Izinhlelo zikaBill Gates zokwenza kabusha izinhlelo zokudla zizolimaza isimo sezulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan

Encwadini yakhe entsha yokuthi ungagwema kanjani inhlekelele yesimo sezulu, usozigidi owayenikela ngezimali uBill Gates uxoxa ngezinhlelo zakhe zoku imodeli yokudla kwase-Afrika phezu "kwenguquko eluhlaza" yaseNdiya, lapho usosayensi wezitshalo enyusa isivuno sezitshalo futhi wasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi eziyinkulungwane, ngokusho kukaGates. Uthi, isithiyo sokuqalisa ukulungiswa okufanayo e-Afrika ukuthi abalimi abaningi emazweni ampofu abanayo imali yokuthenga umanyolo.  

"Uma singasiza abalimi abampofu ukuthi bakhulise isivuno sabo, bazothola imali eningi futhi bazodla okuningi, futhi izigidi zabantu kwamanye amazwe ampofu kakhulu emhlabeni zizokwazi ukuthola ukudla okwengeziwe nezakhi zomzimba ezizidingayo," kusho uGates kuphetha. Akazibheki izinto eziningi ezisobala ngenkinga yendlala, njengoba nje eqa izinto ezibalulekile mpikiswano ngesimo sezulu, njengoba uBill McKibben esho Ukubuyekezwa kweNew York Times yencwadi kaGates Indlela Yokugwema Inhlekelele Yesimo Sezulu. 

Amasango ahluleka ukusho, ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi indlala yimbangela enkulu yokuthi ubumpofu nokungalingani, hhayi ukushoda. Futhi ubonakala engazi ukuthi "inguquko eluhlaza" edonse amashumi eminyaka yezolimo zezimboni eNdiya ishiye i- ifa elibi lokulimaza Kokubili i-ecosystem kanye nabalimi abasafufusa, abake baba ukubhikisha ezitaladini kusukela ngonyaka odlule.   

"Imibhikisho yabalimi eNdiya ibhala umlando wesifuba seGreen Revolution," kusho u-Aniket Aga wabhala kwiScientific American ngenyanga edlule. Emashumini eminyaka kusetshenzelwa isu eliluhlaza, “kusobala ukuthi izinkinga ezintsha zezolimo zezimboni zengeze ezinkingeni zakudala ze ukulamba futhi ukungondleki, ”Kubhala u-Aga. "Azikho izingqinamba ezingaba khona emkhakheni wokumaketha ezizolungisa imodeli yokukhiqiza eyisisekelo nesimeme."

Le modeli okushukumisela abalimi ekusebenzeni okulima okuya ngokuya kukhule futhi kungafani okwehlukile thembela kuzibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokulimaza kwesimo sezulu umanyolo wamakhemikhali - ingenye yeGates Foundation ebilokhu igqugquzela e-Afrika iminyaka eyi-15, ngaphezu kokuphikisana nokunyakaza kokudla kwase-Afrika abathi isisekelo sicindezela izinto eziseqhulwini ezinkampanini zezamabhizinisi ezolimo zomhlaba wonke zilimaza imiphakathi yazo.  

Amakhulu ezinhlangano zomphakathi ayabhikisha iGates Foundation's amasu ezolimo kanye nomthelela wazo kwiNgqungquthela Yezwe Yezokudla Yezwe ezayo. Abangaphakathi bathi lobu buholi busongela ukuphazamisa imizamo ebonakalayo yokuguqula uhlelo lokudla, e umzuzu obalulekile lapho iningi le-sub-Saharan Africa likhona ukuxega ekushayweni okuningi futhi ukukhula kwenkinga yendlala ngenxa yobhadane kanye nezimo zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. 

Konke lokhu akubonwanga yimithombo yezindaba emikhulu ekhipha ukhaphethi obomvu wencwadi kaGates. Nazi ezinye zezizathu abagxeki abathi uhlelo lweGates Foundation lokuthuthukisa ezolimo alulungile esimweni sezulu. Isisekelo asiphendulanga ezicelweni eziningi zokuphawula. 

