazwilinye baphetha ngazwi linye ngo-2014 ukuthi isithako esiyinhloko se-Impossible Burger, i-soy leghemoglobin (ekhiqizwa yimvubelo yezakhi zofuzo), 'ngokuvamile saziwa njengephephile.' Iphaneli lenze lesi siphetho ngo-2014, ngaphambi kokuba siqale ukuthengisa i-Impossible Burger emakethe ngo-2016. ”

Ushiye amanye amaqiniso abalulekile. Njengoba i- I-New York Times ibike ngo-Agasti odlule, lapho i-US Food and Drug Administration iphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi izifundo i-Impossible Foods ezethulwe kwisaziso sayo se-GRAS zazikhona akwenele ukusungula ukuphepha, inkampani ihoxise isicelo sayo kodwa yabeka i-burger emakethe noma kunjalo.

Lokho bekuphakathi kwamalungelo abo, kepha akuyona indlela yokwakha ukuzethemba kumkhiqizo wabo.

"Lezi yizindawo ezimi ezimbonini eziqashiwe."

Elinye ifulegi: Abacwaningi bokudla abathathu ababhala i- umbiko wepaneli yesazi ukuthi Ukudla Okungenakwenzeka okulethwe ku-FDA — uJoseph Borzelleca, uMichael Pariza noSteve Taylor — basohlwini olufushane lososayensi “imboni yokudla iphendukela kaninginingi” ukuthola isimo se-GRAS, futhi bobathathu basebenzela UPhillip Morris IBhodi Eliluleka Ngezesayensi, ngokophenyo olwenziwe ngo-2015 yiCentre for Public Integrity, "Imboni Yemininingwane Engafanele: Ososayensi bokuphepha kokudla banobudlelwano neGwayi Elikhulu. "

IBorzelleca, iCentre for Public Investigation ibike, iyona ebisebenza kakhulu ososayensi, njengoba isetshenziselwe amaphesenti angama-41 wamaphaneli angama-379 ahlanganisiwe eminyakeni eyi-17 edlule ukubuyekeza ukuphepha kwezithako ezintsha zokudla.

"Phezu kokuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe kwamashumi eminyaka nokudunyiswa kwakhe ngozakwabo-omunye ambiza ngokuthi 'isimangaliso'-abagxeki bohlelo lwe-GRAS bathi iBorzelleca iwuphawu lohlelo olugcwele ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo," kubika i-CPI. "Uma ososayensi bethembela embonini yokudla ukuze bathole imali, bangase babe mancane amathuba okuthi baphikisane nokuphepha kwezinkampani zezithako ezinethemba lokuzithengisa, kusho abagxeki."

"Lawa ngamaphaneli amile ezimboni aqashe izibhamu," kusho uLaura MacCleery, ongummeli weCentre for Science in the Public Interest, etshela i-CPI. "Ixhasa ukuchema nge-steroids."

Kodwa imibono yabagxeki abanezinkinga ezisemthethweni ayemukelekile emhlabeni we-Impossible Burger, ngokusho kukaRachel Konrad.

Esikhundleni sokushisa indlela entsha yobuqotho ngobuchwepheshe bayo bokudla obusha, i-Impossible Foods ithathe isinqumo sokulandela indlela egqokwe kahle ngabaningi abakhipha izithasiselo zokudla kanye nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo: ukusheshisa imikhiqizo emisha ukuyimaketha ngaphandle kwenqubo esobala noma ukubuyekeza okuphelele kokuphepha, bese umemeza phansi noma ngubani ophakamisa ukukhathazeka. Esizweni sonke sethu, abantu abafuna ukwazi ukuthi yini esekudleni kwabo bakuthola kukubi ukuziqhenya okunjalo.

Lo mbhalo ekuqaleni ivele ku-EcoWatch

Ama-Agrichemical Trade Groups: I-Biotechnology Innovation Organisation kanye noMkhandlu Wolwazi lwe-Biotechnology

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-BIO - amaqiniso asemqoka 

IBiotechnology Innovation Organisation (BIO), phambilini eyayiyiBiotechnology Industry Organisation, iyi- inhlangano yezokuhweba emele izinkampani ezingaphezu kwe-1,000 XNUMX namaqembu ezimboni kufaka phakathi i-pesticide, yezemithi kanye nezinhlangano ze-biotech. Iqembu izimakethe ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo njengesixazululo “sokuphulukisa umhlaba, ukondla umhlaba, ukondla umhlaba,” futhi sihlela amakomidi okunxenxa Izindawo eziyi-15 zenqubomgomo kufaka phakathi ukudla nezolimo, inqubomgomo yokunakekelwa kwezempilo, ukudluliswa kobuchwepheshe, ezezimali nezintela. I-BIO yayingumphikisi ophambili wokufaka ilebula kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-United States. Ku- ukugcwaliswa kwentela onyakeni ophela ngoDisemba 2016, i-BIO ibike izindleko zonyaka ezingaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 79.

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene:

Umkhandlu Wolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo - amaqiniso asemqoka 

Eyasungulwa ngonyaka ka-2000, i-Council for Biotechnology Information (CBI), iyinhlangano yezohwebo exhaswa yizinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali (BASF, Bayer / Monsanto, DowDuPont, Syngenta) ukukhuthaza i-biotechnology kwezolimo. I-BIO ne-CBI babelana ngabasebenzi nezimali ezithile, ngokusho kokufakwa kwentela. I-CBI ibike ngaphezulu kwe- $ 4 million ezindlekweni zonyaka kuyo ukufakwa kwentela onyakeni ophela ngoDisemba 2016. Kusukela ngo-2013, i-CBI isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi eziyi- $ 11 ku- Inkampani yakwaKetchum yomphakathi ukugijima Izimpendulo ze-GMO, umkhankaso wokumaketha ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides.

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene:

Ifilimu ye-Food Evolution GMO Ikhonza I-Ajenda Yezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kubuyekezwe ngezibuyekezo ze-Food Evolution: 

NguStacy Malkan, 6/19/2017 

Eminye imizamo yokuthumela imiyalezo embonini inzima kakhulu bagcina beqhakambisa amaqhinga abo we-PR ukwedlula umyalezo abazama ukuwudlulisa. Leyo yinkinga nge Ukuvela Kokudla, idokhumentari entsha yomqondisi oqokwe yi-Academy Award uScott Hamilton Kennedy futhi ilandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson.

Le filimu, evulwa emashashalazini ngoJuni 23, ithi inombono oqondile ngempikiswano mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kepha ngesethulo sayo esinefilosofi yesayensi nedatha, iphuma ibukeka njengecala lezincwadi lenkulumo-ze yenkampani embonini yezolimo kanye izitshalo zayo ze-GMO.

Ukuthi inhloso yefilimu okuhloswe ngayo ukuthi isebenze njengemoto ethuthela imiyalezo embonini akuyona imfihlo. Ukudla Evolution kwaba kuhlelwe ngo-2014 futhi ixhaswe yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu labahwebi, ukuqeda umzamo wokuthumela imiyalezo iminyaka eminingi.

I-IFT ixhaswe ngokwengxenye ngu izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla, kanye neqembu umongameli ngaleso sikhathi kwakunguJanet Collins, owayengumphathi weDuPont noMonsanto ngubani manje kuyasebenzela ICropLife America, inhlangano yokuhweba ngezibulala-zinambuzane. UMongameli Okhethiwe we-IFT USindi Stewart usebenzela iDuPont.

I-IFT ikhethe uKennedy ukuthi aqondise ifilimu, kodwa yena nomkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan bathi babenakho ukulawula ngokuphelele ifilimu abayichaza njengophenyo oluzimele ngokuphelele ngesihloko sama-GMO kubandakanya yonke imibono.

