Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Glyphosate, i-herbicide yokwenziwa enelungelo lobunikazi ngonyaka we-1974 yiMonsanto Company futhi manje eyenziwe futhi ithengiswa yizinkampani eziningi emikhiqizweni engamakhulu, ihlotshaniswa nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa kakhulu njengesithako esisebenzayo kuma-herbicides anohlobo lwe-Roundup, kanye ne-herbicide esetshenziswa ne-"Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs).

Ukubekezelelana kwe-Herbicide kuyisici esande kakhulu se-GMO esenziwe izitshalo zokudla, kanti amanye ama-90% ommbila nama-94% kabhontshisi wase-US enzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kwabantu baseMelika ku-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe 500 amaphesenti selokhu kwethulwa izitshalo ze-Roundup Ready GMO e-US ngo-1996. Nawa amanye amaqiniso abalulekile nge-glyphosate:

I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ngokombiko othile NgoFebhuwari 2016 isifundo, i-glyphosate yiyona isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu: "E-US, asikho isibulala-zinambuzane esiseduze kakhulu nokusetshenziswa okunamandla nokusakazeke kangaka." Okutholakele kufaka phakathi:

  • AbaseMelika basebenzise amathani ayi-1.8 wezigidi ze-glyphosate selokhu yethulwa ngo-1974.
  • Emhlabeni wonke kufuthwe amathani ayizigidi eziyi-9.4 amakhemikhali emasimini - anele ukufafaza cishe isigamu sephawundi seRoundup kuwo wonke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.
  • Emhlabeni jikelele, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe izikhathi eziyi-15 selokhu kwethulwe izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Izitatimende ezivela kososayensi nabahlinzeki bokunakekelwa kwempilo 

Ukukhathazeka Ngomdlavuza

Imibhalo yesayensi kanye neziphetho zokulawula maqondana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ikhombisa ukuxubana kokutholakele, okwenza ukuphepha kwe-herbicide kube yindaba ephikisanayo. 

Ngo 2015, the I-International Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njengo-mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu”Ngemuva kokubukeza iminyaka yocwaningo lwesayensi olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ontanga. Ithimba lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba lithole ukuthi kukhona ukuhlangana okuthile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izinhlangano ze-US: Ngesikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yayiqhuba ukubuyekeza ukubhalisa. IKomidi Lokubuyekeza Umdlavuza we-EPA (CARC) ukhiphe umbiko ngoSepthemba 2016 siphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate "bekungeke kwenzeke ukuthi ibe yi-carcinogenic kubantu" ngemithamo efanele impilo yomuntu. NgoZibandlela wezi-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigungu Sabeluleki Besayensi ukuze sibuyekeze lo mbiko; amalungu ayekhona ihlukaniswe ekuhloleni kwabo umsebenzi we-EPA, abanye bathola ukuthi i-EPA yenze iphutha ekutheni iluhlole kanjani ucwaningo oluthile. Ngokwengeziwe, iHhovisi Lezokucwaninga Nentuthuko le-EPA linqume ukuthi iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA ayilandelwa imigomo efanele ekuhloleni kwayo i-glyphosate, futhi yathi ubufakazi bungathathwa njengobusekela ubufakazi “obungenzeka” bomdlavuza noma “obusikisela” bokwehlukaniswa kwe-carcinogenicity. Noma kunjalo i-EPA ukhiphe umbiko osalungiswa ku-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuthi ikhemikhali akunakwenzeka ukuthi libe yi-carcinogenic. Ngo-Ephreli 2019, i-EPA kwaqinisekisa isikhundla sayo leyo glyphosate ayibeki bungozi empilweni yomphakathi. Kepha ekuqaleni kwenyanga efanayo, i-US Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry (ATSDR) ibike ukuthi kunokuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza. Ngokusho kwe- umbiko wokusalungiswa ovela ku-ATSDR, "Ucwaningo oluningi lubike izilinganiso zobungozi ezinkulu kunezinye zezinhlangano eziphakathi kokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate kanye nengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma noma i-myeloma eminingi." 

I-EPA ikhiphe i- Isinqumo Sokubukeza Okwesikhashana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi olusha mayelana nokuma kwalo ku-glyphosate. 

Iyuniyani yase-Europe: The Isiphathimandla Sezokuphepha KwaseYurophu futhi I-European Chemicals Agency bathe i-glyphosate ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic kubantu. A Umbiko ka-Mashi 2017 ngamaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi abalawuli bathembele ngokungafanele ocwaningweni olwaluqondiswa futhi lusetshenziswa imboni yamakhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ithole ukuthi umbiko weFederal Institute for Risk Assessment waseJalimane ngeglyphosate, ongatholanga ubungozi bomdlavuza, ubufaka phakathi izingxenye zombhalo kukhishwe izifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebhuwari 2020, kwavela imibiko yokuthi izifundo zesayensi ezingama-24 ezithunyelwe kubalawuli baseJalimane ukufakazela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate zaqhamuka elabhorethri enkulu yaseJalimane osolwa ngokukhwabanisa nokunye okungalungile.

Umhlangano ohlangene we-WHO / FAO wezinsalela ze-Pesticide kunqunywe ngo-2016 ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingenakwenzeka ukufaka ingozi ye-carcinogenic kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni ngokudla, kepha lokhu kutholakala kungcoliswe ngu ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo ukukhathazeka ngemuva kokuvela ukuthi usihlalo kanye nosihlalo weqembu nabo babephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elixhaswe ngokwengxenye yiMonsanto nenye yezinhlangano zalo zokunxenxa.

California OEHHA: Ngo-Mashi 28, 2017, iHhovisi Lezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-California Environmental Protection Agency laqinisekisa ukuthi kuzokwenzeka engeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwe-Proposition 65 lwaseCalifornia lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba lesi senzo kodwa icala lachithwa. Kwelinye icala, inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ayinakudinga izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo equkethe i-glyphosate. NgoJuni 12, 2018, iNkantolo yesiFunda e-US yasenqaba isicelo se-California Attorney General sokuthi inkantolo isiphinde icubungule lesi sinqumo. Inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ingadinga kuphela inkulumo yezentengiso edalula "imininingwane eyiqiniso futhi engenakuphikiswa," futhi nesayensi ezungeze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayizange itholakale.

Isifundo Sezempilo Kwezolimo: Ucwaningo lukahulumeni wase-US olwalusekelwa isikhathi eside oluzoxhaswa yimindeni yasepulazini e-Iowa naseNyakatho Carolina alutholanga ukuxhumana phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abacwaningi babika ukuthi “phakathi kwabafaka izicelo ku-quartile yokuvezwa okuphezulu kakhulu, kwakukhona ingozi eyengeziwe ye-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uma iqhathaniswa nabangakaze basebenzise… ”Ukubuyekezwa kwakamuva kakhulu okushicilelwe ocwaningweni yenziwa umphakathi ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zakamuva ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Endocrine, ukukhathazeka nokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Ucwaningo lwango-2017 luhambisana nokuchayeka okungapheli, okunezinga eliphansi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingenawo utshwala kumagundane. Ngokusho kwabaphenyi, imiphumela "isho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okungapheli kwamazinga aphansi kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwe-GBH (Roundup), ezindaweni ezivumelekile ezilingana ne-glyphosate, kuhlotshaniswa nokuguqulwa okuphawulekayo kwe-proteome yesibindi ne-metabolism," ama-biomarkers we-NAFLD.

Ukuphazanyiswa kweMicrobiome 

  • November 2020 iphepha ku-Journal of Materials Hazardous ibika ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisenkabeni ye-gut gut microbiome "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamabhaktheriya esiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho abalobi ephepheni labo. 
  • A 2020 ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi kwemiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome iphetha ngokuthi, "izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni zingadala i-dysbiosis, uma kubhekwa ukuthi amagciwane angosomathuba amelana kakhulu ne-glyphosate uma kuqhathaniswa nama-bacteria asebenzayo." Leli phephandaba liyaqhubeka, “IGlyphosate ingase ibe yisici esibucayi kwezemvelo ku-etiology yezifo eziningana ezihambisana ne-dysbiosis, kufaka phakathi isifo se-celiac, isifo samathumbu esivuthayo kanye nesifo samathumbu esivele sicasuke. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate nakho kungaba nemiphumela empilweni yengqondo, kufaka phakathi ukukhathazeka nokudangala, ngokushintsha kwesisu segciwane. ”
  • Ucwaningo lwama-rat lwango-2018 olwenziwe yiRamazzini Institute lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamazinga aphansi ku-Roundup emazingeni athathwa njengaphephe kakhulu kushintshe i-gut microbiota kwamanye amazinyane egundane.
  • Olunye ucwaningo lwango-2018 lubike ukuthi amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate afakwa kumagundane aphazamisa i-gut microbiota futhi kubangele ukukhathazeka nokuziphatha okufana nokudana.

Imiphumela emibi yezinyosi nezimvemvane ze-monarch

Amacala omdlavuza

Bangaphezu kuka-42,000 abantu abafake isimangalo eMonsanto Company (manje eyiBayer) bethi ukutholakala kwe-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), nokuthi iMonsanto yamboza izingozi. Njengengxenye yenqubo yokutholwa, iMonsanto kudingeke ukuthi ivule izigidi zamakhasi amarekhodi angaphakathi. Singa ukuthumela la Maphepha eMonsanto njengoba ezotholakala. Ukuze uthole izindaba namathiphu mayelana nomthetho oqhubekayo, bheka uCarey Gillam's I-Roundup Trial Tracker. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaphetha ngemiklomelo emikhulu kwabamangali ngesikweletu nomonakalo, amajaji athatha isinqumo sokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba nomthelela omkhulu ekubangeleni ukuthi bathuthukise i-NHL. IBayer iyasidlulisa lesi sinqumo. 

