IGates Foundation's Failing 'Green Revolution' e-Afrika: Umbiko omusha 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha oluvela eTufts Global Development and Environment Institute luthola ukuthi i-Alliance for a Green Revolution e-Afrika ayifezi izethembiso zayo 

Uhlobo olude lwalesi sihloko luqalile Agasti 14 ku-The Ecologist

NguStacy Malkan

Ukutshalwa kwemali okukhulu okusetshenzisiwe ukukhuthaza nokuxhasa imbewu yezentengiso nemikhiqizo yezolimo kulo lonke elase-Afrika kwehlulekile ukufeza inhloso yabo yokuqeda indlala nokukhipha abalimi abasafufusa ebuphofini, ngokusho kwephepha elisha elimhlophe elishicilelwe yi ITufts University Global Development and Environment Institute. Umbiko osuselwe kakhulu ocwaningweni, "Izithembiso Ezingamanga,”Yashicilelwa ngomhlaka-10 Julayi yizinhlangano ezingenzi nzuzo zase-Afrika nezaseJalimane ezifuna a shintsha ekusekeleni emikhubeni yokulima ngezolimo. 

Ucwaningo oluholwa nguTimothy A. Wise luhlola i-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), okuyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo yamazwe omhlaba eyethulwe yizisekelo zeBill & Melinda Gates kanye neRockefeller ngo-2006 ngezethembiso zokuphinda kabili isivuno nemali engenayo yemindeni yabalimi abayizigidi ezingama-30 ngenkathi isika ukungavikeleki kokudla ngesigamu emazweni angama-20 ase-Afrika ngo-2020. 

Ekulandeleni lowo mbono, i-AGRA iqoqe cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi futhi yanikela ngemali engamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-1, ikakhulukazi emazweni ayi-524 ase-Afrika, ezinhlelweni ezikhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kwembewu yezentengiselwano, umanyolo wamakhemikhali kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Le phakethe lobuchwepheshe le- “Green Revolution” liphinde lixhaswe yimixhaso; UWise ubika ukuthi ohulumeni bamazwe ase-Afrika basebenzise cishe ama- $ 13 billion ngonyaka emazweni abhekiwe ukuxhasa ukuthengwa kwembewu nezolimo.

Ngaphandle kokwesekwa ngumphakathi, i-AGRA ayinikanga ukuhlolwa okuphelele noma ukubika ngemithelela yayo. Abaphenyi baseTufts babencike emininingwaneni esezingeni likazwelonke ngomkhiqizo wezolimo, ubuphofu, indlala nokungondleki ukuze bahlole inqubekela phambili.

"Sithola ubufakazi obuncane benqubekela phambili esabalele kunoma yiziphi izinhloso ze-AGRA, okushaya umxhwele uma kubhekwa amazinga aphezulu emixhaso kahulumeni yokwamukelwa kobuchwepheshe," kubika abacwaningi. Leli phepha libhala ukukhula komkhiqizo okuhamba kancane, akukho ukunyuka okuphawulekayo kokutholakala kokudla noma umholo wabalimi abancane emazweni okubhekiswe kuwo, kanye nendlala ebhebhethekayo. 

“Kuyimodeli ehlulekayo, imiphumela ehlulekayo; sekuyisikhathi sokushintsha inkambo. ”

"Ubufakazi bukhombisa ukuthi i-AGRA yehluleka ngokwayo," kuphetha leli phephandaba. Engxoxweni, uWise wafingqa lokho akutholile nge-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa: “Kuyisibonelo esisehlulekayo, imiphumela ehlulekayo; sekuyisikhathi sokushintsha inkambo. ” 

I-AGRA ithe "idumele kakhulu" kulolu cwaningo. "Eminyakeni eyi-14 eyedlule, i-AGRA izuze impumelelo yayo, kodwa futhi ifunde okuningi," iqembu kusho esitatimendeni. I-AGRA ithe iphepha leTufts lehlulekile ukuhlangabezana “namazinga ayisisekelo okufundwa kontanga futhi lacela isifundo ukuthi liphawule ngalokho 'okutholakele,'” futhi lisola uWise ngokuba "nomlando wokubhala izinsolo ezingenasisekelo nemibiko engaqinisekisiwe nge-AGRA nomsebenzi wayo . ” Nge-imeyili, u-Andrew Cox, oyiChief of Staff and Strategy kwa-AGRA, uphinde wagxeka indlela yocwaningo ngokuthi “ayiyona ingcweti futhi ayinasimilo,” futhi wathi “bakhetha ukwenza izinto obala nokuxhumana nezintatheli nabanye ngqo mayelana nezinkinga.” Uthe i-AGRA "izokwenza ukuhlolwa okuphelele ngokuqhathaniswa nezinhloso zayo nemiphumela" ekupheleni kuka-2021.