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene: Kungani silandela izinhlelo zikaBill Gates zokuvuselela uhlelo lokudla 

Ukunciphisa ukukhishwa kwegesi lokushisa

UGates akanamahloni ngokuthanda kwakhe umanyolo wokwenziwa, njengoba naye kuchaza kule blog ngokuvakasha kwakhe e- Isitshalo sokuhambisa umanyolo i-Yara eDar es Salaam, eTanzania. Lesi sitshalo esisha ngesikhulu kunazo zonke zalolu hlobo eMpumalanga Afrika. Umanyolo “yinto eyenziwe ngomlingo engasiza ukukhipha izigidi zabantu ebuphofini,” kubhala uGates. "Ukubuka abasebenzi bagcwalisa izikhwama ngamapelle amancane amancane amhlophe aqukethe i-nitrogen, phosphorus, nezinye izakhamzimba zezitshalo kwaba yisikhumbuzo esinamandla sokuthi wonke umanyolo unamandla okuguqula impilo e-Afrika."

ICorp Watch ichaza uYara ngokuthi “umanyolo omkhulu odala inhlekelele yesimo sezulu. ” I-Yara ingumthengi omkhulu wezimboni waseYurophu omkhulu wegesi yemvelo, enxenxa ngenkuthalo ukuthosa, futhi ingumkhiqizi ophambili womanyolo wokwenziwa ososayensi bathi banesibopho ngoba ukukhathazeka kuyanda ekukhishweni kwe-nitrous oxide. I- igesi yokushisa okuwukuthi Amandla aphindwe kathathu kune-carbon dioxide ekufudumaleni kweplanethi. Ngokombiko othile iphepha le-Nature lakamuva, ukukhishwa kwe-nitrous oxide okuqhutshwa kakhulu ezolimo kuyanda ngokwanda kwempendulo yempendulo okusibeka ku-a indlela embi kakhulu yokushintsha kwesimo sezulu.

UGates uyavuma ukuthi umanyolo wokwenziwa ulimaza isimo sezulu. Njengesixazululo, uGates uthemba ukwakheka kwezobuchwepheshe emkhathizwe, kufaka phakathi iphrojekthi yokulinga yokwenza onjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ukulungisa i-nitrogen enhlabathini. "Uma lezi zindlela zisebenza," kubhala uGates, "bazosinciphisa kakhulu isidingo sikamanyolo nakho konke ukungcola okubhekene nakho." 

Okwamanje, ukugxila okuyinhloko kwemizamo kaGates yokuguqula indawo eluhlaza okwenziwe e-Afrika kukhulisa ukusetshenziswa kukamanyolo wokwenziwa ngenhloso yokwandisa isivuno, noma ngabe kukhona abukho ubufakazi bokukhombisa ukuthi iminyaka eyi-14 yale mizamo isize abalimi abancane noma abampofu, noma ikhiqize inzuzo enkulu yesivuno.

Ukunweba izindlela ezilimaza isimo sezulu ezilimaza isimo sezulu uqobo 

IGates Foundation isebenzise ngaphezulu kwe- $ 5 billion kusukela ngo-2006 ukuze "sisize ekuqhubeni uguquko kwezolimo”E-Afrika. Ubuningi be- imali iya ku ucwaningo lobuchwepheshe kanye nemizamo yokuguqula abalimi base-Afrika basebenzise izindlela zezimboni zezolimo futhi bandise ukufinyelela kwabo ezimbewini zentengiso, umanyolo nokunye okokufaka. Abaxhasi bathi le mizamo nika abalimi izinqumo abazidingayo ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa futhi bazikhuphule ebuphofini. Abagxeki bathi "inguquko eluhlaza" amasu alimaza i-Afrika ngokwenza izimiso zemvelo zintekenteke kakhudlwana, ukufaka abalimi ezikweletini, Futhi ukuphambukisela izinsiza zomphakathi kude kusukela izinguquko ezijulile zesistimu kwakudingeka ukubhekana nesimo sezulu kanye nezinkinga zendlala. 