Ithonya leMonsanto ocwaningweni: Ngo-Mashi 2017, ijaji lenkantolo yombuso livule imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto leyo kwaphakamisa imibuzo emisha mayelana nethonya likaMonsanto kunqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bocwaningo abathembele kulo. Le mibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi izimangalo zikaMonsanto ezimi isikhathi eside mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ne-Roundup musa ukuthembela kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani iqinisekisa, kepha ivuliwe imizamo yokusebenzisa isayensi

Imininingwane engaphezulu ngokugxambukela kwesayensi

Ososayensi baseSri Lankan banikeze umklomelo wenkululeko we-AAAS wocwaningo lwezifo zezinso

I-AAAS inikeze ososayensi ababili baseSri Lankan, uDkt. UChanna Jayasumana noSarath Gunatilake, the Umklomelo we-2019 Wenkululeko Yesayensi Nokuzibophezela ngomsebenzi wabo "wokuphenya ukuxhumana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-glyphosate nesifo esingapheliyo sezinso ngaphansi kwezimo eziyinselele." Ososayensi babike ukuthi i-glyphosate idlala indima enkulu ekuhambiseni izinsimbi ezisindayo ezinso zalabo abaphuza amanzi angcolile, okuholela emazingeni aphezulu esifo esingapheliyo sezinso emiphakathini yokulima. Bona amaphepha ku-  I-SpringerPlus (2015), I-BMC Nephrology (2015), Health Environmental (2015), Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Wocwaningo Lwezemvelo kanye Nezempilo Yomphakathi (2014). Umklomelo we-AAAS ubukade ukhona imisiwe phakathi komkhankaso ophikisayo wokuphikisana wabalingani bemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wososayensi. Ngemuva kokubuyekezwa, i-AAAS ubuyisele umklomelo

Ukwehliswa: omunye umthombo wokuchayeka ekudleni 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate ezitshalweni ezingezona eze-GMO ezifana nokolweni, ibhali, i-oats, nama-lentile ukomisa isivuno ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kusheshiswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-desiccation, kungaba ngumthombo obalulekile wokuchayeka ekudleni kwe-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekudleni: I-US idonsa izinyawo zayo ekuhlolweni

I-USDA yehlisa buthule uhlelo lokuqala ukuhlola ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate ngo-2017. Imibhalo ye-ejensi yangaphakathi etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi yayihlele ukuqala ukuhlola amasampula angaphezu kuka-300 wesiraphu yommbila i-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2017. Kodwa i-ejensi yabulala iphrojekthi ngaphambi kokuthi iqale. Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa e-US kwaqala uhlelo lokuhlola olunomkhawulo ngo-2016, kodwa umzamo wawugcwele impikiswano nobunzima bangaphakathi kanti uhlelo lwalunjalo yamiswa ngoSepthemba 2016. Womabili la ma-ejensi anezinhlelo ezivivinya minyaka yonke ukudla kwezinsalela ze-pesticides kodwa zombili ziye zeqa ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate.

Ngaphambi kokumiswa, kutholakale isazi samakhemikhali esisodwa se-FDA amazinga ashaqisayo e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi oju lwase-US, amazinga ayengavumelekile ngokomthetho ngoba awekho amazinga avunyelwe ukusetshenziselwa uju yi-EPA. Nayi impinda yezindaba mayelana ne-glyphosate etholakala ekudleni:

Ama-pesticides ekudleni kwethu: Ikuphi idatha yokuphepha?

Idatha ye-USDA yango-2016 ikhombisa amazinga atholakala ngezibulala-zinambuzane kokungu-85% kokudla okungaphezulu kuka-10,000 XNUMX okusampuli, konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Uhulumeni uthi zincane izingozi zezempilo, kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Bona “Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma "kuphephile" kungahle kungaphephi ngempela: Ukuhlolwa kwesayensi kwensalela ye-pesticin ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

Ukubuyiselwa emuva kweThailand kokuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate kwenzeka ngemuva kokungenelela kweBayer nge-US, imibhalo ikhombisa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngonyaka owedlule iThailand kwakumiselwe ukuvinjelwa ukhula olusetshenziswa kabanzi olubulala amakhemikhali i-glyphosate, isenzo esishayelwe ihlombe ngabameli bezempilo yomphakathi ngenxa yobufakazi bokuthi ikhemikhali libanga umdlavuza, kanye nokunye ukulimaza abantu nemvelo.

Kepha ngaphansi kwengcindezi enkulu evela ezikhulwini zase-US, uhulumeni waseThailand wakuguqula ukuvinjelwa obekuhleliwe kwe-glyphosate ngoNovemba odlule futhi walibazisa ukuvalwa kweminye imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane ezimbili zezolimo yize iKomiti Likazwelonke Lezinto Eziyingozi lathi ukuvinjelwa kuyadingeka ukuvikela abathengi.

Ukuvinjelwa, ikakhulukazi kwi-glyphosate, "kungaba nomthelela omubi" ukungeniswa kwempahla yaseThailand kotshwala, ukolweni nokunye kwempahla yezolimo, uMnyango Wezolimo wase-US u-Underdretary Ted McKinney uxwayise uNdunankulu waseThailand u-Prayuth Chan-Ocha efuna ukuguqulwa. Ukungeniswa kwamanye amazwe kungathinteka ngoba lezo zimpahla, nezinye eziningi, imvamisa zifakwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate.

Manje, ama-imeyili asanda kuvezwa phakathi kwezikhulu zikahulumeni nomzali waseMonsanto uBayer AG kukhombisa ukuthi isenzo sikaMcKinney, nalezo ezithathwe ezinye izikhulu zikahulumeni wase-US ukukholisa iThailand ukuthi ingavimbeli i-glyphosate, zabhalwa kakhulu futhi zaqhutshwa yiBayer.

Ama-imeyili atholwe ngesicelo soMthetho weNkululeko Yolwazi yiCentre for Biological Diversity, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo. I- iqembu limangalelwe UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (USDA) kanye noMnyango Wezohwebo wase-US ngoLwesithathu bafuna amarekhodi omphakathi angeziwe maqondana nezenzo zeminyango yezohwebo nezolimo ekucindezeleni iThailand ngodaba lwe-glyphosate. Kunemibhalo eminingana uhulumeni okwamanje anqabile ukuyikhipha mayelana nokuxhumana neBayer nezinye izinkampani, kusho le nhlangano.

"Kubi ngokwanele ukuthi lolu phiko lushaye indiva isayensi ezimele ukuxhasa ngokungacabangi ukuzimela kukaBayer kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate," kusho uNathan Donley, usosayensi omkhulu eCentre for Biological Diversity. "Kodwa-ke ukusebenza njenge-ejenti yeBayer ukuphoqa amanye amazwe ukuthi athathe leso sikhundla kuyinto embi kakhulu."

I-Glyphosate iyona isithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup herbicides kanye neminye imikhiqizo eyenziwe nguMonsanto, ebiza izigidigidi zamaRandi ekuthengisweni konyaka. UBayer uthenge iMonsanto e2018 futhi ubelokhu elwa kanzima kusukela lapho ukuvimbela ukukhathazeka okukhulayo emhlabeni jikelele ngocwaningo lwesayensi olukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate herbicides ingadala umdlavuza wegazi obizwa nge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Inkampani nayo ukulwa namacala okubandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kwe-100,000 abathi ukuthuthukiswa kwabo kwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kubangelwe ukuvezwa kwe-Roundup namanye ama-herbicides asekelwe eMonsanto glyphosate.

Ababulali bokhula beGlyphosate bangamakhemikhali asetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, ikakhulukazi ngoba iMonsanto yakha izitshalo ezakhiwe ngofuzo ezibekezelela ukufuthwa ngqo nalelo khemikhali. Noma ilusizo kubalimi ekugcineni amasimu engenalo ukhula, umkhuba wokufafaza i-herbicide eziqongweni zezitshalo ezikhulayo ushiya amazinga ahlukahlukene we-pesticide kokudla okusanhlamvu okuluhlaza nokudla okuphelile. Abalawuli beMonsanto kanye ne-US bagcina amazinga wezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasekudleni kwemfuyo akulimazi kubantu noma emfuyweni, kepha ososayensi abaningi abavumelani futhi bathi ngisho nokulandela amanani kungaba yingozi.

Amazwe ahlukene abeka amazinga ahlukene wezomthetho kulokho abanquma ukuthi kuyimali ephephile yombulali wokhula ekudleni nasezintweni eziluhlaza. Lawo “mazinga wezinsalela eziphezulu” abizwa ngama-MRL. I-US ivumela ama-MRL aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate ekudleni uma kuqhathaniswa namanye amazwe.

Uma iThailand ivimbela i-glyphosate, izinga elivunyelwe le-glyphosate ekudleni kungenzeka libe yi-zero, uBayer uxwayise izikhulu zase-US.

Usizo lwezinga eliphezulu

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngoSepthemba 2019 futhi futhi ekuqaleni kuka-Okthoba ka-2019 uJames Travis, umqondisi omkhulu wezindaba zikahulumeni waseBayer kanye nokuhweba, wafuna usizo ekuqedeni ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate kusuka ezikhulwini eziningi ezisezingeni eliphezulu ezivela e-USDA nase-Office of the United States Ummeleli Wezohwebo (USTR).

Phakathi kwalabo iBayer eyayifuna usizo kubo kwakukhona uZhulieta Willbrand, ngaleso sikhathi owayeyinduna yabasebenzi bezohwebo nezangaphandle kwezolimo eMnyangweni Wezolimo wase-US. Ngemuva kwesinqumo seThailand sokuguqula ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate, uWillbrand waqashwa ukuthi asebenzele iBayer ngqo ezindabeni zokuhweba zomhlaba wonke.

Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi ngabe usizo oluvela kuWillbrand ngenkathi eyisikhulu sikahulumeni lumsizile yini ukuthi athole umsebenzi eBayer, le nkampani yathi "izama ngokusemandleni" ukuqasha abantu abavela "kuzo zonke izizinda" nakunoma iyiphi "umbono wokuthi uqashwe nganoma yisiphi isizathu ngaphandle kwethalente elikhulu aliletha eBayer ngamanga. ”

Ku-imeyili eya kuWillbrand yangomhla ziyi-18 kuSepthemba 2019, uTravis wamtshela ukuthi uBayer wayecabanga ukuthi “kunenani langempela” ngokubandakanyeka kukahulumeni wase-US mayelana nokuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate, futhi waphawula nokuthi iBayer ihlela amanye amaqembu ukuthi nawo azobhikisha ngokuvinjelwa.

"Ekugcineni, sifundisa amaqembu abalimi, amasimu kanye nabalingani bebhizinisi ukuze nabo bakwazi ukuzwakalisa ukukhathazeka kanye nesidingo senqubo eqinile, esekelwe kwisayensi," kusho uTravis ebhalela uWillbrand. UWillbrand wabe esedlulisela i-imeyili kuMcKinney, uNobhala Ongaphansi Kwezobambiswano Wezolimo kanye Nezindaba Zakwamanye Amazwe e-USDA.

Ku-Okthoba 8, 2019, intambo ye-imeyili enesihloko esithi "Isifinyezo Sokuvinjelwa KweThailand - Intuthuko Ihamba Ngokushesha," uTravis ubhalele uMarta Prado, iphini likamelekeleli omele i-US Trade for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, bekopisha uWillbrand nabanye, ukuze bavuselele kubo ngesimo.

UTravis ubhale ukuthi iThailand ibukeka ikulungele ukuvimbela i-glyphosate ngesivinini “esisheshayo”, ngoDisemba 1, 2019. Kanye ne-glyphosate, izwe belihlela ukuvimbela chlorpyrifos, isibulala-zinambuzane esenziwe sathandwa yiDow Chemical esaziwa ngokulimaza ubuchopho bezingane; futhi i-paraquat, ososayensi be-herbicide bathi kubanga isifo sohlelo lwemizwa esaziwa nge-Parkinson's.

UTravis uveze ubungozi ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate okungahle kube nakho ekuthengisweni kwempahla yase-US ngenxa yenkinga ye-MRL futhi wahlinzeka nangezinye izinto ezingemuva izikhulu ezingazisebenzisa ukuzibandakanya neThailand.

