Iindaba zeBiohazards Tracker: Amanqaku aphambili kwi-SARS-CoV-2 imvelaphi, ii-biolabs kunye nophando lomsebenzi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Nalu uluhlu lokufunda malunga nento eyaziwayo nengaziwayo malunga nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi kunye nokuvuza kwi-biosafety kunye neelabhoratri ze-biowarfare, kunye nemingcipheko yezempilo yophando-lomsebenzi (GOF), ejolise ekwandiseni Uluhlu lomkhosi, ukusasazeka, ukusuleleka okanye isifo sokubakho kwezifo ezinokubangela ubhubhane. I-US Ilungelo lokwazi ukuqhuba uphando ngezi zihloko kunye nokuthumela iziphumo kuthi IBhlogazards Blog.

Olu luhlu lokufunda ngumsebenzi oqhubekayo. Siza kuyihlaziya. Nceda uthumele ufundo olunokusilela eSainath Suryanarayanan apha sainath@usrtk.org.

Imixholo (yehla amakhonkco)

Uninzi lwamanqaku akutshanje

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Wall Street Journal. Ngoobani aBaphandi beCovid? Amalungu ophando lwemvelaphi ye-WHO aneengxabano zomdla. IBhodi yokuhlela. NgoFebruwari 15, 2021.

Wall Street Journal. I-China iyala ukunika i-WHO Idatha ekrwada kwii-Covid-19 zangaphambili. UJeremy Page kunye noDrew Hinshaw. NgoFebruwari 12, 2021.

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. NGUBANI: I-COVID-19 ayivuzanga kwilebhu. Kwakhona i-WHO: Mhlawumbi yenzekile. UFilipa Lentzos. NgoFebruwari 11, 2021.

IWashington Post. Njengoko i-WHO i-coronavirus mission ishiya ilambatha, i-China ibanga ukuba iphumelele ipropaganda. UGerry Shih. NgoFebruwari 10, 2021.

IWashington Post. Emva kwemishini ye-Wuhan kwimvelaphi yesifo, iqela le-WHO ligxotha i-lab yokuvuza kwethiyori. UGerry Shih kunye noEmily Rauhala. NgoFebruwari 9, 2021.

i Telegraph. Ngaba intsholongwane ye-Covid-19 yaphuncuka kwilebhu yaseWuhan? UMat Ridley kunye noAlina Chan. NgoFebruwari 6, 2021.

IWashington Post. Sisaphuthelwa libali lemvelaphi yesi sifo. I-China ihleli kwiimpendulo. IBhodi yokuhlela. NgoFebruwari 5, 2021.

Wall Street Journal. Uphando lwemvelaphi yeCovid-19. IBhodi yokuhlela. NgoJanuwari 23, 2021.

Newsweek. Beijing Kufuneka Ucoceke Nge-COVID-19 Imvelaphi | Izimvo. UJamie Metzl. NgoJanuwari 22, 2021

Yintoni imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2?

Iinkqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Ukumisa ubhubhane olandelayo, kufuneka sityhile imvelaphi ye-COVID-19. UDavid A. Relman. NgoNovemba 3, 2020.

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Ngaba i-SARS-CoV-2 virus yavela kwinkqubo yophando ye-bat coronavirus kwilabhoratri yase China? Kungenzeka kakhulu. UMilton Leitenberg. Isilimela 4, 2020.

Wall Street Journal. Ihlabathi lifuna uPhando lokwenyani kwiiMvelaphi zeCovid-19. UAlina Chan kunye noMat Ridley. NgoJanuwari 15, 2021.

New York Magazine. Ilebhu evuzayo yelebhu. UNicholson Baker. NgoJanuwari 4, 2021.

Bloomberg. Asazi nangoku ukuba i-Covid-19 isuka phi. UFaye Flam. NgoJanuwari 12, 2021.

Amayeza endalo. Kwimvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. UAngela Rasmussen. NgoJanuwari 13, 2021.

Ixesha. Izixhobo zebhayoloji ilebhu yavuza i-coronavirus, ibango legosa lase-US. UDidi Tang. NgoJanuwari 4, 2021.

IWashington Post. Iintambo zeSebe likaRhulumente zilumkise ngemicimbi yezokhuseleko kwilebhu yaseWuhan efunda i-bat coronaviruses. UJosh Rogin. Epreli 14, 2020.

BBC. U-Covid: Isazinzulu sase-Wuhan 'siyakwamkela' ukutyelelwa kuphononongo lwethabhu yokuvuza. UJohn Sudworth. UDisemba 22, 2020.

Houston Chronicle. Isazinzulu se-UTMB siyavuma umngcipheko wokhuseleko kwilebhu yaseTshayina esenza uphando nge-coronavirus. UNick Powell. Epreli 23, 2020. 

The Wall Street Journal. I-NIH icinezela i-US engenzi nzuzo ngolwazi lwe-Wuhan virology lab. UBetsy McKay. Nge-19 ka-Agasti ka-2020.  

Ijenali yeWall Street. Ke ivelaphi intsholongwane? UMat Ridley. Ngomhla wama-29, 2020. 

IZiko leSizwe laseFrance loPhando lwezeNzululwazi (CNRS) Imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 ibuzwa kakhulu. Yaroslav Pigenet. NgoNovemba 9, 2020.

Ixesha. Iqale njani iCovid-19? Ukuzingela isigulana zero kuye kwabanjwa kungqubano lwamandla amakhulu. UTom Whipple. UDisemba 31, 2020.

CNET. Ukuzingelwa okujijekileyo, okungcolileyo kwemvelaphi ye-COVID-19 kunye nethiyori yokuvuza kwelebhu. UJackson Ryan. NgoJanuwari 19, 2021.

Imagazini yaseBoston. Ngaba i-COVID-19 ingabalekela kwilebhu? URowan Jacobsen. NgoSeptemba 9, 2020. 

indalo. Eyona mfihlakalo inkulu: yintoni eya kuthatha umkhondo wecoronavirus source. UDavid Cyranoski. Nge-5 kaJuni 2020.

Newsweek. Uvavanyo olunempikiswano kunye nelebhu yaseWuhan ikrokrelwa ngokuqala ubhubhane we-coronavirus. UFred Guterl, uNaveed Jamali kunye noTom O'Connor. Epreli 27, 2020.

IWashington Post. Isebe likaRhulumente likhupha intambo ephehlelele amabango okuthi i-coronavirus iphume kwilebhu yase-China. UJohn Hudson kunye noNate Jones. Nge-17 kaJulayi 2020. 

ITelegraph. Oososayensi bavavanye ukuba kungenzeka ukuba uCovid uvuze kwilebhu njengenxalenye yophando kwimvelaphi yentsholongwane. UPaul Nuki. NgoSeptemba 15, 2020.  

NBC News. Ingxelo ithi idatha yeselfowuni iphakamisa ukuvalwa kuka-Okthobha kwilebhu yaseWuhan, kodwa iingcali ziyathandabuza. UKen Dilanian, uRuaridh Arrow, uCourtney Kube, uCarol E. Lee, uLouise Jones kunye noLorand Bodo. Ngomhla we-9, 2020. 

Washington Post. Iqale njani i-covid-19? Ibali layo lokuqala lemvelaphi liyashukuma. UDavid Ignatius. Epreli 2, 2020.

Ixesha. Kutyhilwe: Isixhenxe seminyaka umzila wecoronavirus osuka ekufeni kwam uye kwilebhu yaseWuhan. UGeorge Arbuthnott, uJonathan Calvert, noPhilip Sherwell. Nge-4 kaJulayi 2020.

ISouth China Morning Post. Abacuphi be-coronavirus be-WHO bajonge kwimakethi yaseWuhan njengemephu engachazwanga. UJohn Power kunye noSimone McCarthy. NgoDisemba 15, 2020.

ISouth China Morning Post. ICoronavirus: Inkqubo yeWuhan yoMbutho wezeMpilo yeHlabathi ayijonganga maqela 'anetyala'. I-Agence France-Presse. UDisemba 24, 2020.

BBC. Wuhan: Isixeko sokuthula; Ukujonga iimpendulo kwindawo eyaqala kuyo i-coronavirus. UJohn Sudworth. Julayi 2020.

I-New York Times, Imibuzo esi-8 evela kumcuphi wesifo kwimvelaphi yesifo. UWilliam J. Broad. Nge-8 kaJulayi 2020.

inzululwazi. Umsebenzi okhokelwa yi-WHO unokuphanda ngemvelaphi yesi sifo. Nayi imibuzo ephambili ukubuza. UJon Cohen. Julayi 10, 2020.

