I-FDA Ithola Umbulali Wokhula WeMonsanto Ku-US Honey

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa, ngaphansi kwengcindezi yomphakathi yokuthi iqale ukuhlola amasampula wokudla kwase-US ukuze kutholakale isibulala-zinambuzane esixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza, inokutholwa kwangaphambi kwesikhathi okungamnandi kangako.

Ekuhloleni amasampula oju avela ezindaweni ezahlukahlukene e-United States, i-FDA ithole ubufakazi obusha bokuthi izinsalela zombulali wokhula obizwa nge-glyphosate zingasabalala - zitholakale ngisho nasekudleni okungakhiqizwa kusetshenziswa i-glyphosate. Wonke amasampula ahlolwe yi-FDA kuhlolo lwakamuva aqukethe izinsalela ze-glyphosate, kanti olunye uju lukhombise amazinga ezinsalela eziphindwe kabili kunomkhawulo ovunyelwe e-European Union, ngokusho kwemibhalo etholwe ngesicelo se-Freedom of Information Act. Alikho izinga lokubekezelelana elisemthethweni le-glyphosate kuju e-United States.

IGlyphosate, okuyisithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto Co., isibulali sokhula esisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, futhi sikhathazeka ngezinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni okukhiqizwe ngemuva kokuthi i-World Health Organisation ngo-2015 ithe ochwepheshe bayo bomdlavuza banqume ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu. Abanye ososayensi bamazwe omhlaba baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngokuthi ukusetshenziswa okunzima kwe-glyphosate kuyithinta kanjani impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo.

Amarekhodi atholwe ku-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US, imininingwane eminingi yezambulo ngemizamo kahulumeni wesifundazwe yokuthola isibambo kulezi zinto ezikhulayo. Ngaphezu koju, amarekhodi akhombisa ongoti bezinsalela zikahulumeni bexoxa nge-glyphosate etholakala kumasampula kabhontshisi nokolweni, "izimpikiswano ze-glyphosate," kanye nenkolelo yokuthi kungaba khonaukwephulwa okuningi kwe-glyphosate ” izinsalela ezitshalweni zase-US.

Noma i-FDA minyaka yonke ihlola ukudla kwezinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eziningi, yeqe ukuhlolwa kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate amashumi eminyaka. KwakungoFebhuwari walo nyaka kuphela lapho kusho i-ejensi kuzoqala ukuhlaziywa kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate. Lokho kwenzeke ngemuva kokuthi abacwaningi abaningi abazimele beqale bezenzela izivivinyo zabo futhi ngathola i-glyphosate kuhlu lwemikhiqizo yokudla, kufaka phakathi ufulawa, okusanhlamvu kanye ne-oatmeal. Uhulumeni neMonsanto bakugcinile ukuthi noma yiziphi izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni zizoba zincane ngokwanele ukuthi ziphephe. Kepha abagxeki bathi ngaphandle kokuhlolwa okuqinile, amazinga e-glyphosate ekudleni awaziwa. Futhi bathi ngisho nokulandelela amanani kungaba yingozi ngoba kungenzeka ukuthi kudliwa njalo ekudleni okuningi.

Izingqinamba zezinsalela ziza kugqama ngasikhathi sinye lapho i-EPA iphothula ukuhlolwa kobungozi ukuthola ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwalo muthi othengisa kakhulu kufanele kunqunyelwe yini. I-ejensi ihlelile imihlangano yomphakathi ngodaba u-Okthoba 18-21 eWashington. Umbiko we-EPA wokuhlola ubungozi ekuqaleni wawuzophuma ngonyaka wezi-2015, kepha namanje awukaphothulwa. Le nhlangano manje ithi izophothulwa "entwasahlobo ka-2017."

Kumarekhodi akhishwe yi-FDA, i-imeyili eyodwa yangaphakathi ichaza inkinga yokuthola uju engenayo i-glyphosate: “Kunzima ukuthola uju ongenalutho ongenazo izinsalela. Ngiqoqa amasampula ayishumi oju emakethe futhi onke aqukethe i-glyphosate, ”kusho umcwaningi we-FDA. Ngisho "noju lwezintaba eziphilayo" luqukethe ukugxila okuphansi kwe-glyphosate, imibhalo ye-FDA ikhombisa.