"Ngokwentuthuko yakamuva, sikhula ngokukhathazeka kakhulu ukuthi abanye abenzi bezinqubomgomo nabenzi bomthetho bayayijaha le nqubo futhi ngeke babonisane kahle nabo bonke ababambiqhaza bezolimo noma babheke ngokuphelele umthelela wezomnotho nowezemvelo wokuvinjelwa i-glyphosate," kubhalela uTravis izikhulu zase-US.

Ukuhwebelana ngama-imeyili kukhombisa ukuthi izikhulu zeBayer nezaseMelika zikhulume ngezisusa ezingaba khona zezikhulu zaseThailand nokuthi ubuhlakani obunjalo bungaba lusizo kanjani. "Ukwazi okumshukumisayo kungasiza ngezimpikiswano eziphikisayo ze-USG," esinye isikhulu sase-US wabhalela uBayer mayelana nomholi oyedwa waseThai.

UTravis uphakamise ukuthi izikhulu zase-US zibandakanyeke kakhulu njengoba zazenzile neVietnam lapho lelo zwe lithutha ngo-Ephreli 2019 ukuvimbela i-glyphosate.

Ngemuva nje kwesikhalazo esivela kuBayer, uMcKinney wabhalela uNdunankulu waseThailand ngalolu daba. Ku- Okthoba 17, 2019 incwadi McKinney, owake wakwenza lokho usebenzile AbakwaDow Agrosciences, bameme izikhulu zaseThailand eWashington engxoxweni yokuzibonela mathupha mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate kanye nokuzimisela kwe-Environmental Protection Agency ukuthi i-glyphosate “ayinabungozi empilweni yomuntu lapho isetshenziswa njengokugunyaziwe.”

"Uma ukuvalwa komthetho kungalandelwa kuzothinta kakhulu ukuthengwa kwempahla yaseThailand kwezolimo ezifana nesoya nobhontshisi," kubhala uMcKinney. "Ngiyaninxusa ukuthi nibambezele isinqumo nge-glyphosate size sikwazi ukuhlela ithuba lochwepheshe bezobuchwepheshe base-US ukuthi babelane ngolwazi olufanele kakhulu ukubhekana nezinkinga zaseThailand."

Isikhathi esingaphezudlwana kwenyanga kamuva, ngoNovemba 27, Thailand kuguqulwe ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate. Iphinde yathi izobambezela ukuvinjelwa kweparaquat kanye ne-chlorpyrifos izinyanga ezimbalwa.

IThailand iphothule ukuvinjelwa kwe-paraquat ne-chlorpyrifos ngoJuni 1, walo nyaka. Kepha i-glyphosate ihlala isetshenziswa. 

Lapho ebuzwa ngokuzibandakanya kwakhe nezikhulu zase-US ngalolu daba, iBayer yakhipha isitatimende esilandelayo:

"Njengezinkampani eziningi nezinhlangano ezisebenza ezimbonini ezilawulwa kakhulu, sinikezela ngolwazi futhi sifaka isandla ekwenziweni kwemigomo esekwe kwisayensi nasezinhlelweni zokulawula. Ukuxhumana kwethu nabo bonke labo abasemkhakheni womphakathi kuyinto ejwayelekile, enobungcweti, futhi iyahambisana nayo yonke imithetho nezimiso.

Ukuguqulwa kweziphathimandla zaseThailand kokuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate kuyahambisana nokunqunywa kwesayensi okwenziwe yizindikimba ezilawulayo emhlabeni wonke, kufaka phakathi I-united statesEuropeGermanyAustraliaKoreaCanadaE-New ZealandJapan nakwezinye izindawo eziphothule kaninginingi ukuthi imikhiqizo yethu esekwe ku-glyphosate ingasetshenziswa ngokuphepha njengokuyalelwa.

 Abalimi baseThailand basebenzise i-glyphosate ngokuphepha nangempumelelo amashumi eminyaka ukukhiqiza izitshalo ezibalulekile kufaka phakathi umdumbula, ummbila, umoba, izithelo, intende kawoyela nenjoloba. IGlyphosate isize abalimi ukuthi bathuthukise izindlela zabo zokuphila futhi bahlangabezane nokulindelwe umphakathi ngokudla okuphephile, okungabizi futhi okukhiqizwa ngendlela efanele. ”

 

Inkantolo yokudluliswa kwamacala ibigxile embuzweni wokonakala ngaphambi kwecala likaJohnson v. Monsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala yaseCalifornia ibukeka ikulungele ukukhipha isinqumo esizosekela ukunqotshwa kwecala lokuqala e-US okubandakanya izinsolo zokuthi umbulali wokhula waseRoundup kaMonsanto ubangela umdlavuza.

Izinkantolo Zokudlulisa Amacala zaseCalifornia Isifunda Sokuqala Sokudlulisa Amacala NgoLwesithathu wazise abameli bakammangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson kanye nabameli bezomthetho eMonsanto ukuthi kufanele bazimisele ukugxila embuzweni wemonakalo ekhishwe kuleli cala ekulalelweni okuhlelelwe uJuni 2.

Iqiniso lokuthi inkantolo ikhombisa ukuthi inentshisekelo yokudingida ukuthi yimaphi amanani omonakalo afanelekile kunezingqinamba eziphathelene nesicelo sikaMonsanto sokuguqula ukulahleka kwecala lisho kahle ngakwicala lommangali, kusho ababukeli bezomthetho.

Ukulahlekelwa yiMonsanto Agasti 2018 kuJohnson, umgcini wezinkundla zesikole eCalifornia, kuphawule ukulahlekelwa kwecala lokuqala kweRoundup yenkampani, elatholwa yiBayer AG yaseJalimane cishe eminyakeni emibili eyedlule. Ijaji ecaleni likaJohnson lithole ukuthi uMonsanto ubenobudedengu ngokwehluleka ukuxwayisa uJohnson ngengozi yomdlavuza wamakhemikhali akhe futhi wanikeza uJohnson amadola ayizigidi ezingama- $ 289, okubandakanya amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa. Kamuva ijaji elaliqulile icala lehlisa lo mklomelo laya ezigidini ezingama-78.5 zamaRandi. Kodwa ukulahlekelwa kuthumele amasheya kaBayer aphansi futhi amisa izingxabano zabatshalizimali eziqhubeke njengoba inani lezimangalo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezengeziwe ezifakwe kuMonsanto zikhulile.

In edlulisa isinqumo, UMonsanto ucele inkantolo ukuthi iguqule isinqumo secala bese ifaka isinqumo seMonsanto noma ihlehlise futhi ibuyisele icala ecaleni elisha. UMonsanto waphikisa ngokuthi lesi sinqumo sasinephutha ngenxa yokungafakwa kobufakazi obubalulekile kanye "nokuhlanekezelwa kwesayensi ethembekile." Uma kungenjalo, uMonsanto ucele inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ukuthi yehlise ingxenye yomklomelo wamajaji "ngomonakalo ongekho kwezomnotho wesikhathi esizayo" ukusuka ku- $ 33 million kuya ku- $ 1.5 million nokusula umonakalo wokujeziswa ngokuphelele. Impikiswano kaMonsanto ekwehliseni ukulimala okungezona ezomnotho esikhathini esizayo isuselwa enkampanini yenkampani yokuthi uJohnson kungenzeka afe kungekudala futhi ngenxa yalokho ngeke abhekane nobuhlungu nokuhlupheka kwesikhathi esizayo.

UJohnson wadlulisa icala efuna ukubuyiselwa umklomelo ophelele wamajaji wama- $ 289 wezigidi.

Ngaphambi kokulalelwa kwalolu daba, isigungu sokwahlulela sathi: “Amaqembu kufanele akulungele ukubhekana nalolu daba olulandelayo ngengxabano yomlomo, njengamanje ehlelelwe uJuni 2, 2020. Thatha sengathi le nkantolo iyavumelana neNkampani iMonsanto ukuthi ukunikezwa komonakalo ongekho kwezomnotho esikhathini esizayo kumele kwehliswe. Uma inkantolo iyalela ukwehliswa okunje, kufanele futhi yehlise ukunikezwa komonakalo wokujezisa ukuze kulondolozwe isilinganiso senkantolo yokuqala senkokhelo yecala lesinxephezelo somonakalo wokujeziswa? ”

Kwelinye icala, inkantolo ngenyanga edlule yathi iyasichitha isicelo esenziwe yiCalifornia Attorney General sokuthi ifake isifinyezo se-amicus ngasohlangothini lukaJohnson.

Icala likaJohnson lambozwa abezindaba emhlabeni jikelele futhi labeka obala ekuziphatheni okungabazekayo kweMonsanto. Abameli bakaJohnson banikeze ama-jurors ama-imeyili enkampani yangaphakathi namanye amarekhodi akhombisa ososayensi baseMonsanto bexoxa ngamaphepha esayensi abhala ghost ukuze bazame ukuxhasa ukusekelwa kokuphepha kwemikhiqizo yenkampani, kanye nezindlela zokuxhumana ezinemininingwane yokuhlambalaza abagxeki, nokuqeda ukuhlolwa kukahulumeni ubuthi be-glyphosate, ikhemikhali eliyisihluthulelo emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto.

Ekudlulisweni kwayo, uMonsanto waphikisa ngokuthi ama-jurors ayesebenza ngokomzwelo kuneqiniso lesayensi nokuthi "abukho ubufakazi bokuthi iMonsanto inolwazi lwangempela lokuthi ama-herbicides ayo asuselwa e-glyphosate abangela umdlavuza. Futhi akubanga khona, lapho ukuvumelana kwesayensi, okwamukelwa ngokungaguquguquki yi-EPA nabanye abalawuli emhlabeni jikelele, kuphikisana nalesi siphetho. Kwakungeyona into embi ngabalawuli ukuthi bafinyelele kulesi sinqumo, futhi kwakungeyona into embi ngeMonsanto ukuveza umbono wabo ngesayensi. ”

Amashumi ezinkulungwane zabamangali afake isimangalo kuMonsanto enza izimangalo ezifana nezikaJohnson, kanti sekunezilingo ezimbili ezengeziwe selokhu kwaqulwa icala likaJohnson. Zombili lezo zilingo nazo ziholele ekutheni kukhishwe izinqumo ezinkulu ngeMonsanto.

IBayer nabameli babamangali abangaphezu kuka-50,000 XNUMX bebelokhu bezama ukuxoxisana ngesivumelwano sikazwelonke ngonyaka odlule kodwa iBayer isanda kuhoxisa imali ethile esekuxoxiswene ngayo. Njengoba izinkantolo zivaliwe ezweni lonke, abameli bommangali balahlekelwe yinzuzo yesikhathi esiseduze ababenayo ngenkathi kulungiselelwa ukuqulwa kwamacala amaningi kuleli hlobo nasekwindla.

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva 

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo. 

 

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva 

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo. 