The New York Times. Ekuzingeleni uMthombo weVirus, i-WHO mayiyeke iTshayina ithathe uxanduva. USelam Gebrekidan, UMat Apuzzo, Amy Qin kwaye . NgoNovemba 2, 2020.

IWashington Post. Imvelaphi yecoronavirus iseyimfihlakalo. Sifuna uphando olupheleleyo. IBhodi yokuhlela. NgoNovemba 14, 2020.

Ezizimeleyo. I-Coronavirus: Owayesakuba yintloko ye-MI6 yebango ubhubhane 'lwaqala ngengozi' kwilabhoratri yaseTshayina. UAndy Gregory. Isilimela 4, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Ngentshukumo enqabileyo, iiarhente zobukrelekrele zase-US ziyaqinisekisa ukuphanda ukuba ngaba i-coronavirus ivele kwingozi yelebhu. UWarren P. Strobel kunye noDustin Volz. Epreli 30, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Ingcali yase-China yelulwane ithi ilebhu yakhe yeWuhan yayingengomthombo wecoronavirus entsha. UJames T. Areddy. Epreli 21, 2020.

ABC News. Uxolo, theorists yeyelenqe. Isifundo sigqiba i-COVID-19 'ayisiyoyokwakhiwa kwelebhu'. UKate Holland. Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesixhenxe ku-Matshi 27. 

Economist. Iziqwenga zepuzzle zemvelaphi kaCovid-19 ziya kuvela. Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesithandathu ku-Meyi ngo-2. 

The Wall Street Journal. Ithiyori yelebhu yaseWuhan. IBhodi yokuhlela. Ngomhla we-6, 2020. 

Guardian. Ukungahoyi iingcamango zobuqhetseba: Oososayensi bayazi ukuba iCovid-19 ayizange yenziwe ebhodini. UPeter Daszak. NgoJuni 9, 2020. 

Daily Telegraph. Izazinzulu zithi i-COVID-19 inokuba iphekiwe elebhu. USharri Markson. Nge-1 kaJuni 2020.

Sayensi. UTrump 'unetyala kuthi.' Isazinzulu saseTshayina esikumbindi we-COVID-19 imvelaphi yethiyori iyathetha. UJon Cohen. Julayi 24, 2020.

Sayensi. Phendula kwiMagazini yeNzululwazi: Shi Zhengli Q&A. Shi Zhengli. Nge-15 kaJulayi 2020.

Minerva. Iingxelo ezichaseneyo ziphosa amathandabuzo kwidatha yaseTshayina eluhlaza. UAksel Fridstrøm. NgoSeptemba 10, 2020. 

Minerva. Eyona nkcazo isengqiqweni kukuba ivela kwilabhoratri. UAksel Fridstrøm kunye noNils Agasti Andresen. Nge-2 kaJulayi 2020. 

Newsweek. UGqr Fauci uxhase ilebhu ye-Wuhan eneempikiswano ngeedola zase-US kuphando olunobungozi lwe-coronavirus. UFred Guterl. Epreli 28, 2020.

Iindaba zeNzululwazi ezizimeleyo. Ityala liyakha ukuba i-COVID-19 inemvelaphi yelab. UJonathan Latham kunye no-Allison Wilson. Nge-5 kaJuni 2020.

Iindaba zeNzululwazi ezizimeleyo. Imvelaphi ecetywayo ye-SARS-CoV-2 kunye nobhubhane we-COVID-19. UJonathan Latham kunye no-Allison Wilson. Nge-15 kaJulayi 2020.

I-Federalist. I-Virologist ichaza umnqweno wayo wokufumana imvelaphi ye-COVID-19. UJulian Vigo. NgoSeptemba 2, 2020. 

I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukubuza iCDC: Ngaba yinto eyenzekileyo ukuba i-China ye-BSL4 kuphela eseWuhan? Umsindo nevidiyo. USam Husseini. Epreli 17, 2020.

Ukubukela. UWuhan kunye nososayensi base-US basebenzise iindlela ezingabonakaliyo zobunjineli bemfuza kwii-bat coronaviruses. UJonathan Matthews noClaire Robinson. Ngomhla we-20, 2020. 

Intatheli yoLwaphulo-mthetho. Andrew Kimbrell kwimvelaphi ye-COVID-19. URussell Mokhiber. Nge-11 ka-Agasti ka-2020.

Ukubukela. Ngaba intsholongwane ye-COVID-19 yenziwa yemfuza? UJonathan Matthews. Epreli 22, 2020.

Ukubukela. Kutheni le nto ilebhu ibaleka ukungavumi bexoka ubuxoki obunje? UJonathan Matthews. NgoJuni 17, 2020. 

NBC News. Ngaphakathi kwelebhu yaseTshayina embindini wokukhangela imvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UJanis Mackey Frayer kunye noDenise Chow. Nge-10 ka-Agasti ka-2020.

Ukuthintela. Ekuzimiseleni kwakhe ukutyhola iTshayina ngeCoronavirus, uLawulo lukaTrump Luyathintela uPhando kuQalo lweZifo. UMara Hvistendahl. Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesithandathu ku-Meyi ngo-19.

ISouth China Morning Post. I-WHO inika uluhlu lomqolo kwiqela lamanye amazwe elijonge kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus. USimone McCarthy. NgoNovemba 25, 2020.

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Ukungaphumeleli kokubonakalayo kunye noxinzelelo lobungqina ngokubhekisele kwi-COVID-19

I-Press Associated. I-China ibambelela ekuzingeleni okufihliweyo kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UDake Kang, uMaria Cheng kunye noSam McNeil. UDisemba 30, 2020.

Ijenali yeWall Street. Emhlabeni e-Wuhan, imiqondiso ye-China emisa iphenyo yemvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UJeremy Page kunye noNatasha Khan. Ngomhla we-12, 2020.

The New York Times. Iintsuku ezingama-25 eziTshintshe iHlabathi: Indlela iCovid-19 ityibilika ngayo iChina. UChris Buckley, uDavid D. Kirkpatrick, uAmy Qin noJavier C. Hernández. UDisemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Intatheli Yabemi baseTshayina Igwetywe Isithuba seminyaka emi-4 yokuNgxelo ngoCovid. UVivian Wang. UDisemba 28, 2020.

IPublica. Amaxwebhu aVuzayo abonisa ukuba umkhosi waseTshayina ohlawulelweyo kwiitrola ze-Intanethi uncede njani kwiCoronavirus. URaymond Zhong, uPaul Mozur, uAaron Krolik noJeff Kao. UDisemba 19, 2020.

The New York Times. I-China ihambisa ubuxoki ukutyhala umbono wokuba intsholongwane ivela kwenye indawo. UJavier C. Hernández. NgoDisemba 6, 2020.

Bloomberg. I-China yenza ukuba kube nzima ukusombulula imfihlakalo yendlela uCovid aqala ngayo. UDisemba 30, 2020.

Financial Times. Imithombo yeendaba yaseTshayina inyusa iphulo lokufumana udaka kwimvelaphi yeCovid. UMalusi ongumKristu. NgoNovemba 26, 2020.

Iindaba zeSky Australia. Ukukhutshwa kwe-imeyile kutyhila 'akukho nyaniso okanye ukungafihli nto' kwileta emalunga nemvelaphi ye-COVID-19. USharri Markson. NgoNovemba 22, 2020.

Iingozi, ukuvuza, ukungaphumeleli kokunqongophala, ukungaphumeleli kokungafihli kumancedo okhuseleko

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ProPublica. Nazi iingozi ezintandathu abaphandi be-UNC abanee-coronaviruses ezenziwe ilebhu. UAlison Young kunye noJessica Blake. Nge-17 ka-Agasti ka-2020. 

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Amaphepha enzululwazi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2

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Ijenali yonyango lwezonyango. Imibuzo malunga nemvelaphi ephambili ye-SARS-CoV-2. Murat Seyran, Damiano Pizzol, Parise Adadi… noAdam M. Brufsky. NgoSeptemba 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

BioEssays. Ngaba kunokwenzeka ukuba i-SARS ‐ CoV-2 ivele ngendlela yokudlula kwezilwanyana okanye inkcubeko yeseli? UKarl Sirotkin kunye noDan Sirotkin. Nge-12 ka-Agasti ka-2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Imida kwiMpilo yoLuntu. I-Lethal pneumonia amatyala e-Mojiang miners (2012) kunye ne-mineshaft inokunika imikhondo ebalulekileyo kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. Monali Rahalkar kunye noRahul Bahulikar. NgoSeptemba 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

BioEssays. Ubume bemfuzo be-SARS-CoV-2 abuyikhutshi imvelaphi yelabhoratri. URossana Segreto kunye KaYuri Deigin. NgoNovemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRxiv. I-SARS-CoV-2 ilungelelaniswe kakuhle nabantu. Ithetha ntoni le nto xa iphinde yavela? UShing Hei Zhan, uBenjamin E. Deverman, uYujia Alina Chan. Ngomhla wesi-2, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

UZenodo. Iqale phi i-2019 yeCoronavirus Pandemic kwaye yaSasazeka njani? Isibhedlele Somkhosi Wokukhululwa Kwabantu eWuhan China kunye noMgca 2 wenkqubo yeWuhan Metro ziimpendulo eziqinisekileyo. USteven Carl Quay. Okthobha 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

UZenodo. Uhlalutyo lwe-Bayesian lugqiba ngaphaya kwamathandabuzo afanelekileyo okuba i-SARS-CoV-2 ayisiyiyo zoonosis yendalo kodwa endaweni yoko yenziwa elebhu. UGqirha Steven Quay. NgoJanuwari 29, 2021.

