Closing Arguments Today, Jurors To Deliberate Damages for Cancer Caused by Roundup

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(Transcript of today’s proceedings) 

Lawyers for Edwin Hardeman presented their closing argument today in U.S. District Court in San Francisco, asking jurors to punish Monsanto for failing to warn about the cancer risks of its Roundup herbicide.

Attorney Jennifer Moore presented the close for the plaintiff’s legal team, and Monsanto attorney Brian Stekloff made his closing argument, winding down a month-long trial that already recorded a first phase jury verdict finding Roundup was a “substantial factor” in causing Hardeman’s non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

The jury’s decision now is simply a matter of money – whether or not Monsanto should pay damages, including punitive damages, to Hardeman. Though jurors already decided Roundup caused the harm to Hardeman, they have yet to determine if Monsanto should be held responsible for that harm.  The jury instructions call for jurors to answer three questions in order to be able to determine damages: Was Roundup’s design defective? Did Roundup lacked sufficient warning of potential risks? And was Monsanto negligent by not using reasonable care to warn about the risks posed by Roundup?

Monsanto’s attorneys have not changed their position that Roundup does not cause cancer. But for the issue of liability they have argued that during the period Hardeman used Roundup – from 1986 to 2012 – no regulatory or health organization required a warning on Roundup labels regarding cancer, and Monsanto had no evidence leading it to believe a warning was necessary.

In testimony Monday, former Monsanto Chairman Hugh Grant defended the company’s conduct surrounding Roundup though he acknowledged the company never did any epidemiology study of Roundup even though the company spent more than $1 billion annually researching new products.

“Monsanto acted responsibly,” company attorney Brian Stekloff told the jury last week.  Telling jurors “this is not a popularity contest,” he said there was no evidence Monsanto acted negligently. “Monsanto, consistent with the science, consistent with how the science was being viewed around the rest of the world, did act responsibly and should not be found liable,” he said.

Hardeman’s attorneys have told jurors that there was a wealth of scientific evidence showing cancer risks associated with Roundup but Monsanto chose to try to suppress and/or discredit the information rather than warn customers like Hardeman.

If the jurors find that Monsanto is liable, the parties have already agreed to a figure of $200,967.10 for economic losses. But jurors could elect to add ‘noneconomic damages” to the tally, and they could add punitive damages.

Judge Vince Chhabria said in an earlier ruling that there was “a great deal of evidence” to support a punitive damages award against Monsanto and to show that the company “has not taken a responsible, objective approach to the safety of its product.”

The judge said there is “strong evidence from which a jury could conclude that Monsanto does not particularly care whether its product is in fact giving people cancer, focusing instead on manipulating public opinion and undermining anyone who raises genuine and legitimate concerns about the issue.”

In the first Roundup cancer trial, a jury last August awarded $289 million to plaintiff Dewayne “Lee” Johnson, though the judge reduced the verdict to $78  million.

Trimmed-Down Testimony as Monsanto Cancer Trial Winds Down

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Find more updates and documents from the trials in our Monsanto Trial Tracker.

Lawyers for Edwin Hardeman have substantially cut down the number of witnesses and evidence to present to jurors who must decide if Monsanto and its new owner Bayer are liable for Hardeman’s development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma after years of use of Monsanto’s Roundup. They have but a few hours left allotted to them by the judge, who has said he expects closing arguments by Tuesday.

The six-member jury team decided last week that Roundup was in fact a substantial factor in causing Hardeman’s cancer. The trial is now focused on whether or not Monsanto should be blamed, and if so, how much – if anything – the company should pay Hardeman in damages.

But making that case may be difficult given the short amount of time the plaintiff’s attorneys have left in the total “time clock” that Judge Vince Chhabria set. He gave each side 30 hours to make their case.

Hardeman’s attorneys used most of their time in the first half of the trial and now have but a few remaining hours. As a result, they have informed the judge that they will not be calling planned testimony from Monsanto executives Daniel Goldstein, Steven Gould, David Heering, or Daniel Jenkins. They also will not be presenting planned testimony from Roger McClellan, editor of the scientific journal Critical Reviews in Toxicology (CRT), and at least four other witnesses.