Hlakaniphile, kabani Incwadi ka-2019 ethi “Eating Tomorrow” wayegxeka izindlela zokusiza ezicindezela onobuhle bezimboni ezisezingeni eliphezulu ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo e-Afrika, wathi wafinyelela ku-AGRA amahlandla amaningi kusukela ngoJanuwari enemibuzo ngocwaningo lwakhe. "Uma i-AGRA noma iGates Foundation inemininingwane ephikisana nalokhu okutholakele, kufanele bakwenze kutholakale," kusho uWise.

Phakathi kokutholakele okubalulekile akubikile:   

  • Isibalo sabantu abalambile emazweni agxile ku-13 e-AGRA sikhuphuke ngamaphesenti angama-30 ngesikhathi se-AGRA exhaswe ngemali kahle yiGreen Revolution.
  • Ukukhiqiza kukhuphuke ngama-29% kuphela eminyakeni eyi-12 yommbila, isivuno esixhaswe kakhulu nesesekelwa kakhulu - kufushane kakhulu kunhloso yokwenyuka ngo-100%. 
  • Izitshalo eziningi eziqinisa isimo sezulu, ezinomsoco zisuswe ezindaweni zazo ngenxa yokwanda kwezitshalo ezisekelwayo ezifana nommbila. 
  • Ngisho nalapho ukukhiqizwa kommbila kuye kwanda, imali engenayo kanye nokutholakala kokudla akukaze kuthuthuke kulabo abacatshangelwa ukuthi bangabahlomuli be-AGRA: imindeni yabalimi abancane.
  • Yize iGates Foundation's bathembisa ukusiza izigidi zabalimi abasafufusa, iningi labo ngabesifazane, abukho ubufakazi bokuthi i-AGRA ifinyelela inani elikhulu labalimi abasafufusa. Ngenkathi amanye amapulazi asezingeni eliphakathi engabona ukukhiqizwa komkhiqizo, "labo bangabalimi kakhulu - ikakhulukazi abesilisa - ngokuthola umhlaba, izinsiza kanye nezimakethe."

UWise ukhomba iRwanda njengesibonelo salokho akuchaze ngokuthi “ukwehluleka kwe-AGRA.” Njengoba kubhekwa kabanzi njengempumelelo ye-AGRA, iRwanda ibone isivuno sommbila sikhula ngama-66%. Kodwa-ke, imininingwane ikhombisa ukuthuthuka kokukhiqiza okuphelele ezintweni eziyisisekelo njengoba abalimi belahla izitshalo zendawo ezinomsoco ukuze batshale ummbila. Khonamanjalo inani labantu abangondlekile lenyuke ngo-13% eminyakeni ye-AGRA. Lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe wezoLimo eRwanda, u-Agnes Kalibata, manje usehola i-AGRA futhi usanda kuqokwa ukuba ahole uhlelo ebeluhlelelwe Ingqungquthela Yezwe Yezokudla e-2021.

"Imiphumela yocwaningo iyamcasula i-AGRA kanye nabaprofethi beGreen Revolution," kusho uJan Urhahn, uchwepheshe wezolimo eRosa Luxemburg Stiftung, owaxhasa ngocwaningo.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko, leli qembu kanye nabalingani balo abangenzi nzuzo e-Afrika naseJalimane banxuse ohulumeni abanikelayo ukuthi “bangabe besaphinde banikeze uxhaso lwezepolitiki nolwezimali ku-AGRA futhi basuse izimali zabo ezisuka ku-AGRA baye ezinhlelweni ezisiza abakhiqizi abadla ukudla okuncane, ikakhulukazi abesifazane nentsha, futhi bathuthukise isimo sezulu imikhuba yokulima egcina imvelo njenge-agroecology. ” 