Ukwethembeka kwefilimu kunenkinga yokuzikhethela kwabo ukwamukela kuphela isayensi nososayensi abahambisana nabadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abazuza kuma-GMO kanye namakhemikhali asetshenziswa kuwo, kuyilapho benganaki isayensi nedatha engahambelani naleyo ajenda.

Ukwelashwa kweMonsanto Science

Isibonelo esisobala sokungathembeki kwesayensi kuFood Evolution yindlela ifilimu esebenza ngayo ne-glyphosate. Ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula isenhliziyweni yendaba ye-GMO, kusukela Ama-80-90% wezitshalo ze-GMO zenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-glyphosate.

IFood Evolution ibika ukuthi ukwanda kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate ngenxa yama-GMO akuyona inkinga, ngoba i-glyphosate iphephile. Imithombo emibili isungula lesi simangalo kwifilimu: umlimi uthi i-glyphosate "inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti, ”noRobb Fraley kaMonsanto - ephendula owesifazane ezilalelini ombuza ngesayensi exhumanisa i-glyphosate nezinkinga zokuzalwa nomdlavuza - umtshela ukuthi konke lokho kuyisayensi embi," yi-pseudoscience. "

Yonke isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-glyphosate "yi-pseudoscience," kusho uMonsanto.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngokukhathazeka kwe-carcinogenicity okugubuzele iMonsanto ku International isayensi ukukhwabanisa, noma abalimi abaningi Bamangalela iMonsanto esola ukuthi bathole umdlavuza ovela enkomishini ye-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngombiko wango-2015 wenhlangano yomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ebeka i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu, noma Isinqumo saseCalifornia ukufaka i-glyphosate ohlwini lweProp 65 lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza, noma izifundo ezibuyekezwa kontanga ezixhumene imiphumela engemihle yezempilo ukuze glyphosate futhi Roundup.

Esikhundleni sokubuka ubufakazi, i-Food Evolution inikeza ababukeli ukwelashwa okuphelele kwesayensi yeMonsanto: noma yisiphi isayensi esiphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo yezolimo kufanele zinganakwa, kuyilapho izifundo ezibeka leyo mikhiqizo ekukhanyeni okuwukuphela kwesayensi kufanele kuxoxwe ngakho.

Amazinga aphindwe kabili kuSayensi kanye nasekubonakaliseni izinto obala

Ukuphathwa ngokulinganayo kwezihloko zokuxoxwa ngemibono ehlukene bekuzosiza ukwethembeka kweFood Evolution. Esikhundleni salokho, ifilimu ipenda abagxeki be-GMO ebabonisa ngokungathembeki noma ukuzenzela inzuzo ngomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo, ngenkathi ishiya imininingwane ebalulekile ngemithombo yayo yezimboni.

Kwesinye isigcawu, umlingiswa ophambili wefilimu, uprofesa we-UC Davis u-Alison van Eenennaam, ukhulula ukuthi ukubonakala kwesiteji nomphathi weMonsanto empikiswaneni kungangcolisa igama lakhe lokuzimela. Ababukeli abakaze bafunde ukuthi wayejwayele sebenzela iMonsanto, noma ukuthi uphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi we-GE eziphakamisa intshisekelo yezezimali esihlokweni esiseduze.

Usosayensi we-Pro-industry Pamela Ronald, omunye umthombo oyinhloko wesayensi, uthola ukwelashwa kweqhawe ngaphandle kokusho lokho ezimbili zezifundo zakhe zihoxisiwe. Yize kunjalo ababukeli bashaywa ngesando ngezindaba zokuthi ucwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini - oluthola izinkinga zezinso nezicubu kumagundane afunzwa ummbila weGMO - "luhoxisiwe, lwahoxiswa, lwahoxiswa!"

Ifilimu ishiya iqiniso lokuthi isifundo bekuyi yaphinde yashicilelwa, futhi wahoxiswa endaweni yokuqala ngemuva kwesisebenzi sangaphambili seMonsanto uthathe isikhundla sokuhlela nephephabhuku lapho lashicilelwa khona ekuqaleni.

Ukulandisa kwe- “Africa Needs GMOs”

Kokunye ukulandisa okuphindwe kahle, iFood Evolution ithatha ababukeli ohambweni lomzwelo oluya ezweni elisathuthuka, nakwenye ithrekhi yemiyalezo yomkhakha oyintandokazi: kunokugxila ekutheni ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo busetshenziswa kanjani ohlelweni lwethu lokudla manje - ikakhulukazi ukudlulisa ukubekezelelana kwe-herbicide - kufanele gxila ekutheni ingasetshenziswa kanjani ngokuzayo.

Njengoba kunesikhathi esiningi se-air and tension eshubile, le filimu ihlola inkinga ye-banana wilt, isifo esibulala izitshalo eziyisisekelo e-Afrika, futhi iholela ababukeli ukuthi bakholelwe ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo buzosindisa isivuno, abalimi kanye nomphakathi.

Kungenzeka. Kepha ifilimu ayikunaki ukusho ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bomsindisi we-GE abukatholakali futhi kungenzeka bungasebenzi. Ngokusho kwephepha ku- Isitshalo se-Biotechnology Journal, ukumelana okuboniswa kulebhu kunamandla kepha kungahle kungahlali isikhathi eside ezindaweni ezivulekile.

Le filimu “iwukungathembeki okuyisisekelo.”

Okwamanje, isixazululo se-low-tech sisebenza kahle futhi kubukeka sengathi singasebenzisa imali ethile. Ngokusho kwephepha lika-2012 kwi Ijenali Yezentuthuko Nezomnotho Wezolimo, izikole zabalimi, ezisiza abalimi ukuthola ulwazi lwezandla ngamasu okuvimbela ukubola kwebhanana, kwaholela ekwehliseni amazinga okutheleleka nokubuyiswa kwezitshalo okuphezulu e-Uganda. Imiphumela yezikole zabalimi “iye yaphawuleka,” ngokwe-UN.

Isixazululo asidingi ukuthi kukhulunywe ngakho ku-Food Evolution.

"Ngokuyisisekelo ukungathembeki kwefilimu ukuthola isisombululo se-GE esingahle singasebenzi, njengoba ososayensi uqobo bevuma," kusho uMichael Hansen, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, "ngenkathi ehluleka ukukhomba enye indlela yokulawula inkinga esebenza kakhulu kahle, kepha akubandakanyi ukuthengisa umkhiqizo ukuze wenze imali. ”

Ngabe iMonsanto yayihlangene ne-Food Evolution?

IMonsanto nabalingani bayo bebekhuluma ngezinhlelo zedokhumentari ngasekupheleni kuka-2013, ngokusho kuka ama-imeyili atholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ama-imeyili awanabo ubufakazi obuxhumanisa lezo zingxoxo ne-Food Evolution, kepha basungula isifiso sikaMonsanto ngefilimu esizwakala sifana kakhulu naleso esidalwe nguKennedy.

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto yabhala ngoDisemba 2013 eqenjini labeluleki be-PR, “kusobala ukuthi intshisekelo enkulu yokulandela ifilimu eliyi-documentary. Okubaluleke kakhulu, ukuvumelana ngukuthi ukubamba iqhaza kukaMonsanto kwamukelekile, ikakhulukazi esigabeni sokuhlela. ”

Wancoma ukubizwa kocingo lokuhlela lukaJanuwari 2014. UJon Entine we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project wakhuphuka wahola, futhi wathi "uthole isibambiso sakhe esingu- $ 100,000 kumuntu ongusomabhizinisi ozimele uma singathola" (wonke umugqa unqanyuliwe). I-Entine futhi inokuxhumana ne-Institute for Food Technologists; ukhulume ngo “ubushoshovu bokulwa nokudla”Emhlanganweni wonyaka we-IFT wango-2012.