Minerva. Ubungqina obucebisa ukuba le ayiyintsholongwane yendalo:. UBirger Sørensen, uAngus Dalgleish kunye noAndres Susrud. Nge-1 kaJulayi 2020.

Uphando. Ngaba ucinga ngemvelaphi yokuqhathwa kwemfuza ye-SARS-CoV-2 yithiyori yelenqe ekufuneka ihlolwe? URossana Segreto kunye noYuri Deigin. Epreli 2020. INGXELO: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

Iziqendu. Inkxalabo enkulu malunga nokuchongwa kwe-bat coronavirus strain RaTG13 kunye nomgangatho wephepha elihambelana nendalo. Xiaoxu Lin, Shizhong Chen. Isilimela 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

Iziqendu. Uhlobo olungaqhelekanga lwesampulu ye-fecal swab esetyenziselwe uhlalutyo lwe-NGS lwe-RaTG13 yokulandelelana kwe-genome ibeka umbuzo ngokuchaneka ngokulandelelana kwe-RaTG13. Monali Rahalkar kunye noRahul Bahulikar. Agasti 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Iiprinta ze-OSF. I-COVID-19, i-SARS kunye ne-bats coronaviruses genomes ngokulandelelana okungalindelekanga kwe-RNA. UJean-Claude Perez kunye noLuc Montagnier. Epreli 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

UZenodo. Intsholongwane kaGawulayo eyenziweyo ngabantu ye-coronavirus genome yeendlela zokuzivelela kwezinto. UJean-Claude Perez kunye noLuc Montagnier. Nge-2 ka-Agasti ka-2020. 

Imichiza evelayo kunye nosulelo. I-HIV-1 khange ibe negalelo kwi-2019-nCoV genome. Xiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang kunye no Gao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. ikhonkco: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

arXiv. Xa kuthelekiswa ne-silico ye-spike protein-ACE2 ebopha izinto ezihlanganayo kwiindidi zonke; Ukubaluleka kwemvelaphi yentsholongwane ye-SARS-CoV-2. USakshi Piplani, uPuneet Kumar Singh, uDavid A. Winkler, uNikolai Petrovsky. Ngomhla we-13, 2020. 

indalo. Ukuchonga ii-coronaviruses ezinxulumene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kwii-pangolins zaseMalawi. UTommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- UFang Ilanga, uSi Qin, uJi-Cheng Huang, uGabriel M. Leung, uEdward C. Holmes, uYan-Ling Hu, uYi Guan kunye noWu-Chun Cao. Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesithandathu ku-Matshi 26. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Izifo ze-PLoS. Ngaba iipangolins zingumamkeli ophakathi we-2019 inoveli coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? UPing Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Ngomhla we-14, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

indalo. Ukubekwa ecaleni kwe-SARS-CoV-2 enxulumene ne-coronavirus kwiipangolins zaseMalayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi Yena. Ngomhla we-7, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Biology yangoku. Imvelaphi yePangolin enokubakho ye-SARS-CoV-2 ehambelana nokuqhambuka kwe-COVID-19. UTao Zhang, uQunfu Wu, uZhigang Zhang. Ngomhla wamashumi amabini anesixhenxe ku-Matshi 19. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Umthombo omnye we-pangolin CoVs kunye ne-Spike RBD efanayo kwi-SARS-CoV-2. U-Yujia Alina Chan kunye no-Shing Hei Zhan. Oktobha 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

Usulelo, i-Genetics kunye ne-Evolution. I-COVID-19: Ixesha lokuxolela ipangolin ukusuka ekuhanjisweni kwe-SARS-CoV-2 ebantwini. URoger Frutos, uJordi Serra-Cobo, uTianmu Chen kunye noChristian A. Devaux. Umqulu 84, Okthobha 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRxiv. Akukho bungqina beecoronaviruses okanye ezinye iintsholongwane ezinokubakho kwi-Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) ezingena kurhwebo lwezilwanyana zasendle ngeMalaysia. UJimmy Lee, uTom Hughes, uMei-Ho Lee, uHume Field, uJeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, uFrankie Thomas Sitam, uSymphorosa Sipangkui, uSenthilvel KSS uNathan, uDiana Ramirez, uSubbiah Vijay Kumar, uHelen Lasimbang, uJonathan H. Epstein, uPeter Daszak. Isilimela 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

Oovimba abagcina iVirology. A iipalindromic Ulandelelwano lwe-RNA njengendawo yokuqhekeka eqhelekileyo enegalelo kukhetho lokukhetha kwakhona kwi-SARS-CoV-2. UWilliam R. Gallaher. Nge-31 kaJulayi 2020.

Cell. Umbono we-genomic kwimvelaphi kunye nokuvela kwe-SARS-CoV-2. UYong-Zhen Zhang, uEdward C. Holmes. Epreli 2020 181 (2): 223-227. ikhonkco: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.03.035.

Iinkqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Umlingiswa weSuperantigenic wofakelo olwahlukileyo kwi-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2 exhaswa yi-TCR eguqulweyo kwizigulana ezine-hyperinfigueation. UMary Hongying Cheng, She Zhang, Rebecca A. Porritt, Magali Noval Rivas, Lisa Paschold, Edith Willscher, Mascha Binder, Moshe Arditi, kunye no-Ivet Bahar. NgoSeptemba 28, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010722117

Ibhayoloji yangoku. Inoveli yebat coronavirus enxulumene ngokusondeleyo ne-SARS-CoV-2 iqulethe ukufakwa kwendalo kwindawo yokucoceka kwe-S1 / S2 yeprotein ye-spike. Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, no Weifeng Shi. Isilimela 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. yenza: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

URxiv. I-bat coronavirus RmYN02 ibonakaliswa kukususwa kwe-6-nucleotide kwisiphambuka se-S1 / S2, kwaye ukufakwa kwayo kwePAA kuyathandabuza. Yuri Deigin kunye noRossana Segreto. NgoDisemba 1, 2020.

bioRxiv. Indawo yokucoceka kweFurin ngundoqo kwi-SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. UBryan A. Johnson,… uKari Debbink, uPei Yong Shi, uAlexander Freiberg kunye neVineet Menachery. Nge-26 ka-Agasti 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.26.268854 

bioRxiv. Indawo yokucoceka kwe-furin ye-SARS-CoV-2 protein spike sisigqibo esiphambili sokuhambisa ngenxa yokuphindaphindwa kweseli zomoya.. UThomas Peacock, uDaniel H. Goldhill, uJie Zhou, noWendy S. Barclay. EyoMsintsi 30, 2020. doi. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.30.318311 

UZenodo. Iimpawu ezingaqhelekanga zeSARS-CoV-2 genome iphakamisa uhlengahlengiso lwelabhoratri endaweni yenguqu yendalo kunye nokucaciswa kwendlela yayo enokwenzeka. U-Li-Meng Yan, uShu Kang, uJie Guan, kunye no-Shanchang Hu. NgoSeptemba 14, 2020. ikhonkco: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

Iziko likaJohn Hopkins loKhuseleko lwezeMpilo. Ukuphendula: U-Yan et al Uviwo lwe-Preprint loVavanyo lweSARS-CoV-2. UKelsey Lane Warmbrod, uRachel M. West, uNancy D. Connell kunye noGigi Kwik Gronvall. NgoSeptemba 21, 2020.

UZenodo. Isindululo se-SARS-CoV-2 Spillover ngo-2019 yoPhononongo lweesampulu ezivela eMineshaft eMojiang, kwiPhondo laseYunnan, China. Ongaziwayo. NgoSeptemba 14, 2020. ikhonkco: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Amanqaku ebhlog ophando ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2

phakathi. Yenziwe ilebhu? I-SARS-CoV-2 yomnombo wokuzalwa ngokusebenzisa iilensi zophando-lomsebenzi. KaYuri Deigin. Epreli 22, 2020.

phakathi. Iintsholongwane ezoyikisayo kunye nokuba ungazifumana phi. Ngakumbi Moreno Colaiacovo. NgoNovemba 15, 2020.