 

I-Gene Editing Mishaps Gqamisa Isidingo Sokwengamela i-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imizamo yenkampani yaseMidwestern yokwakha izakhi zofuzo izinkomo zokuqala zobisi ezingenazimpondo emhlabeni ifike kwangqingetshe kuleli hlobo lapho i-US Food and Drug Administration ithola izakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni obekungafanele zibekhona. Amaphutha abanjwe yi-FDA - kepha inkampani ilahlekile - igqamisa ukubaluleka kokuqapha kukahulumeni kokudla okuhleliwe kofuzo ngesikhathi lapho amaqembu embonini efuna ukupheliswa komthetho.

Izinkomo ezingenazimpondo: umsebenzi wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo?

Abakhiqizi bengulube, isibonelo, "bathi uhulumeni wesifundazwe kufanele anciphise imithethonqubo yokusetshenziswa kokuhlelwa kofuzo emfuyweni," abathi kunciphisa ucwaningo nentuthuko, i-Wall Street Journal kubika isonto eledlule. Abakhiqizi bafuna ukwenganyelwa kususwe kwi-FDA kuye eMnyangweni Wezolimo wase-US, okuyi isivele ivumela izitshalo ezihlelwe zofuzo kufanele itshalwe futhi ithengiswe ngaphandle kokubheka okulawulayo.

Kepha i-FDA ihlela ukudinga ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo, njengoba benza ngemithi emisha yezilwane. Imithethonqubo izoqinisekisa ukuthi izinguquko zofuzo ziphephile ezilwaneni nakubathengi, futhi zisiza abathengi ukuthi bakhululeke ngobuchwepheshe, okhulumela i-FDA utshele iJournal.

Ukutholakala kwe-FDA yezakhi zofuzo ezengeziwe ezinkomeni ezingenazimpondo, nokunye okusanda kubikwa okubi okubandakanya ulibofuzo olusha amasu wobunjiniyela, aqinise icala lokuthi uhulumeni ahlolisise, futhi abe namaqembu ezimboni alwela ukulawula i-fiasco yobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Izakhi zofuzo ezingeziwe i-Recombinetics zilahlekile

Abaphenyi benkampani ezinze eMinnesota iRecombinetics, Inc., babike ephepheni le-2016 ukuthi badale izinkomo zokuqala ezifakiwe (ezingenazimpondo) besebenzisa inqubo yokuhlela izakhi zofuzo ebizwa ngeTALENS ukushintsha ukulandelana kofuzo ezinkomeni. Abaphenyi babike ukuthi abatholanga imithelela engahlosiwe. Babhala ukuthi, "izilwane zethu azinayo imiphumela ebhekiswe ngaphandle."

Kepha lapho abacwaningi be-FDA behlola kabusha i-DNA kuleli hlobo, besebenzisa ukulandelana kofuzo okwakuthunyelwe ku-inthanethi yiRecombinetics, bathole imiphumela engeyona eyokuqondisa. Izinkomo ezimbili ezihleliwe zaziphatha amakhophi e-plasmid yebhaktheriya asetshenziswe enqubeni yokuhlela, kufaka phakathi izakhi zofuzo zokumelana nama-antibiotic cishe kuwo wonke amaseli emizimba yazo. Izakhi zofuzo azivamile ukuvela ezinkomeni.

Lokhu "kuphakamisa izingqinamba zokuphepha kokuvikela ngoba kunesidingo esiqinile somhlaba wonke sokunciphisa ukusabalala kwezakhi zofuzo ezinikeza ukumelana nemithi elwa namagciwane," kubhala uJonathan Latham, PhD, ku Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Iphinde iphakamise imibuzo ngokungabi bikho kobuciko bezindlela zokuhlela izakhi zofuzo futhi inikeze isisindo sezimpikiswano zokubhekwa kukahulumeni. Izinhlelo zokufuya izinkomo ezingenazimpondo eBrazil zachithwa ngemuva kokuvela kwemiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe, kubika i-Wired, ngoba abalawuli lapho babekwazi ayisabheki izinkomo njenge-GMO.

Abaphenyi be-FDA bathi ukutholakala kwabo “kugqamisa indawo engaba khona yezindlela ezijwayelekile zokuhlola ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo,” futhi bathi basola ukuthi amaphutha okuhlanganisa “abikiwe noma awanakwa” ekuhlolweni kokuhlela izakhi zofuzo. Baphawula ezinye izibonelo zezinguquko ezingalindelekile - a Ucwaningo lwegundane lwango-2017 othole ukususwa okuyinkimbinkimbi nokufakwa ku-genome yegundane ehleliwe, futhi ucwaningo lwe-2018 lokho kwabika ukulimala kwe-DNA emigqeni yamangqamuzana omuntu.

Ngakho-ke abacwaningi beRecombinetics bakuphuthelwa kanjani ukuhlanganiswa okungahlosiwe kwe-DNA?

“Asibukanga”

"Bekungeyona into ebilindelekile, futhi besingayifunanga," kusho uTad Sonstegard, isikhulu esiphezulu senkampani yezolimo iRecombinetics 'Acceligen, ngokusho kwe Ukubuyekezwa kwe-MIT Technology. Isheke eliphelele “bekufanele ngabe lenziwe,” kusho yena. Umagazini ophefumulelwe kucashunwe uSonstegard echaza, “Besingafuni ukuhlanganiswa kweplasmid. Bekufanele sibe nayo. ”

Lokho bekufanele kube yindawo esobala yokubheka, kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, Senior Scientist, Advocacy, weMibiko yabathengi. "Ukuthi noma iyiphi i-DNA evela ku-bacterial plasmid esetshenzisiwe ohlelweni lokuhlela izakhi zofuzo yathathwa yadluliselwa kuzoba ngenye yezinto zokuqala obuzozibheka uma unentshisekelo yokuthola imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlosiwe," kusho uHansen.

Ngokubona kwakhe, iqiniso lokuthi iRecombinetics ilahlekelwe yinkinga kusikisela ukuthi, “abenzanga ukwengamela okudingekayo. Yingakho sidinga ukwenganyelwa nguhulumeni, ”kubandakanya izidingo zokuhlolwa kwezokuphepha ngaphambi kwezimakethe, esho.

U-Latham, ongusosayensi wezinto eziphilayo nowayengunjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo, naye ukhomba kokutholakele kwakamuva okuvela eJapane akholelwa ukuthi kungaba nomphumela omkhulu kunalokho okutholwe yi-FDA, futhi kungaba nomthelela omkhulu ekulawulweni komhlaba. Esifundweni se2019, Abaphenyi baseJapan babika ukuthi ama-genome wegundane ahleliwe athole i-DNA ku-E.coli genome, kanye ne-DNA yezimbuzi nezinkomo. Le DNA elahlekile yavela kuma-reagents wokuhlela izakhi zofuzo, indlela yokulethwa esetshenziselwa ukwenza ukuhlela.

Lokhu okutholakele "kulula kakhulu: ukusika i-DNA ngaphakathi kwamaseli, kungakhathalekile ukuthi yiluphi uhlobo oluhlelekile lokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo, kubeka ama-genome ukuthola i-DNA engafuneki,", kubhala uLatham kuzindaba ze-Independent Science. Uthe lokhu okutholakele “kusho ukuthi, okungenani, isidingo sezinyathelo eziqinile zokuvimbela ukungcoliswa yi-DNA elahlekile, kanye nokuhlolisiswa ngokuphelele kwamangqamuzana ahlelwe izakhi zofuzo kanye nezinto eziphilayo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Futhi, njengoba icala leRecombinetics liphakamisa, lezi yizidingo abathuthukisi uqobo abangase bangahlangabezani nazo.

Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo

I-Recombinetics inayo “Uphikise ngomsindo” ukwengamela kwe-FDA sonke isikhathi futhi wacela ukuphathwa kukaTrump ukulwa namandla okwengamela kude ne-ejensi yokuphepha kokudla, ngokusho kweMIT Technology Review. Futhi ngenkathi iRecombinetics isho ngo-2016 ukuthi izinkomo zayo ezingenazimpondo ezihlelwe ngofuzo "bezingenayo imiphumela engeyona eyokuhlasela," lokho kutholwa kwasetshenziswa njengethuluzi lokwamukela izivakashi emkhankasweni wokulwa nokuhlolwa kwe-FDA.

Phakathi ku ukuhlaziya ebisebenza eceleni kocwaningo lwale nkampani, abacwaningi abahlanu baseyunivesithi baphikise ngokuthi ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe kwezilwane zokudla ezihlelwe ngofuzo kuyasinda futhi akudingeki. Omunye wabalobi, U-Alison Van Eenennaam PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelulwa kwezilwane e-UC Davis kanye nommeli ohola phambili wokuqedwa komthetho, uchaze uhlelo lwe-FDA lokufuna ukuhlolwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe “njengohlanya.”

"Imiphumela yokuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo ifana kakhulu nezinqubo zemvelo," kubhala abacwaningi ekuphawuleni kwabo. Noma imiphi "imiphumela engemihle engancishiswa ingancishiswa ngokwakhiwa ngokucophelela nangokuhlolwa okuningiliziwe," besho, bephawula ukuthi abacwaningi abavela eRecombinetics "abatholanga" ezinkomeni zabo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Baphinde bathi, ngokungahambisani nalokhu, ukuthi izinkomo ezihlelwe ngofuzo ziphethe i-DNA efanayo "esetshenziswe abantu iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-1,000." "Isinyathelo esilandelayo esinengqondo," babhala, kungaba ukusabalalisa ukulandelana okuhleliwe kwe-genome "kubantu bezimbuzi zomhlaba wonke."

Ukunqanyulwa phakathi kokujaha ukuthengisa ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanye nesidingo sokuzikhandla okufanelekile ukuqonda imiphumela engeyona eqondiwe yokusetshenziswa kofuzo kanye nemithelela engaba nayo empilweni nasemvelweni, sekuyisikhathi eside kuyiphuzu elinamathelayo empikiswaneni ye-GMO. Ngokudla okuningi kwe-GMO, izinkampani beziphethe ukuhlolwa kokuphepha sonke isikhathi, ngaphandle kokubheka okuncane kukahulumeni. Kepha yiziphi izikhuthazo izinkampani okufanele zibheke kuzo izinkinga?