Izindleko eziphakeme zomphakathi, ukwenza izinto obala okuphansi 

Ngakho-ke ngubani okhokhela i-Alliance ye-Green Revolution e-Afrika? Emalini ecishe ibe ngu- $ 1 billion enikelwe le nhlangano kuze kube manje, iGates Foundation inikele cishe cishe izingxenye ezimbili kwezintathu ($ 661 million kuya ku-2018), iningi lokunye okuhlinzekwa ngabakhokhi bentela e-US, UK nakwezinye izindawo. Uhulumeni wase-US unikele nge-90 million yezigidi ku-AGRA kusukela ngo-2006, ngokusho kukaCox. 

Njengobufakazi benqubekela phambili kanye nokwenza izinto obala, i-AGRA ikhomba emibikweni yayo yaminyaka yonke enikezela ngemininingwane yezinhloso zesikhashana esifushane, yize kungacacile - umbiko wango-2019 ngokwesibonelo kuveza “abalimi abancane abayisigidi esingu-4.7 abafinyelelwe ngokungenelela okuhlukahlukene” kanye “nezigidi ezingama-800 zezimali ezizimele ezihlinzekiwe.” Umbiko ifaka imininingwane ethile mayelana nenqubekela phambili ukubheka izindawo ze-AGRA zokugxila kwezamasu: ukwedlulisa izinqubomgomo zokwenza lula ibhizinisi, ukuzama ukukala ubuchwepheshe nokusebenzisana nabalingani. Umbiko uphawula ukubambisana okuhlukahlukene kwezinkampani kanye nemizamo yokwenza izimakethe zibe ngezakho.

Ukuhlaziywa kweTufts, uWise uthe uxhumane ne-AGRA kaningi ngokubambisana nezicelo zemininingwane yabo yokuqapha nokuhlola. Inhlangano ithe izonikeza imininingwane kepha yeka ukuphendula izicelo. 

Ekuphikisweni kwayo, i-AGRA izichaze “njengesiKhungo sase-Afrika esivulekele ukugxeka futhi esijabule ngokwabelana ngolwazi nabaphenyi nabezindaba,” futhi sikhombise ukuthi sekushintshe ukucabanga kwamanye amamethrikhi aso okuqala. “Umsebenzi wokuvuselela uguquko unzima,” kusho izitatimende, “futhi udinga ukuzibophezela okuhlukile, ukuguqulwa kwesakhiwo kanye nokutshalwa kwezimali. I-AGRA izoqhubeka nokwenza ngcono indlela yayo ngokuya ngezidingo zabalimi esibambisene nabo, ama-SME [amabhizinisi amancane naphakathi nendawo] kanye nezinto eziseqhulwini zohulumeni. ”

UCox uphinde wachaza nge-imeyili yakhe: "I-AGRA inebhasikidi lezinkomba zokulandelela imiphumela kubo bonke abalimi, izinhlelo, kanye nohulumeni," esho. "I-AGRA ikwazile ukukhombisa ukuthi emndenini ngamunye, imali engenayo inyuka kakhulu lapho abalimi benikezwa ukufinyelela kuzimbewu zanamuhla nezinto abazisebenzisayo, besekelwa ukunwetshwa kwezinga lezindawo." Kodwa-ke, uthe, ezinye izinto eziningi zithinta imali engenayo ithonya le-AGRA kanye nokucabanga kwe-AGRA ngemali engenayo yabalimi "kuthuthele ekuqondeni komongo futhi kuhlobene nalokho esingakuthonya ngqo." 

IGates Foundation iphendule ephepheni iTufts ngesitatimende esivela eqenjini layo labezindaba, “Siyazeseka izinhlangano ezifana ne-AGRA ngoba zisebenzisana namazwe ukuwasiza ukuthi enze izinto eziseqhulwini nezinqubomgomo eziqukethwe kumasu abo kazwelonke wokuthuthukisa ezolimo. Siphinde futhi sisekele imizamo ye-AGRA yokuqapha inqubekela phambili ngokuqhubekayo nokuqoqa idatha yokwazisa okusebenzayo nokungasebenzi. Sikukhuthaza ukuthi ubheke kumbiko wonyaka omusha we-AGRA ukuze uthole idatha yakamuva ngezinhloso zayo kanye nomthelela wayo. "

Amaqembu ase-Afrika: izixazululo zilele kubantu base-Afrika 

Ukuntuleka kwenqubekela phambili ebheke ezimeni ezithuthukisiwe zobuphofu nendlala akumangalisi emaqenjini okulima nawokuphatha ukudla asekelwe e-Afrika aphikisana “nomqondo we-neocolonial” we-Green Revolution yaseGates Foundation kusukela ekuqaleni. 