Phakathi. Ukuqokelelwa kweenkcukacha ngokukhawuleza kwamatyala eCovid-19 aseWuhan. UGilles Demaneuf. Nge-15 ka-Okthobha ka-2020.

Izazinzulu zaseTshayina zazifuna ukutshintsha igama le-coronavirus ebulalayo ukuyisusa e-China

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Kwiintsuku zokuqala zobhubhane we-COVID-19, iqela lezazinzulu elidibene norhulumente wase-China lazama ukumisa kude i-coronavirus e-China ngokuphembelela ukubizwa kwayo ngokusemthethweni. Ukuqinisekisa ukuba intsholongwane yafunyanwa okokuqala eWuhan, China, izazinzulu zathi boyika ukuba intsholongwane izakubizwa ngokuba yi "Wuhan coronavirus" okanye "Wuhan pneumonia," ii-imeyile ezifunyenweyo ngu-US ilungelo lokwazi umboniso.

Ii-imeyile zityhila kwangaphambili kwimfazwe yolwazi eqhutywa ngurhulumente wase-China ukuyila ibali malunga nemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus.

Ukuthiwa kwale ntsholongwane "yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kubantu baseTshayina" kunye nezalathiso zentsholongwane ekhankanya uWuhan "ukubekwa amabala kunye nokuthuka" abahlali baseWuhan, imbalelwano esuka kuFebruwari 2020 ithi.

Ngokukodwa izazinzulu zaseTshayina zathi igama lobuchwephesha elinikezelwe intsholongwane- "isifo esiqatha sokuphefumla isifo coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" - kwakungekho nje "kunzima ukuyikhumbula okanye ukuyibona" ​​kodwa "yayilahlekisa ngokwenyani" kuba yayihambelana intsholongwane entsha kuqhambuko lukaSARS-CoV lowama-2003 olwavela eChina.

Le ntsholongwane yathiywa liQela loFundo lweCoronavirus (CSG) leKomiti yeHlabathi yeRhafu yeTholongwane (ICTV).

Iziko lase-Wuhan leVirology sisazinzulu esiphezulu uZhengli Shi, okhokele ukubizwa kwakhona umzamo, echazwe nge-imeyile kwiYunivesithi yaseNorth Carolina i-virologist uRalph Baric, "ingxoxo eyoyikisayo phakathi kweentsholongwane zaseTshayina" ngegama leSARS-CoV-2.

UDeyin Guo, owayesakuba ngumphathi weSikolo seYunivesithi yaseWuhan seNzululwazi yezoBomi kunye nombhali-mbhali wesindululo sokutshintsha igama, wabhala kumalungu e-CSG athe asilela ukubonisana nesigqibo sawo sokuqamba amagama “neengcali zentsholongwane kubandakanya nezokuqala ukufumanisa [Sic] yentsholongwane kunye nabachazi bokuqala besifo ”abasuka kwilizwe lase China.

“Akufanelekanga ukusebenzisa igama lentsholongwane elisekwe kwisifo elinye (njenge-SARS-CoV) ukubiza zonke ezinye iintsholongwane zendalo ezikulohlobo olunye kodwa ezineempawu ezahlukileyo,” ubhale watsho kwimbalelwano ethunyelwe yena ezinye izazinzulu ezintlanu zamaTshayina.

Iqela licebise elinye igama- “Ukudluliselwa kwe-coronavirus ebuhlungu yokuphefumla (i-TARS-CoV). Olunye ukhetho, bathi, inokuba yi- "Human acute coronavirus (HARS-CoV)."

Umsonto we-imeyile ochaza utshintsho lwegama obhaliweyo wacelwa uSihlalo we-CSG uJohn Ziebuhr.

Imbalelwano ibonisa ukuba uZiebuhr akavumelani nengcinga yeqela laseTshayina. Uphendule ngelithi “igama elithi SARS-CoV-2 linxibelelanisa le ntsholongwane nezinye iintsholongwane (ezibizwa ngokuba zii-SARS-CoVs okanye ii-SARSr-CoVs) koluhlobo kubandakanya nentsholongwane yohlobo lwesi sifo endaweni yesifo esakha sakhuthaza ukubizwa kwale prototype intsholongwane phantse kwiminyaka engama-20 eyadlulayo. Isimamva -2 sisetyenziswa njengesazisi esikhethekileyo kwaye sibonisa ukuba i-SARS-Co V-2 iseyeNYE (kodwa inxulumene ngokusondeleyo) nentsholongwane kolu hlobo. ”

Imithombo yeendaba kaRhulumente yase China CGTN umbiko omnye umzamo Nge-Matshi 2020 ngama-virologist aseTshayina abiza i-SARS-CoV-2 njenge-coronavirus yabantu i-2019 (i-HCoV-19), engakhange idlule kwi-CSG.

Ukuthiya intsholongwane ebangela ubhubhane-uxanduva lwe-World Health Organisation (i-WHO) -kuhlala kuyinto ityala lezopolitiko ukuzivocavoca kuluhlu lwetaxonomic.

Ukuqhambuka kwangaphambili kwefayile ye- Umkhuhlane weH5N1 intsholongwane eyavela e-China, urhulumente wase-China watyhala i-WHO ukuba yenze i-nomenclature engazukubopha amagama e-virus kwiimbali okanye kwiindawo ezivela kuyo.

Ngolunye ulwazi:

Iimeyile zeYunivesithi yaseNorth Carolina uNjingalwazi uRalph Baric, ethi i-US Right to Know ifunyenwe ngesicelo seerekhodi zoluntu, inokufumaneka apha: I-baric imeyile ibatch # 2: iYunivesithi yaseNorth Carolina (Iphepha le-332)

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu avela kwizicelo zethu zeerekhodi zoluntu zophando lwethu lwee-biohazards. Bona: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.

Iphepha elingasemva kuphando lwase-US lweLungelo lokwazi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2.

I-imeyile ibonisa ukuba izazinzulu zixoxa ngokufihla ukubandakanyeka kwabo kwileta ephambili yejenali kwimvelaphi yeCovid

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

UMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak, intloko yombutho obandakanyekayo kuphando olusebenzisa i-coronaviruses yemfuza, uxoxe ngokufihla indima yakhe ingxelo epapashwe kunyaka ophelileyo ngo Lancet egweba njenge “theori zelenqe” ixhala lokuba intsholongwane i-COVID-19 inokuba ivele kwilebhu yophando, ii-imeyile ezifunyenwe yi-US Right to Know show.

Isiteyitimenti seLancet, esisayinwe ngoososayensi abaziwayo abangama-27, sibe nefuthe ekunciphiseni urhano kwizazinzulu ezithile ukuba i-COVID-19 inokuba nobudlelwane ne-Wuhan Institute of Virology yase China, enophando olunxulumene ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

UDaszak wayila ingxelo kwaye wayisasaza kwezinye izazinzulu ukuba zisayine. Kodwa i email kutyhila ukuba uDaszak kunye nabanye oososayensi abasebenzisana ne-EcoHealth bacinga ukuba akufuneki basayine ingxelo ukuze bafihle ukubandakanyeka kwabo kuyo. Ukushiya amagama abo kwingxelo kuya kuyinika "umgama othile kuthi kwaye ke ayisebenzi ngendlela ephikisayo," ubhale watsho uDaszak.

UDaszak uqaphele ukuba "angayithumela ajikeleze" kwezinye izazinzulu ukuba zisayine. "Emva koko siza kuyibeka ngendlela engadibanisiyo nentsebenziswano yethu ukuze sonyuse ilizwi elizimeleyo," ubhale watsho.

Oososayensi ababini u-Daszak ubhalele malunga nesidingo sokwenza iphepha libonakale lizimeleyo kwi-EcoHealth, ziingcali ze-coronavirus uRalph Baric noLinfa Wang.

Kwiimeyile, uBaric wavumelana nengcebiso kaDaszak yokuba angatyikityi Lancet Isiteyitimenti, sibhala "Ngaphandle koko kubonakala ngathi kukuzenzela, kwaye siphulukana nefuthe."

UDaszak ekugqibeleni wayisayina ngokwakhe ingxelo, kodwa akazange achongwe njengombhali okanye umququzeleli womzamo.

Ii-imeyile ziyinxalenye yamaxwebhu afunyenwe yi-US Right to Know ebonisa ukuba iDaszak ibisebenza ukusukela ekuqaleni konyaka ophelileyo ukujongela phantsi ingcinga ukuba i-SARS-CoV-2 inokuba ivuza kwi IZiko laseWuhan.