McClellan was overseeing CRT when the journal published a series of papers in September 2016 that rebuked the finding by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) finding that glyphosate was a probable human carcinogen. The papers purported to be written by independent scientists who found that the weight of evidence showed the weed killer was unlikely to pose any carcinogenic risk to people. But internal Monsanto documents show that the papers were conceptualized from the outset as a strategy by Monsanto to discredit IARC. One of Monsanto’s top scientists not only reviewed the manuscripts but had a hand in drafting and editing them, though that was not disclosed by CRT.

Hardeman’s attorneys plan about three more hours of testimony from various witnesses, including former Monsanto Chairman and CEO Hugh Grant, who received an exit payment of about $32 million when Bayer AG bought Monsanto last summer.

Discussion of Damages

Both sides have already agreed that Hardeman has suffered a loss of approximately $200,000 in economic damages, but Hardeman’s attorneys are expected to ask for many tens of millions of dollars, and possibly hundreds of millions of dollars for total damages, including punitive.

Lawyers for Monsanto have objected to any discussion of Monsanto’s wealth and the $63 billion Bayer paid for Monsanto, but the judge has allowed some financial information to be shared with jurors.

Jurors may not ever be told exactly how much money Monsanto has made over the years in sales of its glyphosate herbicides, but a look at just one year of financials – 2012, the year Hardeman stopped using Roundup – shows the company made roughly $2 billion in total profits that year.

Judge Chhabria noted in discussions with attorneys out of the presence of the jury that Hardeman’s attorneys might want to argue that Monsanto spent a lot of money on advertising and payouts to executives rather than conducting long-term safety studies on its products. The money issues might be relevant to jurors’ deliberation over potential punitive damages, Chhabria said.

“It may be relevant to Monsanto’s ability to pay, but it seems even more relevant to
the issue of what was knowable — both liability and punitive damages, whether Monsanto’s conduct was extreme and outrageous,” Judge Chhabria said.  “Why can’t they argue, look at all the money Monsanto has been willing to spend on advertising and it’s not willing to, you know, conduct any sort of objective inquiry into the safety of its product.”

“It is not as much about the company’s ability to pay as it is about the company’s conduct with respect to the safety of its product,” Chhabria said. “Look at all these things that the company is spending extreme amounts of money on, and it’s not willing to lift a finger to conduct any sort of objective inquiry about the safety of its product.  That, I assume, is their argument. ”

Chhabria said the evidence of Monsanto’s finance could be “probative” of the  “outrageousness of the company’s conduct.”

Pilliod Trial Beginning 

A third Roundup cancer trial gets underway this week in Alameda County Superior Court in Oakland, California. Alva and Alberta Pilliod,  husband and wife, take on Monsanto and Bayer with claims they both are suffering from non-Hodgkin lymphoma due to exposure to Monsanto’s Roundup products.

Voir dire for jury selection begins today in Oakland and opening statements are expected to begin Thursday.  See documents related to that case at this link. 

The judge in the Pilliod case rejected Monsanto’s request to bifurcate the trial. The legal team presenting the Pilliod case includes Los Angeles attorney Brent Wisner, who gained notoriety for the win by plaintiff Dewayne “Lee” Johnson over Monsanto in the first-ever Roundup cancer trial last summer.

Cancer Victim Headed Back to the Stand

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(Transcript of today’s proceedings)

Plaintiff Edwin Hardeman took the stand today to offer more testimony in his lawsuit against Monsanto over claims his use of the company’s Roundup herbicide caused him to develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Hardeman already testified in the first phase of the trial, which drew a unanimous jury verdict finding that Roundup was to blame for his cancer. His testimony today addressed the question of Monsanto’s liability and if the company should pay damages for the loss of his health.

Hardman’s attorneys are trying to convince jurors that Monsanto knew of the dangers of its products but actively worked to suppress that information through a variety of tactics, including pressuring regulators, ghostwriting scientific literature, and misleading consumers such as Hardeman with heavy marketing about the safety of glyphosate-based herbicides.

In the first phase of the trial, Judge Vince Chhabria sharply limited testimony about Hardeman’s medical treatments and the suffering he endured. In this phase, such testimony is allowed.