Ngokuvumelana ne amarekhodi e-FDA, amasampuli ahlolwe ngusokhemisi we-FDA uNarong Chamkasem akhombise amazinga ezinsalela ayi-107 ppb kumasampula i-FDA ehambisana noHoney Honey-based eLouisana; 22 ppb kuju i-FDA exhumene ne-Leighton's Orange Blossom Honey eFlorida nezinsalela eziku-41 ppb kumasampula i-FDA ehambisana ne-Iowa-Sue Bee Honey ezinze e-Iowa, emakethwa yinhlangano yokubambisana yabafuyi bezinyosi baseMelika njenge “pure, all-natural” futhi “Uju LweMelika.” Amakhasimende "angaqinisekiswa ukuthi i-Sue Bee Honey ayihlanzekile ngo-100%, i-100% ingeyemvelo yonke futhi i-100% yaseMelika," ISioux Honey Association uthi.

In i-imeyili kaJanuwari 8, 2016 U-Chamkasem ukhombe ososayensi akanye nabo be-FDA ukuthi izinga lokubekezelelana le-EU lingu-50 ppb futhi alikho inani le-glyphosate elivunyelwe nhlobo kuju eMelika. Kodwa uChris Sack, usokhemisi we-FDA obhekele ukuhlolwa kwensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane zale nhlangano, uphendule ngokuqinisekisa uChamkasem nabanye ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate ezitholakele “ziwukwephula umthetho” kuphela.

“Abalimi bezinyosi abaphuli mthetho; kunalokho kwethulwa izinyosi i-glyphosate, ”kubhala uSack ephendula. "Yize ukutholakala kwe-glyphosate kuju kungukwephula umthetho, akuyona inkinga yezokuphepha."

USack uthe i-EPA "yaziswa ngale nkinga" futhi bekulindeleke ukuthi ibeke amazinga okubekezelela uju. Lapho amazinga okubekezelelana esethwe yi-EPA - uma ebekwe phezulu ngokwanele - izinsalela ngeke zisaba ukwephula. Lapho kuthintwa kuleli sonto, i-EPA ithe okwamanje azikho izicelo ezisalindile zokusetha amazinga okubekezelela i-glyphosate kuju. Kodwa-ke le nhlangano ithe futhi: “akukho okuyingozi ekudleni okungavezwa yizinsalela ze-glyphosate kuju ngalesi sikhathi.”

IPhini Likamongameli weSioux Honey uBill Huser uthe i-glyphosate isetshenziswa kakhulu emasimini asepulazini ajwayele ukuqhutshwa izinyosi, kanti isibulala-zinambuzane sibuyela emuva nezinyosi emifubeni lapho kukhiqizwa khona uju.

"Imboni ayinakho ukulawula imithelela enjengalena yemvelo," kusho uHuser. Iningi loju lukaSue Bee luvela ezinyosini eziseduze ne-clover ne-alfalfa enyakatho ephezulu yeMidwest, kusho yena. Abafuyi bezinyosi abaseningizimu bazoba nezinyosi zezinyosi eziseduze nezinsimu zikakotini nezesoya. I-Alfalfa, ubhontshisi kanye nokotini konke kwenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukuthi zifuthwe ngqo ne-glyphosate.

Imiphumela ye-FDA akuyona eyokuqala ukuthola i-glyphosate kuju. Isampula eyenziwe ekuqaleni kuka-2015 yinkampani yocwaningo lwesayensi i-Abraxis kutholwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate kumasampula ezinyosi angama-41 kwangu-69 anezinga le-glyphosate phakathi kuka-17 no-163 ppb, isilinganiso esimaphakathi kube ngama-64 ppb.

Abafuyi bezinyosi bathi bayizisulu ezingenacala ezibona imikhiqizo yazo yezinyosi ingcoliswe yingoba ingase ibe sendaweni engamakhilomitha ambalwa ukusuka emapulazini lapho kusetshenziswa khona i-glyphosate.

"Angiqondi ukuthi kufanele ngilawule kanjani izinga le-glyphosate eluju lwami lapho kungeyena osebenzisa i-Roundup," kusho omunye opharetha wenkampani yezinyosi. “Konke kuzungezile. Akulungile. ”

I-FDA ayiphendulanga embuzweni mayelana nezinga lokuxhumana kwayo neMonsanto maqondana nokuhlolwa kwezinsalela, kepha amarekhodi akhishwe abonisa ukuthi iMonsanto ibe nokuxhumana okungenani okuthile ne-FDA kulolu daba. Ngo-Ephreli walo nyaka, umphathi wezindaba zomhlaba jikelele weMonsanto u-Amelia Jackson-Gheissari uthumele i-imeyili nge-FDA ukucela ukusetha isikhathi sokukhuluma "ngokuphoqelelwa kwamazinga ezinsalela e-USA, ikakhulukazi i-glyphosate."

I-FDA ibheka njalo izinsalela zezinambuzane eziningi ezisetshenziswa kakhulu kepha hhayi i-glyphosate. Ukubukeka kwe-glyphosate kulo nyaka kubhekwa "njengesabelo esikhethekile" futhi kuza ngemuva kwe-ejensi wagxekwa yi-US Government Accountability Office ngo-2014 ngokwehluleka ukuhlola i-glyphosate.