Ukuqhambuka kokuqala kwe-COVID-19 kwakukwisixeko saseWuhan.

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ngaphambili uxele ukuba uDaszak wayila ingxelo Lancet, kwaye wayilungiselela ukuba "Ingabonakali njengevela kumbutho omnye okanye umntu omnye" kodwa kunokuba kubonwe njenge “Ileta nje evela kwizazinzulu eziphambili”.

Umanyano lwe-EcoHealth yinto engenzi nzuzo ese-New York efumene izigidi zeedola kwinkxaso mali yomhlawuli werhafu waseMelika ekusebenziseni i-coronaviruses yemfuza, kubandakanya nezazinzulu kwiZiko laseWuhan.

Ngokukodwa, iDaszak ivele njengoyena mntu uphambili kuphando olusemthethweni ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. Ulilungu le iWorld Health OrganizationIqela leengcali ezilanda imvelaphi yenoveli, kunye Lancet IKhomishini ye-COVID 19.

Jonga ingxelo yethu yangaphambili kwesi sihloko: 

Bhalisela iincwadana zethu zasimahla ukufumana uhlaziyo rhoqo kuphando lwethu lwee-biohazards. 

Amaxwebhu eYunivesithi yaseColorado State kwi-bat pathogen yophando

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Esi sithuba sichaza amaxwebhu oonjingalwazi baseColorado State University (CSU) uRebekah Kading kunye noTony Schountz, nelungelo lase-US lokuLwazi elifunyenwe kwisicelo seerekhodi zoluntu. UKading kunye no-Schountz zii-virologists ezifunda izifo ezinxulumene nelulwane kwiindawo ezishushu kwihlabathi liphela. Basebenzisana ne-EcoHealth Alliance, iSebe lezoKhuselo lase-US (i-DoD) kunye ne-Arhente yeeProjekhthi zoPhando oluPhambili (i-DARPA), uphando lwezomkhosi wase-US nengalo yophuhliso.

La maxwebhu abonisa umbono kwi ezintsonkothileyo zemikhosi yezenzululwazi abafunda ngendlela yokuthintela ukuvela kwezinto ezinokubangela ubhubhane kumalulwane. La maxwebhu aphakamisa imibuzo malunga nomngcipheko wokosuleleka, umzekelo, ukuthunyelwa kwamalulwane kunye neempuku ezisulelwe zizifo eziyingozi. Ziqulathe ezinye izinto eziphawuleka, kubandakanya:

  1. NgoFebruwari 2017, abaququzeleli be-DoD yeNkqubo yeNtsebenzo ye-Biological Engagement ye-Arhente yokuNcitshiswa kweNgozi yoKhuselo umemezele umfelandawonye omtsha welizwe jikelele "ukwakha nokunyusa amandla elizwe kunye nemimandla ukuvelisa ukuqonda okuphuculweyo kwamalulwane kunye nendalo kwindawo yokujongana nezifo ezikhuselayo." Inxulumene noku, ii-imeyile bonisa intsebenziswano phakathi kwe-CSU, i-EcoHealth Alliance kunye namaZiko eSizwe e-Rocky Mountain Laboratories ukwakha indawo yophando ye-bat kwi-CSU ukwandisa izifundo zosulelo.
  2. Umdibaniso welizwe lonke weqela uguquke waba liqela elibizwa ngokuba yiBat One Health Network Network (IBOHRN). Ngo-2018, izazinzulu eziphambili ze-BOHRN zazisebenza ne-DARPA kwiprojekthi ebizwa ngokuba yi-PREEMPT. Iirekhodi ze-CSU kwi-PREEMPT bonisa ukuba iRocky Mountain Laboratories, i-CSU kunye ne-Montana State University baphuhlisa izitofu "ezinokuchaphazeleka ezinokuchaphazeleka" ukuze zisasazeke kubemi bamalulwane "ukunqanda ukuvela kunye nokusasazeka" kweentsholongwane ezosulelayo ezivela kumalulwane ziye kubemi babantu. Injongo yabo kukuphuhlisa “izitofu ezizisasaza ngokwazo ” -Esasazeka ngokusasazeka phakathi kwamalulwane-ngethemba lokususa ii-pathogen kwindawo yazo yezilwanyana ngaphambi kokuba kudilike ebantwini. Olu phando luphakamisa xhalaba malunga neziphumo ebezingalindelwanga zokukhulula izinto ezizisasaza ngokwasofuzo, kunye nemingcipheko yendalo yendaleko yabo engaziwayo, ubundlobongela kunye nokusasazeka.
  3. Ukuhambisa amalulwane kunye neempuku ezosulelwe zizifo eziyingozi kudala ukubakho kokungathandeki okungafunekiyo ebantwini. UTony Schountz wabhala kwi-EcoHealth Alliance VP uJonathan Epstein ngo-Matshi 30, 2020: "I-RML [Rocky Mountain Labs] ingenise indawo yokugcina intsholongwane ye-Lassa ngokubazalela ekuthinjweni e-Afrika, emva koko inzala yathunyelwa ngqo kwi-RML. Andazi nokuba amalulwane amahashe angazalwa esekuthinjweni, kodwa leyo ingayindlela yokunciphisa inkxalabo yeCDC. ” Intsholongwane yeLassa Isasazwa ziimpuku ezixhaphakileyo entshona Afrika. Kubangela ukugula kakhulu okubizwa ngokuba yiLassa fever ebantwini, ekhokelela ekuqikelelweni kwabantu abangama-5,000 1 ngonyaka (XNUMX% izinga lokufa).
  4. NgoFebruwari 10, 2020, uMongameli woMbutho we-EcoHealth uPeter Daszak uthumele i-imeyile Ukucela abatyikityo ukuba bayile The Lancet mazwi "Ukugxeka kabukhali iithiyori ezibonisa ukuba i-2019-nCoV ayinayo imvelaphi yendalo." Kule imeyile, uDaszak wabhala: “UGqr. U-Linda Saif, u-Jim Hughes, u-Rita Colwell, u-William Karesh kunye no-Hume Field bayile ingxelo elula yokuxhasa oososayensi, ezempilo yoluntu kunye noochwephesha bezonyango e-China abalwa noku kuqhambuka (kuqhotyoshelweyo), kwaye siyakumema ukuba usijoyine njengabasayini bokuqala. ” Khange akhankanye ukubandakanyeka kwakhe ekuyileni ingxelo.  Ingxelo yethu yangaphambili bonisa loo nto UDaszak wayila ingxelo eyayipapashwe kwi Lancet.
  5. UTony Schountz watshintshisa ii-imeyile kunye ne-Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) zezenzululwazi uPeng Zhou, uZhengli Shi kunye noBen Hu. Kwi i-imeyile yomhla we-30 ka-Okthobha u-2018, USchountz wacebisa uZhengli Shi “umanyano olungavumelekanga” phakathi kweLebhu ye-Arthropod ehanjiswa yi-Arthropod ne-Infectious Disease Laboratory ne-WIV, ebandakanya “intsebenziswano kwiiprojekthi ezifanelekileyo (umz., Iiarboviruses kunye ne-bat-borped-virus) kunye noqeqesho lwabafundi.” UZhengli Shi uphendule kakuhle Ingcebiso kaSchountz. Iirekhodi azibonisi ukuba nayiphi na intsebenziswano iqalile.

Ngolunye ulwazi:

Ikhonkco kulo lonke ibhetshi yamaxwebhu e-Colorado State University anokufumaneka apha: Iirekhodi ze-CSU

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu afunyenwe ngenkululeko yoluntu yokufumana ulwazi (FOI) yezicelo uphando lwethu lweBiohazards Kwiposi yethu: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.

Zikhuseleke kangakanani ii-biolabs e-Colorado State?

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uyilo lwesindululo senkxaso-mali fokanye ukwakhiwa kwebiolab entsha kwiYunivesithi yaseColorado State iphakamisa imibuzo malunga nokhuselo nokhuseleko kwii-biolabs ezikhoyo eFort Collins, eColorado.

Isindululo esiyidrafti sifuna inkxaso-mali kumaZiko ezeMpilo kaZwelonke ukubuyisela iziseko zophuhliso “zokuguga” kwii-CSU's IZiko leVector-Borne Infectious Diseases, eyayibizwa ngokuba yiLebhu yeArthropod kunye neLebhu yezifo eziSulelayo (AIDL). Eli ziko likhulisa izinambuzane kunye neelulwane kulingo lwezifo ezosulelayo kunye nezifo eziyingozi ezinje ngeSARS, iZika, Nipah kunye neHendra virus. Uvavanyo lwe-Live-pathogen apho lwenziwa kwinxalenye ye- I-BSL-3 Izibonelelo, ezizelebhu ezixineneyo emoyeni ezinobuchwephesha obukhethekileyo ukunqanda abaphandi ekufumaneni ukosuleleka kunye nokusasazeka kosulelo.