"IGates Foundation igqugquzela uhlobo lokulima ngohlobo olulodwa lwezimboni nokulungiswa kokudla okungabondli abantu bethu," iqembu labaholi bezenkolo abavela e-Afrika ubhale a incwadi eya esisekelweni, kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isisekelo "sokwesekwa kokunwetshwa kwezolimo olunzulu lwezimboni sijulisa inkinga yabantu." 

Isisekelo, bathi, "Kukhuthaza abalimi base-Afrika ukuthi basebenzise indlela ephezulu yokufaka okokufaka esezingeni eliphezulu esekwe kumodeli yebhizinisi eyakhiwe endaweni yaseNtshonalanga" futhi "ifaka ingcindezi kubalimi ukuthi batshale isivuno esisodwa noma ezimbalwa ngokususelwa ekuthengiseni okuphezulu noma okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo ( GM) imbewu. ”

Uhlelo lwezolimo oluhamba phambili lwamaGates, i-Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), kuqondisa abalimi emmbileni nakwezinye izitshalo eziyinhloko ngenhloso yokukhulisa isivuno. Ngokusho kwe-AGRA uhlelo lokusebenza lwe-Uganda (kugcizelelwa okwabo):

  • Inguquko kwezolimo ichazwa njenge inqubo lapho abalimi besuka ekukhiqizweni okuhlukahlukene kakhulu, okuziphilisa besiya ekukhiqizweni okukhethekile okugxile emakethe noma kwezinye izindlela zokushintshisana, okubandakanya ukuthembela okukhulu ezinhlelweni zokulethwa kokufakwa kanye nokukhishwa kanye nokwanda kokuhlanganiswa kwezolimo neminye imikhakha yezomnotho wasekhaya nowamazwe omhlaba.

Inhloso enkulu ye-AGRA yizinhlelo zoku ukwandisa ukufinyelela kwabalimi ezimbewini zentengiso nakumanyolo ukuze batshale ummbila kanye nezinye izitshalo ezimbalwa. Le phakethe yezobuchwepheshe "yokuguqula okuluhlaza" iphinde ixhaswe ngamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ngonyaka kwizibonelelo ezivela kohulumeni base-Afrika, ngokusho kuka ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngonyaka odlule by ITufts Global Development and Environment Institute bese ubika ngo Amaqembu ase-Afrika nawaseJalimane

Abaphenyi abatholanga sibonakaliso sokwanda komkhiqizo; idatha ikhombisa ukuzuza okuncane kwesivuno sika-18% kwezitshalo eziyisisekelo emazweni abhekiswe kuwo yi-AGRA, ngenkathi imali engenayo imile futhi nokuvikeleka kokudla kube kubi kakhulu, ngenani labantu abalambile nabangondlekile kahle lenyuke ngama-30%. I-AGRA uphikise ucwaningo kepha ayikaze inikeze ukubikwa okuningiliziwe kwemiphumela yayo eminyakeni eyi-15. Okhulumela i-AGRA usitshele ukuthi umbiko uzovela ngo-Ephreli.

Abaphenyi abazimele nabo ibike ukwehla kwezitshalo zendabuko, njengamabele, okuyikhona okumelana nesimo sezulu futhi okunye umthombo obalulekile wama-micronutrients ezigidi zabantu.

"Umfuziselo we-AGRA owafakwa ekulimeni kwaseRwanda okwakungafani nhlobo cishe wacekela phansi izindlela zokulima zendabuko ezinomsoco futhi ezisimeme, ”kusho uJomo Kwame Sundaram, owayengumsizi kanobhala-jikelele we-UN kwezentuthuko yezomnotho, wabhala endatshaneni echaza ngocwaningo.  Iphakethe le-AGRA, uyaphawula, 'wabekwa isandla esindayo ”eRwanda, lapho kuthiwa uhulumeni uvimbela ukutshalwa kwezinye izitshalo eziyisisekelo kwezinye izindawo.”  