“Sekuyiminyaka sibhala phansi imizamo eyenziwe ngabakwa-AGRA yokusabalalisa i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, kanye nemiphumela ezoholela kulokhu: ukuncipha kwempilo yomhlabathi, ukulahleka kwemvelo yezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, kanye nokuvalelwa kwabalimi base-Afrika sibe ohlelweni olungakhelwanga bona lusizakale, kepha enzelwe iningi lezinkampani zamazwe ngamazwe aseNyakatho, ”kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity. Inhlangano yocwaningo nokumela ezinze eNingizimu Afrika ushicilele amaphepha angaphezu kweshumi nambili kusukela ngo-2007 isexwayiso ngobungozi nezinkinga zemodeli ye-AGRA. 

"Abantu base-Afrika abadingi izinkampani zamakhemikhali nezimbewu ezingatholakali ukuthi zitholakala kanjani," kusho uMayet. "Sidinga ubulungiswa bezohwebo, ezezimali kanye nezikweletu ukuze siphinde sisebenzise isikhundla se-Afrika emnothweni womhlaba futhi lokho kusinika ithuba lokwakha ikusasa lethu ngentando yeningi."

Ngokwesimo senkinga ye-COVID ikakhulukazi, uthe, "lo mbiko omusha uqinisa impikiswano yokuthi i-Afrika ingcono ngaphandle kwe-AGRA kanye nomqondo wayo we-neocolonial, nokuthi izixazululo zilele kubantu ezwenikazi nasemhlabeni wonke abakha izinhlelo ezakhiwe ngobulungiswa , nenhlalakahle yabantu neyendalo. ”

UMillion Belay, oxhumanisa i-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika (i-AFSA), okuyinhlangano yamaqembu angama-30 okudla nezokulima ezinze e-Afrika, ulinganise imodeli yentuthuko yezolimo eqhutshwa ezimakethe njengamanje “nedolo entanyeni ye-Afrika.” 

Ngamandla I-eseyi ngemuva kokubulawa kukaGeorge Floyd kanye nokuvukela komhlaba wonke kobulungiswa bezinhlanga, uBelay uxoxe ngendaba engamanga mayelana nezinhlelo zokudla zase-Afrika ezihlwanyelwe “yiqembu labalingisi abahlanganisa abasebenza ngokusiza abantu, ama-Aid Agencies, ohulumeni, izikhungo zemfundo kanye namanxusa… (abakhuluma ngokuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika kodwa lokho abakushoyo Lokhu bakwenzela ukuzakhela imakethe ngokukhalipha ngolimi oluhle oluzwelayo. ”   

“Sitshelwa ukuthi imbewu yethu indala futhi inamandla amancane okusinika ukudla futhi kufanele ihlanjululwe futhi iguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo ukuze isetshenziswe; sitshelwa ukuthi esikudingayo ngama-calories amaningi futhi sidinga ukugxila embewini yezitshalo ezimbalwa; sitshelwa ukuthi asiwusebenzisi kahle umhlaba wethu futhi kufanele unikezwe labo abangawenza kangcono umsebenzi wawo; sitshelwa ukuthi ulwazi lwethu ngokulima lubuyela emuva futhi sidinga ukuvuselela ulwazi olusuka eNtshonalanga… sitshelwa ukuthi, sidinga ibhizinisi ukutshala izigidigidi zamaRandi, futhi ngaphandle kwalaba basindisi abavela eNyakatho, asikwazi ukuzondla thina. Umhlaba wethu uchazwa ngokumane ukhiqize okuningi, hhayi ngokuba nokudla okunempilo, okunomsoco nokwesiko, okukhiqizwe ngaphandle kokulimaza imvelo, ”wabhala.