Ababhali besindululo (uTony Schountz noGreg Ebel be-CSU noJonathan Epstein, usekela-mongameli e-EcoHealth Alliance) babhala bathi, "izakhiwo zethu ezininzi zidlulile kubomi bazo obuluncedo." Bancamathisela imifanekiso yokuqokelela ukungunda kunye nokungunda njengobungqina bendawo "ethoba ngokukhawuleza" indawo "evuzayo xa kunethayo."

Isindululo sikwacacisa ukuba uyilo esele lukhona lwelebhu lufuna iisampulu zamalulwane kunye nezinambuzane ezisulelekileyo ukuba "zihanjiswe zisiwe kwizakhiwo ezahlukeneyo ngaphambi kokuba zisetyenziswe." Ithi ii-autoclaves esele zikhona, ezibulala izinto ezinobungozi, "zihlala zingasebenzi kakuhle kwaye kukho inkxalabo efanelekileyo yokuba ziya kuqhubeka nokwenza njalo."

Kungenzeka ukuba iingxaki zigqithise kuba baxhasa isicelo senkxaso mali. Nantsi inkcazo evela kwisindululo senkxaso mali kunye nemifanekiso.

Isindululo siphakamisa imibuzo eliqela: Ngaba ubomi bomntu busemngciphekweni ovela kwizixhobo ezingalunganga ze-AIDL kunye neziseko zophuhliso? Ngaba oku kungangqinelani kunyusa amathuba okuvuza ngengozi kwezifo eziyingozi? Ngaba akhona amanye amaziko amanyeneyo e-EcoHealth kwihlabathi liphela athotyelwe ngokufanayo kwaye angakhuselekanga? Ngaba iimeko ezifanayo bezingakhuselekanga, umzekelo, i-EcoHealth Alliance exhaswa ngemali yi-Wuhan Institute of Virology? Elo ziko ichongiwe njengomthombo onokubakho Ye-SARS-CoV-2, intsholongwane ebangela iCovid-19.

Iirekhodi zekomiti yezokhuseleko ye-CSU (IBC), efunyenwe ngesicelo seerekhodi zoluntu, kubonakala ngathi iqinisa inkxalabo malunga nokhuseleko lwee-biolabs ze-CSU. Umzekelo, imizuzu yentlanganiso ukusukela ngoMeyi 2020 bonisa ukuba umphandi we-CSU ufumene usulelo lwentsholongwane yeZika kunye neempawu emva kokusebenzisa iingcongconi ezosulelekileyo. I-IBC iqaphele: "Inokuba le yayiyinto yokulunywa yingcongconi engazange ibonwe ngexesha lesiphithiphithi ngenxa yokuvalwa kwe-COVID-19 kunye notshintsho."

Ngelishwa, uphando lwezifo ezosulelayo kwi-SARS-CoV-2 lunokuthi luphakamise umngcipheko wokuphelelwa kukukhuseleka kunye nokungahambi kakuhle kwi-CSU. Imizuzu ye-IBC bonakalisa inkxaso ye "Iinkxalabo eziphakanyisiweyo malunga nenani elikhulu leeprojekthi zophando ezibandakanya i-SARS-CoV-2 ebeke uxinzelelo kwizibonelelo ezifana ne-PPE, indawo yeelebhu, kunye nabasebenzi."

Ukuba ungathanda ukufumana uhlaziyo rhoqo malunga nophando lwethu lwe-biohazards, unako bhalisela iincwadana zethu zeveki apha

I-USRTK ibuza i-ODNI ukuba ichaze amaxwebhu malunga neengozi kwiilebhu ezigcina izifo eziyingozi

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi (USRTK) ubuzile iOfisi yoMlawuli weSebe lezoBuntlola leSizwe (i-ODNI) ukubhengeza amaxwebhu amathathu malunga nokushiyeka kokungabikho kokutya okuvela kwiilebhu ezigcina iintsholongwane eziyingozi.

Isicelo esinyanzelekileyo sokuphononongwa ngokutsha (MDR) siphendula kwii-ODNI sigqibo ukubamba amaxwebhu amathathu ahleliweyo aphendulayo Isicelo soMthetho weNkululeko yoLwazi USRTK ungenisiwe ngoAgasti 2020.

Isicelo se-FOIA "safuna ubukrelekrele obugqityiweyo obuveliswe ukusukela ngoJanuwari 2015 malunga nokukhululwa ngengozi okanye ngabom kweearhente zebhayoloji, ukusilela kokuthintela amanqanaba e-biosafety-level (BSL) -2, BSL-3 okanye BSL-4 kumaziko ophando, kunye nezinye izehlo zokukhathazeka ezinxulumene Ukusetyenziswa kabini kophando lwe-biosafety kwi-BSL-2, BSL-3 okanye BSL-4 kumaziko ophando eCanada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, Russia, kumazwe angaphambili eSoviet Union, eMzantsi Afrika , ETaiwan, eUnited Kingdom, naseThailand. ”

I-ODNI ithe ekuphenduleni kwayo ukuba ifumene amaxwebhu amathathu, kwaye igqibe kwelokuba "mababanjwe xa bebonke ngokungqinelana nokuxolelwa kwi-FOIA" ngokubhekisele kukhuseleko lwezixhobo ezihleliweyo ngokubhekisele kwiindlela zobuntlola kunye nemithombo yokufaneleka kukhuseleko lwesizwe. I-ODNI ayichazanga okanye ichaze ubume bamaxwebhu amathathu okanye imixholo yawo, ngaphandle kokuba ayephendula kwisicelo seFOIA.

Kwisicelo sayo se-MDR, i-USRTK icele ukuba i-ODNI ikhulule onke amaqhekeza amaxwebhu amathathu.

I-USRTK ikholelwa ekubeni uluntu lunelungelo lokwazi ukuba yeyiphi idatha ekhoyo malunga neengozi, ukuvuza kunye nokunye okungahambi kakuhle kwiilebhu apho kugcinwa khona izifo ezinokubangela ubhubhane kwaye zilungiswe, nokuba ingaba kukho na ukuvuza okunjalo kuyanyanzeliswa kwimvelaphi ye-COVID-19, ebangele ukuba Ukufa kwabantu abangaphezu kwama-360,000 baseMelika.

Ukuze ufumane inkcazelo engakumbi:

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu avela kwizicelo zethu zeerekhodi zoluntu zophando lwethu lwee-biohazards. Bona: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.

Iphepha elingasemva kuphando lwase-US lweLungelo lokwazi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Iidasethi eziguqulweyo ziphakamisa imibuzo ethembekileyo malunga nezifundo eziphambili kwimvelaphi yecoronavirus

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Uhlaziyo lwedatha ye-genomic enxulumene nezifundo ezine eziphambili kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus yongeza eminye imibuzo malunga nokuthembeka kwezi zifundo, ezibonelela ngenkxaso esisiseko ye-hypothesis ukuba i-SARS-CoV-2 ivela kwizilwanyana zasendle. Izifundo, UPeng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou okqhubekayo., Lam kunye al., yaye Xiao okqhubekayo., Ufumanise ii-coronaviruses ezinxulumene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kumalulwane amahashe kunye neepangolins zaseMalayan.

Ababhali bezifundo bafaka idatha yokulandelelana kweDNA ebizwa ngokuba ngokulandelelana kufundwa, ababeyisebenzisela ukudibanisa i-bat- kunye ne-pangolin-coronavirus genomes, kwiZiko leSizwe loLwazi lwe-Biotechnology (NCBI) ngokulandelelana funda indawo yokugcina (SRA). I-NCBI iseke ugcino lwedatha yoluntu ukunceda ukungqinisisa okuzimeleyo kohlalutyo lwe-genomic ngokusekwe kubuchwephesha bokulandelelana okuphezulu.

Ilungelo lase-US lokuFumana amaxwebhu ngokwenziwa kweerekhodi zikarhulumente ukuba bonisa uhlaziyo kwezi zifundo 'i-SRA yedatha yeenyanga emva kokuba zipapashiwe. Olu hlaziyo aluqhelekanga kuba lwenzekile emva kokupapashwa, kwaye ngaphandle kwesizathu, inkcazo okanye ukuqinisekiswa.

Umzekelo, UPeng Zhou et al. kwaye Lam kunye al. bahlaziya idatha yabo ye-SRA ngemihla emibini efanayo. La maxwebhu awachazi ukuba kutheni etshintshe idatha, kuphela ukuba kwenziwe utshintsho oluthile. Xiao okqhubekayo. benze utshintsho oluninzi kwidatha yabo ye-SRA, kubandakanya nokususwa kweedatha ezimbini ngo-Matshi 10, ukongezwa kwedatha entsha ngoJuni 19, ukutshintshwa kwedatha ngoNovemba 8 kwedatha yokuqala eyakhutshwa ngo-Okthobha u-30, kunye nolunye utshintsho lwedatha ngo-Novemba 13- kwiintsuku ezimbini emva koko indalo yongeze "inqaku lenkxalabo" loMhleli malunga nesifundo. Hong Zhou okqhubekayo. awusabelani ngedatha epheleleyo ye-SRA eya kwenza ukuba uqinisekiso luzimele. Ngelixa iijenali zithanda indalo ifuna ababhali ukuba benze yonke idatha "ifumaneke ngokukhawuleza”Ngexesha lokupapashwa, idatha ye-SRA inokukhutshwa emva upapasho; kodwa ayiqhelekanga ukwenza olo tshintsho kwiinyanga emva kokupapashwa.

Olu tshintsho lungaqhelekanga kwidatha ye-SRA alwenzi ngokuzenzekelayo ukuba ezi zifundo zine kunye needatha zazo ezinxulumene nazo zingathembeki. Nangona kunjalo, ukulibaziseka, izithuba kunye notshintsho kwidatha ye-SRA Indibano ezimeleyo kunye nokuqinisekiswa yokulandelelana kwe-genome ngokulandelelana, kwaye yongeza ku imiba kwaye xhalaba malunga le sekile kwezi zifundo zine, ezinje:

  1. Luluphi olona hlaziyo lwasemva kokupapashwa kwedatha ye-SRA? Zazenzelwe ntoni? Ziluchaphazele njani uhlalutyo oluhambelana nolwe-genomic kunye neziphumo?
  2. Ngaba oku kuhlaziywa kwe-SRA kuqinisekiswe ngokuzimeleyo? Ukuba kunjalo, njani? Inkqubo ye- Ukuqinisekiswa kweNCBI kuphela Indlela yokushicilela iSRA BioProject- ngaphaya kolwazi olusisiseko oluthi "igama lomzimba" - kukuba ayinakuphindwa.

Ngolunye ulwazi: 

The IZiko leLizwe leNkcazelo yeBiotechnology (NCBI) amaxwebhu anokufunyanwa apha: Ii-imeyile zeNCBI (Iphepha le-63)

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu avela kwizicelo zethu zeerekhodi zoluntu zophando lwethu lwee-biohazards. Bona: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.

Iphepha elingasemva kuphando lwase-US lweLungelo lokwazi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Alukho uphononongo loontanga lwesongezo kwisifundo se-coronavirus semvelaphi?

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ijenali indalo khange kuvavanye ukuthembeka kwamabango abalulekileyo enziwe nge-17 kaNovemba sihlomelo iya ku isifundo kwimvelaphi ye-bat yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, imbalelwano ne indalo Abasebenzi bacebisa.

Ngo-Februwari 3, 2020, iZiko laseWuhan leSayensi yeVirology lafumanisa esona salamane sisondeleyo saziwayo seSARS-CoV-2, i-bat coronavirus ebizwa ngokuba yiRaTG13. I-RaTG13 iye yangumbindi kwingcinga yokuba i-SARS-CoV-2 ivela kwizilwanyana zasendle.

Idilesi yezihlomelo engaphendulwanga imiba malunga nemvelaphi yeRaTG13. Ababhali, uZhou et al., Bacacisa ukuba bafumene i-RaTG13 kwi-2012-2013 "kwindawo encinci yokulahla umzuzu kwi-Mojiang County, kwiPhondo lase-Yunnan," apho abasebenzi-mgodini abathandathu beva ubunzima uxinzelelo olukhulu lokuphefumla emva kokuvezwa lilindle, yaye abathathu babhubha. Uphando lwe Iimpawu zabavukuzi abagulayo zinokunika imikhondo ebalulekileyo malunga nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. UZhou et al. baxela ukuba abafumananga i-coronaviruses ezinxulumene ne-SARS kwiisampuli ze-serum ezigciniweyo zabasebenzi-mgodini abagulayo, kodwa abawaxhasi amabango abo ngedatha nangeendlela malunga novavanyo lwabo kunye nolawulo lokulinga.

Ukungabikho kwedatha ephambili kwisihlomelo kuye iphakamise eminye imibuzo malunga nokuthembeka kweZhou et al. ukufunda. Nge-27 kaNovemba, i-US Right to Know yabuza indalo imiba malunga namabango esihlomelo, kwaye wacela ukuba indalo papasha yonke idatha exhasayo ethi Zhou et al. inokuba inikezele.

NgoDisemba 2, indalo Intloko yezoNxibelelwano uBex Walton phendula ukuba u-Zhou et al. Isifundo “besichanekile kodwa singacacanga,” kwaye isihlomelo besifanelekile iqonga emva kokupapashwa Ingcaciso. Wongeze wathi: “Malunga nemibuzo yakho, singakuyalela ukuba uye kubabhali bephepha ukufumana iimpendulo, njengoko le mibuzo ayibhekiseli kuphando esilupapashileyo kodwa kolunye uphando olwenziwe ngababhali, apho singenakho ukuphawula ”(ugxininiso lwethu). Ukusukela imibuzo yethu enxulumene nophando oluchazwe kwisihlomelo, i indalo Isiteyitimenti sommeli sicebisa ukuba iZhou et al.isihlomelo asivavanywanga njengophando.

Sibuze Umbuzo olandelayo Nge-2 kaDisemba: “ingaba esi sihlomelo besiphantsi koqwalaselo loontanga kunye / okanye ukonganyelwa kokuhlelwa ngu indalo? ” UNks Walton akazange aphendule ngqo; yena phendula: "Ngokubanzi, abahleli bethu baya kuvavanya izimvo okanye iinkxalabo eziphakanyiswe nathi okokuqala, bebuza ababhali, kwaye befuna iingcebiso kubavavanyi boontanga nakwezinye iingcali zangaphandle ukuba sikubona kufanelekile. Umgaqo-nkqubo wethu wokugcina imfihlo uthetha ukuba asinakho ukugqabaza ngendlela ethile yokuphathwa kwamatyala. ”

ukusukela indalo uthathela ingqalelo isihlomelo njenge iposiuhlaziyo loshicilelo, kwaye ayisixhomekisi eso sithuba sokupapashwa kwezihlomelo kwimigangatho efanayo yokujonga oontanga njengopapasho lwantlandlolo, kubonakala ngathi uZhou et al. isihlomelo asikhange sijongwe kwakhona.

Ababhali uZhengli Shi noPeng Zhou abaphendulanga imibuzo yethu malunga nabo indalo isihlomelo.

Ii-imeyile ezintsha zibonisa iingxoxo zesayensi malunga nendlela yokuxoxa ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 

ushicilelo Imeyli isabelo Ukufuna

Ii-imeyile ezintsha ezisandula ukufunyanwa zinika amagqabantshintshi ngendlela ingxelo eqinisekileyo ephuculwe ngayo malunga nemvelaphi yendalo yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ngelixa imibuzo ephambili yesayensi ishiyekile. Iingxoxo zangaphakathi kunye nokuyilwa kwangoko kweleta yenzululwazi zibonisa iingcali zixoxa ngezikhewu kulwazi kunye nemibuzo engaphendulwanga malunga nemvelaphi yeelebhu, nanjengoko abanye bebefuna ukuthomalalisa iingcamango “zemiphetho” malunga nokuba kungenzeka ukuba intsholongwane ivela kwilebhu.

Izazinzulu ezinempembelelo kunye neendaba ezininzi ziye zabuchaza ubungqina njengo “eyoyikisayo”Le ntsholongwane yavela kwizilwanyana zasendle, hayi kwelebhu. Nangona kunjalo, unyaka emva kwamatyala okuqala axeliweyo e-SARS-CoV-2 kwisixeko sase-China iWuhan, kuncinci okwaziwayo njani okanye phi intsholongwane yavela. Ukuqonda imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, ebangela isifo i-COVID-19, kungabalulekile ekuthinteleni ubhubhane olandelayo.

I-imeyile yengcali yecoronavirus UNjingalwazi uRalph Baric - ifunyenwe kwisicelo seerekhodi esidlangalaleni yi-US Right to Know-bonisa incoko phakathi kwabameli be-National Academy of Sciences (NAS), kunye neengcali kukhuseleko lwezinto eziphilayo kunye nezifo ezosulelayo ezivela kwiiyunivesithi zase-US kunye Umanyano lwe-EcoHealth.