Ukuphambukisa izinsizakusebenza kwi-agroecology 

"Uma izinhlelo zokudla zomhlaba wonke zizosimama, izindlela zokutshala ezisebenzisa kakhulu okokufaka nezindawo zokudla kumele zingasebenzi," kubhala abaholi bezenkolo base-Afrika. khalaza kwiGates Foundation.

Ngempela, eziningi ongoti bathi a Ukushintshwa kwepharadigm kuyadingeka, kude ne iyunifomu, amasistimu wokutshala i-monoculture ekubhekaneni nezindlela ezahlukahlukene, zezolimo ukuthi ingabhekana nezinkinga nemikhawulo yezolimo zezimboni kufaka phakathi ukungalingani, ukwanda kobuphofu, ukungondleki kanye nokucekelwa phansi kwemvelo.

The Umbiko we-2019 we-Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) ixwayisa ngemiphumela elimazayo yokuqothulwa kwamabhodlela, futhi iqhakambisa ukubaluleka kwe-agroecology, okuyinto iphaneli elithe ingathuthukisa “ukusimama nokuqina kwezinhlelo zezolimo ngokuxwaya ukweqisa kwesimo sezulu, kunciphise ukonakaliswa kwenhlabathi, nokuguqula ukusetshenziswa kwezinsizakusebenza okungagcineki; futhi ngenxa yalokho sandise isivuno ngaphandle kokulimaza izinhlobonhlobo zezinto eziphilayo. ”

URupa Marya, MD, onguprofesa wezokwelapha e-UCSF, uxoxa nge-agroecology engqungqutheleni ye-EcoFarm yango-2021

Inhlangano Yezizwe Yezokudla Nezolimo umbiko wepaneli yezazi nge-agroecology ngokusobala kudinga ukuthi kususwe indlela “yezinguquko ezimbonini” kwezolimo ezimbonini nasezenzweni zemvelo yezolimo ezikhonjiswe ukukhulisa ukwehluka kwezitshalo zokudla, ukunciphisa izindleko nokwakha ukuqina kwesimo sezulu. 

Kepha izinhlelo zokukhulisa i-agroecology zibulawa yindlala yokuthola imali njengoba izigidigidi zosizo nemixhaso iya ukuxhasa izindlela zezolimo zezimboni. Imigoqo emikhulu ebambezela ukutshalwa kwezimali kwi-agroecology ifaka phakathi i-dizintandokazi ze-onor zenzuzo, ukusabalalisa kanye nemiphumela yesikhashana, ngokusho kombiko wango-2020 kusuka ku-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES-Food).

Amaphesenti angama-85% weGates Foundation axhasa ngezimali amaphrojekthi okucwaninga ngezokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo e-Afrika eminyakeni yamuva kunqunyelwe “ekusekeleni ezolimo zezimboni kanye / noma ekwandiseni ukusebenza kahle kwazo ngezindlela ezihlosiwe ezifana nokwenza ngcono imikhuba yokubulala izinambuzane, imishanguzo yokugoma imfuyo noma ukuncipha ekulahlekelweni kwangemva kokuvuna, ”Kusho umbiko. Kuphela yi-3% yamaphrojekthi afaka izinto zokwakhiwa kabusha kwe-agroecological.

Abacwaningi qaphela, “i-agroecology ayi azilingani ngezindlela ezikhona zokutshala imali. Njengabanikeli abaningi abasiza umphakathi, iBMGF [iBill and Melinda Gates Foundation] ifuna izinzuzo ezisheshayo nezibonakalayo ekutshalweni kwezimali, ngaleyo ndlela ithande izixazululo ezibhekiswe kwezobuchwepheshe. ” 

Lezi zinketho zinesisindo esinzima ezinqumweni zokuthi ucwaningo luqala kanjani kumasistimu wokudla womhlaba wonke. Umamukeli omkhulu kunabo bonke Imali yezolimo yeGates Foundation yi-CGIAR, inhlanganisela yezikhungo zocwaningo eziyi-15 eziqashe izinkulungwane zososayensi futhi ziphethe amabhange ayi-11 abaluleke kakhulu emhlabeni. Lezi zikhungo ngokomlando zigxile ekwakheni isethi encane yezitshalo ezingakhiqizwa ngobuningi ngosizo lokufakwa kwamakhemikhali. 