Jurors also heard from Mary Hardeman, Edwin’s wife, on Friday. In the first phase, which dealt only with evidence pertaining to whether or not Roundup caused Mr. Hardeman’s cancer,  the judge rebuked Hardeman’s attorney Aimee Wagstaff for even trying to introduce Mary Hardeman to jurors and for describing the couple’s courtship and long marriage.

Also taking the stand was plaintiff’s expert witness Chadi Nabhan,  chief medical officer for Cardinal Health in Chicago.

The first witness Friday was Monsanto toxicologist Donna Farmer, whose testimony was  presented via video. Hardeman’s attorneys started her testimony on Wednesday. There was no court held Thursday.

Next week, Hardeman’s attorneys plan to play video testimony of former Monsanto Chairman and CEO Hugh Grant.

Dark Day – Lawyers and Jurors Get a Break

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Jury members and legal counsel for the parties in Hardeman V. Monsanto were taking a break on Thursday as Judge Vince Chhabria handles other calendar items, including a motion in a separate lawsuit against Monsanto.

The trial resumes Friday morning, with closing arguments expected by the middle of next week.

With the day off today, attorneys for plaintiff Edwin Hardeman celebrated their first-phase trial victory Wednesday night. The week-long wait for the verdict finding that Monsanto’s Roundup caused Hardeman’s cancer had rattled their nerves.

Officials with Monsanto owner Bayer AG had little to celebrate after the jury verdict further eroded investor confidence, pushing share prices lower. The company’s shares already took a huge hit in August after the jury in the first Roundup cancer trial found that the company’s herbicides caused cancer.

In Roundup Cancer Trial, Now the Gloves Come Off

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(Transcript from today’s proceedings)

Following Tuesdays’ jury finding that Roundup use caused plaintiff Edwin Hardeman’s cancer, the second phase of Hardeman V. Monsanto began this morning in California with a shift away from the scientific evidence and on to allegations that Monsanto has spent years suppressing information about the dangers of its glyphosate-based herbicides.

While Hardeman’s lead counsel Aimee Wagstaff was sanctioned in the first phase for barely giving a nod to such claims, in the second phase the focus is squarely on Monsanto’s conduct in studying, manufacturing and selling its popular Roundup products.

“Roundup has been Monsanto’s billion-dollar baby for decades,” Wagstaff said in an interview Wednesday morning. “The evidence demonstrates Monsanto was far more interested in protecting its bottom line or Roundup’s continued sales than making sure the product was safe. In the meantime, people like Mr. Hardeman got cancer and are dying. We are confident the jury will do the right thing in phase two and send Monsanto a message it needs to hear.”

The jury verdict finding Roundup causes cancer is the second such jury determination in seven months, and indicates Bayer, which purchased Monsanto last summer, has a hard road ahead defending against thousands of plaintiffs who all claim exposure to Monsanto’s glyphosate-based herbicides caused their cancers. Another trial gets underway next week in Oakland, California.

Bayer shares fell more than 12% in early trading Wednesday after the jury’s determination that Roundup was a “substantial factor” in causing Hardeman’s cancer.

Judge Vince Chhabria plans to continue to keep a tight rein on what the jury will be allowed to hear, however. He generally has agreed with requests from Monsanto to prohibit evidence about Monsanto’s actions after 2012, the year Hardeman stopped using Roundup. The rationale is that the company’s actions after the plaintiff stopped using the product have no bearing on Hardeman’s development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Plaintiff’s attorneys argued that there are many internal Monsanto emails dated after 2012 that illustrate a pattern of behavior, showing how the company has long worked to ghostwrite scientific papers, manipulate regulators and attack and silence critics. That evidence is critical to establishing Monsanto’s liability and damages, the plaintiff’s attorneys have told Chhabria.

In a discussion Tuesday about the evidence for the second phase, the judge indicated he sees a middle ground, saying “conduct that occurred post-2012 that sheds light on what was happening pre-2012 should generally be admissible, potentially subject to a limiting instruction if Monsanto wants it.”  But he also said this: “Even if post-2012 conduct sheds light on what was happening pre-2012, there may be other reasons to exclude it.”