Ngomhla kaFebruwari 3, iOfisi yeWhite House yoMgaqo-nkqubo wezeNzululwazi nobuChwepheshe (OSTP) wabuza iZiko lezeMfundo kuZwelonke lezeNzululwazi, ubuNjineli kunye noNyango (NASEM) "ukubiza intlanganiso yeengcali… ukuvavanya ukuba yeyiphi idatha, ulwazi kunye neesampulu ezifunekayo ukujongana nokungaziwa, ukuze kuqondwe imvelaphi yendaleko ye-2019-nCoV, kunye nokuphendula ngokufanelekileyo ukuqhambuka kwayo nayiphi na ingcaciso engachananga. ”

I-Baric kunye nezinye iingcali zezifo ezosulelayo zazibandakanyeka kuyilo impendulo. Ii-imeyile zibonisa iingxoxo zangaphakathi zeengcali kunye nefayile ye- Uyilo lwakwangoko yomhla kaFebruwari 4.

Uyilo lwangaphambili luchaze "izimvo zokuqala zeengcali" ukuba "idatha ekhoyo ye-genomic iyahambelana nendalo kwaye okwangoku akukho bungqina bokuba intsholongwane yenzelwe ukusasazeka ngokukhawuleza phakathi kwabantu." Esi sigwebo siyilwayo siphakamise umbuzo, phakathi kubazali: “[buza iingcali ukuba zongeze iindawo ezithile zokubopha iziza?]” Ikwaquka nombhalo osemazantsi kwizibiyeli: indaleko yee-coronaviruses ezinxulumene noko. ”

In Imeyile enye, yomhla kaFebruwari 4, ingcali ngezifo ezosulelayo uTrevor Bedford wathi: “Andizukuchaza iindawo ezibopha apha. Ukuba uqala ukulinganisa ubungqina kukho okuninzi ekufuneka kuqwalaselwe kuzo zombini ezi meko. ” Ngayo "yomibini le miboniso," iBedford ibonakala ibhekisa kwimvelaphi yeelebhu kunye nemeko yemvelaphi yendalo.

Umbuzo weziza ezibophelelayo ubalulekile kwingxoxo-mpikiswano malunga nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. Iindawo ezibophayo ezahlukileyo kwi-SARS-CoV-2's spike protein confer "Kufutshane kakhulu" ukubopha kunye nokungena kwintsholongwane kwiiseli zomntu, kwaye yenze i-SARS-CoV-2 yosasazeke ngakumbi kune-SARS-CoV. Oososayensi bathi indawo ezizodwa zokubopha zeSARS-CoV-2 zinokuvela ngenxa yoku endalo spillover endle okanye ngamabomu i laboratory Ukuhlaziywa kwakhona ngokhokho wendalo we-SARS-CoV-2.

The ileta yokugqibela epapashwe ngoFebruwari 6 khange zikhankanye iindawo ezibophelelayo okanye ukubakho kwemvelaphi yelebhu. Iyacacisa ukuba ulwazi oluthe kratya luyimfuneko ukumisela imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. Ileta ithi, “Iingcali zisazisile ukuba iinkcukacha ezongezelelekileyo zolandelelwano lwe-genomic ezivela kubume bomhlaba- nakwexeshana- iisampulu ezahlukeneyo zentsholongwane ziyafuneka ukumisela imvelaphi kunye nokudaleka kwentsholongwane. Iisampulu eziqokelelwe kwangethuba kuqhambuko lwaseWuhan kwaye iisampulu ezivela kwizilwanyana zasendle zingabaluleka kakhulu. ”

Iimeyile zibonisa ezinye iingcali zixoxa ngesidingo solwimi olucacileyo lokuphikisa into echazwe njenge "iingcinga zokuqhekeka" zemvelaphi yelabhoratri. UKristian Andersen, umbhali okhokelayo we iphepha elinempembelelo lezeNdalo Ndigxininisa imvelaphi yendalo ye-SARS-CoV-2, yathi uyilo lwakwangoko "lwalulukhulu, kodwa ndiyazibuza ukuba ingaba kufuneka sizinze ngakumbi kumcimbi wobunjineli." Uqhubeke wathi, “Ukuba enye yeenjongo zolu xwebhu kukuphikisa ezo nkolelo, ndicinga ukuba kubaluleke kakhulu ukuba sikwenze oko ngolwimi olucacileyo…”

In impendulo yakhe, I-Baric ijolise ekudluliseni isiseko sesayensi ngemvelaphi yendalo ye-SARS-CoV-2. “Ndicinga ukuba kufuneka sitsho ukuba oyena mntu usondeleyo kule ntsholongwane (96%) wachongwa kumalulwane ajikeleza emqolombeni eYunnan, China. Oku kuyenza icace gca imvelaphi yezilwanyana. ”

Yokugqibela ileta Ukusuka kubongameli be-NASEM abathathi ndawo kwimvelaphi yentsholongwane. Ithi, “Izifundo zophando ukuqonda ngcono imvelaphi ye-2019-nCoV kunye nendlela ezinxibelelana ngayo neentsholongwane ezifumaneka kumalulwane nakwezinye iintlobo sele ziqhubeka. Esona sizalwane sisondeleyo se-2019-nCoV sibonakala njenge-coronavirus echongwe kwiisampulu ezivela kwilulwane eziqokelelwe e-China. ” Ileta ekubhekiswa kuyo Mbini izifundo eziqhutywa yi-EcoHealth Alliance kunye neWuhan Institute of Virology. Zombini zibeka imvelaphi yendalo ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Kwiiveki ezimbalwa kamva, ileta kamongameli ye-NASEM yavela njengomthombo onegunya lomntu onempembelelo ingxelo yezenzululwazi epapashwe kwi Lancet egqithise ukuqiniseka ngakumbi malunga nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. I-USRTK ixeliwe ngaphambili Umongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wayila le ngxelo, eyathi "oososayensi abavela kumazwe amaninzi… bagqiba kwelokuba le coronavirus yavela kwizilwanyana zasendle." Esi sikhundla, ingxelo ithi, "sixhaswa ngakumbi yileta evela kubongameli be-US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine."

Ukuqeshwa kuka-Peter Daszak kunye namanye amahlakani e-EcoHealth Alliance Ikhomishini yeLancet COVID19 kunye noDaszak kwi Uphando loMbutho wezeMpilo weHlabathi Imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 ithetha ukuba ukuthembeka kwezi nzame kujongelwa phantsi ukungqubana komdla, nangokubonakala ngathi sele bewugwebe kwangaphambili lo mbandela.

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“Imiba esimele ukuyiphepha”

Ii-imeyile zeBaric zikwabonisa ummeli weNAS cebisa kwizazinzulu zase-US kufuneka "bayiphephe" imibuzo malunga nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 kwiintlanganiso zamazwe amabini ababecwangcisa kunye neengcali zase-China ze-COVID-19. Ii-imeyile ngoMeyi nangoJuni 2020 zixoxa ngezicwangciso zeentlanganiso. Inxaxheba kwezenzululwazi zaseMelika, uninzi lwazo zingamalungu eNAS IKomiti emileyo yezifo ezasulelayo kunye nezisongelo zempilo zenkulungwane yama-21, Babandakanya uRalph Baric, Peter Daszak, David Franz, James Le Duc, Stanley Perlman, David Relman, Linda Saif, kunye Peiyong Shi.

The abathathi-nxaxheba base China kubandakanya uGeorge Gao, uZhengli Shi, kunye noZhiming Yuan. UGeorge Gao nguMlawuli we-CDC yase China. UZhengli Shi ukhokela uphando lwe-coronavirus eWuhan Institute of Virology, kwaye uZhiming Yuan nguMlawuli weWIV.

In i-imeyile kubathathi-nxaxheba baseMelika malunga neseshoni yocwangciso, iGosa eliPhezulu leNkqubo ye-NAS uBenjamin Rusek uchaze injongo yentlanganiso: “ukukugcwalisa kwimvelaphi yencoko, xoxa ngezihloko / imibuzo (uluhlu kwileta yesimemo sakho kwaye iqhotyoshelwe) kunye nemiba ekunokwenzeka ukuba thintela (imibuzo yemvelaphi, ezopolitiko)… ”

Ngolunye ulwazi:

Qhagamshela kwi-imeyile yaseYunivesithi yaseNorth Carolina u-Ralph Baric nge-imeyile enokufumaneka apha: Ii-imeyile zebaric (Iphepha le-83,416)

Ilungelo lase-US lokwazi ukuthumela amaxwebhu avela kwizicelo zethu zeerekhodi zoluntu ze uphando lwethu lwe-biohazards. Qaphela: Amaxwebhu e-FOI kwimvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, iingozi zokufumana umsebenzi kunye neelebhu zokutya.