Emuva ngo-1998, ku ingxoxo noMichael Pollan yeNew York Times, UMonsanto owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ngaleso sikhathi wayengaqondile ekuhloleni kwakhe ukuthi izimfuno zemboni zikhona kuphi: ”IMonsanto akufanele ukuthi ivikele ukuphepha kokudla kwe-biotech. Intshisekelo yethu ukuthengisa okuningi ngangokunokwenzeka. Ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwayo kungumsebenzi we-FDA. ”

Ukufundwa Okwengeziwe

Ukuhlelwa kwezakhi zofuzo kudinga ukucaciswa kakhudlwana ukuze kufezekiswe isithembiso sayo - nguDavid Edgell, Ingxoxo (10.7.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwe-Gene ngokungenhloso kungeza i-DNA yezinkomo, i-DNA yezimbuzi, ne-DNA yebhaktheriya, abacwaningi begundane bathola - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent ScienceNews (9.23.19)

Izinkomo ezihlelwe ngezakhi zofuzo zine-screwup enkulu kwi-DNA yazo - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (8.28.19)

I-FDA ithola izakhi zofuzo zokumelana namagciwane ezingalindelekile ezinkomeni ezinezimpondo 'ezihleliwe' - nguJonathan Latham, PhD, no-Allison Wilson, PhD, Independent Science News (8.12.19)

Izinguquko ezenziwa ngaphandle kokuqondisa akukhona ukuphela kokukhathazeka ezitshalweni ezihlelwe ngofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (7.10.19)

Kungani isifaniso esithi “isikelo samangqamuzana” seCRISPR sidukisa - ngu-Elinor Hortle, Ingxoxo (7.4.19)

I-CRISPR ibangela imiphumela engalindelekile ngisho nasendaweni ehlosiwe yokuguqulwa kofuzo - Ukubuka kwe-GM (4.16.19)

Ukukhishwa kwe-CRISPR kubangela ukuguqulwa okungahlosiwe ku-DNA - Ukubuka kwe-GM (3.13.19)

Ukuhlelwa kwesisekelo se-CRISPR, okwaziwa ngokunemba, kushaya i-snag ngokuguqula okungu-off-target - nguSharon Begley, STAT (2.28.19)

Izilimi ezinkulu nama-vertebrae angeziwe: Imiphumela engahlosiwe yokuhlelwa kofuzo lwesilwane - NguPreetika Rana noLucy Craymer, Wall Street Journal (12.14.18)

Ukulimala okungenzeka kwe-DNA okuvela ku-CRISPR 'kubhekelwe phansi kakhulu,' ucwaningo luthola - nguSharon Begley, STAT (7.16.18)

Kuvela ukuthi ukuhlela kwe-CRISPR kungalimaza nama-genomes - Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (7.16.2018)

Isithiyo esisha esibucayi se-CRISPR: Amaseli ahleliwe angadala umdlavuza, kutholakala izifundo ezimbili - nguSharon Begley, STAT (6.11.18)

Abahleli bezakhi zofuzo basePulazini bafuna izinkomo ezingenazimpondo, izingulube ezingenamsila, nebhizinisi ngaphandle kwemithetho - ngu-Antonio Regalado, Ukubuyekezwa kweMIT Technology (3.12.18)

Umbiko: Izilwane ezihlelwa yizakhi zofuzo zizoqinisa ukulima kwasezimboni kanye nenkinga yesimo sezulu, kungalimaza impilo yabantu - Abangane Bomhlaba (9.17.19)

Ngabe ulilungele igagasi elisha lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo? - nguStacy Malkan, USRTK (3.16.18)

IMonsanto Yenza Ibhidi Entsha Yokuvimba Isivivinyo SaseSt

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Esikhathini esingaphansi kwenyanga kude nokuthi kuzoba yini icala lesine lomdlavuza weRoundup lokufaka izisulu zomdlavuza kumuntu owayekade eyi-agrochemical giant Monsanto Co, abameli bezinhlangothi eziphikisanayo bayaqhubeka nokulwa ukuthi icala kufanele - noma nini - noma kungafanele yezwa.

Abameli beMonsanto kanye nomnikazi wayo waseJalimane uBayer AG, uthumele incwadi lisonto eliya ejajini eliphethe eNkantolo yesiFunda yaseSt. UWinston V. Monsanto.

Ummangali oholayo uWalter Winston nabanye abali-13 abavela ezweni lonke babebhekene necala eNkantolo yaseSt. UMichael Mullen udlulise bonke abamangali ngaphandle kukaWinston baya eSt. Louis County e Umyalelo kaSepthemba 13.  Isinqumo seNkantolo eNkulu yaseMissouri ekuqaleni kwalo nyaka sathola ukuthi kwakungafanele abameli babamangali ukuthi bamise abamangali abavela ngaphandle kwendawo baye kothile owayenendawo efanele yokuletha icala eSt.

Abameli babamangali bebelokhu besebenzela ukugcina bonke abamangali abayi-14 behlangene futhi besendleleni yokuqulwa kwecala lika-Okthoba 15, befuna imvume yokuthi iJaji uMullen athathe isabelo sesikhashana esifundeni ngenhloso yokuzama icala leRoundup. Kodwa uMonsanto wawuphikisa lowo mzamo, wawubiza ngokuthi "yisiphakamiso esingajwayelekile" encwadini yenkampani eyabhalwa ngo-Septhemba 19 yencwadi eya kwiJaji laseSt. Louis County uGloria Clark Reno.

Le nkampani ithe abameli babamangali "yibona kuphela okufanele basolwe ngesikhundla abakuso manje. Ngesikhathi befaka izicelo zabo, indawo eDolobheni laseSt. Louis ibingafanele ... Isinqumo seNkantolo Ephakeme YaseMissouri… sikuqinisekisile ukuthi isiphetho. ”

Ukwengeza, abameli bakaMonsanto baphikisa encwadini yabo ukuthi noma yiliphi icala akufanele libe nabamangali abangaphezu kwababili: “Isivivinyo sokuhlanganyela sezimangalo ezingafani zabamangali abayishumi nantathu - izimangalo ezivela ngaphansi komthetho wamazwe amathathu ahlukene - zazizophazamisa ngokungafanele futhi ngokungafanele IMonsanto yecala elifanele. ”

Icala likaWinston, elifakwe ngoMashi ka-2018, lizoba ngecala lokuqala ukwenzeka endaweni yaseSt. Izilingo ezimbili obekumele ziqale eSt.Louis ngo-Agasti noSepthemba zibambezelekile.

Ngaphambi kokuthengisa eBayer ngonyaka odlule, iMonsanto yayizinze edolobhaneni laseCreve Coeur futhi yayingomunye wabaqashi abakhulu baseSt. Izilingo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezazibekiwe endaweni yaseSt. I- emuva naphambili belwa ukuthi icala likaWinston lingenzeka noma lingaqhutshwa kuphi futhi liqhubeke isikhathi esingaphezu konyaka.

Abamangali ecaleni likaWinston baphakathi kwabantu abangaphezu kwe-18,000 e-United States abamangalela uMonsanto bethi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula esekwe enkampanini i-glyphosate kubangele ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi iMonsanto ifihle izingozi ezihambisana nababulali bayo bokhula. Amajaji amathathu ezilingweni ezintathu ngaphezu kwezimangalo ezifanayo bathole abamangali futhi bayalela umonakalo omkhulu wokujeziswa kweMonsanto.

UBayer nabameli babamangali bahlanganyela ezingxoxweni mayelana ne- a ukukhokhelwa komhlaba wonke okungahle kwenzeke  wecala. UBayer ubelokhu ebhekene nentengo yamasheya ecindezelekile kanye nabatshalizimali abanganelisekanga selokhu kwathathwa isinqumo se-Aug. 10, 2018 ecaleni lokuqala lomdlavuza weRoundup. Ijaji linikeze umgcini wezinkundla zaseCalifornia UDewayne “Lee” Johnson $ 289 million futhi bathola ukuthi iMonsanto yenze ngobubi ekucindezeleni ulwazi mayelana nezingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula.

Izinsalela Zokubulala Ukhula Ezitholakala Kumaphesenti Ama-98 Amasampuli Oju LwamaCanada

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukutadisha kungubufakazi bamuva bokuthi ama-glyphosate herbicides asabalele kangangokuba izinsalela zingatholakala ekudleni okungakhiqizwa abalimi abasebenzisa i-glyphosate.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

NguCarey Gillam

Njengoba abalawuli baseMelika beqhubeka nokudansa bezungeza inkinga yokuhlolwa kokudla kwezinsalela zababulali bokhula be-glyphosate, ososayensi bakahulumeni eCanada bathole umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane kumasampula oju angu-197 kwangu-200 abawuhlolayo.

Abalobi be isifundo, bonke abasebenzela i-Agri-Food Laboratories eMnyangweni wezoLimo namaHlathi e-Alberta, bathe ukutholakala kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate kumasampuli oju - amaphesenti angama-98.5 - kuphakeme kunalokho okwabikwa ezifundweni eziningana ezifanayo ezenziwa eminyakeni emihlanu edlule kwezinye amazwe.

IGlyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup kanye namakhulu amanye athengiswa emhlabeni wonke ngezolimo nezinye izinjongo. Ukusetshenziswa kukhule ngokuphawulekayo eminyakeni engama-25 edlule futhi abathengi bakhathazekile ngezinsalela ze-herbicide ekudleni kwabo.

Idatha inikeza ubufakazi obusha bokuthi i-glyphosate herbicides isabalale kakhulu emvelweni ukuthi izinsalela zingatholakala ngisho nasekudleni okungakhiqizwa abalimi abasebenzisa i-glyphosate. Abaphenyi baphawule embikweni wabo ukuthi bahlangabezana nokulibaziseka bezama ukulinganisa imishini yabo yokuhlola "ngenxa yobunzima abahlangabezane nabo ekutholeni isampula lezinyosi elalingenayo iminonjana ye-glyphosate."

Izinyosi zicosha iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zisuka esitshalweni ziye kwesinye, zingahlosile zidlulisela izinsalela ezivela ezitshalweni noma ukhula olufuthwe nge-glyphosate lubuyele emihlathini yazo.

Kocwaningo oluhlukile, abacwaningi esiqhingini saseHawaii iKauai bathathe uju ngqo kwizinyosi ezingama-59 zezinyosi bathola izinsalela ze-glyphosate kumaphesenti angama-27 azo. Abaphenyi baseHawaii uthe isifuba sezinyosi esiseduze nezindawo zokulima kanye nezindawo zegalufu lapho kusetshenziswa khona i-glyphosate zazinezinga eliphakeme le-pesticide.

Umbiko waseCanada uza futhi phakathi kobufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi i-glyphosate herbicides ingadala umdlavuza, ikakhulukazi i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. NgoLwesibili ijaji eSan Francisco ngazwi linye bathola ukuthi i-Roundup, i-herbicide esekwe eglyphosate eyenziwe yathandwa ngumenzi wamakhemikhali uMonsanto Co, ukusetshenziswa kwaba "yinto ebaluleke kakhulu" ekubangeleni i-lymphoma engeyona iHodgkin kumuntu waseCalifornia. Lokho kufakazele isinqumo esifanayo samajaji esikhishwe ngo-Agasti esimweni esehlukile lapho isisulu somdlavuza siphinde sathi isifo sakhe singenxa yokuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto glyphosate.

Zombili lezi zigwebo zeza ngemuva kokuthi abameli babamangali bethule ubufakazi bezifundo eziningi ezibonisa amandla okubulala umdlavuza we-glyphosate herbicides, kufaka phakathi eyodwa eshicilelwe ngenyanga edlule ephephabhukwini umhleli walo ongusosayensi omkhulu e-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

Isinqumo sabantu baseCanada sokuhlola amasampula ezinyosi se-glyphosate siza ngemuva kokufana bheka amasampula oju ngusokhemisi wase-US Food and Drug Administration ngo-2017. Lowo sosayensi we-FDA wathola wonke amasampula oju angu-28 ayewabheka ayenemikhondo ye-glyphosate, namaphesenti angama-61 amasampuli ane-glyphosate eyanele engalinganiswa. Amanye amasampula ayenezinsalela zemithi yokubulala ukhula incane kakhulu ukuba ingalinganiswa.