Eminyakeni yamuva nje, ezinye izikhungo ze-CGIAR zithathe izinyathelo zokubheka izindlela ezihlelekile nezisuselwa kumalungelo, kepha uhlelo oluhlongozwayo lokwakha kabusha i- "One CGIAR" enebhodi elilodwa namandla amasha wokusetha i-ajenda liphakamisa ukukhathazeka. Ngokusho kokudla kwe-IPES, isiphakamiso sokuhlelwa kabusha isongela "ukunciphisa ukuzimela kwama-ajenda ocwaningo lwesifunda nokuqinisa ukubamba kwabaxhasi abanamandla kakhulu," njengeGates Foundation, "abenqikayo ukuphambuka endleleni ye-Green Revolution."

The inqubo yokwakhiwa kabusha eholwa ngummeli weGates Foundation futhi owayengumholi weSyngenta Foundation, "Aama-ppears kufanele aqhutshekelwe phambili ngendlela ephoqelelayo, "kusho i-IPES," ngokuthengwa okuncane kulabo okucatshangwa ukuthi bazozuza eNingizimu Yomhlaba wonke, ngokungafani okwanele phakathi kwesiyingi sangaphakathi sabashisekeli bezinguquko, futhi ngaphandle kokucatshangelwa okufanele ukushintsha kwezinhlelo zokudla. ”

Okwamanje, iGates Foundation inayo wakhahlela enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 310 ku-CGIAR “ukusiza abalimi abayizigidi ezingama-300 ukuba bazijwayeze ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu.” 

Ukusungula ukusetshenziswa okusha kwezitshalo ze-GMO zokubulala izinambuzane

Umyalezo wokuthatha wencwadi entsha yeGates yilokho intuthuko yezobuchwepheshe singondla umhlaba futhi silungise isimo sezulu, uma nje sikwazi tshala izinsiza ezanele ngalezi zinto ezintsha. Izinkampani ezinkulu zokubulala izinambuzane / imbewu zikhuthaza ingqikithi efanayo, ukuziphendulela kabusha kusuka kwabenqabayo besimo sezulu kuya ekuxazululeni izinkinga: ukuthuthuka kwezolimo ezidijithali, ukunemba kwezolimo kanye nobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo kuzonciphisa imvelo yezolimo futhi "kunike amandla abalimi abancane abayizigidi eziyikhulu" ukujwayela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, “konke ngonyaka ka-2030,” ngokusho kuka I-Bayer CropScience.

IGates Foundation nemboni yamakhemikhali “ukuthengisa okwedlule njengezinto ezintsha e-Afrika, ”Kusho uTimothy Wise, umcwaningi osebenza ne-Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, ku-a iphepha elisha leTufts GDAE. UWise uthe, "Ukwenzeka kwangempela, kuyenzeka emikhakheni yabalimi njengoba besebenza nososayensi ukukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kwezinhlobonhlobo zezitshalo zokudla, ukunciphisa izindleko, kanye nokwakha ukubekezela kwesimo sezulu ngokwamukela imikhuba yezolimo." 

Njengesibikezelo sokuqhamuka kwezobuchwepheshe okuzayo, uGates ukhomba encwadini yakhe ethi Impossible Burger. Esahlukweni esithi "Sizikhulisa Kanjani Izinto," uGates uchaza ukwaneliseka kwakhe nge-veggie burger eyophayo (ku okungukuthi ungumtshali-zimali omkhulu) kanye nethemba lakhe lokuthi ama-burger asezitshalweni nenyama esekelwa ngamaseli azoba yizixazululo ezinkulu zokushintsha kwesimo sezulu. 