“Yidolo elifanayo elaqinisekisa ubukoloniya e-Afrika. Ngicabanga ukuthi ukuphela kwendlela yokususa leli dolo nokuphefumula wukubona idolo, ukuqonda izindlela zalo zokusebenza nokuhlela ukuzivikela, ”kubhala uBelay. Iqembu lakhe abamele i-agroecology, manje esithuthukiswa kabanzi phakathi kwezinhlangano ezingama-30 ezingamalungu e-AFSA. I-AFSA ibhala ngezifundo eziningi zamacala kukhombisa "ukuthi i-agroecology iyisiza kanjani i-Afrika mayelana nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukudla okunomsoco, ukunciphisa ubuphofu, ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nokunciphisa, ukulondolozwa kwemvelo ehlukahlukene, ukuzwela kwamasiko, intando yeningi, kanye nenani lemali."

Izethembiso eziguqukayo ze-AGRA

Ngonyaka owedlule, izethembiso ezinesibindi ze-AGRA - zokuphinda kabili isivuno kanye nemali engenayo emindenini yokulima eyizigidi ezingama-30 e-Afrika ngonyaka we-2020 - yavela ngokugqamile ekhasini lewebhu lesibonelelo senhlangano. Amagoli selokhu anyamalala ekhasini. Ngesikhathi ebuzwa ngalokhu, uCox ucacisile, "Asizinciphisanga izifiso zethu, kodwa sifunde ukuthi ezinye izinkomba eziqonde ngqo zifanele."

Uthe i-AGRA isanda kuvuselela iwebhusayithi yayo futhi “ayinazo izinsizakusebenza zokwenza ngendlela ebesifuna ngayo” kepha izoyibuyekeza futhi kungekudala. Leli qembu liphinde libonakale likhuphula i-PR yalo imizamo. A isicelo sesiphakamiso yokubonisana ngeminyaka emithathu kwezokuxhumana, eyathunyelwa ngoJuni, ichaza izifiso “zokwandisa ukusakazwa kwabezindaba okuhle kwe-AGRA cishe ngama-35-50% ngaphezu kwalokhu okusakazwa ngo-2017” (a Amathrendi abika uphawula ukuthi i-AGRA ithola ukushiwo kwabezindaba okungama-80 ngenyanga ngesiphakamiso ngoSepthemba 2016 kuya kuma-athikili ayi-800).

Ububanzi bomsebenzi obonwe ku-RFP buhlanganisa "okungenani izihleli ezisezingeni eliphakeme eziyi-10" ezibekwe "ezindaweni ezinamandla zendabuko nezikhulayo zomhlaba kanye nezifunda ezifana neNew York Times, Ventures Africa, The Africa Report, CNBC-Africa, Al Jazeera, njll. , ”Nokuthola izingxoxo“ eziyizi-25 kuya kwezingu-30 zesikhathi sokuqala zomuntu ngamunye kubacwaningi be-AGRA emithonjeni yezindaba emikhulu yomhlaba. ”

Ngonyaka owedlule, i-Alliance for a Green Revolution e-Afrika yafaka izinhloso zayo zokuzibophezela ikhasi lezibonelelo (gqamisa okufakiwe). NgoJulayi 2020 lolo limi alusabonakali ekhasini.

Ukushintsha inkambo 

Umbiko weTufts uphawula ukuthi ucwaningo olukhulayo olukhombisa umkhawulo wemodeli yokufaka amandla kaGreen Revolution yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kanye nokusebenza kwezindlela zezolimo. Inhlangano Yezokudla Nezolimo yeNhlangano Yezizwe ichaza i-agroecology “njengendlela edidiyelwe esebenzisa ngesikhathi esifanayo imiqondo nezimiso zezemvelo nezenhlalo ekwakheni nasekuphathweni kwezinhlelo zokudla nezolimo.” 