Amazinga “Aphephile”

Umbiko waseCanada, eshicilelwe ephephabhukwini elibizwa ngokuthi Izithasiselo Zokudla Nokungcoliswa: Ingxenye A, ithe i-glyphosate njengamanje iyisithako esisebenzayo kuma-herbicides ayi-181 abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa eCanada futhi ukusetshenziswa kwayo kabanzi kwenze ukuthi itholakale kakhulu emvelweni.

Ababhali bezocwaningo baveze ukuthi iCanada, njenge-United States, ayinayo indinganiso yezomthetho yokuthi ungakanani umuthi wokubulala ukhula othathwa njengophephile kuzinyosi. Abalawuli emazweni ahlukene basetha lokho okubizwa ngokuthi “imikhawulo yensalela ephezulu” (MRLs) futhi batshele abathengi ukudla kwabo kuphephile uma izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zihlala zingaphansi kwama-MRL. EYurophu, i-MRL ye-glyphosate in uju ngu-0.05 mg / kg, Iphinde ivezwe njenge-50 μg / kg.

Ababhali bokufunda baseCanada bathi wonke amazinga abawatholile abengaphansi komkhawulo waseYurophu, noma ngabe amazinga aphezulu kakhulu abengaphansi komkhawulo osemthethweni. Ngenxa yokuthi izinsalela azangehlanga ngaphezu kwe-MRL, bathi, "ubungozi kwimpilo yabathengi bubonakala buphansi kakhulu ngokuya ngezinsalela ezitholakele."

Amazinga amaningana ezinsalela atholwe ngusosayensi we-FDA kuzinyosi zase-US ayengaphezulu kwalelo zinga okuthiwa liphephile elisebenza e-European Union. Kepha i-FDA, njengoMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA) ne-EPA, bagomela ngokuthi inqobo nje uma izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zingaphansi kwama-MRL asemthethweni, azilimazi.

Ososayensi abaningi abavumi ukuthi ama-MRL empeleni ayayivikela impilo yomphakathi, noma kunjalo.

"Abantu bacabanga ukuthi amazinga avikela impilo yomphakathi kodwa cha," kusho uDkt. Philip Landrigan, umqondisi weGlobal Public Health Programme eBoston College, utshele i-EHN. "Inani elilungile" lezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni ngu "zero," esho. "Khumbula, abantu abaningi abadla uju bayizingane."

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard lishicilele umhlaziyi ngo-Okthoba esho ukuthi ucwaningo oluthe xaxa ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane "ludingeka ngokushesha" njengoba abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 abantu baseMelika benensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo.

I-United States isilele emuva kweYurophu, Canada namanye amazwe ekuhloleni ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate. Yize bobabili i-FDA kanye ne-USDA behlola minyaka yonke izinkulungwane zamasampuli okudla ngezinsalela ze-pesticide futhi babike imininingwane emibikweni, zombili izinhlangano azifakanga i-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zabo zokuhlola minyaka yonke.

Eqinisweni, idatha yokuhlolwa kwezinyosi eqoqwe ngusokhemisi we-FDA ayikaze ishicilelwe yi-FDA futhi ayifakwanga kwimininingwane yokuhlolwa yokuqala ye-glyphosate ye-ejensi ekhishwe ngasekupheleni konyaka odlule njengengxenye yombiko wedatha yokuhlolwa wonyaka.

I-USDA nayo ibalked ngokufanayo ekuhlolweni kokudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate amashumi eminyaka. I-ejensi ihlele ukuqala ukuhlolwa okulinganiselwe ngo-2017 kodwa lalahla uhlelo ngencazelo encane kuphela izinyanga ezimbalwa ngaphambi kokuba kuqale ukuhlolwa.

Ukushaywa komthetho ukuze kuhlolwe

Phakathi kwakho konke ukukhathazeka nge-glyphosate nezinsalela ekudleni, i-US Rep Rosa DeLauro yaseConnecticut kule nyanga wethule isilinganiso obizwa ngokuthi “Gcina Ukudla Kuphephile Emthethweni WeGlyphosate.” Umthethosivivinywa uzodinga i-USDA ukuthi ivivinye amasampula okudla njalo ngensalela ye-glyphosate.

Lo mthethosivivinywa uzophinde uvimbele ukufafazwa kwe-glyphosate njenge-desiccant kuma-oats. Lo mkhuba usetshenziswa ngabalimi abathile ukomisa ama-oats abo ngaphambi kokuvuna. Kwenza isivuno sisebenze kahle kepha shiya izinsalela eziphakeme kokudla okuqediwe okususelwe e-oat.

IMonsanto, manje eseyiyunithi yeBayer AG, ithengise i-glyphosate ukuze isetshenziswe kuma-oats njenge-desiccant iminyaka, futhi inkampani iphinde yaqinisekisa ngempumelelo i-EPA ukuthi inyuse i-MRL yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe kwimikhiqizo ye-oat. Ngo-1993, isibonelo, i-EPA ibinokubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats ezingxenyeni eziyi-0.1 ngesigidi ngasinye (ppm) kepha ngo-1996 UMonsanto ubuze i-EPA ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana kube ngu-20 ppm kanye ne- I-EPA yenza njengoba ibuziwe. Ku-2008, kusiphakamiso sikaMonsanto, i- I-EPA iphinde yabheka ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats, kulokhu iye ku-30 ​​ppm.

Kumthethosivivinywa wakhe, uDeLauro ubheke ukugawula iMRL ngezinsalela ze-glyphosate kuma-oats kuye ku-0.1 ppm.

Abalimi baseCanada baphakathi kwabakhiqizi abakhulu be-oats emhlabeni, futhi ukukhishwa kwe-glyphosate kube ngumkhuba ovamile lapho.

Abezempilo Canada bakwenqabile ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate, ethi: "Alikho igunya lokulawulwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane emhlabeni njengamanje elibheka i-glyphosate njengengozi yomdlavuza kubantu emazingeni abantu abadalulwa kuwo njengamanje."

Ngaphezu kokuhlolela izinsalela ze-glyphosate, ososayensi baseCanada baphinde bahlola izinsalela ze-glyphosate's umkhiqizo omkhulu wokucekelwa phansi, i-metabolite ebizwa nge-aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). Njenge-glyphosate, sekuyisikhathi eside i-AMPA ibhekwa njengenobuthi obuphansi. I-AMPA itholwe kumasampuli ayi-198 kwangu-200 kuze kufike ekugxileni kwe-50.1 μg / kg.

"Umnikelo we-glyphosate kanye nezinsalela ze-AMPA ezikhona endaweni ezungezile ekungcoleni umpe wezitshalo futhi kamuva uju uqobo luyinkimbinkimbi ngokwengeziwe emazingeni alezi zinhlanganisela kumatrices ezemvelo njengomhlabathi namanzi angaphezulu komhlaba," kusho ososayensi bika.

Ososayensi baphinde bafuna izinsalela zombulali wokhula i-glufosinate futhi bathola izinsalela zalowo mbulali ngamasampuli angama-125 kwangu-200, kanti ukutholwa okuphezulu kutholakale kungama-33 μg / kg.

I-Glufosinate iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Libas herbicide ye-BASF.

UJay Byrne: Hlangana noMuntu Olandela Umshini We-Monsanto PR

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana Kwamabhizinisi uMonsanto uJay Byrne, umongameli wenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi v-Amandla, ungumdlali oyinhloko kufayela le- i-covert inkulumo-ze nemikhankaso yokunxenxa izinkampani zezolimo ezinkulu kakhulu emhlabeni. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, kuthunyelwe ku-UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Archive, yembula uhla lwamasu akhohlisayo uByrne nabanye ababambisene nabo embonini abasebenzisayo ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ukudla kwe-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Izibonelo lapha zibonisa ezinye zezindlela izinkampani ezihambisa ngazo imiyalezo yazo enkundleni yomphakathi zisuka ngemuva kwesembozo samaqembu angaphambi kokuzwakala, abasizi bakahulumeni kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele njengoba zisebenza nezinkampani noma ababonisi babo be-PR.

Amaklayenti: izinkampani eziphezulu zezolimo, ezolimo kanye nezinkampani zezidakamizwa 

KaByrne uhlu lwamakhasimende ifake phakathi uhla lwamabhizinisi amakhulu ezolimo kanye nezinkampani ezenza imithi namaqembu amabhizinisi, kufaka phakathi i-American Chemistry Council, iSyngenta, i-AstraZeneca, iMonsanto, iPfizer, i-American Farm Bureau, iNational Corn Growers Association, iGrocery Manufacturers Association, iRohm neHaas kanye nemboni yokubulala izinambuzane. iqembu lokuhweba iCropLife.

I-International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ekhuthaza ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo “iGolden Rice,” nayo iyiklayenti. Byrne ubambe iqhaza emizameni ye-PR yokuhlasela iGreenpeace nabanye abagxeka ilayisi le-GMO. Bheka nomtapo wolwazi wamakhompiyutha we-UCSF wabaningi amadokhumende afaka i-IRRI.

Kuphekwe iqembu eliphambili lezemfundo ukuze lihlasele abagxeki beMonsanto

Isu elisemqoka lomkhakha wezolimo, njenge I-New York Times ibike, ngukutshala osolwazi “besigqoko esimhlophe” ukulwa izimpi zomkhakha we-PR kanye nokunxenxa izimpi zisemuva kwesembozo "sokungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eliza nozalo loprofesa."

NgoMashi 2010, uByrne kanye noProfesa waseYunivesithi yase-Illinois UBruce Chassy uxoxe ngokusungula iqembu eliphambili elibizwa nge- "Academics Review" elingaheha iminikelo evela ezinkampanini ngenkathi libonakala lizimele. U-Byrne waqhathanisa lo mqondo nesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi (iqembu langaphambili eliqhutshwa udumo olubi inkulumo-ze yenkampani indoda engaphambili uRick Berman), okuthe “kwangena kulokhu ngokweqile; futhi ngicabanga ukuthi sinomqondo ongcono kakhulu. ” U-Byrne uchaze “uhla 'lwamathuba' anezinhloso” abangalulandela. UByrne wabhalela uDkt Chassy:

Wonke lawo maqembu, abantu kanye nezindawo zezihloko "kusho imali yezinhlangano zezinkampani ezithende kahle," kubhala uByrne. Uthe yena futhi UVal Giddings, PhD, owayeyisekela likamongameli weqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech i-BIO, ingasebenza "njengezimoto zokuhweba" zezifundiswa.

Ngo-November 2010, UByrne wabhalela uChassy Futhi, "Kuzoba kuhle ukuthola isigaba esilandelayo somsebenzi ekubuyekezweni kwe-Academics - sinezinga elihamba kancane eliqhamuka ngonyaka ka-2011 uma ibhizinisi lisafana." U-Byrne unikeze “ukuhlela isikhathi esithile sokwenza i-pro bono search engine optimization” ”ukuze iqembu lakhe libhekane nethonya lomgxeki we-GMO online. U-Byrne uphethe i-imeyili, "Njengenjwayelo, ngingathanda ukuthola isihloko esilandelayo (futhi sixhase) ukukhulisa lokhu ngenkathi sikwazi."