Omunye umuntu okukhulunywe ngaye kuma-imeyili eMonsanto, UKarl Haro von Mogel - ngubani owayexoxile nge-Sachs "Ukwehla kwefilimu exhaswe yi-'Big 6 '” futhi kwaphakanyiswa ukuthi "okungabaluleke ngaphezu kwemali yabo ukubamba iqhaza kwabo" - kwaxoxwa nabo kuFood Evolution, futhi wabandakanyeka nasekuqopheni isigcawu esisodwa, esikisela abanye ekusithekeni ukuxhumana nabenzi bamafilimu.

Ephendula ama-imeyili, uKennedy ubhale on Twitter: “@Foodevomovie has had ZERO $ or INPUT from #Imonsanto. Sisobala ngokuphelele futhi sijabule 2 sinengxoxo esekelwe eqinisweni. ”

Uthe enkulumweni yakhe, "lokho kushintshaniswa kwama-imeyili bekungahlangene nakancane nephrojekthi yethu ...

Abantu ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili bebengabandakanyeki ekuqopheni nasekululekeni, usho kanjalo, kanti uKarl Haro von Mogel “ubeyisihloko kule filimu futhi ebengenaqhaza noma ithonya kunoma yiziphi izinqumo zokudala / zokuhlela ngale filimu nganoma yisiphi isikhathi embonisweni . Futhi kungasiza ukuveza ukuthi ingxoxo ye-imeyili obhekise kuyo yenzeka kudala singakaze sazi uKarl noma omunye walaba bantu. ”

Sneak Peek Behind the Scene

Okunye ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili okutholwe yi-US Right to Know inikeza ukubonwa ngemuva kwezigcawu ekuthuthukisweni kokulandisa ku-Food Evolution. Ukushintshisana kubonisa ukufuna kukaKennedy izibonelo azofaka “thina / izwe elisathuthuka sidinga i-GMO.”

“Noma yimuphi omunye umhlaba 'wethu / osathuthuka udinga i-GMO' unganginika amagama eceleni kwamawolintshi? Ulethisi weShintakus? ” Kubuza uKennedy. Umkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan uphendule ngohlu lwemikhiqizo ye-GMO kubandakanya irayisi elibekezelela isomiso, amakinati angenalo igciwane, amazambane angenayo i-carcinogen… “bese ufaka inkinobho yeGolden Rice.”

Ngenkathi uKennedy efuna "izitshalo eziphezulu ze-GMO ezisetshenziswayo njengamanje, nokuthi imaphi amazwe," uMark Lynas we ICornell Alliance yeSayensi ubhale wathi, "Ngempela iBt brinjal eBangladesh iyona kuphela eyi-GMO futhi esebenza kabanzi."

Ukubikwa kwefilimu okuqhutshwa ifreyimu kuyishaya indiva leyo mininingwane ngokungabi bikho kwezixazululo ze-GMO ezisebenzayo, futhi akusho ukuthi isibonelo esisondelene kakhulu, i-Vitamin-A ethuthukisiwe yeGold Rice, namanje ayitholakali ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu neminyaka yokulingwa, ngoba akusebenzi kahle ensimini njengama-rice akhona manje.

Yini inkulumo-ze?

Esigcawini okufanele sidlulise ukwethembeka kwesayensi, iFood Evolution ikhanyisa uphawu lwe-American Council on Science and Health okwamanje uNeil deGrasse Tyson uthi kukhona ukuvumelana komhlaba wonke mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO. Isiliphu esifanelekayo. ASCH kuyinto iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi kuhambelana eduze neMonsanto.

Indawo ye-logo ye-ACSH nayo iyavela ngemuva kulokhu Isiqeshana semizuzu engu-2 kusuka enkulumweni yakamuva yeClimate One, njengoba uKennedy ephikisana nesiphakamiso sokuthi ifilimu yakhe iyinkulumo-ze.

“Sinquma kanjani ukuthi yini inkulumo-ze?” Kubuza uKennedy. “Ngithi enye yezindlela esikwenza ngayo (ukubuza), ingabe imiphumela iyacelwa, noma imiphumela ithenjisiwe? Angibuzwanga ngemiphumela futhi angithembisanga imiphumela. Uma unenkinga ngefilimu, inkinga ikimi. ”

Lokhu kubuyekezwa kwavela ekuqaleni Huffington Post futhi bekulokhu liphinde lanyatheliswa ku-Alternet. 

Bona futhi: I-athikili yokulandelela kaStacy Malkan, Abalandeli bakaNeil deGrasse Tyson Owes Ingxoxo Ethembekile Ngama-GMO kune-Food Evolution. "Ukuxoxisana nabanye abahlaziyi beGMO abambalwa abavela kule filimu, noma bacelwa ukuba babe kuyo, kufakazela isithombe senqubo engajwayelekile ebandakanya ukuqoshwa ngokunyenya, ukuhlelwa kokukhetha, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo nokungadalulwa mayelana nokuxhaswa kwefilimu."

ISayensi Media Center Ithuthukisa Ukubukwa Kwebhizinisi Lwesayensi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IScience Media Center (SMC) iyinhlangano ye-PR engenzi nzuzo eqale e-UK ethola indawo yayo enkulu kakhulu ye- imali evela embonini amaqembu. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iBayer, iDuPont, iMonsanto, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye namaqembu ezindaba, izinhlaka zikahulumeni, izisekelo namanyuvesi. Imodeli ye-SMC isakazeka emhlabeni wonke futhi ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwemithombo yezindaba ngesayensi, kwesinye isikhathi ngezindlela ezehlisa ubungozi bemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Leli phepha lichaza umlando we-SMC, ifilosofi, imodeli yezimali, amaqhinga nemibiko evela kubagxeki abathi i-SMC inikeza imibono yezesayensi yezimboni, isimilo i-SMC esiyiphikayo.

Related:

Amaqiniso asemqoka

I-Science Media Centre yethulwa ngo-2002 iphendula “imisindvo yabezindaba mayelana neMMR, izitshalo zeGM kanye nocwaningo lwezilwane” ukusiza abezindaba bamele kangcono isayensi enkulu, ngokusho kwe iphepha lamaqiniso leqembu.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko wokusungulaIScience Media Center ichaza ukuthi yadalelwa ukubhekana kanjani:

  • “inkinga yenkinga” ekhulayo emibonweni yomphakathi ngesayensi
  • ukuwa kwenhlonipho ngegunya nobungoti
  • umphakathi onganaki ubungozi nokusakazwa kwabezindaba okwethusayo futhi
  • “amasu abezindaba abonakala sengathi aphakeme kakhulu” asetshenziswa ama-NGO ezemvelo njengeGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth.

Ama-SMC azimele abelana nge umqulu ofanayo njengoba okwangempela manje kusebenza eCanada, e-Australia, eNew Zealand, eJalimane naseJapane, futhi ama-SMC ahlelwa eBrussels nase I-united states.

Imodeli yeSMC ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngesayensi. A ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba yamaphephandaba ase-UK ngo-2011 nango-2012 athola ukuthi iningi lezintatheli elisebenzisa izinsizakalo ze-SMC alifunanga imibono eyengeziwe ngezindaba zabo. Leli qembu futhi linethonya kwezepolitiki. Ngonyaka we-2007, iSMC yamisa ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwemibungu ehlanganisa abantu / yezilwane ngomkhankaso wayo wezindaba wokushintsha ukusabalala kokukhathazeka kokuziphatha kuye ezinzuzweni zemibungu njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho kwe ku-Nature.