Uqinisile, kunjalo, ukuthi ukusuka enyameni efuywe efektri kubalulekile kwisimo sezulu. Kepha ingabe i-Impossible Burger iyisixazululo esimeme, noma nje iyindlela yokuthengisa yokuguqula izitshalo ezikhiqizwe ngokwemboni imikhiqizo yokudla enelungelo lobunikaziNjengo-Anna Lappe Uchaza, Ukudla Okungenakwenzeka “Konke kungena ku-GMO soy,” hhayi nje njengesithako esiyinhloko se-burger kodwa futhi njengesihloko se- uphawu lokuqina lwenkampani.  

Sekuyiminyaka engama-30 imboni yamakhemikhali ithembisa ukuthi izitshalo ze-GMO zizothuthukisa isivuno, zinciphise izibulala-zinambuzane futhi zondle umhlaba ngokusimama, kepha akwenzekanga kanjalo. Njengoba uDanny Hakim abike ku New York Times, Izitshalo ze-GMO azange zikhiqize isivuno esingcono. Izitshalo ze-GMO nazo kukhuthaze ukusetshenziswa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula, ikakhulukazi i-glyphosate, okuxhunyaniswe nomdlavuza phakathi kwezinye impilo nezinkinga zemvelo. Njengoba ukhula luba lukhuni, imboni yathuthukisa imbewu enokubekezelela okusha kwamakhemikhali. I-Bayer, isibonelo, iqhubekela phambili ngezitshalo ze-GMO yakhelwe ukusinda ukubulala ukhula okuyisihlanu.

IMexico isanda kumemezela uhlela ukuvimbela ukungeniswa kommbila we-GMO, bethi izitshalo “azithandeki” futhi “azidingeki.”

ENingizimu Afrika, elinye lamazwe ambalwa ase-Afrika avumela ukutshalwa kwezentengiselwano kwezitshalo ze-GMO, ngaphezu kwe- I-85% yommbila nesoya manje seyakhiwe, futhi iningi lifuthwa nge-glyphosate. Abalimi, amaqembu omphakathi, abaholi bezombusazwe futhi odokotela baphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nokwenyuka kwamazinga omdlavuza. Futhi fukungavikeleki kwe-ood liyakhuphuka, futhi.  Isipiliyoni seNingizimu Afrika ngamaGMO kube “Iminyaka engama-23 yokwehluleka, ukulahleka kwemvelo kanye nendlala ekhulayo, ”Kusho i-African Centre for Biodiversity.

Inguquko ehlaza okwesibhakabhaka e-Afrika, kusho umsunguli waleli qembu uMariam Mayet, "iyisiphetho" esiholela ekwehliseni impilo yomhlabathi, ukulahleka kwezinhlobonhlobo zezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, kanye nokuvalela abalimi base-Afrika ohlelweni olungakhelwanga bazuze, kodwa bazuze ikakhulukazi izinkampani zamazwe amaningi aseNyakatho. ” 

“Kubalulekile ukuthi manje, kulesi sikhathi esibaluleke kakhulu emlandweni,” kusho i-African Center for Biodiversity, “ukuthi siguqule umkhondo, siqede ezolimo zezimboni futhi siguqulele ohlelweni lwezolimo nokudla okunobulungiswa futhi oluzwakalayo.”  

UStacy Malkan uphethe umhleli futhi ungumsunguli we-US Right to Know, iqembu locwaningo eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi. Bhalisela iphephandaba leLungelo Lokwazi ngezibuyekezo ezijwayelekile.

Related: Funda mayelana nezigidi ezingama- $ 50 zeCargill indawo yokukhiqiza kuya kunjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo stevia, isivuno esinenani eliphakeme nelikhuliswe kahle abalimi abaningi eGlobal South abathembele kuso.