Ngo-2014, i-Academics Review yakhipha i- kubika ukuhlasela imboni ephilayo njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha; ezintweni zalo zokumaketha zombiko, i-Academics Review ithi izimele futhi ayizange iveze ukuxhaswa kwayo embonini yezolimo.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

"Imiklamo kahulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne" yokuthwebula izintatheli

Ukunxenxa kukaByrne nokusebenza kwe-PR kweGMO kanye nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane kuhlangana ezindaweni eziningi nomsebenzi we UJon Entine, omunye umuntu osemqoka emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhakha wezolimo. U-Entine uqondisa i-Genetic Literacy Project, ayisungula ngo-2011 ngesikhathi iMonsanto isiyi- iklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. (I-Entine's PR firm ESG MediaMetrics ibhale iMonsanto njengekhasimende kuwebhusayithi yayo ku 2010, 2011, 2012 kuze kufike kuJanuwari 2013, ngokusho kwezinqolobane ze-inthanethi zisatholakala online.)

Ngo-December 2013, U-Entine ubhalele uMax T. Holtzman, owayeyibamba lesekela likanobhala ngaphansi koMnyango Wezolimo e-US, ukuze aphakamise ukusebenzisana ochungechungeni lwezinto azichaza ngokuthi “yimisebenzi kahulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne” ukukhuthaza ama-GMO. U-Entine ubhalele uHoltzman:

Isiphakamiso sika-Entine “Uhulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne”Amaphrojekthi afaka phakathi“ Ithimba leBoot Camp ne-Response Swat Team ”ukulungiselela izifundiswa ezivela eceleni ukuthi“ zibambe iqhaza ekushayweni komthetho ezindlebeni [ze-GMO] nakwezinye izindaba ezihlobene nazo, ”“ umhlangano wobuntatheli ”ukuqinisa ukusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nezinselelo zokuphepha kokudla kanye“ nokuhlinzeka ngoqeqesho kwizintatheli ezisencane, ”umkhankaso wokufinyelela kwabezindaba emhlabeni wonke wokukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwe-biotechnology, kanye" nokuqukethwe kwemidiya eminingi nokubekwa okuvela emithonjeni ethembekile "kuqinisa izingqikithi ezibalulekile" ngamasegmenti nemibhalo etholakalayo etholakala kumawebhusayithi kahulumeni wase-US, i-GLP namanye amapulatifomu. "

UHoltzman uphendule, “Ngiyabonga Jon. Bekukuhle ukuhlangana nawe futhi. Ngicabanga ukuthi uhlaka lwakho olungezansi luhlinzeka ngamaphoyinti ezimpambanweni zemvelo lapho imiyalezo ye-usda / USG nemizamo yakho ihlangana kahle. Ngingathanda ukuqhubekisela phambili futhi ngixegise abanye abantu lapha e-usda hhayi nje kuphela abavela ezindaweni zobuchwepheshe / ezentengiselwano kodwa nasezitolo zethu zokuxhumana. ”

Amavidiyo aqondiswe ngabakhokhi bentela, aqondaniswe neMonsanto ukukhuthaza ama-GMO

Uchungechunge lwabakhokhi bentela oluxhaswe ngemali videos okwakhiqizwa ngo-2012 ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kunikeza esinye isibonelo sendlela izifundiswa namanyuvesi abephusha ngayo imiyalezo ehambisana nezinkampani. Inkampani ka-Byrne i-PR v-Fluence isize ekwakheni ama-video “abeklanyelwe ukuvela njengesabelomali esincane kanye nezimfundamakhwela,” ngokusho kwe-imeyili evela kuSolwazi uBruce Chassy wase-University of Illinois.

UDkt Chassy yabhalela abasebenzi baseMonsanto ngo-Ephreli 27, 2012:

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto uphendule wathi:

AmaSachs anikele ngokusiza ngokuthumela imiyalezo ngamavidiyo wesikhathi esizayo ngokwabelana ngemiphumela yokuhlolwa kweqembu okwakugxilwa kulo okwenziwa uMonsanto. UDkt. Chassy umeme iSachs ukuthi inikeze iziphakamiso ngezihloko zevidiyo ezizayo futhi yamcela ukuthi athumele imiphumela yeqembu lokugxila leMonsanto.

Ukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano mayelana nama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides

Ngo-2014 nango-2015, uByrne wasiza uJon Entine ukuhlela ifayili le- Izinkambu zeBiotech Literacy Project ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo futhi ibanjwe ngokubambisana ngamaqembu amabili angaphambili embonini, Iphrojekthi ye-Entine's Genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo KukaBruce Chassy. Abahleli bedukise bachaza uxhaso lwalemicimbi njengokuqhamuka emithonjeni yezemfundo, kahulumeni neyezimboni, kodwa i okuwukuphela komthombo wokuthola imali owawungalandeleka kwakuyimboni yezolimo, ngokusho kombiko kaPaul Thacker. Inhloso yamakamu ama-boot, kusho uThacker, "kwakuwukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuthi bahlele impikiswano ngama-GMO nangobuthi be-glyphosate."

UByrne wayeseqenjini elalihlela, kanye noCami Ryan (manje osebenzela iMonsanto) noBruce Chassy (owayethola izimali ezivela eMonsanto lokho akuzange kuvezwe obala), ngokusho kwama-imeyili avela ku- Faka futhi Ryan.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

I-Bonus Eventus: ikamelo lezokuxhumana lomkhakha wezolimo lomkhakha wezolimo

Umsebenzi obalulekile uByrne ahlinzeka ngawo emizamweni yokwenyusa yezolimo ngumphakathi wakhe "we-Bonus Eventus" onikeza izifundiswa nabanye ababambisene nabo embonini ngamaphoyinti okukhuluma namathuba wokuphromotha. Ngaphakathi imibhalo (ikhasi 9) ichaza i-Bonus Eventus ngokuthi "ingosi yokuxhumana nabantu yangasese esebenza njengendawo yokubambisana kwezokuxhumana kososayensi abathanda ezolimo, abenza izinqubomgomo nabanye ababambe iqhaza." Amalungu athola incwadi yezindaba kaByrne, kanye nokufinyelela kulabhulali yakhe eyinkomba yezihloko zebhizinisi lezolimo, "imininingwane yababambiqhaza" yabantu abanethonya empikiswaneni ye-GMO, nokuqeqeshwa nokwesekwa kokuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zenhlalo.

Izibonelo zale ncwadi zingatholakala kulokhu inqolobane yama-imeyili asuka eByrne aya kuPeter Phillips, onguprofesa wase-University of Saskatchewan oke waba egxekwa ngozakwabo ngenxa yakhe vala ubudlelwano neMonsanto. Encwadini yezindaba kaNovemba 7, 2016, uByrne unxuse uPhillips nabanye abamukeli ukuthi babelane ngokuqukethwe mayelana "namaphutha nokushiyeka" ku Indaba yeNew York Times lokho kwabika ngokwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ukukhuphula isivuno kanye nokunciphisa izibulala-zinambuzane, futhi "imibuzo ekhulayo" ebhekene neqembu lomhlaba wonke lososayensi bomdlavuza ababika ukuthi i-glyphosate yi-carcinogen mhlawumbe yabantu ehambisana nohlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ihlaze iphaneli lokucwaninga ngomdlavuza. (Bheka ne- iphepha lamaqiniso likaPeter Phillip imfihlo yochungechunge "ilungelo lokwazi").

U-Byrne unxuse umphakathi we-Bonus Eventus ukuthi wabelane ngokuqukethwe ngalezi zingqikithi kubalobi abaxhumene nomkhakha, njenge UJulie Kelly, UDkt. Henry Miller, UKavin Senapathy, I-Sci Babe futhi Hank campbell we Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu leMonsanto lalikhona ukukhokha ukusiza ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi bomdlavuza. Ku-2017, iForbes isuse inqwaba yama-athikili kaDkt.Miller - kufaka phakathi amaningana awabhala nawo Kelly, Senapathy neByrne - ngemuva kwe- I-New York Times ibike ukuthi uDkt. Miller wayeshicilele udaba eForbes ngaphansi kwegama lakhe okwakubhalwe ngalo isipoki nguMonsanto.

Umlindisango ngokuhlaselwa kweGreenpeace

Lapho iqembu labathola izindondo zikaNobel linxusa iGreenpeace ukuba iyeke ukuphikisa irayisi elenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kwabukeka njengomzamo ozimele. Kepha ngemuva kwekhethenisi lezimpawu ezihlaba umxhwele bekungukusizwa kwabadlali ababalulekile emkhankasweni wezokuxhumana we-PR wemboni yezolimo: UJay Byrne kanye nelungu lebhodi le-Genetic Literacy Project. Byrne bekuposwe emnyango emcimbini we-2016 National Press Club okhuthaza iqembu elibizwa Sekela i-Precision Agriculture. Uhlobo lwe-.com lwaleyo webhusayithi luqondiswe kabusha iminyaka ku-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu langaphambili elisebenzayo neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho. 

Ngakho-ke ngubani okhokhele umcimbi wezindaba we-anti-Greenpeace? USir Richard Roberts, isazi samakhemikhali ezinto eziphilayo owathi wahlela incwadi yabathole umklomelo kaNobel, uchaze le ndaba kwi-FAQ kuwebhusayithi: "umkhankaso ubusungabizi kakhulu kuze kube manje," ubhale, kubandakanya iningi lomholo wakhe okhokhelwe umqashi wakhe iNew England Biolabs kanye "nezindleko eziphuma ephaketheni" ezikhokhwe nguMatt Winkler. UWinkler, umsunguli nosihlalo wenkampani ye-biotech i-Asuragen, naye ungumxhasi futhi ilungu lebhodi yeGenetic Literacy Project, ngokusho kwewebhusayithi yeqembu. URoberts uchaze ukuthi uWinkler “ubhalise umngani, uVal Giddings,” (the iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP) “ophakamise uJay Byrne” (owayengumphathi wezokuxhumana kuMonsanto) owanikeza ukwesekwa kwe-pro bono logistical for the event.

U-Byrne no-Giddings baphinde basiza ukuhlela uhlelo lwe-Academics Review oluxhaswe yimboni, iqembu langaphambili abalisungula ukuthi livele lizimele ngenkathi lisebenza njengemoto yokuheha imali yezinkampani ukuze kutholakale abagxeki abahlaselayo bemikhiqizo ye-ag-biotech, ngokusho kwe ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know. Kuma-imeyili, uByrne waqamba igama elithi Greenpeace ku- Uhlu “lwamatshegethi” abelubhalela iMonsanto. Enye kaByrne amakhasimende yi-International Rice Research Institute, okuyiqembu eliyimboni eliyinhloko elizama ukuthengisa i-GMO Golden Rice, obekugxilwe kuyona yi-Greenpeace critique. Ucwaningo olwenziwe nguGlenn Davis Stone waseWashington University eSt. Louis luthole lokho isivuno esiphansi nobunzima bezobuchwepheshe babambe iGolden Rice, hhayi ukuphikiswa ngamaqembu ezemvelo.