I-FDA ayikakhiphi imiphumela esemthethweni yezinhlelo zayo zokuhlola noma okutholakele, kepha uSack wenza isethulo ngoJuni eMkhandlwini Wezilimo Ezikhethekile waseCalifornia owathi i-ejensi yayihlaziya amasampula ommbila angama-300; Amasampula angama-300 kasoya; namasampuli ayi-120 ubisi namaqanda lilinye. Uchaze imiphumela ethize etholwe ngo-Ephreli ekhombisa amazinga e-glyphosate atholakala kumasampula angama-52 ommbila kanye namasampula angama-44 kabhontshisi kodwa hhayi ngaphezulu kwamazinga avunyelwe ngokomthetho. Isethulo asizange sikhulume ngoju. Isethulo sibuye sathi ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate e-FDA kuzonwetshwa kube "ukuhlolwa okujwayelekile."

I-USDA nayo izoqala ukuhlola i-glyphosate, kodwa kuze kube unyaka ozayo, ngokusho kwemininingwane le nhlangano eyanikeza iqembu elingenzi nzuzo iBeyond Pesticides emhlanganweni owawuseWashington ngoJanuwari. Imibhalo etholwe ngombukiso we-FOIA uhlelo lokuhlola ngama-syrups namafutha e 2017.

Ubhontshisi Nokolweni

Njenge-FDA, i-USDA ihudule izinyawo zayo ekuhlolweni. Isikhathi esisodwa kuphela, ngo-2011, lapho i-USDA ihlolwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate yize i-ejensi yenza ukuhlolwa okusabalele kwezinsalela zeminye imithi yokubulala izinambuzane engasetshenziswanga. Kulokho okubizwe yi-USDA “iphrojekthi ekhethekile” i-ejensi yahlola amasampula kabhontshisi angama-300 i-glyphosate yathola ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 - amasampula angama-271 - athwala izinsalela zokubulala ukhula. I-ejensi yathi ngaleso sikhathi ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate "kwakungeyona into ebaluleke kakhulu" ngoba i-glyphosate ibhekwa njengephephile kakhulu. Iphinde yathi ngenkathi amazinga ezinsalela kwamanye amasampula esondela kakhulu emazingeni aphakeme kakhulu we-glyphosate "ukubekezelelana" okwasungulwa yi-EPA, awangeqile lawo mazinga.

Kokubili i-USDA ne-FDA kudala bathi kuyabiza kakhulu futhi akudingekile ukuhlola izinsalela ze-glyphosate. Kodwa-ke ukwahlukana okungaphakathi kwe-USDA okwaziwa ngeGrain Inspection, Packers & Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) bekulokhu kuhlolwe ukolweni ngezinsalela ze-glyphosate iminyaka ngoba abathengi abaningi bakwamanye amazwe banokukhathazeka okuqinile ngezinsalela ze-glyphosate. Ukuhlolwa kwe-GIPSA kuyingxenye yohlelo “lokuthekelisa impahla ethwala impahla ngaphandle,” imibhalo etholwe kwa-GIPSA umbukiso. Lokho kuhlolwa kukhombise izinsalela ze-glyphosate ezitholwe ngaphezulu kwamaphesenti angama-40 wamasampula kakolweni ahlolwe kwizimali zika-2009, 2010, 2011 nango-2012. Amazinga ayahlukahluka, imininingwane ikhombisa. I-GIPSA ibilokhu isiza ne-FDA ukuthola ubhontshisi ukuhlola. Ku- i-imeyili kaMeyi 2015, Isazi samakhemikhali seGIPSA uGary Hinshaw utshele isikhulu sezokuphepha kokudla se-FDA ukuthi “akunzima ukuthola ubhontshisi wesoya oqukethe i-glyphosate.” Kwi Disemba 7, 2015 imeyili kusuka kumakhemikhali we-FDA uTerry Councell kuya kuLauren Robin, naye ongusokhemisi nesikhulu sezokuphepha kwabathengi kwi-FDA, uCouncell uthe i-glyphosate yayikhona ngisho nasezintweni ezicutshungulwayo, yize "zazingaphansi kokubekezelelana."

Iqiniso lokuthi uhulumeni uyazi ngezinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, kepha uhudule izinyawo ekuhloleni isikhathi eside, kuyabakhathaza abaningi abakhathazekile ngalesi sibulala-zinambuzane.

"Awukho umqondo wokuphuthuma ngalezi zingxoxo esiphila kuzo usuku nosuku," kusho uJay Feldman, umqondisi omkhulu weBeyond Pesticides.

(Kuqale kwavela ku- I-Huffington Post)