Izifundiswa eziningana nabaphenyi bagxeke iSMC ngokuxosha imibono yenkampani yesayensi, nangokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo nobempilo babantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Imibiko ibhale ukuthambekela kwe-SMC yokuphusha imiyalezo ye-pro-industry futhi ngaphandle kwemibono ephikisanayo ngezihloko ezinjenge ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi I-GMO.

Ku-imeyili, uMqondisi weSMC uFiona Fox uthe iqembu lakhe alihambisani nomkhakha wezimboni: “Silalela ngokucophelela noma yikuphi ukugxekwa kweSMC emphakathini wezesayensi noma ezintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK kodwa asikutholi ukugxekwa ngokuchema komkhakha wezimboni kusuka kulaba ababambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokuchema kwemboni yezimboni futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi labezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba ezingundabuzekwayo zesayensi sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile. ”

Izingcaphuno mayelana neSayensi Media Center

Izintatheli nabaphenyi ngethonya nobandlululo lweSayensi Media Center (ukugcizelelwa kufakwe kuzingcaphuno ezingezansi):

  • “Izikhungo zeSayensi Media ... seziphenduke abadlali abanethonya, kepha abanempikiswano emhlabeni wobuntatheli. Yize ezinye izintatheli zikuthola kuwusizo, ezinye zikholelwa ukuthi zithambekele kososayensi bakahulumeni nezimboni. ” Ukubuyekezwa kobuntatheli beColumbia
  • “Kuya ngokuthi ubuza kubani, (Umqondisi weSMC) UFiona Fox usindisa ubuntatheli besayensi noma ayibhubhise," U-Ewen Callway, Nature
  • “Ukwehla kwesibalo sezintatheli zesayensi zase-UK ezicindezeleke isikhathi asisayi emkhakheni wemba izindaba. Baya emihlanganweni ehlelwe kusengaphambili e-SMC… The ikhwalithi yokubika kwesayensi kanye nokwethembeka kolwazi olutholakala emphakathini konke lokhu kuhlupheke, kuhlanekezela ikhono lomphakathi lokwenza izinqumo ngengozi. ” UConnie St. Louis, iCity College yaseLondon, eCJR
  • “Inkinga akukhona ukuthi bathuthukisa isayensi, njengoba besho ukuthi benza, kodwa ukuthi bona khuthaza isayensi esebenza ngokuhlanganyela. " UDavid Miller, University of Bath, eSciDev
  • "Kulabo abangaphuphuthekiswanga yi-aura ekhangayo ye-SMC, kubonakala sengathi inhloso yayo ecashile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izintatheli nabezindaba babika izindaba zesayensi nezokwelapha kuphela ngendlela yokuthi kuvumelana 'nenqubomgomo' kahulumeni nezimboni ezindabeni okukhulunywa ngazo. " UMalcolm Hooper, iYunivesithi yaseSunderland, iphepha leCFS / ME
  • “Kuyabonakala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezihlangene ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK ukuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe beBiotec kanye nezokuxhumana ngocingo. ” Iphepha likaDon Maisch kumaselula
  • "The Indima ye-SMC ibonakala ifaka umbono omncane of, ezimweni eziningi imibono emihle, yokuphepha kokuthwebula ama-fracking. ” UPaul Mobbs, Uphenyo Lwezemvelo lweMobbs
  • “Isikhungo sesayensi, esihlala singaziphethe kahle ngokwezepolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu inethiwekhi yezombangazwe eyinqaba neyenkolo. " UGeorge Monbiot, The Guardian

Uxhaso Lwamabhizinisi LweScience Media Center

Isabelo esikhulu sezimali se-SMC, cishe ama-30%, sivela ezinkampanini nakumaqembu ezohwebo. Abaxhasi kusukela ngo-Agasti 2016 kufaka phakathi inqwaba yamakhemikhali, i-biotechnology, inuzi, ukudla, ezokwelapha, ezokuxhumana kanye nezimboni zezimonyo. Abaxhasi bezimboni zezolimo bahlanganisa iBayer, iDuPont, iBASF, iCropLife International, iBioIndustry Association kanye neChemical Industries Association. Abaxhasi bangaphambilini zifake iMonsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola neKraft. I-SMC nayo ithola uxhaso oluvela ezinhlakeni eziningi zezindaba, uhulumeni kanye nezifundiswa.

SMC kusho yona inikela ngeminikelo evela kunkampani eyodwa noma isikhungo kuya ku-5% wemali engenayo yonyaka ngemizamo “yokuvikela ethonyeni elingalungile” - kukhishwa imali engaphandle yeminikelo emikhulu evela ku-Wellcome Trust nakuhulumeni wase-UK Umnyango Webhizinisi, Amandla Nezimboni Isu.

Umlando We-SMC: “UMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani”

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990, ubudlelwano phakathi kwesayensi nabezindaba base busezingeni elichachambile, kuchaza iSMC ividiyo yephromoshini. "Ngesikhathi sokutshalwa kweBSE, MMR, GM, kwakukhona umqondo wangempela ngaleli gebe phakathi kososayensi nabezindaba," kusho uFox kule vidiyo. I-SMC yadalelwa “ukusiza ukuvuselela ukwethembana komphakathi kwezesayensi ngokusebenzela ukukhuthaza ukumbozwa okulinganiselayo, okunembile futhi okunengqondo kwezindaba eziyimpikiswano zesayensi,” ngokusho kwayo umbiko wokubonisana.

Imibhalo eyisisekelo ye-SMC ifaka:

  • February 2000 Umbiko wekomidi leNdlu YeNkosi ichaza “inhlekelele yokwethembana” ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi nesayensi, futhi yancoma uhlelo olusha lwesayensi nabezindaba.
  • Septhemba 2000 “Indlela Yokuziphatha / Imihlahlandlela Yezokuxhumana Kwezesayensi Nempilo, ”YiRoyal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) incoma imihlahlandlela yezintatheli nososayensi ukuze kuliwe“ nomthelela omubi walokho okubhekwa 'njengezindaba ezesabisayo' ezingenasisekelo kanye nalezo ezinikeza amathemba angamanga kulabo abagula kakhulu. ”
  • 2002 Umbiko Wokubonisana we-SMC ichaza inqubo yenhlolokhono nababambiqhaza abavela kuhulumeni, izimboni kanye nabezindaba abatshele ukuthi iSMC "izoyithatha kanjani i-gauntlet ephonswe phansi yiNkosi… yokuguqula isayensi ibe yizindaba eziphambili."

Umzamo weSMC waba nempikiswano ngokushesha. Umbhali uTom Wakeford wabikezela ngo-2001 ukuthi iSMC izoba “uMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani lapho ababusi abaqanjiwe bakaGeorge Orwell bazoziqhenya ngabo.” Wabhala uMgcini, "Abantu abaphezulu kuHulumeni, iRoyal Society kanye neRoyal Institution bathathe isinqumo sokuthi ulwazi lwabo lomnotho olubaluleke kakhulu ludinga ukuthi kuncishiswe ukukhuluma ngokukhululeka." Uchaze i-Code of Practice: “Lo Mthetho uncoma ukuthi izintatheli zibonisane nochwepheshe abagunyaziwe, incwadi eyimfihlo okufanele inikezwe 'izintatheli ezibhalisiwe ezinemininingwane eqondile.'”