Notably, the judge is barring evidence about Monsanto’s efforts to discredit the International Agency for Research on Cancer, which in 2015 classified glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen. Monsanto spent millions of dollars on various secretive tactics aimed at discrediting IARC.  Documents that have come to light through discovery show the company discussing using third parties who appeared to be independent of Monsanto to publicly criticize IARC and push Monsanto propaganda points. The internal Monsanto records show the company’s role in ghostwriting an article that appeared on Forbes’ contributors’ platform, and they show that the company was behind a story published by Reuters in 2017 that falsely claimed an IARC scientist withheld information from IARC that would have changed the classification.

The judge is also barring evidence about how Monsanto worked to discredit French scientist Gilles-Éric Séralini after publication of his 2012 study findings about rats fed water dosed with Roundup. Internal Monsanto records show a coordinated effort to get the Seralini paper retracted, including this email string.

Monsanto employees apparently were so proud of what they called a “multimedia event that was designed for maximum negative publicity” against Seralini that they designated it as an “achievement” worth recognition.

The plaintiff’s attorneys will also not be able to introduce evidence of Monsanto’s efforts to kill a toxicity review of glyphosate by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.

The judge is allowing portions of a 2015 internal Monsanto email in which company scientist Bill Heydens discusses plans to ghostwrite a series of new scientific papers that will contradict IARC’s classification of glyphosate because in that email, Heydens remarks on how this plan is similar to the ghostwriting of a scientific paper published in 2000 that found glyphosate to be safe.

See all updates at Trial Tracker blog.

In Blow to Bayer, Jury Finds Roundup Caused Plaintiff’s Cancer

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(Video update)

(Transcript of today’s proceedings)

A unanimous jury decision on Tuesday handed a first-round victory to plaintiff Edwin Hardeman, as the six jury members found that Hardeman’s exposure to Roundup was a “substantial factor” in causing his non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

The jury decision means the trial now moves into a second phase in which jurors will take up the issue of liability and damages.

Jurors deliberated for nearly a week before weighing in on the one question they had to answer in the first phase of the bifurcated trial.  U.S. District Judge Vince Chhabria sharply limited the evidence jurors could hear in the first phase to evidence dealing solely with general and specific causation. That meant the first phase was filled with discussions and debates over various scientific studies. The first phase mostly excluded evidence about Monsanto’s alleged actions to control or manipulate the scientific record and claims that Monsanto has worked to suppress evidence of harm with its herbicides. But such evidence will be allowed in the second phase as the jury considers the company’s conduct.

Following the verdict, Judge Chhabria told the jurors about the second phase: “The issues that you will be considering are whether Monsanto is legally liable for the harm caused to Mr. Hardeman and, if so, what the damages should be. So those are the issues that you will begin considering tomorrow.”

The verdict was a significant victory not just for Hardeman, but for the other thousands of plaintiffs around the United States who have sued Monsanto and also allege exposure to the company’s glyphosate-based herbicides caused non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The company already has one loss from last summer’s jury verdict in favor of a dying California groundskeeper. Another case begins next week in nearby Oakland, California.

In response to today’s verdict, Aimee Wagstaff of Andrus Wagstaff, PC and Jennifer Moore of Moore Law Group, PLLC, co-trial counsel for the Plaintiff, issued the following statement:

 “Mr. Hardeman is pleased that the jury unanimously held that Roundup caused his non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Now we can focus on the evidence that Monsanto has not taken a responsible, objective approach to the safety of Roundup. Instead, it is clear from Monsanto’s actions that it does not particularly care whether its product is in fact giving people cancer, focusing instead on manipulating public opinion and undermining anyone who raises genuine and legitimate concerns about the issue. We look forward to presenting this evidence to the jury and holding Monsanto accountable for its bad conduct.”

Bayer issued a statement as well: “We are disappointed with the jury’s initial decision, but we continue to believe firmly that the science confirms that glyphosate-based herbicides do not cause cancer. We are confident the evidence in phase two will show that Monsanto’s conduct has been appropriate and that the company should not be liable for Mr. Hardeman’s cancer. Regardless of the outcome, however, the decision in phase one of this trial has no impact on future cases and trials because each one has its own factual and legal circumstances. We have great sympathy for Mr. Hardeman and his family, but an extensive body of science supports the conclusion that Roundup™ was not the cause of his cancer. Bayer stands behind these products and will vigorously defend them.”