Izinsizakusebenza zeminye imininingwane: 

  • The I-UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ngo-2019 kubhalwe izindlela eziningi ezolimo ezisezimbonini ezinikela ngazo ekuguqulweni kwesimo sezulu, zifuna ushintsho olunzulu kuzo zombili izindlela zokunciphisa nokusiza abalimi ukuzivumelanisa nokuphazamiseka kwesimo sezulu.
  • UMay 2020 iphepha, "Ukuxhuma amachashazi ukunika amandla ukuguqulwa kwe-agroecology, ”Kwi-Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ithi:“ I-Agroecology isizilelela yona njengenye indlela ehlukile yezinhlelo zokudla zezimboni eziholwa yizinkampani. Ubufakazi bezinzuzo, izinzuzo, imithelela, nemisebenzi eminingi ye-agroecology iyanda. Kwabaningi ubufakazi busobala. Bheka futhi ne-Agroecology Manje Udaba Olukhethekile Lokuguqulwa Kwe-Agroecology.
  • July Umbiko wongoti wezi-2019 we-agroecology ovela kwi-UN Food and Agriculture Organisation icacile ekubizweni kwayo kwekhefu ngemodeli yeGreen Revolution. “Izinhlelo zokudla zisempambanweni yendlela. Kudingeka uguquko olunzulu, ”kusho yena. Lo mbiko ugcizelela ukubaluleka kwezolimo zemvelo, ezisekela “izindlela zokukhiqiza ezihlukahlukene nezinamandla, kubandakanya imfuyo exubekile, inhlanzi, ukutshalwa kwezolimo kanye nezolimo, ezigcina futhi zithuthukise ukuhlukahluka kwemvelo, kanye nesisekelo semithombo yemvelo.”
  • Umbiko ka-Okthoba 2018 ovela kwiPhaneli Yomhlaba Wonke Yochwepheshe Ngezinhlelo Zokudla Ezisimeme (IPES-Food), "Ukugqashula Ezinhlelweni Zokudla Kwezimboni: Izifundo Eziyisikhombisa Zezinguquko ze-Agroecological Transition ”
  • NgoFebhuwari 2018 iphepha leNqubomgomo Yezokudla, "Ukubuyekezwa: Ukubheka izinhlelo zokuxhaswa kwezolimo zesizukulwane sesibili sase-Afrika, ”Kwahlolwa imiphumela evela emazweni ayisikhombisa anezinhlelo zoxhaso futhi kwatholakala ubufakazi obuncane bokuphumelela okuqhubekayo — noma okuqhubekayo. "Umbhalo wezobuciko ucaca ngokusobala ukuthi imbewu kanye nomanyolo okwenziwe ngcono akwanele ukufeza izinhlelo zokulima ezinenzuzo, ezikhiqizayo nezisimeme ezingxenyeni eziningi ze-Afrika," kuphetha ababhali.
  • Juni 2016 umbiko we Iphaneli Lamazwe Ngamazwe Lochwepheshe Ngezinhlelo Zokudla Ezisimeme (IPES-Food), eyasungulwa yilowo owayenguReporteur we-UN Special on the Right to Food Olivier De Schutter, ifingqa umkhawulo wendlela yokufaka enamandla ye-Green Revolution yentuthuko yezolimo, kanye nokusebenza kwezinye izindlela. “Kudingeka umbandela omusha we-agroecological, ozinze ebudlelwaneni obuhluke ngokuphelele phakathi kwezolimo nemvelo, naphakathi kwezinhlelo zokudla nomphakathi. Izifundo eziyisikhombisa ezikulo mbiko zinikeza izibonelo ezisobala zokuthi, naphezu kwezithiyo eziningi zenguquko, abantu emhlabeni jikelele bakwazile ukucabanga kabusha nokuhlela kabusha izindlela zokudla mayelana nemigomo yezolimo. ”
  • I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika (i-AFSA) ibhale phansi ukusebenza ngempumelelo kwe-agroecology, manje esithuthukiswa kabanzi ezinhlanganweni ezingamalungu ayo. Bheka izifundo ze-AFSA
  • February 2006 Ucwaningo lwe-University of Essex kuhlolwe cishe amaphrojekthi amakhulu ama-300 wezolimo emvelweni emazweni angaphezu kwama-50 ampofu futhi kwabhalwa ukwanda okuphakathi kwama-79% ekukhiqizeni ngezindleko ezinciphile kanye nemali ekhuphukayo. 

Olunye ulwazi

Ngemininingwane eminingi ngocwaningo lwakamuva olwenziwe nguTimothy A. Wise

Ukubika okuhlobene kwe-US Right to Know