Embuzweni wakhe we-FAQ, uDkt. Roberts waluchitha ucwaningo oluzimele lukaDkt. UJulie Kelly, Henry Miller futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa. Umcimbi wabezindaba wenzeke ngesikhathi esibucayi sezepolitiki, futhi waba usizo indaba eWashington Post, isonto ngaphambi kokuba iCongress ivote ukuvimbela amazwe ukuthi afake ilebuli yama-GMO.

Kusukela ngoJanuwari 2019, inguqulo ye- .com ye-Support Precision Agriculture iphinde yaqondiswa ku-Genetic Literacy Project. Ku-FAQ yakhe, uRoberts uthe akanabo ubudlelwano ne-GLP futhi wathi "umuntu ongaziwa" uthenge indawo efanayo "ngomzamo obonakalayo" wokuyixhumanisa ne-GLP. Uthe lesi yisibonelo sokuthi "amaqhinga angcolile eqembu eliphikisayo awanamkhawulo."
(Ukuqondisa kabusha kwenziwa kwasebenza esikhathini esithile ngemuva kokuthi lokhu okuthunyelwe kuqale ukusebenza.)

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Ukwenza iwebhu isebenze ngabantu namawebhusayithi mbumbulu

Ukubikwa kwe UGuardian ngo-2002, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze iqhinga lokucasha ukuthi izinkampani zezolimo kanye nezinhlangano zabo ze-PR bezikade zisebenzisa amashumi eminyaka ukukhuthaza nokuvikela imikhiqizo yabo: ukudala ubuntu obungebona obusobala namawebhusayithi mbumbulu ukuze kuthuliswe abagxeki futhi kube nomthelela emiphumeleni yokusesha eku-inthanethi.

UMonbiot ubike ukuthi “izakhamizi mbumbulu” (abantu abebengekho empeleni) “bebehlasela amabhokisi asohlwini lwe-inthanethi ngemiyalezo esola ososayensi kanye nabezemvelo abebegxeka izitshalo ze-GM” - kanti izakhamizi mbumbulu zalandelwa zabuyiselwa enkampanini i-PR kaMons Bivings.

UMonbiot uchaze ukuxhumana kukaJay Byrne neBivings:

"Cabanga nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni… kukhona ozobulawa."

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. ' Ngenkathi esasebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi wow ukuthi 'uchitha isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ebambe iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhethe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona'. I-AgBioWorld yindawo lapho [isakhamuzi mbumbulu] uSmetacek eqale khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Okuningi okuvela kuJay Byrne

A Isethulo se-Power Point sika-2013 ibonisa indima edlalwa nguByrne kumakhasimende akhe embonini yezolimo. Lapha uchaza imibono yakhe ngabasekeli bezemvelo, ubeka ithonya labo online futhi unxusa izinkampani ukuthi zihlanganise izinsiza zazo ukubhekana nazo, ukuze kugwenywe "izingqinamba zokulawula nezimakethe."

The 2006 ibhuku “Bayekeni Badle Ukuqapha,” enyatheliswa yi- I-American Enterprise Institute futhi yahlelwa yimboni yezolimo Umsebenzi we-PR uJon Entine, iqukethe isahluko sikaByrne esihloko sithi, "Ukwakha kabusha i-Agricultural Biotechnology Protest Industry."

U-Byrne uyilungu le- "AgBioChatter," a uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo ukuthi abasebenzi abaphezulu embonini yezolimo, abeluleki kanye nezifundiswa basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know khombisa uByrne ekhuthaza amalungu e-AgBioChatter ukuthi azame ukudicilela phansi isithunzi sabantu namaqembu ayegxeka ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides. Uhlelo lwe-Monsanto PR lwango-2015 olubizwa nge-AgBioChatter njengenye ye "Abalingani bezimboni" uMonsanto uhlele ukuzibandakanya ukusiza ukuhlazisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza mayelana ne-glyphosate.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Umnqobi Womklomelo KaRachel Carson Wezincwadi: I-Whitewash nguCarey Gillam

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UCarey Gillam “I-Whitewash: Indaba Yombulali Wokhula, Umdlavuza Nenkohlakalo Yesayensi (I-Island Press) ithole ukubuyekezwa okumnandi kusukela kukhishwe okokugcina futhi ithole imiklomelo eminingana yokubika okuvelele:

"Ukushaya kanzima, ukulandisa okuvula amehlo… Impikiswano enamandla yendawo elawula ezolimo ebeka izintshisekelo zomphakathi ngaphezu kwenzuzo yezinkampani. ”  Kirkus Izibuyekezo

"Lokhu yi kumele-kufundelwe wonke umuntu othintekayo ngomthwalo okhulayo wamakhemikhali anobuthi emanzini nokudla, imiphumela yezempilo nezemvelo lapho, kanye nomthelela ezinkampanini kuma-ejensi kahulumeni." Booklist 

“UGillam ngobuchwepheshe ihlanganisa ingxabano phambili lapho ukukhwabanisa kwezinkampani kuhlangana khona nezinkinga zomphakathilth kanye nemvelo. ” Abashicileli Weekly 

"A ukufunda okunesibindi, okucindezelayo kusukela ekuqaleni kuze kube sekugcineni, ikakhulukazi kubafundi abajabulela uhlobo lwe unekhala eliqinile, ukubika kwesikhumba sezicathulo lokho kwakuwuphawu lobuntatheli obukhulu. ” I-Society for Environmental Journalists BookShelf

"Ukuqoqwa okubhalwe phansi kahle kwamaphutha, ukukhwabanisa, ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, ithonya elingafanele, nezinhlobo ezikhathazayo ze- [PR] endala… Izambulo ziyathukuthela impela." Ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zaseLos Angeles 

Bona futhi: Ubufakazi bukaCarey Gillam phambi kwekomidi elihlangene lePhalamende laseYurophu ngomhla ka-10/11/2017 naye ukubika okuvela eDaubert Hearings kuma-Cancer Victims Vs. Isimangalo seMonsanto glyphosate.

Incwadzi Incwadzi

Kungumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane osezingcwecweni zethu zokudla kwakusihlwa, ikhemikhali eligcwele lisemoyeni esiwuphefumulayo, emanzini ethu, enhlabathini yethu, futhi lize litholakale ngokuya ngokwanda emizimbeni yethu. Eyaziwa ngokuthi yi-Roundup kaMonsanto ngabathengi, futhi njenge-glyphosate yososayensi, umbulali wokhula owaziwa kakhulu emhlabeni usetshenziswa yonke indawo kusuka ezingadini zasemuva kuya ezifundweni zegalufu kuya ezigidini zamahektare epulazi. Sekungamashumi eminyaka kuthathwa njengokuphephile ngokwanele ukuphuza, kepha ubufakazi obukhulayo bukhombisa okuphambene nalokho, ngocwaningo lubopha ikhemikhali kumdlavuza nakwezinye izinsongo eziningi zezempilo.

In I-Whitewash, Intatheli emnkantshubomvu uCarey Gillam udalula enye yezindaba ezinempikiswano enkulu emlandweni wezokudla nezolimo, eveza ubufakazi obusha bethonya lezinkampani. UGillam wethula abafundi ngemindeni yasemapulazini ehlukunyezwe wumdlavuza abakholelwa ukuthi ibangelwa yileli khemikhali, nakososayensi abaziwa ngegama labo ngokushicilela ucwaningo oluphikisana nezintshisekelo zebhizinisi. Abafundi bafunda ngokujikiswa kwengalo kwabasayinile abasayine ikhemikhali, benanela iziqinisekiso zenkampani zokuphepha njengoba bevumela izinsalela eziphakeme ze-pesticide ekudleni naseqa izivivinyo zokuhambisana. Futhi, ngemininingwane emangazayo, uGillam wembula ukuxhumana kwezimboni eziyimfihlo okubuyisa ikhethini emizameni yezinkampani yokukhohlisa umbono womphakathi.

I-Whitewash kungaphezu kokudalulwa ngezingozi zekhemikhali elilodwa noma ngisho nethonya lenkampani eyodwa. Yindaba yamandla, ezombusazwe, nemiphumela ebulalayo yokubeka izintshisekelo zebhizinisi ngaphambi kokuphepha komphakathi.

http://careygillam.com/book
Usuku lokushicilelwa ngo-Okthoba 2017

Ikhaya

Ukudumisa okwengeziwe kwe-Whitewash

"Ibhuku kwembula ubucwebe bemikhono yemikhakha yokubulala izinambuzane ukuphatha amaqiniso esayensi ngemikhiqizo yabo ngenkathi bebeka inzuzo ngaphezu kwempilo yabantu kanye nemvelo. Njengomuntu oke wabhekana nezenzo ezifanayo ezinkampanini emsebenzini wami kaningi kakhulu, nginethemba lokuthi incwadi kaCarey izovusa ukucaciseleka kabanzi ngobungozi obuzungeze amakhemikhali amaningi emakethe. ” Erin Brockovich, isishoshovu sezemvelo nombhali

UCarey Gillam unakho aqoqa amaqiniso ngokukhazimulayo futhi ichaza ukuthi iMonsanto nezinye izinkampani zamakhemikhali ezolimo zaqamba amanga kanjani ngemikhiqizo yazo, zahlanganisa imininingwane elimazayo futhi zonakalisa nezikhulu zikahulumeni ukuze zithengise imikhiqizo yazo enobuthi emhlabeni jikelele.  UDavid Schubert, Ph.D., UProfesa kanye neNhloko yeLebhu Lama-Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory eSalk Institute For Biological Study

UCarey Gillam uyisibonelo iqhawe elinesibindi ekubunjweni kukaRachel Carson. Uveze ukuhaha okunonya nokukhwabanisa okuholele ekufakweni kobuthi emhlabeni wethu. UBrian GM Durie, MD Usihlalo we-International Myeloma Foundation, uchwepheshe we-oncology kanye nodokotela oya eCedars-Sinai Medical Center

Ngokwesiko elihle le-Silent Spring, iWhitewash kaCarey Gillam ukudalulwa okunamandla ekhanyisa ikhemikhali - iningi lethu - elingabonakali ngokuphelele nokho elimaza kakhulu imizimba yethu nemvelo yethu. Ukucwaningisiswa okujulile, okukholisa ngokuphelele kwezepolitiki, ezomnotho kanye nemiphumela yezempilo emhlabeni jikelele ebekiwe ekusabalaleni kwe-herbicide ejwayelekile emhlabeni. UGillam wenze lokho zonke izintatheli ezinkulu ezilwela ukukwenza: usenze sabona kahle ukuthi yini ebikade ilungile phambi kwamehlo ethu. Kunconywe kakhulu.  UMcKay Jenkins, umbhali, uProfesa we-English, Journalism kanye ne-Environmental Humanities e-University of Delaware