As Jury Deliberates, a New Study Shows Cancer Links to Glyphosate

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Jurors will continue deliberating today, while lawyers for both sides were busy preparing for a second phase in the event the jury finds for plaintiff Edwin Hardeman in this first phase. As part of the preparation, lawyers for both sides have been jockeying over many issues, including what witnesses will and will not be allowed to testify about in a second phase, what type of liability Hardeman’s lawyers can argue, and even how much time Hardeman’s attorneys should be allowed to present their evidence.

Judge Chhabria set specific parameters for how much time each side would have for the trial in total, and Hardeman’s lawyers used much more of their time than did Monsanto’s lawyers during the first phase. As it stands, Hardeman’s side has but 7-1/2 hours left while Monsanto has more than 18 hours left.

Judge Chhabria said he would consider adding some time for the plaintiff, given that side had the burden of proof and had used a good deal of time explaining many scientific principles to the jury necessary for them to understand evidence put on by both sides.

Monsanto attorney Brian Stekloff said that Hardeman’s attorneys had not been as efficient as they could have been, giving a two-hour opening in the first phase. “I don’t know if that was necessary,” he told the judge.

Hardeman’s attorneys have also made it clear that they will be putting on a good deal of evidence about Monsanto’s knowledge of the dangers of its Roundup formulations. “Plaintiff intends to introduce even more evidence in Phase 2 that Roundup is more dangerous than glyphosate because surfactants increase the danger of glyphosate exponentially,” plaintiff’s attorneys told the judge. 

Chhabria has agreed – over Monsanto’s objections – to allow Hardeman’s attorneys to proceed in the second phase with a “design defect” argument, though with several caveats.

Meanwhile, yet another new study has been published showing links between glyphosate herbicides and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The study analyzes data from more than 300,000 farmers and agricultural workers from studies done in France, Norway, and the United States. The researchers said that they found “elevations in risks” of non-Hodgkin lymphoma associated with certain insecticides and with glyphosate herbicides. With respect to glyphosate, the specific type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma linked to glyphosate exposure was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the same type of cancer Hardeman has.

Rachel Carson Environment Book Award Winner: Whitewash by Carey Gillam

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Carey Gillam’s “Whitewash: The Story of a Weed Killer, Cancer and the Corruption of Science (Island Press) has received rave reviews since its release last fall and has received several awards for outstanding reporting:

Hard-hitting, eye-opening narrative…A forceful argument for an agricultural regulatory environment that puts public interest above corporate profits.”  Kirkus Reviews

This is a must-read for everyone concerned about the increasing burden of toxic chemicals in water and food, the health and environmental consequences thereof, and corporate influence on government agencies.Booklist 

“Gillam expertly covers a contentious front where corporate malfeasance intersects with issues of public health and ecology.” Publishers Weekly 

“a gutsy, compelling read from beginning to end, especially for readers who enjoy the kind of hard-nosed, shoe-leather reporting that used to be the hallmark of great journalism.” Society for Environmental Journalists BookShelf

“well-documented compendium of wrongs, fraud, conflicts of interest, undue influence, and troubling forms of plain old [PR]….Some of its revelations are downright infuriating. Los Angeles Review of Books 

See also: Carey Gillam’s testimony before a joint committee of the European Parliament on 10/11/2017 and her reporting from the Daubert Hearings in the Cancer Victims Vs. Monsanto glyphosate litigation.

Book Description

It’s the pesticide on our dinner plates, a chemical so pervasive it’s in the air we breathe, our water, our soil, and even found increasingly in our own bodies. Known as Monsanto’s Roundup by consumers, and as glyphosate by scientists, the world’s most popular weed killer is used everywhere from backyard gardens to golf courses to millions of acres of farmland. For decades it’s been touted as safe enough to drink, but a growing body of evidence indicates just the opposite, with research tying the chemical to cancers and a host of other health threats.

In Whitewash, veteran journalist Carey Gillam uncovers one of the most controversial stories in the history of food and agriculture, exposing new evidence of corporate influence. Gillam introduces readers to farm families devastated by cancers which they believe are caused by the chemical, and to scientists whose reputations have been smeared for publishing research that contradicted business interests. Readers learn about the arm-twisting of regulators who signed off on the chemical, echoing company assurances of safety even as they permitted higher residues of the pesticide in food and skipped compliance tests. And, in startling detail, Gillam reveals secret industry communications that pull back the curtain on corporate efforts to manipulate public perception.