Iphrojekthi yokuqala ye-SMC - umzamo wokudicilela phansi ifilimu eqanjiwe le-BBC eliveza izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngendlela engathandeki - liphakamise uchungechunge lwezihloko ezibucayi kwi-Guardian (umhleli we-Guardian wabhala nayo le filimu). Lezi zihloko zichaze iSMC njenge- “iqembu lokwamukela izivakashi zesayensi exhaswa izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi namakhemikhali ”ebisebenza “Uhlobo lweyunithi yokuphika esheshayo yaseMandelsoni”Futhi ngisebenzisa“ ezinye amasu we-clumsiest spin weNew Labor ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi (ifilimu) kusengaphambili. ”

UDick Taverne noSense Mayelana neSayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi - umzamo wokucela ukwakhiwa kabusha kwemibono yesayensi - eyethulwa e-UK ngonyaka we-2002 kanye ne-SMC ngaphansi kobuholi buka-Lord Dick Taverne nabanye abanobudlelwano ne-SMC. U-Lord Taverne wayeyi-SMC Ilungu leBhodi Elilulekayo futhi yena kudalwe ngokubambisana ikhodi yokusebenza ye-SIRC.

Indaba ka-2016 ku-The Intercept nguLiza Gross uchaze i-Sense About Science nabaholi bayo “njengabaqaphi abazimele 'besayensi yomsindo'” abathi “balinganise izikali embonini.” UGross uchaze izibopho zomkhakha kagwayi zikaTaverne kanye nemizamo ye-PR yenkampani:

Ngokwamaphepha angaphakathi akhishwe ngamacala ngabakhiqizi bakagwayi, inkampani yababonisi bakaTaverne, iPRIMA Europe, isize iBritish American Tobacco ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwane nabatshalizimali bayo futhi shaya imithetho yaseYurophu ngogwayi ngawo-1990. UTaverne uqobo usebenze kuphrojekthi yabatshalizimali: Ku- imemo engenalo usuku, U-PRIMA uqinisekise inkampani kagwayi ukuthi "umsebenzi uzokwenziwa mathupha nguDick Taverne," ngoba ubekwazi ukubuza abaholi bezimboni futhi "uzofuna ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izidingo zomkhakha zibaluleke kakhulu ezingqondweni zabantu." Phakathi neminyaka eyishumi efanayo, uTaverne wayehleli ebhodini legatsha laseBrithani lenkampani yezokuxhumana yomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller, eyabiza uPhilip Morris njengekhasimende. Umqondo weqembu “lesayensi elizwakalayo”, elenziwe ngoxhaxha lososayensi ababezokhuluma bephikisana nemithethonqubo abantu bezimboni ababengenakho ukwethembeka ukuyiphikisa, kwakuyinkulumo uBurson-Marsteller ayenza kuPhilip Morris ku Imemorandamu yonyaka we-1994.

Phakathi kwamaphrojekthi ayo okuqala, iSense About Science ihlele incwadi evela ku- 114 ososayensi ukunxenxa uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuba "aphikisane nezimangalo ezingamanga" mayelana nama-GMO, futhi wenza inhlolovo ukugqamisa inkinga yokucekelwa phansi kwesivuno seGMO.

I-Sense About Science USA ivulwe ngo-2014 ngaphansi kobuholi besikhathi eside umlingani wemboni yamakhemikhali uTrevor Butterworth, kanye nabalingani be-Gates exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science, a Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO.

Imisuka YamaKhomanisi Yezinguquko

Abaqondisi abasungula nabamanje beScience Media Center kanye neSense About Science - Umqondisi weSMC UFiona Fox kanye noMqondisi we-SAS UTracey Brown - nabanye ababandakanyeka nalawo maqembu, kubikwa ukuthi baxhunywe ngeRevolutionary Communist Party, iqembu leTrotskyist splinter elalihlelwe ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1970 ngaphansi kobuholi besazi sezenhlalo UFrank Ferudi, ngokusho kwababhali UGeorge Monbiot, UJonathan Matthews, UZac Goldsmith futhi UDon Maisch.

Iqembu likaFerudi elihlukanise i-RCP lahlangana Ukuphila kweMarxism, Umagazini we-LM, I-Spiked Magazine futhi Isikhungo Semibono, owamukela ubungxiwankulu, ukuzimela futhi wakhuthaza umbono wezobuchwepheshe nokudelela abezemvelo, ngokusho kukaMonbiot. (UFerudi kuphendula kule ngcezu.) A Isihloko se-Guardian mayelana nomcimbi we-LM ngo-1999 uchaze inethiwekhi "njengempendulo ebhekiswe Kwesobunxele" (ngamazwi kaFuredi) enombono womhlaba wokuthi ukucabanga kwesokunxele "akuyona into yezepolitiki" futhi "ayikho enye indlela emakethe."

"Enye yezinto ezixakile kwezepolitiki yanamuhla wukubusa kwababengamaphiko kwesobunxele asebephendukele kwesokudla," kubhala uMonbiot ku Isihloko se-2003 Kuchazwa ubudlelwano phakathi kweSense About Science kanye neScience Media Center, abantu ababambe iqhaza kuleyo mizamo kanye nezixhumanisi zenethiwekhi ye-LM:

“Ngabe konke lokhu kwenzeke ngengozi? Angicabangi kanjalo. Kepha akulula ukuqonda ukuthi kungani kwenzeka. Ngabe sibheke iqembu elifuna amandla ngenxa yalo, noma elilandela ukwakheka kwezepolitiki, okuyisinyathelo esiphakathi kwalo? Engingakusho ukuthi isikhungo sezesayensi, esihlala singenapolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu oxhumano lwezepolitiki oluyinqaba nolwehlukile. Esikhundleni sokwakha kabusha ukuthembela komphakathi kwezesayensi nakwezokwelapha, ifilosofi yaleli qembu enyanyekayo ekugcineni ingayiqeda. ”

amaqhinga

I-SMC e-UK ithi inakho i-database enezingcweti ezingama-2700 kanye nezikhulu ezingaphezu kwezingu-1200 zabezindaba, kanye nohlu lwamakheli olunezintatheli ezingaphezu kwezingama-300 ezimele yonke imibhalo emikhulu yase-UK. I-SMC isebenzisa amaqhinga amathathu amakhulu ukuthonya ukusabalala kwesayensi, ngokusho kwayo ividiyo yephromoshini:

  1. Impendulo esheshayo ezindabeni eziqhamuka nezingcaphuno zemibono: Lapho kuvela indaba yesayensi, “kungakapheli nemizuzu emingaki kukhona ama-imeyili e-SMC emabhokisini okungenayo awo wonke intatheli kazwelonke enikeza ochwepheshe,” kusho uFox.
  2. Ukuthola izintatheli kuqala ngocwaningo olusha. I-SMC "inelungelo lokufinyelela kumajenali esayensi angaba ngu-10-15 ngaphambi kokuphakanyiswa kwama-embargo" ukuze bakwazi ukulungiselela ukuphawula kusengaphambili kochwepheshe bezinkampani zangaphandle okukhombisa ukuthi izifundo ezintsha ziyakudinga ukunakekelwa nokuthi kufanele zihlelwe kanjani.
  3. Ukuhlela cishe i-100 press ngamafuphi unyaka "owabeka i-ajenda" ngokusobala ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene zesayensi ezinempikiswano ezifana nodoti wenuzi, i-biotechnology kanye nezifo ezisafufusa.

Izibonelo zethonya nokuchema

Abaphenyi abaningana kanye nezifundiswa babike ukuthi bathi ukwenzelela kwe-SMC okuxhasa izimboni ngezihloko ezinempikiswano, kanye nokuthi izintatheli zithembele kangakanani emibonweni yochwepheshe be-SMC ukuhlela izindaba zesayensi.

Ukungabi nemibono ehlukahlukene

Uprofesa wobuntatheli uConnie St. Louis waseCity University, eLondon, uhlole umthelela weSMC ekubikeni kwesayensi emaphephandabeni kazwelonke ayi-12 ngo-2011 nango-2012, futhi wathola:

  • Ama-60% ama-athikili abika izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
  • Ama-54% okuphendula "kochwepheshe" anikezwe yi-SMC ekuqhamukeni kwezindaba ngalesi sikhathi esihlanganisiwe bekusezindabeni
    • Kulezi zindaba, ama-23% awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
    • Kulabo abakwenzile, kuphela ama-32% wemithombo yangaphandle enikeze umbono ophikisayo kulokho okunikezwa ngungoti ekuphenduleni kwe-SMC.

"Kunezintatheli eziningi kunokuba kufanele ngabe zisebenzisa kuphela ochwepheshe be-SMC hhayi ukuxhumana nemithombo ezimele," kuphetha uSt.

Ochwepheshe akubona njalo ososayensi

UDavid Miller, uprofesa wesayensi yezenhlalo evela e-University of Bath, e-UK, uhlaziye okuqukethwe kwe-SMC kuwebhusayithi kanye nezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act, futhi wabika:

  • Abanye ochwepheshe be-SMC abangama-20 kwabangu-100 abacashunwe kakhulu kwakungebona ososayensi, njengoba kuchazwa ngokuba ne-PhD nokusebenza esikhungweni sokucwaninga noma emphakathini ophakeme kakhulu, kepha babengama-lobbyists kanye nama-CEO amaqembu amaqembu embonini.
  • Imithombo yezimali ibingadalulwa njalo ngokuphelele ngesikhathi esifanele ku-inthanethi.
  • Kwakungekho bufakazi bokuthi iSMC yayivuna umxhasi othile, kodwa yayithanda imikhakha ethile yezinkampani nezihloko ezazikhuluma ngazo “kukhombisa izinto eziza kuqala zabaxhasi bazo.”

“Uma uthi ucaphuna ososayensi bese ugcina usebenzisa ama-lobbyists kanye nama-NGO, umbuzo uthi: ngabe ukhetha kanjani ukuthi yiliphi ama-lobbyists noma ama-NGO okumele abe nawo? Kungani ungenawo ama-lobbyist aphikisana nokuhlolwa kofuzo noma amalungu e-Greenpeace aveza umbono wawo kunesikhundla se-bioindustry? Lokho kuveza ngempela uhlobo lokuchema olusebenzayo, ”kusho uMiller.

Strategic spin triumph emibungwini yabantu / yezilwane e-hybrid

Ngo-2006, lapho uhulumeni wase-UK ecabanga ukuvimbela ososayensi ekwakheni imibungu ehlanganiswa nabantu-yezilwane, iSMC yahlanganisa imizamo yokususa ukugxila ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kude nezinkinga zokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwemibungu ehlanganisiwe njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho ku-Nature.

Umkhankaso we-SMC "wawunqobe amasu ebudlelwaneni bezindaba" futhi "ububhekele kakhulu ukuguqula isimo sokutholakala kwemibungu eyizilwane ezingabantu," ngokusho kuka-Andy Williams, umcwaningi wezindaba e-University of Cardiff, e-UK, owenza ukuhlaziywa egameni le-SMC kanye nabasizi bomkhankaso.

UWilliams uthole:

  • Imithombo engaphezulu kwama-60% ezindabeni ezibhalwe yizintatheli zesayensi nezempilo - leyo okubhekiswe kuyo yi-SMC - isekele ucwaningo, futhi yingxenye eyodwa kuphela yekota yemithombo ephikisana nalokhu.
  • Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli ebezingakahlosiwe yi-SMC zikhulume nososayensi abambalwa abasekelayo kanye nabaphikisi abaningi.

"UWilliams manje ukhathazekile ngokuthi imizamo ye-SMC iholele izintatheli ukuthi zinikeze isithunzi ososayensi ngokweqile, nokuthi zavimbela impikiswano," Indatshana Yemvelo ibikile. Ingxoxo noWilliams in SciDevNet kubika:

"Ulimi oluningi olusetshenzisiwe ukuchaza [izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC] kugcizelela ukuthi babeyithuba lokuthi ososayensi bachaze isayensi ngamagama abo, kodwa - okubaluleke kakhulu - ngendlela engathathi hlangothi futhi engenaxabiso," esho. Kepha lokhu akulinaki iqiniso lokuthi le micimbi ibiphethwe ngokuqinile icindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo, engeza, nokuthi isethelwe ukuvikela umthelela omkhulu kwabezindaba kososayensi ababandakanyekayo. Izintatheli ezingongoti bezesayensi zondliwe "yimixhaso yolwazi" yi-SMC futhi zinamathuba amaningi kakhulu kunezinye izintatheli ukucaphuna imithombo yokuvikela ukuxubana, kusho uWilliams.

Ikhuthaza ukubukwa kwemboni ku-fracking

Ngokombiko othile Februwari 2015 ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba olwenziwe nguPaul Mobbs we-Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, i-SMC yanikela ngamazwibela amaningi ochwepheshe mayelana ne-fracking phakathi kowezi-2012-2015, kepha idlanzana lososayensi ababephethe ukuphawula kwakusuka ezikhungweni ezinobudlelwano bezezimali nemboni kaphethiloli noma amaphrojekthi ocwaningo axhaswe imboni.

“Iqhaza le-SMC libukeka lifaka umbono omncane emibonweni emincane yezimvo zokuphepha kwe-fracking. Le mibono isuselwa esikhundleni sobungcweti salabo abathintekayo, futhi ayisekelwa ngezikhombo zobufakazi ukuqinisekisa ubuqiniso bayo. Ngenxa yalokho, le mibono iye yacashunwa kwabezindaba ngaphandle kokungabaza. ”

“Mayelana negesi ephuma emanzini, i-SMC ayinikezi umbono olinganiselayo ngobufakazi obutholakalayo, kanye nokungaqiniseki, ngemithelela kawoyela negesi engajwayelekile. Inikeza izingcaphuno ezivela ezifundweni ezimele kakhulu umbono 'wase-UK', ongabunaki bonke ubufakazi obutholakala kulolu daba obuvela e-USA, Australia naseCanada. ”

Ukwehlisa isineke ukukhathala okungamahlalakhona 

A Iphepha le-2013 nguMalcolm Hooper, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-Emeritus, e-University of Sunderland, e-UK, usole iSMC ngokuthuthukisa imibono yabanye abasebenza kwezokwelapha, ngokwehluleka ukubika ngesayensi yezinto eziphilayo kanye nokuphokophela "imibono kanye nenkulumo-ze yamaqembu anentshisekelo enamandla" emithonjeni yayo yezindaba sebenza ku-chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Iphepha likaHooper libika ngezixhumanisi eziphakathi kwe-SMC nabadlali abalulekile empikiswaneni yeCFS / ME nezixhumanisi zemboni yomshuwalense, futhi linikeza ubufakazi balokho uHooper akuchaze njengomkhankaso weSMC wokudicilela phansi abantu ngeCFS / ME, kanye nemizamo yayo yokudicilela phansi iPACE imiphumela yesivivinyo kwabezindaba. Uyaphetha, "Inhlangano eziphatha ngendlela engqubuzana nesayensi ngale ndlela ayinakuba nesicelo esisemthethweni sokumela isayensi."

Ukubukwa kwe-SMC, bheka Ishidi lamaqiniso lango-2018 ku-CFS / ME “ukugula nokuphikisana.”

Ukuphepha kwamaselula nabaxhasi bezingcingo

A Iphepha le-2006 nguDon Maisch, PhD, "kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokungakhethi kwemodeli yeSMC kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi lapho kunikezwa izeluleko zochwepheshe ezindabeni ezinengxabano lapho izintshisekelo ziyingxenye yohlaka lweSMC." Iphepha leMaisch lihlola ukuxhumana kwamaSMC ezindabeni ezibandakanya imisebe kagesi kagesi kanye nokuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, futhi linikeza lokho akubiza ngokuthi "umlando ongacwaningwa wemodeli yeSMC yokuxhumana kwesayensi."

“Kusobala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezisebenzisanayo ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK yokuqhakambisa ubuchwepheshe be-Biotec nobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana. Lokhu kungachaza ukuthi kungani abantu abangenazo iziqu zangempela kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi bekwazile ukufinyelela ezikhundleni ezaba ubuso bomphakathi bezikhungo zesayensi zaseBrithani. Ibuye ichaze ukuthi kungani isikhungo sezesayensi nezokwelapha sase-UK, sazi ukuthi ingxenye enkulu yemali yesayensi ivela emithonjeni yezimboni, ingabalingani abazimisele ukuvumela izinhlangano ze-PR ezine-ajenda enqunywe kusengaphambili ukuthi zibakhulumele futhi zisekele inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni kunentshisekelo yomphakathi . ”

Ukuvikela i-GMO

Njengokwehliswa ngenhla, bobabili iScience Media Center neqembu lodadewabo iSense About Science bethule ngamaphrojekthi avikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. I-SMC ivame ukunikeza ochwepheshe abagxeka izifundo eziveza ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ngo-2016, ososayensi baphindisela emuva ekuphenduleni kochwepheshe be-SMC abathi babekhuluma kabi ngomsebenzi wabo kuma-GMO. Ucwaningo oluholwa nguMichael Antoniou, PhD, iNhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group, eKing's College London School of Medicine, futhi lwashicilelwa ku Imibiko yeSayensi, wasebenzisa ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana ukuze aqhathanise ummbila we-GMO nozakwabo ongeyona i-GM futhi wabika ukuthi ummbila we-GM nowe-GM "awalingani kakhulu." I-SMC ikhiphe i- ukusabela kochwepheshe ukuhlambalaza isifundo, futhi bekungavumeli ababhali ukuthi baphendule noma balungise imininingwane enganembile ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, ngokusho kwabalobi bezocwaningo.

“Lawa mazwana [acashunwe ekukhishweni kweSMC] awanembile ngakho-ke asabalalisa ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngephepha lethu. Sazisiwe ukuthi akusiyo inqubomgomo yeScience Media Centre ukuthumela izimpendulo, ezifana nezethu, kumazwana okuphawula abawathumelayo / abawabeka kwiwebhusayithi yabo, ”kusho u-Antoniou. Ababhali bokufunda bathumele impendulo yabo lapha.

Intatheli uRebekah Wilce ibike kanjalo ku-PR Watch ngo-2014 ngezibonelo eziningana zokuchema kwe-pro-GMO kwezokuxhumana ze-SMC. Wabhala:

I-SMC izibiza ngesikhungo esizimele sokuxoxisana nabezindaba ngezindaba zesayensi. Abagxeki, nokho, bayakungabaza ukuzimela kwayo kusuka embonini ye-GMO - yize isitatimende seqembu ukuthi inkampani ngayinye noma omunye umxhasi anganikela kuphela ngamaphesenti amahlanu emholweni weqembu wonyaka - futhi axwayise ukuthi le nhlangano ibheke ngaphesheya kwechibi iye e-United States ukuhlinzeka nge-GMO spin lapha.

I-SMC kwahola impendulo ocwaningweni luka-2012 olubika ukuthi ukuthola izicubu ezilwaneni zaselebhu zondla ama-GMO esifundweni sesondlo sesikhathi eside. Ucwaningo luye lwahlazeka kakhulu emaphephandabeni, lwahoxiswa yilo magazini wokuqala futhi lwaphinde lwashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Imidiya

Uchungechunge lweColumbia Journalism Review olunezigaba ezintathu, ngoJuni 2013, “Science Media Centers and the Press”

Nature, ngu-Ewen Callaway, Julayi 2013, “Abezindaba zesayensi: Isikhungo sokunakwa; UFiona Fox neScience Media Center yakhe bazimisele ukuthuthukisa ezokunyathelisa zaseBrithani. Manje imodeli isakazeka emhlabeni wonke ”

Nature, nguColin Macilwain, “Izizwe ezimbili zihlukaniswe inhloso eyodwa: Izinhlelo zokuphindaphinda iScience Media Center yaseBrithani e-United States zigcwele ingozi”

I-FAIR, ngu-Stacy Malkan, ngoJulayi 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zenkampani Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwezesayensi?"

SciDevNet, nguMićo Tatalović, ngoMeyi 2014, “Isikhungo Sezindaba Sezindaba sase-UK sibhebhezela ukuphusha isayensi yezinkampani” Isikhungo semvu

Ukubuka kwe-PR, nguRebekah Wilke, ngo-Ephreli 2014, "IScience Media Center Spins Pro-GMO Line"

Kwiqembu elihlobene i-Sense About Science:

I-Intercept, ebhalwe nguLiza Gross, ngoNovemba 2016, “Seeding Doubt: Yeka indlela abazibeke ngayo abaqaphi 'besayensi ezwakalayo' befaka esikalini embonini.”

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: I-Sense About Science-USA Director uTrevor Butterworth Spins Science for Industry

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba 'Ozakwethu' Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Ucwaningo Olusha: Ukwehluleka Ukumelana Nezinambuzane ze-GMO; Isilimo Sommbila Esengozini

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam 

Ucwaningo olusha lunezela ebufakazini bokuthi ukusebenza kwezici ezithandwayo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezisetshenziselwa ukuvikela ummbila nokotini ezinambuzaneni kuyahluleka, kubeka engcupheni ukukhiqizwa kommbila wase-US, futhi kubangele isidingo sokwanda kokusetshenziswa kwezinambuzane.

Isifundo, ebhalwe ngabathathu babacwaningi abazimele, imibhalo emelana nesilokazane esikhulu sezitshalo ezibizwa ngokuthi yi-corn earworm, futhi ingeza ezixwayisweni zokuthi ubuchwepheshe obudumile be-GMO obumelana nezinambuzane obaziwa ngokuthi yi-Bt, ngemuva kwebhaktheriya elihlala emhlabathini iBacillus thuringiensis, alusakhazimuli. Kuyaphawuleka njengokuhlolwa kokuqala kwesikhathi eside, kwensimu kokusebenza kommbila we-transgen Bt ngokuqhathaniswa nesinye sezinambuzane ezilimaza kakhulu ummbila omnandi, ummbila wasensimini, ukotini nezinye izitshalo eziningi ezinenani eliphakeme. Ngaphambi kokushicilela abakutholile, okuhlanganisa ukubukwa kweminyaka engama-20, abacwaningi babanikeza i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) kanye nezinkampani ezithuthukise futhi zathengisa lezi zimfanelo, kusho uGalen Dively, oyisazi sezinambuzane sase-University of Maryland futhi ohola umcwaningi ku isifundo.

Izilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ze-Bt ziveza amaprotheni athile aziwa ngokuthi (Cry protein) enza ukuthi izitshalo zibe nobuthi ezinambuzaneni ezithile - izitshalo zihlinzeka ngempumelelo isibulali zinambuzane zazo - kunciphisa isidingo sokufakwa kwamakhemikhali. Ngo-2015, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-80 wesitshalo sommbila wase-US ephethe okungenani isici esisodwa seBt. Ummbila omningi osutshaliwe wenziwe ngamaprotheni amaningi we-Bt Cry, kepha ucwaningo olusha lukhombisa ukuthi lesi sinambuzane (esibizwa ngokuthi yi-earworm emmbileni kepha i-bollworm kukotini) manje sesikwazi ukusinda ezicini eziningi ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezinhlobonhlobo eziyiphiramidi. Olunye ucwaningo lukhombise ukwehluleka okubanzi kwezimpawu okufanele zivikeleke kumbungu wempande yommbila osentshonalanga futhi, okushiya abalimi bebhekene nezinkinga ezinkulu futhi ezingabiza kakhulu njengoba ukumelana nokwakha, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

"Ngokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izinambuzane ezihlosiwe ezakha ukumelana nala maprotheni ziyingozi enkulu ekusimeni kobuchwepheshe be-Bt," kubhala umcwaningi uDilip Venugopal ngamafuphi kokutholwe yiqembu. “Ukwanda komonakalo owenziwe ummbila wezikhwebu kummbila wensimu ye-Bt sekuvele kubikwa eNyakatho Carolina naseGeorgia, kanti ummbila wezindlebe zommbila ungaba yisilokazane esikhulu. Sibikezela ukuthi ukumelana nezikelemu zommbila kubuthi beCry kungenzeka kwandise, futhi kusabalale. Ngakho-ke, ingozi yokulimala komkhiqizo wommbila engxenyeni enkulu yase-US iphezulu. ” IVenugopal iyi- isayensi nobuchwepheshe esikanye nabo ukusebenza ngokuhlukaniswa kwe-EPA.

Ucwaningo lunezela ebufakazini bokuthi ngemuva kweminyaka engama-20 kusetshenziswa izitshalo ezenzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula nokumelana nezinambuzane ezithile eziyingozi, bobabili lobu buchwepheshe buyehluleka ukusebenza. Izinhlobo ezimbili ezisetshenziswa kakhulu zezici ze-GMO yi-glyphosate-tolerance, eyenziwe ngosoya, ummbila, ukotini, i-canola nezinye izilimo; kanye nenkambiso emelana nezinambuzane ze-Bt. Kepha okungenani amahektha ayizigidi ezingama-70 epulazini lase-US seligcwele ukhula olungazweli ku-glyphosate selokhu kwethulwe izitshalo ze-GMO. Futhi, izimpawu zokuqina kokumelana nezinambuzane kubuchwepheshe be-Bt bezilokhu ziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kulo lonke ibhande lepulazi eminyakeni embalwa edlule. Ngehlobo eledlule, ososayensi bashicilele ucwaningo olubhala ngokwanda kokumelana nezikelemu zommbila wasentshonalanga kuma-protein e-Bt, kwathi ukulimala kommbila okusabalele kwabikwa ngabalimi. Abalimi basebenzisa imithi yokubulala ukhula eyengeziwe ukuzama ukulawula ukhula olungazweli, nokubuyela ekusetshenzisweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukulwa nezinambuzane ezingazweli, kusho ochwepheshe bezolimo.

UFred Gould, isazi sezinambuzane e-North Carolina State University, uthe umsebenzi we-Dively "isifundo esibaluleke kakhulu," esingakhombisi kahle impilo yezitshalo ezizayo. U-William Hutchinson oyi-University of Minnesota Extension Entomologist uthe lolu cwaningo lukhombisa isidingo sokuqapha kangcono ukumelana nezici ezisasebenza namanje. Njengoba ucwaningo lukhombisile, kusesebenza kahle kakhulu ngezinhlobo eziqukethe zombili i-Vip3A + Cry1Ab, waveza.

Okunye okungahambi kahle kube ukuthembela ohlelweni "lokuphephela esikhwameni" (RIB) esivumele abalimi ukuthi bagweme ukubeka eceleni ingxenye yamasimu abo njengezindawo ezingenabuntu be-Bt, umkhuba oboniswe ukuthi awukhuthazi ukumelana. Ngohlelo lwe-RIB, noma kunjalo, abacwaningi bathole ukuthi abalimi empeleni bakhuthaza ukumelana nokusabalalisa imithamo ephansi engalingani yobuthi be-Bt ukondla izinambuzane emasimini abo, okusize ukwakha ukumelana nezinambuzane ngokuhamba kwesikhathi. Izinkampani ezisekela imikhuba yeBt zikhuthaze ukukhoseliswa esikhwameni. Imbewu enkulu iMonsanto Co, okuyiyona wenza ama- $ 5.8 billion Ekuthengisweni kwembewu yommbila nezici ngonyaka owedlule, ubike ukuthi isikhwama esikhwameni sishesha futhi silungele abalimi, ebavumela ukuthi batshale imbewu ekhethekile “Irowu yocingo kuya kolayini wocingo."

Ama-EPA abhekene necala elikhulu ngale nkinga, ngokusho kwehhovisi le-Inspector General (OIG) le-ejensi, wagxeka le nhlangano ngonyaka odlule ngokusingathwa kwezinkinga zokumelana. Phakathi kwezinye iziphambeko, le nhlangano ibithembele kakhulu embonini yezimbewu namakhemikhali ukuthi ingazibika yona ngezinkinga zokumelana, futhi ayizange inikeze abalimi noma abacwaningi izindlela eziqondile zokubika izehlakalo zokumelana nabalawuli, ngokusho kwe-OIG.

I-EPA nayo iyimfihlo kakhulu nemininingwane eyitholayo ezinkampanini zembewu, igcina imibiko yokuthobela nokuqapha imininingwane evela emphakathini. "Ukubonisa ngale kuyigugu le-EPA," kubhala i-OIG. "I-EPA inayo yonke imininingwane nezindlela zokuthuthukisa ukusebenza obala maqondana nokulawulwa kwayo kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezifana nommbila weBt."

Ukuthembela embonini ukuthi izibike ngokwakho kuyinkinga ethile ngoba kunobufakazi imboni ebekhetha ukungakwenzi lokho. Icala lase-Iowa lokumelana nezinambuzane elatholakala ngo-2009 alizange libikwe njengoba bekufanele ngabe, ngokwesibonelo, kusho i-OIG. I-EPA ibisebenza ukulungisa amaphutha abekwe yi-OIG maphakathi no-2017.

I-EPA ithe “ihlaziya lolu cwaningo neminye imininingwane ephathelene nokumelana nezikelemu zommbila futhi izobheka ukuthi ngabe ukuthuthuka kwezindlela zamanje zokulawulwa kokumelana nezimbungulu kuyadingeka yini.” I-EPA ithe njengengxenye yalolo hlelo, izobamba umhlangano womphakathi nesigungu sabeluleki besayensi ngasekupheleni konyaka.

Kepha kungahle kube sekwephuze kakhulu. Imikhuba yezolimo ehlolwe isikhathi eside njengokushintshaniswa kwezitshalo nokuxubana kwamanye amasu kubalulekile ekulweni nezinkinga zokumelana. Ukuthembela ohlotsheni olulodwa lobuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo isizini nesizini nakanjani kuzokwehluleka ekugcineni, ngokusho kochwepheshe bezolimo.

“Akukho abangakwenza ngakho,” kusho uDively. “Kunobufakazi obuqand 'ikhanda ukuthi kuzokonakala,” kusho uDively.