Whitewash is more than an exposé about the hazards of one chemical or even the influence of one company. It’s a story of power, politics, and the deadly consequences of putting corporate interests ahead of public safety.

http://careygillam.com/book
Publication date October 2017

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More Praise for Whitewash

“The book unravels a tapestry of pesticide industry tricks to manipulate the scientific truths about their products while placing profits above human health and the environment. As someone who has experienced similar actions by corporations firsthand in my work far too often, I am hopeful that Carey’s book will be a wake-up call for more transparency about the dangers surrounding many chemicals in the marketplace.” Erin Brockovich, environmental activist and author

Carey Gillam has brilliantly assembled the facts and describes how Monsanto and other agricultural chemical companies lied about their products, covered up the damaging data and corrupted government officials in order to sell their toxic products around the world.  David Schubert, Ph.D., Professor and Head of the Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory at the Salk Institute For Biological Studies

Carey Gillam is a brave warrior in the mold of Rachel Carson. She has exposed the ruthless greed and fraud which have led to the poisoning of our planet. Brian G.M. Durie, M.D. Chairman of the International Myeloma Foundation, oncology specialist and attending physician at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center

In the grand tradition of Silent Spring, Carey Gillam’s Whitewash is a powerful exposé that sheds light on a chemical that — to most of us — is both entirely invisible and yet profoundly damaging to our bodies and our environment. It is a deeply researched, entirely convincing exposé of the politics, economics and global health consequences implicit in the spread of the world’s most common herbicide. Gillam has done what all great journalists strive to do: she has made us see clearly what has long been right before our eyes. Highly recommended.  McKay Jenkins, author, Professor of English, Journalism and Environmental Humanities at the University of Delaware

FDA FOIA Documents Regarding Glyphosate Residue Testing

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The Food and Drug Administration has responded to Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) requests for information regarding its efforts to start testing food samples for residues of glyphosate as well as some other herbicides, including 2,4-D.

Many of those documents can be accessed below:

FDA FOIA 2017-7005

FDA FOIA 2017-7005 part 2

FDA Final Responsive Records (2017-7005) Part 3 (Redacted)

FDA FOIA 2017-7005 attachments

CFSAN Responsive Records (2017-7005) Interim Response Part 2 (OC-ORA red boxed emails)_Redacted (1)

FDA FOIA Objectives herbicide analysis

CFSAN Responsive Records (Redacted) 2017-10178

FDA Pestag Meeting Minutes April 19, 2017

FDA March 15, 2017 PesTAG Meeting Minutes

FDA Minutes of phone call Feb 10, 2016

Email of intrigue: “IARC is killing us!”

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As researchers we often look to documents to shed new light on issues important to food policy. Sometimes, they simply reflect what we already know.

That’s the case with one new communication string that adds to evidence of a far-reaching strategy by food industry players to discredit and diminish the world’s leading cancer research agency. We’ve already seen documents from Monsanto and other chemical industry interests laying out plans to tear apart the credibility of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) because of its classification of Monsanto’s weed killer glyphosate as a probable human carcinogen.

Now we see evidence that other food industry players are part of the scheme; working to head off potentially damaging IARC scrutiny of food additives such as aspartame, sucralose, and more.

The email of intrigue was obtained through a state open records request.  It shows communication between James Coughlin, a one-time scientist for Kraft General Foods Inc. who operates a food and “nutritional” consulting business, and Timothy Pastoor, a retired toxicologist with the agrochemical giant Syngenta AG who now runs his own “science communications” business. Also included on a portion of the email string is Monsanto PR man Jay Byrne, who runs a “reputation management” and public relations business, and Douglas Wolf, a former Environmental Protection Agency scientist now with Syngenta.

In the October 2016 email, Coughlin tells Pastoor how he’s been “fighting IARC forever!!” dating back to his time at Kraft. He relates the time he spent criticizing the international cancer agency to a U.S. House of Representatives staffer who was coordinating an effort to strip U.S. funding from IARC.

And then, articulating the deep fear the food industry holds for the cancer agency, he gets to the meat of the matter: “IARC is killing us!” he writes. The 2-page string can be found here. An excerpt is below: