Ukuphishekela iqiniso nokwenza izinto obala kwezempilo yomphakathi

Uhlelo lukaBayer lokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup zesikhathi esizayo lubhekene nokuphikiswa okukhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkampani eziningi zezomthetho zase-US sezisungule umfelandawonye wokulwa ne- $ 2 billion entsha isiphakamiso sokuhlala ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG ohlose ukuqukatha isikweletu esiqhubekayo senkampani esihlobene nezimangalo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula iRoundup idala uhlobo lomdlavuza olwaziwa njenge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Lesi sivumelwano senzelwe ukunxephezela abantu abake bavezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup futhi asebevele benayo i-NHL noma bangathuthukisa i-NHL ngokuzayo, kepha abangakazithathi izinyathelo zokufaka icala.

Iqembu elincane labameli abahlanganisa lolu hlelo neBayer bathi "luzosindisa izimpilo" futhi linikeze izinzuzo ezinkulu kubantu abakholelwa ukuthi baba nomdlavuza ngenxa yokuvezwa yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula.

Kepha abameli abaningi abagxeka lolu hlelo bathi uma luvunywa luzobeka isibonelo esiyingozi kwezinye izinhlobo zamacala athinta inqwaba yabantu abalimele yimikhiqizo noma imikhuba yezinkampani ezinamandla.

"Lesi akusona isiqondiso esifuna uhlelo lwezobulungiswa luhambe," kusho ummeli uGerald Singleton, inkampani yakhe ejoyine nezinye izinkampani zabameli ezingaphezu kuka-60 ukuphikisana nohlelo lukaBayer. "Asikho isimo lapho lokhu kuhle kwabamangali."

Uhlelo lokukhokha lukaBayer lwafakwa eNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esifundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia ngoFebhuwari 3, futhi kumele livunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuze lisebenze kahle. Uhlelo lokukhokhelwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi olwethulwe ngonyaka odlule lwalungu- edelelwa uChabria abese ehoxa. Ijaji belibheke ukwedluliswa kwamacala e-federal multidistrict Roundup okubandakanya izinkulungwane zabamangali abavela e-United States.

Izimpendulo zohlelo lokukhokha kumele zilindeleke ngoMashi 3 bese kulalelwa lolu daba kulindeleke ukuthi kube ngoMashi 31.

Okukhathaza kakhulu ukuthi abasebenzisi be-Roundup bamanje abangahle babe nomdlavuza futhi bafune ukumangalela ngokuzayo bazoba ngaphansi kwemibandela yokuxazululwa kwezigaba ngaphandle kokuthi baphume ngokusemthethweni kuleyo nkathi esikhathini esithile. Omunye wemibandela abazobe bekhonjelwe wona uzobavimba ekufuneni ukulimala kokujeziswa kunoma yiliphi icala elizayo.

Leyo migomo neminye ebekiwe ayinabulungiswa ngokuphelele kubasebenzi basemapulazini nakwabanye okulindeleke ukuthi babe nomdlavuza ngokuzayo kusukela ekuvezweni yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula, ngokusho kukaSingleton. Lolu hlelo luzuzisa iBayer futhi luhlinzeka "ngemali yegazi" ezinkampanini ezine zabameli ezisebenzisane neBayer ukwakha lolu hlelo, esho.

Lawo mafemu asebenzisana neBayer ukusungula nokuphatha uhlelo bazothola isamba esihlongozwayo esingu- $ 170 million uma uhlelo luqala ukusebenza.

U-Elizabeth Cabraser, ongomunye wabameli abakha lesi sakhiwo esisha esihlongozwayo, uthe ukugxekwa akuyona incazelo efanelekile ngalesi sivumelwano. Empeleni, uthe lolu hlelo “lunikeza ukufinyelela okubalulekile futhi okudingeka ngokushesha, imfundo, ukufinyelela kwezempilo, kanye nezinzuzo zesinxephezelo” kubantu abake bathola umuthi wokubulala ukhula weMonsanto's Roundup kodwa abangakenzi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

"Sifuna ukwamukelwa kwalesi sivumelwano ngoba sizosindisa izimpilo futhi sithuthukise nezinga lempilo ngokuxilonga kusenesikhathi, sisize abantu… sibazise futhi siqwashise umphakathi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kweRoundup neNHL…" esho.

Okhulumela iBayer akaphendulanga esicelweni sokuphawula.

Indawo entsha ehlongozwayo kuhloswe ngamacala azayo futhi ahlukile ku- $ 11 billion iBayer ebekelwe ukukhokhela izimangalo zomdlavuza ezikhona zase-US. Abantu abathintwe yisiphakamiso sokukhokhelwa kwesigaba kungabantu nje kuphela abaye bavezwa ku-Roundup kepha abakabi kumacala futhi abakathathanga zinyathelo kunoma yiliphi icala.

IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.

Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Yize lesi sivumelwano esihlongozwayo sithi “sibhekana nezikhalazo ezine ezaphakanyiswa iNkantolo maqondana nesinqumo sangaphambili, esasihoxisiwe,” u-Singleton nabanye abameli ababandakanyeka kweqembu eliphikisayo bathi lesi sicelo esisha sokubhadala simbi njengaleso sokuqala.

Ngaphezu kokukhathazeka ukuthi amalungu ekilasi ngeke abe nelungelo lokufuna izicelo zokukhokhelwa isijeziso, abagxeki baphikisana nesikhathi seminyaka emine "sokuma" esivimba ukufakwa kwamacala amasha. Abagxeki bathi futhi uhlelo lokwazisa abantu ngokuhlala ngezigaba alwanele. Abantu bazoba nezinsuku eziyi-150 ngemuva kwesaziso sokuthi “baphume” ekilasini. Uma bengaphumi, basekilasini ngokuzenzekelayo.

Abagxeki baphikisana nokwakhiwa okuhlongozwayo kwephaneli lesayensi elizosebenza "njengesiqondisi" sokwengezwa kwezinketho zesinxephezelo esikhathini esizayo "nokunikeza ubufakazi mayelana nokubulawa kwe-carcinogenicity - noma cha - kweBayer. Njengoba kunikezwe umlando obhaliwe kaMonsanto wokukhohlisa okutholakele kwesayensi, umsebenzi wephaneli lesayensi uzoba yinsolo, kusho uSingleton.

Isikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha sasizosebenza okungenani iminyaka emine futhi singanwetshwa ngemuva kwalesi sikhathi. Uma iBayer ikhetha ukungaqhubeki nesikhwama sesinxephezelo ngemuva kwesikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha, izokhokha enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 200 njenge- “pay end” esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, kusho isifinyezo sokukhokha.

Kunikezwe “isinxephezelo esikhulu”

Amafemu abhalise isivumelwano neBayer athi ekufayeleni kwabo enkantolo ukuthi lesi sivumelwano sihlelelwe ukunikeza abamangali abangase babe khona lokho "okufeza izintshisekelo zabo," kufaka phakathi ithuba lokuthola "isinxephezelo esikhulu" uma bethuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma .

Lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama sezinxephezelo ukwenza imiklomelo ephakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000 ngelungu ngalinye lesigaba. "Imiklomelo Yokukhokha Esheshayo" engu- $ 5,000 izotholakala ngokushesha, okudinga nje ukukhonjiswa kokuchayeka nokuxilongwa.

Labo bantu baqale ukuvezwa kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup okungenani izinyanga eziyi-12 ngaphambi kokutholakala kwabo bazokwazi ukuthola imiklomelo. Imiklomelo engaphezulu kwama- $ 200,000 ingenziwa "ngezimo ezingavamile." Lawo malungu ekilasi afanelekayo atholakale ene-NHL ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2015, ngeke athole imiklomelo engaphezu kwe- $ 10,000, ngokwecebo. 

Isivumelwano sizohlinzeka ngezeluleko zamahhala zomthetho futhi sinikeze ”ukwesekwa ukusiza amalungu ekilasi ekuzulazuleni, ekubhaliseni nasekufakeni izicelo zemihlomulo yokuhlala.”

Ngokwengeziwe, lesi siphakamiso sithi ukukhokhelwa kuzokhokhela ucwaningo lwezokwelapha nolwezesayensi ekutholeni nasekwelapheni i-NHL.

Okuqaphelekayo, uhlelo luthi akekho umuntu ozolahlekelwa yilungelo lakhe lokufaka icala ngaphandle uma ekhetha ukwamukela isinxephezelo esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, futhi akekho noyedwa odinga ukwenza lokho kuze kube lelo lungu lesigaba ngasinye litholakala ukuthi line-NHL. Bebengeke bakwazi ukufuna umonakalo wokujeziswa kepha bebengafuna esinye isinxephezelo.

“Noma yiliphi ilungu lesigaba elingafaki isimangalo futhi lamukele isinxephezelo somuntu ngamunye ligcina ilungelo lalo lokumangalela iMonsanto ngokukhokhelwa isinxephezelo kunoma iyiphi inkolelo-mbono yezomthetho, okubandakanya ukulimala komuntu, ukukhwabanisa, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo, ubudedengu, ukufihla inkohliso, ukumelwa kabi ngobudedengu, ukwephula iwaranti, ukukhangisa okungelona iqiniso , nokwephula noma ikuphi ukuvikelwa komthengi noma umthetho noma izenzo ezingalungile nezikhohlisayo, ”kusho uhlelo.

Ukuqwashisa abantu ngokuxazululwa kwesenzo sekilasi, izaziso zizothunyelwa ngeposi / zithunyelwe nge-imeyili emapulazini, amabhizinisi nezinhlangano ezingama-266,000 kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni lapho ukubulala ukhula kwenkampani bekungasetshenziswa kanye nabantu abangama-41,000 abangenayo iHodgkin lymphoma futhi bacelwe ukuthola imininingwane ngesifo sabo. Ngokwengeziwe izingqwembe zizothunyelwa ngeposi ezitolo ezingama-2,700 XNUMX zibacela ukuthi babhale izaziso zokuxazululwa kwezigaba zesigaba.

Njengengxenye yendawo yokuhlala ehlongozwayo, iBayer ithe izofuna imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yokwengeza imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela kwizifundo zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana ne-glyphosate ukuphepha. Kodwa abagxeki bathi ukuhlinzeka ngezixhumanisi zewebhusayithi akwanele futhi iBayer idinga ukubeka isexwayiso esiqondile sengozi yomdlavuza emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula.

Ukuxazululwa kwesenzo esenziwe ngezigaba kusongela ukuthinta “amakhulu ezinkulungwane noma ngisho izigidi” zabantu abaye bavezwa i-Roundup futhi "baphakamisa imibuzo 'eyingqayizivele' futhi ejulile" ngaphansi koMthethosisekelo wase-US, ngokusho kuka inkantolo yokugcwalisa ngokuphikisana nohlelo lweBayer olwenziwe ngummeli wabamangali u-Elizabeth Graham.

UGraham utshele inkantolo ukuthi uma lolu hlelo lwamukelwa lungaba "nomthelela omangazayo hhayi kuleli cala kuphela, kepha nakusasa lecala lokuhlukunyezwa kwabantu abaningi."

Abalimi abamnyama

 INational Black Farmers Association (NBFA) ilinganisele lolu daba ngoLwesithathu, yafaka ukugcwaliswa okude nenkantolo kaChhabria ethi "ingxenye enkulu" yamalungu ayo angaphezu kwe-100,000 "adalulwe futhi angalimala yiRoundup, kanye nesithako sayo esisebenzayo i-glyphosate."

Iningi labalimi selivele lisungule i-lymphoma engeyona eye-Hodgkin abasola ngokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup, futhi "ingebhe enkulu kakhulu ukuthi bazosheshe babe nezimpawu," kusho ukugcwalisa kwe-NBFA.

I-NBFA ifuna ukubona imikhiqizo ye-Roundup isuswa kwezentengiselwano noma kwezinye izinguquko ezenziwe ukuvikela abalimi, kusho ukufayila.

Ukukhathazeka kwe-NBFA kudinga ukuthi kubhekwane nakho yinkantolo, ikakhulukazi njengoba iBayer ibheka “ukulungisa isenzo sesigaba ngeqoqo labameli abathi bamele izintshisekelo zabo bonke abalimi abadalulwe ku-Roundup kodwa abasazothuthukisa kubangela umdlavuza. ”

Amacala enkantolo e-Australia

Njengoba iBayer isebenza ukuqeda amacala eRoundup e-United States, inkampani nayo ibhekene nezimangalo ezifanayo zabalimi nabanye abase-Australia. Isenzo sekilasi esifakwe iMonsanto siyaqhubeka, kanti ummangali oholayo uJohn Fenton, owafaka isicelo seRoundup njengengxenye yomsebenzi wasepulazini. UFenton watholakala ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2008.

Uchungechunge lwezinsuku ezisemqoka selusunguliwe: IMonsanto inangoMashi 1 ukuhlinzeka ngemibhalo yokutholwa kwabameli babamangali kanti uJuni 4 yisikhathi esinqunyiwe sokushintshaniswa kobufakazi bochwepheshe. Amaqembu azongena ekuxazululeni ngoJulayi 30 kanti uma kungenakutholakali lutho leli cala lizoqala ukuqulwa ngecala ngoMashi 2022.

UFenton uthe yize "ezolithanda ithuba" lokuthi aquliswe icala axoxe indaba yakhe, unethemba lokuthi ukulamula kuzoxazulula lolu daba. “Ngicabanga ukuthi ukuvumelana sekuqala ukushintsha ngenxa yalokhu ebekwenzeka eMelika. Abalimi sebazi kangcono futhi ngikholwa wukuthi bathatha izinyathelo zokuqapha ezingaphezu kwezangaphambili.

UFenton uthe unethemba lokuthi iBayer ekugcineni izobeka ilebula lokuxwayisa emithini yokubulala ukhula yeMonsanto.

"Okungenani ngesexwayiso umsebenzisi angazenzela eyakhe ingqondo ngokuthi iyiphi i-PPE (imishini yokuzivikela) akhetha ukuyigqoka."

IMonsanto Roundup neDicamba Trial Tracker

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Mashi 18, 2019: Amajaji afuna Ukuzwa uFrom Ummangali Futhi

Namuhla kuphawula ukuqala kwesonto lesine lokuhlolwa komdlavuza weHardeman V. Monsanto Roundup, kanti amajaji asabhunga ngombuzo owodwa okumele bawuphendule ukuvala isigaba sokuqala secala futhi kungenzeka singene esigabeni sesibili.

Amajaji ayisithupha azise iJaji uVince Chhabria ngoLwesihlanu ukuthi njengoba bexoxa ngamacala bafuna ukuthi ubufakazi bommangali u-Edwin Hardeman babuyekezwe kubo. UChhabria uthe lokho kuzokwenzeka okokuqala ngqa ngoMsombuluko ekuseni.

Ngokwesicelo sikaMonsanto, icala lihlukaniswe izigaba ezimbili. Isigaba sokuqala sisebenza kuphela ngombuzo wokuthi ama-joror athola ukuthi ukuvezwa kukaHardeman kuRoundup "kwakuyinto" enkulu ekubangeleni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yakhe.

Uma abahluleli bephendula ngazwi linye u-yebo kulowo mbuzo icala lizoya esigabeni sesibili lapho abameli bakaHardeman bezofaka khona ubufakazi okuhloswe ngakho ukukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayazi ngezingozi zomdlavuza ze-Roundup kodwa wasebenza ngenkuthalo ukufihla lolo lwazi kubathengi, ngokwengxenye ngokukhohlisa irekhodi lesayensi.

 Uma icala liya esigabeni sesibili, ummangali uzokwenza njalo  ukuntuleka ufakazi oyedwa oyinhloko - uCharles Benbrook - ngemuva ijaji likhiphe isinqumo ukuthi uzobukhawulela kakhulu ubufakazi bukaBenbrook maqondana nokuziphatha kwebhizinisi likaMonsanto.

 Umeluleki ohola phambili kaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff kanye nomeluleki wakhe uJennifer Moore bahlela ukuchitha usuku enkantolo ngoMsombuluko njengoba ijaji libuye liphinde liphinde livuse ulaka lukaJaji Chhabria. UChabria ucasuke ngoLwesihlanu ngokuthi abameli bathathe isikhathi eside kunaleso abesilindele ukufika enkantolo ngemuva kokuthi bazisiwe ukuthi wonke amaqembu kumele ahlangane ukuzobhekana nesicelo samajaji sokulalela ubufakazi bukaHardeman futhi.

I-Chhabria wagunyaza uWagstaff isonto lokuqala lokuqulwa kwecala lalokho akubiza ngokuthi "yizenzo eziningi zokungaziphathi kahle ngesikhathi ethula isitatimende." Esinye seziphambeko zakhe, ngokusho kukaChabria, ukuchitha isikhathi esiningi etshela ama-jurors mayelana nekhasimende lakhe nokuxilongwa kwakhe ngumdlavuza.  

Mashi 15, 2019: Izikhangiso zeGoogle Ziphakamisa Ukukhathazeka Mayelana Ne-Geofencing

(OKUSHA 3:30 pm Isikhathi sasePacific - AmaJurors asethathe umhlalaphansi usuku lonke ngemuva kokuhluleka futhi ukuthola isinqumo. Ubufakazi obuvela kummangali u-Edwin Hardeman buzophinde bufundwe buye kumajaji ngoMsombuluko ekuseni ngokwesicelo sabo. IJaji uChhabria uhlala ecasukile ngabameli bommangali, ecasulwe kubathathe ukufika enkantolo ngoLwesihlanu ntambama.)

Amajaji abuyele enkantolo namuhla aqala izingxoxo ngemuva kosuku lwangolwesine ngoLwesine. Kunombuzo owodwa kuphela okumele bawuphendule: “Ngabe uMnu. Hardeman ufakazele ngokubucabanga ubufakazi bokuthi ukuchayeka kwakhe kuRoundup kwaba nesandla esikhulu ekudaleni i-lymphoma yakhe engeyona iHodgkin?”

Ijaji liluleke ama-jurors ukuthi uma becabanga ngalo mbuzo ngosuku lwabo lokuphumula akufanele bafune imininingwane ngokuphepha kwe-Roundup noma bafunde izindatshana zezindaba noma izifundo zesayensi mayelana nalolu daba. Kufanele bazigcine ekucabangeni kuphela ebufakazini obethulwe ecaleni.

Kuyathakazelisa ukuthi izolo endaweni yaseSan Francisco izikhangiso ze-google bezivela kumafoni ahlakaniphile namakhompyutha akhuthaza ukuphepha kweRoundup. Isayithi elilodwa ikakhulukazi - Ukhula Ngokuhlakanipha - ubengena phezulu kwamanye amasayithi e-Google, enikeza izihloko zezindaba ezinjengokuthi “Ukwesaba 'amakhemikhali' imiphumela yokungazwisisi" nokuthi "Bheka isayensi, hhayi ukwethusa amaqhinga, we-glyphosate herbicide." Nalena - “Weed Killer Hype Iswela Ukusekelwa Kwezesayensi.” 

 
Isikhangiso se-google sivuselele ukwesaba kwabanye ukuthi iMonsanto neBayer kungenzeka bazibandakanya ekwenzeni i-geofencing, igama elisetshenziselwa ukuchaza iqhinga lokuletha imiyalezo ethile kubantu abathile ezindaweni ezithile. 
 
Ngenyanga edlule ummeli kaHardeman uJennifer Moore uxwayise iJaji uChhabria ngovalo olwalubanjwe yithimba lezomthetho likaHardeman lokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi uMonsanto wayekade ehlanganyela ekutholeni i-geofcing phambilini futhi uzophinda futhi azame ukuthonya ama-jurors.  UMoore utshele ijaji babecabanga ukuthi "ngabe sizofaka incwadi yesikhashana yokuvimbela ukuvimbela iMonsanto kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lwe-geofcing noma i-targeting jurors ngokusebenzisa imithombo yezokuxhumana noma izikhangiso zokukhokha ngokuchofoza ngakunye. Futhi-ke bengizocela nje ukuthi lokho kungenziwa. Asikwenzi ngasohlangothini lwethu, kodwa angifuni nje ukukhonjwa indlela kwama-jur, imithombo yezokuxhumana noma izindlela ze-Intanethi. ”
 
U-Chhabria uphendule wathi: "Akunjalo, akunjalo - akuhambi ngaphandle kokusho ukuthi kuzolunga ngokuphelele? Ngokusobala akekho umuntu ngapha nangapha - akekho umuntu oqhele ngamakhilomitha ayikhulu ohlangothini ngalunye ongazama ukukhomba noma yiliphi i-joror noma abazoba ngumthetho wecala nganoma yiluphi uhlobo lwemiyalezo. ”
 
IGeofencing inqubo yokukhangisa edumile eletha imiyalezo / okuqukethwe okuthile kunoma ngubani osendaweni ethile eqokwe yinkampani noma iqembu elikhokhela isikhangiso. Indawo ingaba ncane kakhulu, ibanga elingamamayela elizungeze ikheli elithile, ngokwesibonelo. Noma ingaba nkulu kakhulu. Noma ngubani kuleyo ndawo ekhethiwe esebenzisa uhlelo lokusebenza ku-smart phone - njengohlelo lokusebenza lwesimo sezulu noma umdlalo - uzobe esethunyelwa isikhangiso. 
 
Ukuthi iMonsanto yenze noma cha noma izosebenzisa isu lokuzama ukuthonya ama-jurors cishe bekungeke kube lula ukufakazela. Ummeli weMonsanto uBrian Stekloff uphendule izikhalazo eziphakanyiswe ngenyanga eyedlule kanye nesixwayiso sejaji mayelana nokwenziwa kwegeofing ngokuthi “Ngiyakuqonda ukuthi bangaba nezinsolo, kodwa angizemukeli lezo zinsolo… .. impela sizokulandela lokho…”  
 
 Ukubekwa kwezikhangiso zeGoogle ngamagama athile okusesha akusho ukuthi noma ngubani ubekhomba ama-jurors nge-geofencing. Futhi kufanele wazi ukuthi ukuthengwa kwezikhangiso zeGoogle bekulokhu - futhi kusekhona - isu elidumile elisetshenziswe ngabameli babamangali abafuna amaklayenti amasha eRoundup. 
 

Mashi 14, 2019: Usuku Lokulinga Namajaji Luphelile 

Amajaji anosuku lokuphumula namuhla kepha abameli abanalo. UChhabria ubambe ukulalelwa nabameli bezinhlangothi zombili ngo-12: 30 ntambama isikhathi sasePacific sokuxoxa ngobubanzi besigaba sesibili, uma kubanjwa isigaba sesibili.

Phakathi kwezinto okufanele kuxoxwe ngazo, abameli bommangali bavuselela isicelo sabo ukuze bakwazi ukwethula ubufakazi ngemizamo kaMonsanto yokudicilela phansi usosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini ngemuva kokushicilelwa yemiphumela yakhe yocwaningo yango-2012 mayelana namagundane ondliwe amanzi adonswe nge-Roundup. Amarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto akhombisa umzamo ohambisanayo wokuhoxisa iphepha laseSeralini, kufaka phakathi le ntambo ye-imeyili.

Abasebenzi baseMonsanto ngokusobala babeziqhenya ngalokhu abakubiza ngokuthi "umcimbi we-multimedia owawuklanyelwe ukusakazwa okuphezulu kakhulu" ngokumelene neSeralini kangangokuthi bakubiza ngokuthi "impumelelo" efanele ukubonwa.

Ubufakazi bukhombisa “ukuthi indaba yaseSéralini ingumgogodla wokwehluleka kukaMonsanto ukuhlola kanye nemizamo yakhe yokukhohlisa umbono womphakathi,” kusho abameli baka-Edwin Hardeman. Futhi, bathi ngaphakathi ukufakwa kwabo enkantolo, "Ubufakazi buveza ukuthi uMonsanto uphendule kulolu cwaningo ngokuzama ukubukela phansi nokuhlambalaza uDkt. Séralini, obunye ubufakazi" bokuthi iMonsanto ayinandaba ukuthi umkhiqizo wayo empeleni unikeza abantu umdlavuza, "kepha" [ugxila] esikhundleni ukulawula imibono yomphakathi nokubukela phansi noma ngubani ophakamisa ukukhathazeka kwangempela futhi okuyikho ngale ndaba. ” ”  

"Indaba yaseSéralini Isebenza Emizamweni kaMonsanto Yokudambisa Ososayensi Abakhathazayo NgeGlyphosate," kusho abameli bakaHardeman.

Abameli bakaHardeman bafuna ufakazi onguchwepheshe uCharles Benbrook ukuvunyelwa ukufakaza ngalesi sibonelo sokuziphatha kwebhizinisi likaMonsanto “ukusetshenziswa ngemuva,” okusho isenzo sikaMonsanto esenzeka ngemuva kokuthi uHardeman eyekile ukusebenzisa iRoundup.

Ijaji uChhabria phambilini lakhipha isinqumo sokuthi ubufakazi obumayelana nemizamo yokwehlisa isithunzi uSeralini babungeke bethulwe ngoba leyo mizamo yenzeka ngemuva kokuphela kokusebenzisa kukaHardeman i-Roundup ngakho-ke kwakungeke kumthinte. 

NgoLwesithathu, eChabria kuphinde kwabusa lobo bufakazi bemizamo kaMonsanto yokuhlambalaza i-International Agency for Research on Cancer ngemuva kokuthi ihlukanise i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen engahle ikhishwe esigabeni sesibili secala ngoba senzeka ngemuva kokuphela kokusetshenziswa kukaHardeman's Roundup.  

Noma zombili izinhlangothi zilungiselela isigaba sesibili, ukungabi bikho kwesinqumo esisheshayo samajaji akukhombisi okuhle kuHardeman. Abameli bakhe babenethemba lesinqumo esivumelanayo esivela kubameli abasivuna. Noma isiphi isinqumo sejaji kufanele sivumelane ngazwilinye noma icala lingamenyezelwa njengeliphethe kabi.

Mashi 13, 2019: Ukuxoxisana Ngejaji

(Ukuvuselelwa kwevidiyo)

(QAPHELA 5:45 pm isikhathi sePacific - Ijaji selithathe umhlalaphansi kusihlwa kungekho sinqumo. Izingxoxo zokuqhubeka ngoLwesihlanu.) 

IJaji uChhabria uyalele abameli bazo zombili izinhlangothi ukuthi bakulungele ukwethula izitatimende zokuvula isigaba sesibili secala namuhla uma amajaji ezobuya namhlanje ekuseni nesinqumo. Isigaba sesibili senzeka kuphela, noma kunjalo, uma amajaji eqala ngokuvumelana ngazwi linye kummangali u-Edwin Hardeman esigabeni sokuqala, esasiphathelene nombuzo we-causation kuphela.

Umbuzo okufanele uphendulwe kwifomu lesinqumo sejaji kuqondile:

Ngabe uMnu.Hardeman wafakazela ngokuthakazelelwa kobufakazi bokuthi ukuvezwa kwakhe kuRoundup kwakuyinto ebalulekile ekudaleni i-lymphoma yakhe engeyona iHodgkin?

Kuzothatha wonke amajaji ayisithupha ukuphendula ngoyebo kulowo mbuzo ukuze icala liqhubeke. Uma amajaji ehlukaniswe ngokuthi uwuphendula kanjani lo mbuzo, ijaji lithe lizomemezela ukuthi lizolalelwa ngamacala angafanele.

Ijaji liqondise ama-juror ukuthi ungacatshangelwa kanjani lowo mbuzo nokuthi ungabuhlola kanjani ubufakazi obulethwe kubo ku Uhlu lwamakhasi we-17 lwemiyalo.

Amajaji avunyelwe ukucela ukubheka imibukiso ethile kanye nezicucu zobufakazi kepha abavunyelwe ukubona okubhaliwe kwezinsuku ezedlule zobufakazi. Ijaji lithe uma ama-jurors efuna ukubuyekeza ubufakazi bofakazi othile angacela ukuba afakaze ubufakazi balowo ufakazi, noma ingxenye yobufakazi balowo fakazi kodwa abameli nejaji kuzodingeka babekhona kulokho.

Uma amajaji ebuyisa isinqumo esivuna uHardeman ngoLwesithathu ntambama, izitatimende zokuvula zesigaba sesibili zizokwenzeka ngoLwesihlanu. 

UChhabria ubambe izintambo zokuvala izimpikiswano ngoLwesibili, evimbela ummeli kaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff ukuthi akhombise isithombe sikaHardeman nomkakhe esethulweni sakhe sokuvala ama-slide. Utshele uWagstaff ukuthi isithombe "besingahambisani" futhi wathi yena "akadingi ukuzwa
ukuqhubeka nokuphikisana ngalokho. ” Lapho ecela umbono wakhe, uChhabria umane nje waphinda inkolelo yakhe yokuthi ayifanele.  

IMonsanto yafaka ifayela le- isiphakamiso sesinqumo esiqondisiwe NgoLwesibili, ephikisana nokuthi uHardeman wethule “ubufakazi obenele benkinga,” futhi wahlasela ngokuthe ngqo ukwethembeka kukadokotela wezifo uDennis Weisenburger, ongomunye wofakazi abangoHardeman. Ijaji Chhabria ukuphikile ukunyakaza. 

Ngokwehlukana, okuzayo Icala likaPilliod V. Monsanto eNkantolo Ephakeme Yase-Alameda County e-Oakland ibibheke echibini elikhulu lamajaji labantu abangaphezu kwama-200. Bahlela ukukhetha i-17, enamajaji ayi-12 nezinye izindlela ezinhlanu. Icala alikwazi ukuqala kuze kube ngumashi 27 noma Mashi 28 ngenxa yenqubo ende yokukhetha amajaji. 

Mashi 12, 2019: Ukukhathazeka ngemiyalo yamajaji yejaji

(Umbhalo ovela ezinkambisweni zanamuhla)

(QAPHELA, 3 pm Isikhathi sasePacific - Izimpikiswano zokuvala ziyaqedwa. Ijaji lithole imiyalo yezingxoxo.)

Izimpikiswano zokuvala ziqale ngoLwesibili. Ngesigaba sokuqala sikaHardeman V. Monsanto sokuqeda abameli bommangali u-Edwin Hardeman bakhiphe isimangalo esinamandla ngezinhlelo zeJaji uVince Chhabria zokuyala amajaji ngokuthi angayicubungula kanjani inkinga ye-causation.

Indlela uChhabria abeka ngayo imiyalelo yakhe yenza ukuthi "kungenzeki" ukuthi uHardeman anqobe, ummeli uJennifer Moore wabhala encwadini ukwahlulela. Umthetho waseCalifornia ubeka imiyalo yokuthi ukubangelwa kunqunywa lapho into noma isenzo "siyinto enkulu" ekudaleni umphumela. Kepha imiyalo yejaji izodinga amajaji ukuthola ukuthi iRoundup iyona kuphela into ebangele ukuthi iHardeman's non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kusho uMoore.

Ijaji Chhabria liphendule ngokuthi wayengeke akwazi ukunikeza “imiyalo ejwayelekile yaseCalifornia yokubamba iqhaza” ngoba abameli bommangali behlulekile ukwethula ubufakazi bokuthi umdlavuza kaHardeman wawungenxa yezici eziningi. Uthe, noma kunjalo, ukuthi angaguqula imiyalo kancane ukuze azame ukubhekana nezikhalazo. Kuhlelo imfundo yokugcinaUChhabria wengeze amagama athi i-asubstantial factor "akudingeki kube ukuphela kwembangela yokulimala."

UMonsanto uphikise ngokuthi umdlavuza kaHardeman awubangelwa ukuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate kodwa kungenzeka kakhulu ngenxa yesifo sokusha kwesibindi kohlobo C Hardeman ebesinaso iminyaka eminingi.

Lokhu futhi kuyinqwaba encane ethokozisayo emiyalweni yamajaji:

Okwamanje, kokuzayo Icala likaPilliod V. Monsanto, Ukulalelwa kwesiphakamiso kanye nokuxoxwa kwezicelo zobunzima kulabo abazoba ngamajaji kuyaqala ngesonto elizayo e-Alameda County Superior Court e-Oakland, budebuduze nedolobha laseSan Francisco lapho kungenzeka ukuthi icala laseHardeman lisaqhubeka uma liya esigabeni sesibili.

Izitatimende zokuvula ecaleni likaPilliod zingaqala ngoMashi 21 kepha kungenzeka kakhulu ukuthi zenzeke ngoMashi 25 noma kamuva kuye ngokuthi inqubo yokukhetha amajaji ithatha isikhathi esingakanani.

 
Mashi 11, 2019: Hepatitis C no… Hugh Grant?
 
Ithimba labameli bakaMonsanto ngoMsombuluko lethule ubufakazi obuqhamuka kuDkt. Alexandra Levine, isazi se-hematologist / i-oncologist esikhungweni seCity of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Centre, efuna ukukholisa abezomthetho ukuthi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula eseglyphosate kwakungeyona imbangela yomdlavuza kaHardeman, nokuthi Isici i-hepatitis C Hardeman ebinayo iminyaka eminingi. U-Levine ufakazele ukuthi ubone “iziguli eziningi kakhulu, eziningi, ezine-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” futhi empeleni ubhekwa njengongoti kuleso sifo esithile.
 
IJaji uChhabria uthe ngesonto eledlule angathanda ukubona lesi sigaba sokuqala secala sisongwa ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto, okusho ukuthi leli cala kumele libe nejaji kungekudala. Isinqumo sidinga ukuthi wonke amajaji ayisithupha ahlangane ngokuvumelana ekutholeni kwabo maqondana nokuthi ukuvezwa kukaHardeman kuRoundup “bekuyinto ebalulekile” ekudaleni umdlavuza wakhe. Ijaji lizochazela amajaji ukuthi kusho ukuthini lokho. (Bheka ukungena kwangoLwesihlanu ukuthola eminye imininingwane.)
 
Uma ijaji lingavumi ngazwilinye ukunquma uHardeman noma uMonsanto lelo cala lizoba yi-mistrial. UChabria uphinde wathi uma lokho kwenzeka ucabanga ukukuzama ngoMeyi.
 
Uma ijaji lithola uHardeman nge-causation, ukuqulwa kwecala kungashesha kungene eSigabeni II kusetshenziswa ijaji elifanayo. Futhi kulapho izinto zizoqala ukuheha ngempela. Abameli bakaHardeman hlela ukufona abaphathi abaningana beMonsanto ngobufakazi, kufaka phakathi owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kanye ne-CEO uHugh Grant. UGrant uchithe iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-35 kule nkampani waqokwa njenge-CEO ngo-2003. Wayehola le nkampani yaze yatholwa yiBayer AG ehlobo eledlule.
 
Ngokwengeziwe, abameli bakaHardeman bahlela ukubiza uRoger McClellan, umhleli wephephabhuku lesayensiUkubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology(I-CRT), eyashicilela uchungechunge lwamaphepha ngoSepthemba 2016 akhuza lokho okutholwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ethola ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu. Amaphepha athi abhalwe ngososayensi abazimele abathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula ubengeke abeke ingozi yomdlavuza kubantu.
 
Nokho, imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsantokhombisa ukuthi amaphepha acatshangwe kwasekuqaleni njengecebo likaMonsanto lokudicilela phansi i-IARC. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphelaubuyekeze imibhalo yesandlakepha ube nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni, yize lokho kungadalulwanga yiCRT.
 
Abameli bakaHardeman ngokwengeziwe bathe bahlela ukushaya ucingo UDoreen Manchester, weCroplife America, inhlangano yezimboni yezolimo ephembelelayo. Indima kaManchester kuCropLife ibisiza "ukuhola amacala kahulumeni nawombuso ukuxhasa izindaba zokulawulwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane."
 
Mashi 8, 2019: Isigaba 1 Sisondela Ekuqedeni, Imiyalo Yejaji Icabangisisa Ngejaji
 
Abameli bakammangali u-Edwin Hardeman bavale icala labo ngoLwesihlanu, banika uMonsanto ithuba lokuthi afake ofakazi bakhe kulesi sigaba sokuqala secala.
 
IJaji uChhabria uveze ukuthi angathanda ukubona isigaba sokuqala secala sisongwa ngasekuqaleni kwesonto elizayo, futhi useyalele abameli bezinhlangothi zombili ukuthi bakulungele ukudingida kanye nokuphikisana amasethi amabili emiyalo ehlongozwayo ukuthi anikeze amajaji izingxoxo maqondana nencazelo ye- "causation."
 
Ukuze icala likaHardeman livunyelwe ukuba liqhubekele eSigabeni 2 lapho kungakhishwa khona umonakalo, iqembu lamajaji ayisithupha kumele lihlangane ngazwi linye ekutholeni ukuthi iRoundup idale ukuthi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yakhe, ngakho-ke imiyalo yejaji yokuthi ichazwa kanjani into eyimbangela iphuzu elibucayi.
 
Inketho yokuqala yejaji ifundeka kanjena: “Ukuze anqobe embuzweni we-causation yezokwelapha, uMnu. Hardeman kumele afakazele ngokuxhasa ubufakazi bokuthi i-Roundup ibiyinto ebalulekile ekudaleni i-lymphoma yakhe engeyona iHodgkin. Isici esibalulekile yisici umuntu oqondakalayo angacabanga ukuthi sibe nomthelela ekulimaleni. Kumele kube ngaphezu kwesici esikude noma esincane.Uma uphetha ngokuthi uMnu.Hardeman ukufakazele ukuthi ukuvezwa kwakhe kuRoundup bekuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu ekubangeleni iNHL yakhe, kuzofanela uthole uMnu.Hardeman noma ngabe ukholwanezinye izinto eziyingozi nazo zazinkulu. ”
Inketho yesibili yejaji inemigqa emithathu efanayo yokuqala njengenketho yokuqala kepha ibuye ingeze lokhu: “Ukuziphatha akuyona into ebalulekile ekulimaleni ukube ukulimala okufanayo bekungenzeka ngaphandle kwaleyo ndlela yokuziphatha. "
 
Inketho 2 ibuye ishintshe umugqa wokugcina wemiyalo ithi: “Kodwa-ke, uma uphetha ngokuthi uMnu. Hardeman ukuqinisekisile ukuthi ukuvezwa kwakhe kwiRoundup kwakwanele ngokwako ukudala i-NHL yakhe, kuzofanela uthole kuMnu Hardemaneven uma ukholwa ukuthi ezinye izinto ezinobungozi nazo zazanele ukudala i-NHL yakhe. ”
 
Ingxenye enkulu yokuvikela kukaMonsanto yile ukuphakamisa ukuthi ezinye izinto zingaba imbangela yomdlavuza kaHardeman, kufaka phakathi umzabalazo wesifo sokusha kwesibindi kohlobo C. Ithimba likaHardeman lithe welashwa ngo-2006 ngesifo sokusha kwesibindi kohlobo C kodwa iqembu likaMonsanto lithi ukulimala kwamangqamuzana avela ku-hepatitis kungaba nomthelela emdlavuzeni wakhe.
 
Ufakazi onguchwepheshe weMonsanto uDkt Daniel Arber embikweni wakhe wangaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala wabhala ukuthi uHardeman unezinto eziningi eziyingozi kwi-NHL, futhi wathi: “Akukho okukhombisa ukuthi i-Roundup ibambe iqhaza ekuthuthukiseni i-NHL yakhe,
futhi azikho izici zokugula ezibonisa imbangela ye-lymphoma yakhe. ”
 
IJaji uChhabria ukhiphe isinqumo sokuthi u-Arber akakwazi ukufakaza ukuthi isifo sokusha kwesibindi sohlobo C sabangela i-NHL kaHardeman kodwa kukhishwe uLwesineukuthi u-Arber angachaza ukuthi ukuhlala isikhathi eside kukaHardeman e-hepatitis C kumshiye engcupheni yokuthola i-NHL ngisho nangemva kokuba igciwane lakhe selelashwa ngempumelelo.
 
Imibhalo emisha eminingana ifakiwe yizinhlangothi zombili ezihlobene nobufakazi nemiyalo yamajaji. Bheka kubo ku- Ikhasi leMonsanto Papers Hardeman.
 
Mashi 7, 2019: Ijaji Linamagama Anonya NgeMonsanto
 
UJaji Vince Chhabria ukhiphe impendulo ebabayo esiphakamisweni sikaMonsanto sokuthola isinqumo esifingqiwe ngoLwesine, esho e-oda lakhe ukuthi kunobufakazi obuningi bokuthi le nkampani glyphosate herbicides - okuyi-Roundup - ibingadala umdlavuza wommangali u-Edwin Hardeman.
 
“Ukwenza isibonelo nje esisodwa,” kubhala ijaji, “i-De Roos (2003) ixhasa isiphetho sokuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi ku-NHL, kepha iMonsanto yehluleka ukusho ukuthi iyanyakaza. IMonsanto ayinakunqoba esiphakamisweni sokwahlulela okufingqiwe ngokumane nje ungabunaki ubufakazi obuningi. ”
 
Uthe futhi "bukhona ubufakazi obenele" obusekela umklomelo wokujeziswa onikezwa uMonsanto uma ijaji lithola uHardeman.
 
"Abamangali baveze ubufakazi obukhulu bokuthi iMonsanto ayibathathanga ngendlela ebhekele ukuphepha komkhiqizo wayo," kusho iJaji uChhabria esinqumweni sakhe.
 
Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi: “Yize ubufakazi bokuthi i-Roundup ibanga umdlavuza bungalinganiseli, kunobufakazi obuqinile lapho ijaji lalingaphetha ngokuthi iMonsanto ayinandaba nokuthi umkhiqizo wayo empeleni unikeza abantu umdlavuza yini, ugxile kakhulu ekusebenziseni imibono yomphakathi kanye nokubukela phansi noma ngubani kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwangempela okungekho emthethweni ngale nkinga. ”
 

Mashi 7, 2019: Asikho Isivivinyo Namuhla, Kepha Indaba Mayelana Necala Lokugcina

(QAPHELA - Bheka uTim Litzenburg isimangalo esiphikisayo futhi ukunyakaza ukuze ushaye)

Ukunqoba okungumlando ehlobo eledlule lomgcini wezinkundla zaseCalifornia uDewayne “Lee” Johnson ebanga iMonsanto nomnikazi wayo omusha uBayer benze izindaba emhlabeni wonke futhi benza abanye babameli bakaJohnson osaziwayo ababonakalayo emibuthanweni yezomthetho, babahlomulela ngemiklomelo kanye nodumo lwamazwe omhlaba.

Kepha ngemuva kokunqoba, imiphumela yesilingo sokuqala somdlavuza seRoundup ifake abameli bakaJohnson empini ebabazekayo yezomthetho, ngezinsolo zokuzidayisa, ukusebenzisa izidakamizwa kanye "nokuziphatha okungathembekile nokungahambi kahle."

Enkantolo nokufakwa kwamacala aphikisayo eNkantolo Yesifunda yase-Orange County eVirginia, iMiller Law Firm isola ummeli uTim Litzenburg, umuntu ozibonakalise njengommeli wecala likaJohnson, ngokuntshontsha imininingwane eyimfihlo yamakhasimende ngenhloso yokusetha inkampani yakhe ehlukile yabameli, noma nje wayehluleka ukukhombisa imihlangano yokulungiselela ukuqulwa kwecala likaJohnson. Isikhalazo sibuye sathi iLitzenburg yavuma ukuthi yasebenzisa izidakamizwa ngesikhathi kuqulwa icala likaJohnson.

"Amalungu amaningi ethimba lecala likaMnu. Johnson abone uMnu uLitzenburg enza isimanga enkantolo," kusho isikhalazo. “Ngesikhathi evunyelwe ukuphikisa isiphakamiso phambi kweNkantolo…. ukulethwa kwakhe kwakudidekile futhi kungahlangani. Amalungu ethimba ebelicwaninga bekhathazekile ngokuthi uMnu. Litzenburg ubedle izidakamizwa ngesikhathi esenkantolo… ”

Icala ngokwalo ligcine liphethwe abanye abameli kanti i-Litzenburg ibingekho ngesikhathi kuvalwa ukuqulwa kwecala noma ngosuku lapho ijaji labuyisela khona isigwebo esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 289 esimelene neMonsanto.

Cishe ngemuva kwenyanga, ngoSepthemba 11, 2018, iMiller Firm ikuqedile ukuqashwa kukaLitzenburg, kusho icala.

ILitzenburg, manje esebenzisana nefemu ye IKincheloe, iLitzenburg nePendleton, akazange aphendule esicelweni sokuphawula, ngaphandle kokuthi athi "kwakuyisiphazamiso esingesihle" emsebenzini wakhe enkampanini yakhe entsha. Emazwini edlule uLitzenburg uchaze ukwehlukana kwakhe neMiller Firm ngenxa yokungaboni ngaso linye noMike Miller, ongomunye wabasunguli bale nkampani.

Okulandelayo izingcaphuno ezivela enkantolo:

 ILitzenburg iqinisekisa ukuthi izimangalo zeMiller Firm ezibhekiswe kuye “zinomusa futhi zivame ukuqanjwa nje” futhi kungenxa yokwesaba kweMiller Firm ukuthi bazolahlekelwa ngamakhasimende akwaRoundup enkampanini entsha yaseLitzenburg. Uthi wanikezwa u- $ 1 million ngumsunguli oqinile uMike Miller ukuba ahambe namakhasimende akhe eRoundup kodwa wenqaba lokho. 

Mashi 6, 2019: Usondela Ekupheleni Kwesigaba Sokuqala

(Umbhalo ovela kwanamuhla inqubo)

Ufakazi onguchwepheshe kommangali uDkt.Dennis Weisenburger ubephekwa ngemibuzo ngoLwesithathu ngabameli bakwaMonsanto ngemuva kobufakazi obuningiliziwe besisulu somdlavuza u-Edwin Hardeman. Abameli bakaHardeman bathe sebezosondela ekupheleni kwesigaba sokuqala sokwethula udaba lwabo.

UWeisenburger, udokotela wezifo ezigxile ekutadisheni izimbangela ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ufakaze ngoLwesibili isikhathi esingaphezu kwamahora amane, ehamba ngamajaji ngobufakazi besayensi athe ukhombisa ukuthi i-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto "iyimbangela enkulu" yomdlavuza kubantu abadalulwayo. Ulandele ubufakazi bukaHardeman, okhulume isikhathi esingaphansi kwehora ehlolwa ngqo ngokusetshenziswa kwakhe kweRoundup amashumi eminyaka ngaphambi kokutholakala komdlavuza e2016.

The Guardian kubuye ubufakazi bukaHardemanlapho athi wafutha iRoundup kanye ngenyanga amahora amathathu kuya kwamane ngasikhathi sinye eduze kwempahla yakhe futhi kwesinye isikhathi wayezwa sengathi kunenkungu yamakhemikhali ephephuka esikhunjeni sakhe.

Abameli bakammangali bekulindeleke ukuthi baqhubeke namacala abo namhlanje kodwa ubufakazi bukaWeisenburger buhambe isikhathi eside kangangoba sebehlela ukulibuyekeza leli cala uma inkantolo iqhubeka ngoLwesihlanu. Azikho izindlela ezihlelelwe uLwesine.

Bona imibhalo ephathelene nobufakazi ku- Ikhasi leMonsanto Papers.

Ngokwehlukana, abameli babuthane eNkantolo eNkulu yase-Alameda County ukuze balalele "uSargon" ngaphambi kokuqala kukaMashi 18 UPilliod V. Monsanto. Icala likaPilliod lizoba ngelesithathu ukungena ecaleni elibhekene noMonsanto nomnikazi walo omusha ngeBayer ngenxa yezinsolo zokuthi kukhona izidalwa ezibulala umzimba ze-Roundup. Bona imibhalo yamacala ePilliod kulesi sixhumanisi.

Mashi 5, 2019: UHardeman wokufakaza, iJuror egulayo noma cha

(Umbhalo ovela ezinkambisweni zanamuhla)

Ngemuva kwekhefu lokufakaza ngoMsombuluko ngenxa yejaji eligulayo, isisulu somdlavuza u-Edwin Hardeman kulindeleke ukuthi sime namuhla ecaleni eliqhubekayo lomdlavuza weRoundup enkantolo yenhlangano eSan Francisco. Ubufakazi bakhe kulindeleke ukuthi buthathe isikhathi esingaphansi kwehora.

IJaji uChhabria uveze ukuthi leli cala lizoqhubeka namuhla ngaphandle kokuthi lo wesifazane abe nejaji uma eqhubeka nokugula. Kudingeka amajaji ayisithupha kuphela ukuze icala liqhubekele phambili futhi njengamanje kukhona ayisikhombisa.

Ngokuhlolwa okuqondile kukaHardeman, abameli bakhe bahlela ukuletha enkantolo i-2-gallon, spray-up sprayer ukukhombisa ukuthi wayisebenzisa kanjani i-Roundup endaweni yakhe iminyaka; ukuthi ukuvezwa kwakhe okuphindaphindiwe kwenzeka kanjani ngempela. Abameli beMonsanto ngoMsombuluko bafuna ukwenaba uhlelo lokukhombisa isifutho, bethi “luzomema iqembu labasizi bejaji ukuthi lenze noma yiluphi uhlobo lokuqagela ngokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwesifutho kungabathinta kanjani abantu…” kodwa uChabria wasekela abameli bakaHardeman, wathi uzovumela isikhashana ukuboniswa nesifutho. Waze wenza ihlaya:

INKANTOLO: Ngiqonde ukuthi, isiqondisi esisodwa engisizayo engingasinikeza manje ukuthi Abamangali abavunyelwe ukukufutha ngesifutho.
I-MS. UMATTHEWS (Ummeli weMonsanto): Kulungile.
INKANTOLO: Futhi abavunyelwe nakanjani ukungiphambanisa nesifutho.

Kwesinye isenzo esishayelwe ihlombe yithimba labameli bakaHardeman, uChhabria uthe ngoMsombuluko ukuthi ubufakazi mayelana "nombiko kaParry" bungethulwa kubameli. UMonsanto wenqabile kodwa ijaji lavumelana nommeli wommangali ukuthi “umnyango uvulelwe umbiko kaParry” ngemizamo kaMonsanto yokuphikisana nobufakazi bokubulawa kwe-genotoxicity ne-glyphosate herbicides. UDkt.James Parry wayengumeluleki oqashwe uMonsanto ngawo-1990s ukuze abhekane nezinkinga ezithinta ukukhushulwa kwezidakamizwa ezikhuliswa ngaleso sikhathi ngososayensi bangaphandle. Umbiko kaParry Kunconywe ukuthi iMonsanto yenze izifundo ezengeziwe "ukucacisa umsebenzi ongaba khona we-genotoxic" we-glyphosate.

Bona le snippet kusuka ku- Ingxoxo yangoMsombuluko ngalesi sihloko:

INKANTOLO: Kulungile. IMonsanto inombiko ovela kudokotela
ukuthi iqashe lokho - lokho kuphakamise ukukhathazeka mayelana ne-
Ngakho kubonakala kimi ukuthi uyi - usuvele ushilo okuthile kwijaji - ngisho nangaphambi kokuba sifike kowesibili
iphuzu, usuvele ushilo okuthile kumajaji okuphikiswa ngawo ngezinga elithile ngumbhalo wangaphakathi weMonsanto. Futhi kungani bengafanele bakwazi ukufaka ukungabaza ngokufakwa kukaMonsanto kumajaji ukuthi i-genotox ayinandaba ngokusungula ukuthi uMonsanto waqasha udokotela - noma waqasha
Isazi sokubheka udaba lwe-genotoxicity ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-90s kanti uchwepheshe uphakamise ukukhathazeka nge-genotoxicity? … Ngiqonde ukuthi, uMonsanto uqobo lwayo yaphenya i-genotox –yazisa umuntu ukuthi aphenye i-genotox, futhi lowo muntu waphetha leyo genotox - ukuthi kungenzeka i-genotoxic.

Ngemuva kobufakazi bukaHardeman, ngokulandelayo yiba nguchwepheshe ufakazi uDennis Weisenburger, uprofesa woMnyango Wezifo Zedolobha lase-Hope of Medical Center e-Omaha, eNebraska.

Mashi 4, 2019: Isisulu Somdlavuza Ukuma (Cha.)

(Umbhalo ovela ezinkambisweni zanamuhla)

Ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman bekulindeleke ukuthi athathe izintambo namhlanje kanye nochwepheshe ufakazi uDennis Weisenburger, uprofesa woMnyango Wezifo Zedolobha lase-Hope of Medical Center e-Omaha, eNebraska.

Kepha ijaji elilodwa ngokusobala ligula kakhulu ukuthi lingabekezelela usuku olude lwecala ngakho-ke ubufakazi buhlehlisiwe.

UWeisenburger, osebenza kakhulu ocwaningweni lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), wayengufakazi obalulekile echibini labamangali ngonyaka owedlule ngenkathi ethula ubufakazi phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria njengoba ijaji lalilinganisa ngaleso sikhathi ukuthi cha noma cha ukuvumela inqwaba yeRoundup Izimangalo zomdlavuza ziya phambili. I-Weisenburger ishicilele amaphepha angaphezu kwama-50 emaphephandabeni abuyekezwa ngontanga ngezimbangela zeNHL.

Ngaphambi kokuvela kwezindaba zokubambezeleka kwecala, abamangali bebelindele ukuthi bazolibeka kabusha icala labo ngoLwesibili, kanti ofakazi bakaMonsanto bazongena ngoLwesithathu. Sonke isigaba sokuqala secala bekulindeleke ukuthi siphothulwe ngoLwesihlanu noma ngoMsombuluko, kusho abameli.

Icala lizodlulela esigabeni sesibili kuphela uma amajaji kuqala evuma ukuthi ukuvezwa kukaHardeman kuRoundup kuyimbangela ye-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yakhe.

UHardeman wasebenzisa iRoundup ukusuka ekwelapheni ukhula nokugcwala endaweni yamahektare angama-56 yena nomkakhe ababenayo eSonoma County. Ubike ukuthi usebenzisa iRoundup kanye / noma nemikhiqizo ehlobene neMonsanto kusuka ngo-1986 kuya ku-2012. UHardeman watholakala ene-B-cell NHL ngoFebhuwari ka-2015.

Ngaphandle kwejaji elikhona ijaji beligxile ekuxoxweni kobufakazi obuningana abameli bakaHardeman abafuna ukwethula esigabeni sokuqala, bethi uMonsanto "wavula umnyango" wobufakazi bokuthi okunye akuvunyelwe. Bona i- Ingxoxo yommangali yokwethula ubufakazi obuhlobene nokufundwa kwegundane okuyimpikiswano kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1980, nobufakazi obuphathelene ukukhathazeka nge-genotoxicity kukhuliswe ngumxhumanisi weMonsanto, futhi,Isikhundla sikaMonsanto esifundweni segundane kanye ne- ukukhishwa kwe-genotoxicity.

Abantu emhlabeni jikelele bayalandela ukuqulwa kwecala, futhi isinqumo sejaji ngesonto eledlule sokuvumela ummeli ophambili kaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff kubangelwe ukuthi kudale inqwaba yama-imeyili avela kubameli nakwabanye abantu abanikela ukwesekwa futhi bezwakalisa intukuthelo ngesenzo sejaji.

Mashi 1, 2019: Okuthile Okudingayo

(Umbhalo ovela ezinkambisweni zanamuhla)

Nayi i-tidbit ethokozisayo ongayihlafuna ngempelasonto. Ngenxa yokusingathwa ngendlela engajwayelekile kweJaji uVince Chhabria ngecala lokuqala lomdlavuza weRoundup elizoqulwa enkantolo yenhlangano, (bheka okufakiwe kwangaphambilini kokubhidliza nezinye izizinda) kanye ne-vitriol abekhuluma ngayo nommeli kommangali u-Edwin Hardeman, abaningi kubuziwe - yini enikezayo? Ukwehlukaniswa, isinqumo sakhe sokugweba ummeli oholayo wommangali, ukusongela kwakhe ukuchitha leli cala ngokuphelele, kanye nokuphawula kwakhe okuphindaphindiwe mayelana nokuthi ubufakazi “babamangaleli” bubonakala kanjani “ngokusobala” njengokusobala ukuthi buvumelana nokuvikela kukaMonsanto, okungenani ekuqaleni kwamacala Kungabe kukhona ukuxhumana phakathi kweChabria neMonsanto?

I-Chhabria inesizinda esihle sezinkanyezi. Wazalelwa wakhulela eCalifornia, wathola iziqu zakhe zomthetho ngo-1998 eUniversity of California, eBerkeley School of Law, waphothula iziqu. Usebenze njengomabhalane wezomthetho wabahluleli ababili bakahulumeni kanye neNkantolo Ephakeme iJaji uStephen Breyer futhi wasebenza njengomhlanganyeli wezinkampani ezimbili zabameli ngaphambi kokujoyina iHhovisi Lommeli waseSan Francisco lapho abesebenza khona kusuka ngonyaka ka 2005 kuya ku 2013. Waphakanyiswa nguMongameli Obama esihlalweni iphethe manje ehlobo lika-2013.

Kepha okujabulisayo ukuthi enye yalezi zinkampani zabameli lapho kwakusebenza khona uChabria iphakamise amashiya.ICovington neBurling, LLP, ungumvikeli owaziwayo wezinhloso ezahlukahlukene zebhizinisi, kufaka phakathi iMonsanto Co Covington kubikwa ukuthi ube nesandla ekusizeni iMonsanto izivikele ukukhathazeka embonini yobisi ngaphezu kwenkampani yokwengeza yokwanda kwezinkomo yokukhula kwezinkomo, eyaziwa njenge-rBGH (ye-hormone yokukhulisa izinkomo ephindayo) noma igama lomkhiqizo elithi Posilac.

UChhabria wasebenza kule femu phakathi kuka-2002-2004, isikhathi lapho impi kaMonsanto esemthethweni yokulwa noPosilac yayisezingeni eliphezulu. kubikwa ukuthi uyathinteka kulolu dabangokwengxenye "ngokuthumela izincwadi cishe kubo bonke abacubungula ubisi baseMelika, bexwayisa ngokuthi babhekane nemiphumela engaba semthethweni uma bethi imikhiqizo yabathengi babo" ayinaRbGH-Free. "

ICovington mhlawumbe yaziwa kakhulu ngomsebenzi wayo embonini kagwayi. Ijaji eMinnesota ngo-1997 inqume ukuthi inkampani ubengayinaki ngamabomu imiyalo yenkantolo yokuguqula imibhalo ethile ephathelene nezimangalo zokuthi imboni kagwayi yenza itulo leminyaka engama-40 lokudukisa umphakathi ngemithelela yezempilo yokubhema nokufihla ucwaningo lwesayensi olulimazayo emphakathini.

Ngaphambi nje kokuba u-Obama akhethe uChhabria esikhundleni sakhe sobuhluleli, inqwaba yabameli baseCovington naseBurling yathatha indawo kwezokuphatha, kubandakanya noMmeli Jikelele u-Eric Holder nephini lenhloko yabasebenzi UDaniel Suleiman. It kubikiwe ukuthi abasebenzi benkampani yabameli banikele ngaphezu kuka- $ 340,000 emkhankasweni ka-Obama.

Ukuhlala kukaChhabria eCovington bekukufushane, ngokuqinisekile. Abukho ubufakazi obusobala uChhabria owake wamela izintshisekelo zikaMonsanto ngqo. Kepha futhi akasiyena owaziyo emhlabeni wamandla nezinkampani ezinkampani.ukuthi lawo machashazi ahlangana kanjani kuleli cala kuze kube manje akucaci.

Februwari 28, 2019: Isivivinyo Sithatha Usuku

NgoLwesine yizinsuku 'ezimnyama' zesilingo somdlavuza weRoundup, okusho ukuthi abameli, amajaji kanye nofakazi banosuku lokuthola umoya wabo nokuzihlanganisa. Futhi ngemuva kwezinsuku ezintathu zokuqala kwecala elisheshayo nelithukuthele, kungenzeka basebenzise ikhefu.

Ngemuva kokulahlekelwa elinye ijaji ngoLwesithathu ekuseni, icala laqhubeka ngobufakazi bofakazi onguchwepheshe kommangali kanye nowayengusosayensi kuhulumeni waseMelika uChristopher Portier. Ubufakazi bunikezwe ngevidiyo eqoshwe e-Australia ngesonto eledlule.

Ngesikhathi sekhefu ntambama ebufakazini bukaPortier, iJaji uChhabria uthathe isikhashana wazichaza ngamazwana athile awasho kummeli wommangali u-Aimee Wagstaff ngoLwesibili ngaphambi ukumnika unswinyo ngoba wathi kungukungaziphathi kahle esitatimendeni sakhe sokuvula ijaji. (bona okufakiwe kwangaphambili kwebhulogi ukuthola imininingwane.)

Okulandelayo yingcaphuno emfushane:

INKANTOLO: Ngaphambi kokuthi silethe ijaji, ngifuna
yenza isitatimende esisheshayo kuNksz Wagstaff.
Bengicabanga ngokulalelwa kwe-OSC izolo kusihlwa, futhi mina
ngifuna ukucacisa into eyodwa. Nginike uhlu lwezizathu zokuthi kungani
ucabange ukuthi ukuziphatha kwakho bekungamabomu, futhi kungenye yalezo zizathu
bekungathi ubukade uzilungiselele kusengaphambili -
ukuthi uzothola isikhathi esinzima ngokwephula umthetho wangaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala
izinqumo. Ekuchazeni lokho, ngisebenzise igama elithi “steely,” nami
ngifuna ukucacisa ukuthi bengiqonde ukuthini ngalokho.
Bengisebenzisa i-steely njengesiphawulo sokuzicisha wena ngokwakho,
okungukuthi uzilungiselele okuthile okunzima futhi
-ngathandeki. Iphuzu lami bekungukuthi angibonanga kukumangaza kuwe
ingxenye; futhi njengoba abameli ngokujwayelekile babonakala bemangele lapho benjalo
osolwa ngokwephula izinqumo zangaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala, lokho bekungifanele
ngodaba lwenhloso. Kepha u- “steely” unenye incazelo njengoba
kahle, okungekuhle kakhulu. Futhi ngifuna ukukuqinisekisa
ukuthi akuyona leyo ncazelo ebengiyisebenzisa futhi bengingeyona
uphakamisa noma yini ngezimpawu zakho ezijwayelekile.
Ngakho-ke ngiyazi ukuthi uyaqhubeka ungavumelani nesinqumo sami nesami
okutholakele ngenhloso, kepha bengifuna ukwenza lelo phuzu kakhulu
kucacile.
I-MS. WAGSTAFF: Ngiyabonga Mnumzane.

NgoFebhuwari 27, 2019: Izinsongo Zokwahlulela Namahlaya Ejaji

(OKUSHA - Kusanda kuxoshwa elinye ijaji. Omunye wabasizi bejaji besifazane uxoshiwe enkambisweni yasekuseni. Lokho kushiya indoda eyodwa nabesifazane abayisithupha. Kudingeka amajaji ayisithupha futhi bonke kumele babe ngazwilinye esinqumweni sabo.)

Njengoba usuku lwesithathu luvulwa ecaleni lokuqala lombuso mayelana nezimangalo zokuthi imikhiqizo kaMonsanto ye-Roundup ingadala umdlavuza, iJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria ukubeke kwacaca ukuthi akalithandi iqembu likammangali u-Edwin Hardeman.

Chhabria ngoLwesibili ikhiphe isinqumo evumela ummeli kaHardeman oholayo u-Aimee Wagstaff ngalokho ijaji elikuthatha "njengezenzo eziningi zokungaziphathi kahle," wahlawulisa u- $ 500 wakhe futhi wamyalela ukuthi anikeze uhlu lwabo bonke abanye eqenjini lakhe ababamba iqhaza ekubhaleni isitatimende sakhe sokuvula ukuze labo babameli nabo bavunyelwe .

Empikiswaneni - izinkulumo ezahlukahlukene ezenziwa nguWagstaff lapho iJaji uChhabria zacabanga ukuthi yeqe imikhawulo eqinile ayibekile kubufakazi obungezwa yijaji. I-Chhabria ifuna ama-jorors ezwe kuphela ngobufakazi besayensi ngaphandle komongo ngokuziphatha kukaMonsanto okufuna ukuthonya irekhodi lesayensi nolwazi lokutholakele okuthile kwesayensi. Ngaphezu kwalokho, yize kwakungekho mingcele ekhona mayelana nokwethulwa kommangali uHardeman enkantolo, ijaji laphikisana nendlela kaWagstaff yokwethulwa nokuchazwa kokuthi wafunda kanjani ukuthi wayene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Ekuqhubekeni kwangoMsombuluko ijaji likwenze kwacaca ukucasuka kwalo kuWagstaff, lamphazamisa kaningi ngesikhathi ekhuluma nejaji futhi limyalela ukuthi ashintshe isethulo sakhe. Ubuye wayalela amajaji izikhathi ezingaphezu kwesisodwa ukuthi angacabangi okushiwo nguWagstaff njengobufakazi.

Enkantolo ngoLwesibili ukhuze uWagstaff wathi wayazi ukuthi isenzo sakhe sasihloselwe ukwedelela imiyalelo yakhe ngoba akazange abune ngaphansi "kokumcindezela" enkantolo ngoMsombuluko ngenkathi ethula isitatimende.

Ngezansi kunengxenye yalezo ukuqhubeka kwangoLwesibili(Ukubhekiselwa kuMoore kusho uJennifer Moore, ongumeluleki ngokubambisana ecaleni likaHardeman.)

INKANTOLO: Yonke imicibisholo ikhomba kulokhu ukuthi kungukukholwa okungalungile, kufaka phakathi, ngendlela, ukusabela kukaNksz Wagstaff kokuphikiswa. Ngokusobala wayekulungele. Ngokusobala waziqinisa ngokuthi ngizokwehla kanzima kuye. Futhi-ke wayezibonga - mhlawumbe, wayephendula ngokuqinile lapho ngiza kuye kanzima ngoba wayazi ukuthi kuyeza futhi waziqinisa ngalokho.

I-MS. MOORE: Awu, Mina - Mnumzane, angicabangi ukuthi lokho akulungile; futhi lokho kusekelwe emibonweni yohlangothi lweNkantolo.

INKANTOLO: Lokho kususelwa kulokho engikubonile kolimi lomzimba nokubukeka kobuso.

I-MS. WAGSTAFF: Awu, empeleni, Mnumzane, ngithanda nje ukukhuluma ngalokho umzuzwana owodwa. Iqiniso lokuthi ngiyakwazi ukuphatha wena wehla phambi kwejaji akufanele lisetshenziswe ngokumelene nami. Kade ngiza phambi kwakho manje, yini, iminyaka emithathu. Ngakho-ke sengikujwayele lokhu kuxhumana emuva naphambili. Futhi iqiniso lokuthi ngangikulungele noma yini owawuzongitshela yona - nokuthi uphazamise isitatimende sami sokuvula izikhathi ezimbalwa zilandelana - akufanele isetshenziswe ngokumelene nami. Iqiniso lokuthi nginokuthula lapho ungihlasela, akufanele lisetshenziswe kimi.

INKANTOLO: Bengingakuhlaseli. Bengiqinisa imithetho, imithetho yangaphambi kokuqulwa kwamacala.

I-MS. I-WAGSTAFF: Usho nje ukuthi ngikwazile ukuziqamba ubufakazi benjongo, futhi lokho akulungile.

Abameli bommangali kuleli cala bakholelwa ukuthi umyalo wejaji wokwehlukanisa leli cala ngezigaba ezimbili futhi ubukhawulele ngokuqinile ubufakazi abangabethula kwijaji ubusekela kakhulu uMonsanto futhi kubeka engcupheni ikhono labo lokuhlangabezana nomthwalo wobufakazi kuleli cala. Baphinde bathi ukuholwa yijaji kobuphi ubufakazi obungangena nokungeke kudide. Futhi baveza ukuthi ummeli kaMonsanto naye ezitatimendeni zokuqala wafaka ubufakazi obabunqatshelwe yijaji, yize ayengavunyelwe.

Ngezansi kunokunye okuthe xaxa kusuka ku- Izinqubo zangoLwesibili:

INKANTOLO: Futhi lokho - lokho kuhambisana nenhloso. Lokho kuhambelana nokukholelwa okubi. Iqiniso lokuthi abamangali bakubeke kwacaca ukuthi bakulangazelele kakhulu ukufaka lolu lwazi eSigabeni sokuqala kuwubufakazi bokuthi bekungeyona nje iphutha ukuthi kwenzeka ukuthi bafake lolu lwazi ezitatimendeni zabo zokuqala.

I-MS. MOORE: Mnumzane, angishongo ukuthi besiphelelwe yithemba. Engangizama ukukuchaza ukuthi indlela elisethwe ngayo icala ayijwayelekile. Futhi ngicabanga, Mnumzane, ukuthi uyabona ukuthi emva kokuphuma komyalo wokuhlukaniswa kwezimpahla; ukuthi lesi yisimo esiyingqayizivele lapho ulinganisela khona isivivinyo lapho sikhuluma ngecala lomkhiqizo elifana naleli kuphela kwisigaba sokuqala, futhi lidale ukudideka ezinhlangothini zombili zezinto.

Lokho kuqinisekile.

Ihlaya losuku - lingitshelwe ngummeli ofisa ukungadalulwa igama:

Q: “Ubani ummeli kaMonsanto ohamba phambili?”

Impendulo: "Ijaji uChabria."

FFebhuwari 25, 2019: Ukubika Kusuka Enkantolo(ama-tweets abhalwe lapha ngokulandelana kwesikhathi)

Imibhalo evela kuSuku 1 ecaleni likaHardeman ithunyelwe lapha.

Bheka Umbhalo wezinqubo.

Bona Ideski Lesilayidi Lokuvula Lommangali futhi Ideski Lesilayidi Lokuvula leMonsanto

I-3: 30 pm Ijaji lichithiwe yijaji kodwa abameli ecaleni lokuhlolwa umdlavuza iRoundup basadingida ukuthi ubufakazi bungasetshenziswa kanjani noma bungasetshenziswa kanjani. Usathukuthele kakhulu ngommeli wommangali u-Aimee Wagstaff onesibindi sokukhuluma ngo-1983 @EPA dox ekhombisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza nge-glyphosate.

Ijaji liphinda liqola u-Aimee Wagstaff futhi futhi uthi ufuna ukumjezisa ngo- $ 1,000 XNUMX futhi mhlawumbe nethimba labammeli lonke. Ukubiza izenzo zakhe "njengesimungulu ngokumangazayo."

2: 30pm thumela izibuyekezo zasemini:

  • Ngenkathi kuqalwa ukuhlolwa kwesifo somdlavuza seMonsanto Roundup, ufakazi kommangali uBeate Ritz ukhuluma namajaji ngama-ratios engcuphe, izikhawu zokuzethemba nokubaluleka kwezibalo zesayensi yomdlavuza. Ithinta inani lokuhlaziywa kwe-meta. @Bayer
  • UDkt Ritz ufakaza ngezifundo ezahlukahlukene ezibonisa ukwanda kwengcuphe yomdlavuza kusuka ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate.
  • Ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman nomkakhe babukela buthule, kepha ngesikhathi sekhefu bazwakalise ukukhungatheka ngokuthi uJaji Chhabria unobufakazi obulinganiselwe ijaji elilalelayo.
  • Indlela eqinisekile yomlilo yokudonsela ukuphikisana nabameli baka @Bayer Monsanto ocwaningweni lomdlavuza weRoundup: yisho @IARCWHO ukuhlukaniswa kwesayensi kwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen engaba khona.
  • Usuku lokuqala lwe- @ Bayer Monsanto Roundup umdlavuza wesivivinyo uphetha ngemuva kobufakazi obude obuvela kusosayensi uBeate Ritz ohamba ngamajaji ngocwaningo olukhombisa ubungozi be-NHL ekuvezweni kwe-glyphosate herbicides. Ijaji libonga amajaji ngokulalelisisa; ubatshela ukuthi baziqhelelanise nabezindaba.

  • Usuku olulodwa kuphela esivivinyweni somdlavuza we-Roundup esilahlekelwa yi-juror. Omunye walaba bantu ababili abasemajele uthi basebenza kanzima; akakwazi ukulahlekelwa ngumholo wakhe. Lokho kushiya abesifazane abangu-7 nendoda e-1 ukuthi ithathe isinqumo ngecala. Isinqumo kumele sivumelane ngazwi linye ukuthi ummangali uwine.

11: 38 amUbufakazi bomsindo wejaji ekuvuleni kwecala lomdlavuza i-Roundup: i-oda langaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala lommeli wommangali ukukhombisa isizathu sokuthi kungani kungafanele anikezwe unswinyo ngo-8 ebusuku namhlanje.

11: 10 am IMonsanto / Bayer isonga ukuvulwa kwayo futhi manje ilungiselela ufakazi wokuqala, usosayensi ongummangali uBeate Ritz. Ukubuyekezwa okuningi kusuka kusitatimende sokuvula:

  • Ummeli kommangali ubiza ibha eseceleni njengoba lezo zitatimende bezivinjelwe yimiyalo yangaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala kepha ijaji liyamhlula.
  • Manje ummeli weMonsanto ukhombisa ishadi elithi ngenkathi ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kukhuphukile ngaphezu kwamashumi eminyaka, amanani eNHL awazange. Ube esethi yize i- @ IARCWHO ihlukaniswa njenge-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen engaba khona @EPA & abalawuli bangaphandle abavumelani.
  • Ummeli wezokuvikela uMonsanto @Bayer kuhlu; ukutshela ama-jurors konke nge-Agricultural Health Study, engakhombisanga buhlobo phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ummeli uveza ukuthi uMonsanto wayengahlangene ngalutho nalolu cwaningo.
10: 45 amManje ngu @Bayer Ithuba likaMonsanto lokuthola izitatimende zokuvula - ummeli uBrian Stekloff utshela ijaji "I-Roundup ayibanga yisi sifo sikaMnu. Hardeman esingeyona iHodgkin lymphoma."
 
  • Ijaji liyala nje enye iMonsanto @Bayer kususwe isilayidi, kuphazamisa isitatimende sokuvula kommeli wabameli. Ukudlala ibhola elinzima ngazo zombili izinhlangothi.
  • Ummeli kommangali uphikisana nelinye lama-slides abameli beMonsanto; ijaji liyavuma bese kususwa isilayidi. Icala lommeli wezokuvikela ukuthi umlando kaHardeman weHepatitis C kungenzeka usolwe ngeNHL yakhe.
  • Utshela ama-jurors i-NHL uhlobo olujwayelekile lomdlavuza futhi iningi lezisulu ze-NHL akubona abasebenzisi beRoundup; akukho ukuhlolwa udokotela angakusebenzisa ukutshela isiguli ukuthi isifo sakhe sibangelwe noma asibangekanga yiRoundup.

10: 15 izibuyekezo kumazwi okuvula kommeli wommangali u-Aimee Wagstaff:

  • Ijaji manje lisabisa ngokujezisa ummeli wommangali futhi licabangisise ngokuthi kufanele yini anqabe ukuvumela ijaji ukuthi libone amaslayidi kommangali. Ummeli ka- @Bayer Monsanto uthi yebo. U-Aimee ucela ukubhekana nokukhathazeka kwakhe; ijaji liyamsika.
  • Ijaji manje liyalahla amajaji ngekhefu bese kuthi i-RIPS ibe ngummeli wommangali - ithi "weqe umugqa" futhi "akafanele neze" ezitatimendeni zakhe zokuqala. Uthi lesi "yisixwayiso sakhe sokugcina". Ungalokothi ube mzuzu obuthuntu ku @BayerIsilingo somdlavuza weMonsanto Roundup.
  • Ijaji liphinde limtshele ukuthi "aqhubeke" lapho ezama ukuchaza ukuthi @EPAihlola kuphela i-glyphosate hhayi umkhiqizo ophelele.
  • Uvunyelwe ukushiwo kafushane ngo @IARCWHOukuhlukaniswa kwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu kodwa ijaji liyamsika ngaphambi kokuthi asho okuningi.
  • Esitatimendeni sokuvula se- @BayerUmmeli wommangali wesimangalo seMonsanto Roundup ukhomba ekuhlaziyweni okusha kwe-meta okukhombisa izibopho ezinamandla zomdlavuza (bheka Indaba kaGuardian).
  • Esitatimendeni sokuvula sommeli wommangali kommangalelwa we-Roundup ufundwa kusukela ngo-1980s-era @EPAimemo "i-glyphosate iyasola" futhi idlula indaba yokuthi iMonsanto yakwenza kanjani ukuguqulwa kokukhathazeka kwe-EPA. Amajaji abukeka edidekile ngayo yonke le nto yesayensi.

9: 35 am Manje ummeli wommangali exoxa ngendaba yocwaningo lwegundane lwango-1983 olwenza ososayensi be-@EPAss ukuthi bathole umdlavuza we-glyphosate obangela… ngaphambi kokuba uMonsanto abaqinisekise. hhawu. Ijaji liyamsika futhi. Ibha eseceleni. @BayerMonsanto kufanele ikuthande lokhu. Ukuthola okwengeziwe ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-1983, bheka indatshana ka-2017,Ezamagundane, iMonsanto kanye neSimila Esiyimfihlakalo."

9: 30 am Indikimba enkulu namhlanje ekuseni ijaji alinikezi mmeli wommangali inkululeko, nge @careygillam:

8: 49 am IJaji uChhabria ukhombisa ukusheshe alinqande leli cala lomdlavuza iRoundup. Umise ummeli kommangali u-Aimee Wagstaff kungakapheli nemizuzu emingaki evulelwe ibha eseceleni. UWagstaff uvule ngokwethula unkosikazi kommangali, waqala ukukhuluma ngendaba yempilo yabo noHardeman bathola isigaxa entanyeni yakhe. Ijaji liphazamisile latshela uWagstaff ukuthi abambelele kumazwana abhekele udaba kuphela.

8: 10 am "Inkantolo manje iyaqhubeka". Igumbi lenkantolo ligcwele phama ngezitatimende zokuvula ecaleni lokuhlolwa komdlavuza iRoundup. Zisuka nje kululwane, uMonsanto Bayer, nabameli bommangali sebevele sebephikisana nobufakazi obuzolethwa.

8: 00 am Futhi sesihambile. Ezinyangeni eziyisithupha ngemuva kwejaji laseCalifornia linqume ababulali bokhula bakaMonsanto kubangele umdlavuza womgcini wezindawo,elinye ijaji laseCalifornia lilungiselela ukuzwa izimpikiswano ezifanayo ezibhekene neMonsanto.

Ngalesi sikhathi icala kuzwakala enkantolo yombuso, hhayi enkantolo yombuso. Okubalulekile, ijaji livumile ngesicelo esivela kuMonsanto sokuzama leli cala ngezigaba ezimbili ezinobufakazi bokuziphatha okunganaki nokukhohlisa okungenziwa nguMonsanto esigodliwe esigabeni sokuqala ukuvumela ijaji ukuthi ligxile kuphela ebufakazini obuphathelene nombuzo wokuthi noma cha imikhiqizo yenkampani bekufanele isolwe ngomdlavuza wommangali.

Ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman uphethwe yi-B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, eyatholakala ngoFebhuwari 2015, kusasele inyanga eyodwa ngaphambi kokuba i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ihlukanise i-glyphosate, isithako esibalulekile eMonsanto's Roundup nakwezinye izinhlobo zemithi yokubulala ukhula, njenge “ kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu.

UHardeman wasebenzisa imikhiqizo yeRoundup njalo ukwelapha ukhula nokukhula ngokweqile epheshaneni lamahektare angama-56 ayenalo eSonoma County. Imibhalo efakwe enkantolo yombuso ephathelene nokuqulwa kwecala likaHardeman ingaba utholwe lapha.

Abesifazane abayisikhombisa nabesilisa ababili bakhethwa njengamajaji ukulalela leli cala likaHardeman. Ijaji lithe leli cala kumele liqhubeke kuze kuphele uMashi. Izolo iJaji uChhabria unqabele uMonsanto isiphakamiso sokuthi kufinyelelwe enkantolo.

NgoFebhuwari 20, 2019: IJury Ikhethiwe

Abameli abachithanga sikhathi ngoLwesithathu ekukhetheni amajaji azoqala ukuqulwa kwecala ngesonto elizayo. Ijaji lakhiwa abesifazane abangu-7 nabesilisa ababili. Ukuze ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman anqobe icala lakhe, isinqumo sejaji kufanele sibe ngazwilinye.

Icala liqulwa ngezigaba ezimbili. Uma amajaji engatholi ukuvuna ummangali esigabeni sokuqala ngeke sibe khona isigaba sesibili. Bona ngezansi, okuthunyelwe kukaJanuwari 10, 2019, ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngomehluko ezigabeni ezimbili.

Ngaphambi kwamacala abameli bezinhlangothi zombili bagcwalise uhlu oluhlanganyelwe lwemibukiso abahlela ukuyethula, noma "abangayethula", njengobufakazi ngesikhathi sokuqhubeka kwecala. Uhlu lunamakhasi angama-463 futhi lufaka phakathi amarekhodi asukela kumamemos we-EPA anamashumi eminyaka kanye nokuhwebelana nge-imeyili neMonsanto kuya ezifundweni zesayensi zakamuva.

NgoFebhuwari 19, 2019: Ukuhamba Kwemizuzu Yokugcina

Sekusele isikhathi esingaphansi kwesonto ngaphambi kokuvula izitatimende ecaleni likahulumeni likaFebhuwari 25 mayelana nezinsolo zokuthi ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto base-glyphosate babangela umdlavuza, abameli bezinhlangothi zombili babelungiselela ukhetho lwamajaji oluqala ngoLwesithathu.

Ezinhlelweni zangaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala abameli bommangali u-Edwin Hardeman kanye nethimba lezomthetho elimele iMonsanto, manje osekuyiyunithi yeBayer AG, bese bevele bephikisana ngokukhethwa kwamajaji kususelwa kuphela ezimphendulweni ezibhalwe phansi ezinikezwe ngabashushisi abazoba khona, futhi abaningi sebeshaywe yiSifunda sase-US Ijaji uVince Chhabria ngesizathu.

NgoLwesithathu, abameli bazobabuza mathupha labo abazoba ngamajaji. Abameli bakaMonsanto bakhathazeke kakhulu ngamajaji angaba khona awaziyo ngecala iMonsanto elahlekile ehlobo eledlule. Kulelo cala, ummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson uzuze isinqumo samajaji esisodwa ngezimangalo ezifana nezikaHardeman - ukuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto yabangela i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yakhe nokuthi iMonsanto yehluleka ukuxwayisa ngezingozi. UJohnson wanikezwa ama-jur amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-289, kodwa ijaji kuleli cala lanciphisa lesi sinqumo saba ngu- $ 78 million.

Izigxobo kuleli cala ziphakeme. Ukulahleka kokuqala kushaye iBayer kanzima; Intengo yamasheya ayo yehle cishe ngamaphesenti angama-30 selokhu kukhishwe isinqumo futhi abatshalizimali bahlala benciphile. Okunye ukulahleka enkantolo kungahle kulethe okunye ukushayiswa kwemali emakethe yenkampani, ikakhulukazi ngoba kunabamangali ababalelwa ku-9,000 abalinde usuku lwabo enkantolo.

Ukulungiselela ukuvulwa kwecala ngoMsombuluko ekuseni, Kusho iJaji uChhabriaekulalelweni kukaFebhuwari 15 ukuthi uzohlukanisa bonke abazongenela ukhetho lwamajaji ohlwini lwabakwaMonsanto abathi bezwile ngecala likaJohnson ngemibuzo ethile mayelana nolwazi lwabo lelo cala.

Phakathi kwalabo asebevele beshayiwe echibini lamajaji ngokuya ngemibuzo yabo ebhaliwe kwakukhona abantu abaningana abakhombisa ukuthi banemibono emibi ngeMonsanto. Ngenkathi ijaji livumelana nesicelo sikaMonsanto sokususa labo bantu echibini labasizi bejaji, wenqaba isicelo esivela kubameli bommangali sokushaya lowo owayengaba yijaji owathi okuphambene nalokho - ijaji labhala ukuthi linomuzwa wokuthi “bona (iMonsanto) bathembekile kakhulu futhi iwusizo emphakathini, ”futhi wathi ukholelwa ukuthi umuthi wokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto uphephile.

IJaji uChhabria uthe "Bengingacabangi ukuthi kukhona umuntu waseBay Area ozizwa ngaleyo ndlela .."

Kwesinye isenzo sangaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala, abameli bezinhlangothi zombili babese-Australia belungiselela ubufakazi obuvela kofakazi kommangali uChristopher Portier. UPortier unikeza ubufakazi obuqoshwe ngevidiyo kusengaphambili ngokubuzwa ngqo nangokuphonswa imibuzo. Bekulindeleke ukuba abe khona mathupha enkantolo uma kuqulwa leli cala kodwa wahlaselwa yisifo senhliziyo ngoJanuwari kanti selulekwe ngohambo olude lwezindiza olwaluzodingeka ukuthi luvele mathupha.

UPortier ungomunye wofakazi benkanyezi kommangali. Ungumqondisi wangaphambilini weNational Center for Environmental Health kanye ne-Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry futhi wayengusosayensi wangaphambili kwiNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Kwesinye isenzo sangaphambi kokuqulwa kwecala, iJaji uChhabria ukhiphe isinqumo ngoMsombuluko mayelana neziphakamiso ezivela kuzo zombili izinhlangothi ezisebenza ngobufakazi obuzovunyelwa ukungena nokuthi yini ezokhishwa. UChabria ukhiphe isinqumo sokuthi kuzoba nesigaba sokuqala secala lapho ubufakazi buzokhawulelwa khona kubangelwa. Uma ijaji lithola ukuthi imikhiqizo kaMonsanto idale umdlavuza kaHardeman kuzoba nesigaba sesibili lapho ubufakazi bungathulwa khona ngokuphathelene nezinsolo zabameli bommangali ukuthi uMonsanto uzibandakanye nobungozi bemikhiqizo yakhe.

Phakathi Izinqumo zobufakazi bukaChabria:

Ubufakazi bommeli kommangali buthi bukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto ubambe iqhaza ekubhaleni imibhalo izincwadi zesayensi ayifakwanga esigabeni sokuqala secala.

  • Ubufakazi noma izinto zokumaketha zikaMonsanto azifakwanga kuzo zombili izigaba.
  • Ukuqhathaniswa phakathi kweMonsanto nemboni kagwayi kuyakhishwa.
  • I-imeyili evela kuMonsanto ekhuluma ngomsebenzi noMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo ayifakwanga esigabeni sokuqala.
  • Izimpikiswano zokuthi i-glyphosate iyadingeka "ukondla umhlaba" ayifakwanga kuzo zombili izigaba.
  • Imibhalo ethile ye-EPA ayifakwanga.
  • Ukuhlaziywa kwe-International Agency for Research on Cancer okuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu kungenzeka "kuvinjelwe."

Ucezu lobunye bommeli bommangali bahlela ukwethula ukuhlaziywa okusha kwe-meta A ebanzi ukuhlaziywa okusha kwesayensi wamandla okubanga umdlavuza we-glyphosate herbicides. Ucwaningo luthole ukuthi abantu abachayeka kakhulu emithini yokubulala ukhula banamathuba angama-41% okwandisa ingozi yokuthuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Ababhali bezocwaningo, ososayensi abaphezulu abasetshenziswe yi-Environmental Protection Agency njengabeluleki, kusho ubufakazi"Isekela isixhumanisi esiphoqayo" phakathi kokuchayeka kuma-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate nobungozi obandayo be-NHL.

NgoFebhuwari 8, 2019: Ubufakazi Nezinkinga - Ngezibalo eziphezulu, icala lokuqala lomdlavuza we-Roundup lokuqala lisondela ngokushesha ngoFebhuwari 25, abameli beMonsanto - nomnikazi wayo uBayer AG - babeke uhlu olude lobufakazi nezinkingaabafuni ukwethulwa ecaleni.

Phakathi kwezinto inkampani engafuni ukuthi yethulwe uma kuqulwa icala yilezi ezilandelayo: Ukukhulunywa ngamanye amacala abhekene neMonsanto; ubufakazi obuphathelene nemisebenzi yenkampani ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi; ukuqhathanisa nemboni kagwayi; imininingwane ngokuhlangana kwenkampani "nemikhiqizo enempikiswano" efana ne-Agent Orange nama-PCB; ulwazi mayelana "nengcebo" kaMonsanto; nolwazi mayelana "nendima kaBayer eMpini Yesibili Yomhlaba."

Abukho obunye ubufakazi uMonsanto afuna ukubufaka ngaphandle ngesikhathi kuqulwa icala obuthinta ukuthi ngabe ukubulala ukhula kwalo kubangelwe yini hhayi i-Hodgkin lymphoma yommangali, kusho abameli benkampani etshela ijaji.

Abameli babamangali banohlu lwabo lwezinto abangathanda ukungazilethelwa ijaji. Phakathi kwabo: Imininingwane mayelana nokukhangiswa kommeli kwabamangali ecaleni leRoundup; “umlando wezokwelapha ongahlobene” kommangali u-Edwin Hardeman; nobufakazi ngezinqumo zomthetho zangaphandle.

Khonamanjalo, ngoFebhuwari 6 amaqembu womabili afake “uhlu lwamaqoqo okuhlolwa ngokuhlanganyela” oluchaza ubufakazi obuthile abahlela ukubethula - noma abangabethula - kubasizi bejaji. Uhlu lunamakhasi angama-314 futhi lubandakanya inqwaba yemibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto kanye nemibhalo yokulawula, izifundo zesayensi, nemibiko yofakazi abahlukahlukene abangongoti.

UBayer wengeze elinye ilungu eqenjini lezokuvikela leMonsanto Roundup. NgoFebhuwari 8, ummeli weShook Hardy & Bacon uJames Shepherd wafaka isaziso sakhe sokuvela kwiRoundup Products Liability Litigation enkantolo yenhlangano. UShepherd uvikele iBayer emacaleni ahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi nezinsolo zokulimala okuboshwe emithini yokwehlisa i-cholesterol yakwaBayer, nezinsolo zokulimala kusuka ku-intrauterine device (IUD).

Futhi, zombili izinhlangothi muva nje zifake uhlu oludidiyelwe lwemibukiso yohlelo ngalunye lokwethulwa ecaleni, kufaka phakathi okufakiwe, izithombe, ama-imeyili, imibhalo yokulawula, izifundo zesayensi nokuningi. Uhlu lunamakhasi angama-320.

IJaji uVince Chhabria ukhombise ukulalelwa kukaFebhuwari 4 ukuthi uma ijaji lithola ummangali esigabeni sokuqala secala elihlukanisiwe, okusho ukuthi uma ijaji linquma ukuthi ukubulala ukhula kukaMonsanto kuyimbangela yomdlavuza ka-Edwin Hardeman, isigaba sesibili secala qala ngosuku olulandelayo. Leso sigaba sesibili sizogxila ekuziphatheni kukaMonsanto nakunoma yikuphi ukulimala okungenzeka kube yisijeziso.

Yonke imibhalo ehlobene itholakala ku- Ikhasi leMonsanto Papers.

January 29, 2019 - Sekusele isikhathi esingaphansi kwenyanga ukuthi kuqalwe i- icala lokuqala lombusoenkambisweni yesikweletu semikhiqizo ye-Roundup, futhi zombili izinhlangothi zilayisha amafayela enkantolo ngezicelo eziningi nemibukiso. Kufakwe kumafayili wakamuva yimibhalo eminingana ephawulekayo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto. Okumbalwa kuqokonyiswe ngezansi. Ukuthunyelwa okuphelele kakhulu kwemibhalo yasenkantolo kungatholakala ku-USRTK enkulu Ikhasi leMonsanto Papers.

  • Sukuma umemeze i-glyphosate:Ama-imeyili angaphakathi eMonsanto kubhalwe ngo-1999 imininingwane yenkampani "yokufinyelela esayense" kanye nemizamo yokwakha inethiwekhi yomhlaba wonke "yochwepheshe bangaphandle besayensi abanethonya lokushayela isayensi, abalawuli, umbono womphakathi, njll." Icebo lalifuna ukuthi abantu “basebenze ngqo noma ngokungaqondile / ekusithekeni” basebenzela uMonsanto. Le nkampani ifuna "abantu bavuke bamemeze ukuthi iGlyphosate ayiyona into enobuthi," ngokusho kwentambo ye-imeyili. Ukuze uhlelo lusebenze “kungadingeka ukuthi bahlukanise iMonsanto ngokuhlangana ngqo nochwepheshe noma sizomosha imali engu- $ 1,000 / ngosuku laba bantu abayibizayo.”
  • Le ntambo ye-imeyili ekhangayo evela ngoJanuwari 2015 ikhuluma ngomsebenzi wezitshalo waseMonsanto osethathe umhlalaphansi owabika enkampanini ukuthi utholakale ene-Hairy cell leukemia, uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ubhale ukuthi "unezibalo zegazi ezingajwayelekile" ngaphambi kokuthatha umhlalaphansi, futhi wayezibuza ukuthi ngabe ukuxilongwa kwakhe "kuhlobene nokusebenza kuwo wonke amakhemikhali" esitshalweni senkampani. "Ithimba lemiphumela emibi" lenkampani libuyekeze udaba lwayo kanti uMonsanto "ongumhlengikazi wezempilo" umtshele ukuthi bebengakatholi ukuhlangana phakathi "kwesimo sakhe sezempilo" namakhemikhali esitshalweni lapho abesebenza khona. Zikhombisa futhi entanjeni ye-imeyili ukuthi asikho isidingo sokwazisa i-EPA. I-imeyili eyodwa yangoNovemba 21, 2014 ebhalwe kabanzi ibhalela “Abasebenzi baseMonsanto” evela ethimbeni lemiphumela emibi yazisa abasebenzi ukuthi yize i-EPA idinga ukubikwa kolwazi ngemiphumela emibi yemikhiqizo yezibulala-zinambuzane njengokulimala noma izinkinga zempilo, abasebenzi akufanele bazise i-EPA ngokwabo uma bazi ngezinkinga ezinjalo. Abasebenzi kufanele "bathumele ngokushesha" imininingwane kwiyunithi yemiphumela emibi yenkampani esikhundleni salokho.
  • Ngabe iMonsanto ibambisene ku-AHS Study? IMonsanto nomnikazi omusha uBayer baphindaphindeke bafuna ukuphikisana nezifundo eziningi ezibonisa ubudlelwane phakathi kwe-glyphosate herbicides kanye nomdlavuza ngokuhlola isifundo esisodwa - isibuyekezo ku-US Government esekelwa yi-Agricultural Health Study (AHS) engatholanga buhlobo phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma . I-AHS iyingxenye eyisisekelo yokuvikela kwenkampani kumacala enkokhelo yemikhiqizo ye-Roundup. Kepha kube nemibuzo eminingi mayelana nesikhathi sokubuyekezwa kwe-AHS, egijime ngokubuyekezwa kontanga ngokushesha okukhulu kunokujwayelekile emaphepheni abuyekezwa ngontanga. Isibuyekezo ikhishwe emphakathini ekuseni ngoNovemba 9, 2017 - ngosuku olufanayo nenkantolo ebucayi yokulalelwa kwecala lomdlavuza iRoundup. Bekuyi icashunwe nguMonsanto kulelo cala "njengokuthuthuka okukhulu" kanye nesizathu sokubambezeleka kwenqubo. UMeyi 11, 2015 I-Monsanto yangaphakathi “Isiphakamiso Samaphrojekthi Womhlangano We-Post-IARC”Ixoxa ngokubakhona kwe-“ AHS Collaboration. ” IMonsanto ibize lesi siphakamiso ngokuthi “sikhanga kakhulu” njengoba kuzovela ukuthi iMonsanto “ibikude kakhulu” nalolu cwaningo.
  • Yize kukhulunywa kakhulu “ngezifundo ezingama-800”Okukhombisa ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate Monsanto kuvunyiwe ukufayila okufushaneukuthi "ayikaze ibone noma yiziphi izinyanga eziyi-12 noma ngaphezulu izifundo zobuthi ezingapheli eziye zenziwa ku-glyphosate equkethe ukwakheka obekutholakala ukuthengiswa e-United States kusukela ngoJuni 29, 2017."

Izindaba ezihlukile zenothi -Ufakazi wesayensi wabamangali uDkt Christopher Portier ngeke eze eSan Francisco ukuzofakaza ecaleni njengoba bekuhleliwe. UPortier wahlaselwa yisifo senhliziyo ngesikhathi e-Australia ekuqaleni kukaJanuwari futhi usalulama.

Esinyathelweni esamukelwe ngabameli babamangali, iJaji laseMelika uVincent Chhabria ngoMsombuluko uthe yena angavumela ubufakazi obuthile maqondana nokusolwa kwesipoki kukaMonsanto kwezifundo zesayensi esigabeni sokuqala secala elizayo naphezu kwemizamo kaMonsanto yokugcina ubufakazi bungekho kuze kube futhi ngaphandle kokuthi kuvele isigaba sesibili secala. Ubufakazi bemizamo kaMonsanto yokuthonya abalawuli nososayensi nabo bangavunyelwa esigabeni sokuqala, kusho uChabria. UChhabria ukhiphe umyalelo wokuthi icala liqulwe kabili, okusho ukuthi isigaba sokuqala sizobhekana kuphela nezinsolo zembangela. Uma ijaji lithola ukuthi ukubulala ukhula kukaMonsanto kubangelwe umdlavuza wommangali u-Edwin Hardeman, kuzobanjwa isigaba sesibili sokuhlola ukuziphatha kukaMonsanto.

Januwari 18, 2019 -Isikhathi sihamba lapho kufika icala elikhulu.IJaji Lesifunda lase-United States uVince Chhabria usemise ukulalelwa kobufakazi ngoJanuwari 28 ngo-9 ekuseni ngokwesikhathi sendawo enkantolo yenhlangano eSan Francisco okuzolandelwa ukulalelwa kwe "Daubert" ngalolo suku ngo-2 ntambama. ukucubungula ubufakazi kanye nochwepheshe okuzoba ukhiye ecaleni lokuqala lombuso lokuthatha izimangalo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula esuselwa e-glyphosate esekwe ku-Monsanto ingadala umdlavuza kanti iMonsanto izimbozile izingozi. Ukurekhodwa kwevidiyo kwamacala kuyavunyelwa.

UChhabria uthathe isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuvumelana nesicelo esivela kubameli abamele iMonsanto nomnikazi wayo uBayer AG sokuqulwa kwecala. Isigaba sokuqala, ngokwesicelo sikaMonsanto, sizosebenza kuphela ngobufakazi obufanele - uma imikhiqizo yaso idale umdlavuza ohlushwa ngummangali u-Edwin Hardeman. Ubufakazi bemizamo kaMonsanto yokulawula abalawuli kanye nezincwadi zesayensi kanye ne "ghost write" izindatshana ezahlukahlukene bezizokwethulwa kuphela esigabeni sesibili secala uma amajaji esigabeni sokuqala ethola ukuthi ukubulala ukhula bekuyinto ebalulekile ekubangeleni umdlavuza kaHardeman.

Amaqembu awaboni ngaso linye ngokuthi yibuphi ubufakazi okufanele buvunyelwe esigabeni senkinga.

IMonsanto icele ngqo ijaji ukuthi likhiphe ebufakazini:

  • I-imeyili ka-2001 echaza izingxoxo zangaphakathi maqondana nocwaningo oluzimele lwezifo olushicilelwe ngalowo nyaka.
  • I-imeyili yangaphakathi yango-2015 ephathelene nobudlelwano benkampani kanye nokuxhaswa kwe-American Council on Science and Health, iqembu elizimele ngokuzimela embonini njengoba lithuthukisa imiyalezo yokuphepha mayelana nemikhiqizo ye-glyphosate.
  • Uchungechunge lwe-imeyili lwango-2015 olufaka ukuphawula kwangaphakathi ngusosayensi waseMonsanto uBill Heydens ngendima ama-surfactants ayidlalayo kwimikhiqizo eyenziwe nge-glyphosate.

Ngokuthola iphuzu 1, abameli bakaHardeman bathe abahlose ukuzama ukwethula ubufakazi "ngaphandle uma umnyango uvulwa nguMonsanto."

Ngephoyinti 2, baphinde bathi abahlose ukwethula izincwadi ze-ACSH “ngaphandle kokuthi iMonsanto nganoma iyiphi indlela ithembele ezikhundleni zesayensi ze-ACSH ezingenamsoco maqondana ne-carcinogenicity” yama-glyphosate-based formulations “noma ukuhlaselwa kokuhlukaniswa kwe-glyphosate yi-IARC.”

Ngokuqondene nochungechunge lwe-imeyili luka-Heydens lwango-2015, abameli bakaHardeman bathi izincwadi ziyawukhanyisela lo mbuzo. I-imeyili kaHeydens ibhekisa emiphumeleni yocwaningo lwango-2010 olubizwa ngoGeorge et al., Oluthole ukwanda okuphawulekayo kwezimila esikhunjeni samagundane kulandela ukuvezwa komkhiqizo owenziwe ngeRoundup. Ucwaningo luthembele kochwepheshe bezimbangela zabamangali.

Incwadi emfushane ibeka izikhundla ngamaqembu aphikisayo ulapha.

Odabeni olwehlukile - ukuvalwa komsebenzi okuqhubekayo kukahulumeni kungathinta usuku lokuqulwa kwecala likaHardeman lwangoFebhuwari 25. Ijaji Chhabria lithe alihlosile ukucela amajaji ukuba ahlale ecaleni ngaphandle kokukhokhelwa.

Januwari 16, 2019 - (KUPHAKWE) Feb. 9, 2019) Imibhalo emisha efakwe enkantolo yenhlangano isabisa ngokudalula intatheli yezindaba zeReuters uKate Kelland ngokusebenza njengopopayi kaMonsanto ekushayeleni indaba engamanga ngososayensi womdlavuza u-Aaron Blair kanye ne-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ebeka i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen engaba khona.

Ngo-2017, uKelland wabhala indaba enempikiswano kukhonjwe "yimibhalo yasenkantolo," lokho kubonakala sengathi wondliwe ngumphathi weMonsanto owanikeza ngosizo amaphuzu ayisihluthulelo inkampani eyayifuna ukuyenza. Imibhalo uKelland akhulume ngayo ayizange ifakwe enkantolo, futhi ayitholakali esidlangalaleni ngesikhathi ebhala indaba yakhe kodwa ukubhala ukuthi indaba yakhe isuselwa kumadokhumende asenkantolo kwamvumela ukuthi agweme ukudalula iqhaza likaMonsanto ekushayeleni le ndaba.

Lapho le ndaba iphuma, iveze usosayensi womdlavuza u-Aaron Blair efihla "imininingwane ebalulekile" engatholanga ukuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza ovela e-IARC. UKelland ubhale ukuthi uBlair "uthe imininingwane ibizoguqula ukuhlaziywa kwe-IARC" yize ukubuyekezwa kokufakwa ngokuphelele kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair akashongo lokho.

UKelland akazange axhumanise nemibhalo ayikhombile, okwenza abafundi bangakwazi ukuzibona ukuthi uphambuke kangakanani ekunembeni.

Indaba yathathwa yimithombo yezindaba emhlabeni wonke, futhi yaphakanyiswa ngabalingani bemboni yamakhemikhali iMonsanto. Izikhangiso zeGoogle zaze zathengwa zaphakamisa le ndaba.

Manje, ulwazi olusha kwembulwe enkantolo ukugcwaliswa kukhombisa ukuthi sasinzima kangakanani isandla sikaMonsanto ekucindezeleni ukulandisa. Ekugcwalisweni kwenkantolo ngoJanuwari 15, abameli bommangali bacaphune ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi kweMonsanto yangomhla ka-Ephreli 27, 2017 bathi kukhombisa ukuthi isikhulu seMonsanto uSam Murphey wathumela indaba ayifunayo kuKelland indawo yesilayidi yamaphuzu okukhuluma nezingxenye zokufakwa kukaBlair ezingafakwanga enkantolo. Abameli bathi le ncwadi ikhombisa umphathi weMonsanto emcela ukuba ashicilele udaba olusola uDkt Blair ngokukhohlisa i-IARC.

Abameli bakaMonsanto kanye neBayer bazamile ukugcina ukuxhumana noKelland kuvaliwe emphakathini, futhi amanye ama-imeyili phakathi kwentatheli yeReuters noMonsanto akakakhishwa.

Abameli bommangali baphinde babhale encwadini yabo emfushane ukuthi imibhalo yangaphakathi kaMonsanto ikhombisa ukuthi uKelland ubonwe njengomxhumanisi ophambili kwabezindaba emizamweni yabo yokuhlambalaza i-IARC.

Akukho lutho olungalungile ngokwemvelo ekwamukeleni iziphakamiso zezindaba ezizuzisa izinkampani ezivela ezinkampanini uqobo. Kwenzeka ngaso sonke isikhathi. Kepha izintatheli kumele zikhuthalele ukwethula amaqiniso, hhayi inkulumo-ze yenkampani.

Le ndaba isetshenziswe yiMonsanto ukuhlasela i-IARC ezingxenyeni eziningi, kufaka phakathi umzamo weMonsanto ukwenza iCongress ihlwithe imali kusuka ku-IARC.

Okungenani, uKelland bekufanele athembeke kubafundi futhi avume ukuthi iMonsanto yayingumthombo wakhe. AbakwaReuters bakweleta umhlaba - ne-IARC - ukuxolisa.Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngalesi sihloko, bona lo mbhalo.

Janawari 10, 2019 -Kulabo abafuna imininingwane eyengeziwe mayelana nokucabanga kanye nokuhlelwa kabusha kwesinqumo sejaji lasenkantolo yenhlangano yokukhawulela inani elikhulu lobufakazi obuhlobene nokuxhumana kwangaphakathi kukaMonsanto nokuziphatha kusukela ecaleni lokuqala lombuso, lo mbhalokokulalelwa kukaJanuwari 4 ngalolu daba kuyafundisa.

Nakhu ukushintshana phakathi kommeli wommangali uBrent Wisner kanye neJaji uVince Chhabria okukhombisa ukukhungatheka nokwesaba abameli bommangali abanomkhawulo wobufakazi babo ekuqondiseni imbangela, ngobufakazi obuningi obuphathelene nokuziphatha kukaMonsanto nokuxhumana kwangaphakathi kuvinjelwe. Ijaji lithe ubufakazi buzongena kuphela esigabeni sesibili secala uma amajaji esigabeni sokuqala ethola ukuthi imikhiqizo kaMonsanto's Roundup ibambe iqhaza elikhulu kakhulu kumdlavuza wommangali.

  1. WISNER: Nasi isibonelo esihle: Isazi sezobuthi esikhulu sikaMonsanto,

UDonna Farmer, ubhala nge-imeyili: Asikwazi ukusho ukuthi Roundup

ayibangeli umdlavuza. Asikakwenzi ukuhlolwa okudingekayo

kumkhiqizo owenziwe.

INKANTOLO: Lokho bekungeke kungene - ukusabela kwami ​​esiswini

wukuthi lokho bekungeke kungene esigabeni sokuqala.

  1. WISNER: Ngakho-ke lokho empeleni kuyinduna kaMonsanto

i-toxicologist - umuntu onolwazi oluningi nge-Roundup

kunanoma ngubani omunye emhlabeni - ethi -

INKANTOLO: Umbuzo uthi ngabe ubanga umdlavuza,

hhayi ukuthi - hhayi umbono kaMlimi ngalokho uMonsanto angakusho noma

angisho. Imayelana nalokho okukhonjiswa yisayensi empeleni.

  1. UMLALEKI: Impela. Ukhuluma ngokoqobo nge

isayensi abangayenzanga.

INKANTOLO: Amathumbu ami ukuthi lokho empeleni kuyi-a

Umbuzo olula impela, nempendulo yalokho kulula

Umbuzo uthi lokho akungeni esigabeni sokuqala. ”

Hlala ubukele….

Janawari 9, 2019 - Isivivinyo sokuqala sikahulumeni ku-Roundup Products Liability Litigation kungenzeka ukuthi sisengaphezulu kwenyanga, kepha ikhalenda limatasa nabameli ezinhlangothini zombili. Bheka ngezansi isheduli ebekwe yijaji ngomyalelo ofakwe izolo:

ISIQONDISO SE-PRETRIAL oda. 63: UKUFIKA KWEZIMPAHLA ZOKUPHILA KWESILINGO SEBELLWETHER.

  • Ukulalelwa kobufakazi kusethwe ngo-1/28/2019/09: 00 ekuseni eSan Francisco, Igumbi Lenkantolo 04, Isitezi se-17 phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria.
  • UDkt Shustov's UDaubert Ukuzwa kulungiselelwe u-1/28/2019/02: 00 PM eSan Francisco, Igumbi Lenkantolo 04, Isitezi se-17 phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria.
  • Ukukhethwa kweJury ukuqedela uhlu lwemibuzo olwengeziwe ehhovisi labasizi bejaji (hhayi kwirekhodi noma enkantolo) elibekelwe umhlaka 2/13/2019 08:30 AM eSan Francisco.
  • Ukukhethwa kweJury (ubunzima kanye nenselelo kubangelwa ukuthethwa kwecala nabameli kanye neNkantolo) ebekelwe umhlaka 2/15/2019 10:30 AM eSan Francisco, eNkantolo yaseNkantolo 04, ku-17 Floor phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria.

Janawari 7, 2019 - Unyaka omusha uqale ngamandla eMonsanto njengoba uphiko lweBayer selungena ecaleni lalo lesibili ngezinsolo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula iRoundup namanye ama-glyphosate abangela umdlavuza. KwiJanuwari 3 isinqumo, IJaji Lesifunda lase-US uVince Chhabria uzenqabile izimpikiswano zabameli abamele izisulu zomdlavuza futhi waba sohlangothini lweMonsanto ekunqumeni ukuvimba ama-jurors ekuzweni ingxenye enkulu yobufakazi abathi abamangali bathi ikhombisa imizamo kaMonsanto yokukhohlisa nokuthonya abalawuli esigabeni sokuqala secala. Esinqumweni sokuhlukanisa icala, uChhabria uthe amajaji azobuzwa lobo bufakazi kuphela uma eqala avuma ukuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto ube negalelo elibonakalayo ekwenzeni ukuthi ummangali angabi yiHodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

“Ingxenye enkulu yecala labamangali ifaka ukuhlaselwa kweMonsanto ngenhloso yokuzama ukuthonya ama-ejensi alawulayo nokukhohlisa umbono womphakathi maqondana ne-glyphosate. Lezi zinkinga zihambisana nokulimala kokujeziswa kanye neminye imibuzo yesikweletu. Kepha uma kukhulunywa ngokuthi ngabe i-glyphosate idale i-NHL kommangali, lezi zinkinga ikakhulukazi ziyisiphazamiso, futhi zibalulekile kulokho, ”kusho umyalo wejaji.

Wabhala ngokubhala, "uma abamangali benobufakazi bokuthi iMonsanto ilawule imiphumela yezifundo zesayensi, ngokungafani nezinqumo ze-ejensi noma umbono womphakathi maqondana nalezo zifundo, lobo bufakazi bungamukeleka esigabeni senhlangano."

Ukukhethwa kwabasizi bejaji kulindeleke ukuthi kuqale uFebhuwari 20 kanti kuzobe kuqala ukuqulwa kwecala ngoFebhuwari 25 eSan Francisco. Icala lelo U-Edwin Hardeman v. Monsanto.

Khonamanjalo, ummangali u-Lee Johnson, owayeyisisulu sokuqala somdlavuza ukuyisa uMonsanto enkantolo, ngokuwina isinqumo senkantolo ngazwi linye ngokumelene nenkampani ngo-Agasti, naye uphumelele isicelo sakhe eNkantolo Yesifunda Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yokuqala ngokusingathwa ngokushesha kwesikhalazo sikaMonsanto salowo mklomelo wejaji. IMonsanto isiphikisile isicelo sikaJohnson sokuthi "athande ikhalenda," kepha inkantolo isivumile isicelo ngoDisemba 1, yanikeza iMonsanto izinsuku ezingama-27 ukuthi ifake isifinyezo sayo sokuvula.

December 20, 2018 - IJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoLwesine uthe ngeke aze akhiphe isinqumo kuze kube nguJanuwari ngodaba oluphikisanayo lokuhlukaniswa kwecala lokuqala likahulumeni, okulindeleke ukuthi liqale ngoFebhuwari. Abameli babamangali kanye neMonsanto ayeyalwe ukufaka yonke imibiko yochwepheshe babo ngoLwesihlanu, Disemba 21 ukusiza uChabria esinqumweni sakhe.

December 18, 2018 -Abameli beMonsanto / Bayer baphendule ngoLwesihlanu kwizicelo zokuqokwa kwamarekhodi eziphathelene namarekhodi angaphakathi angamakhulu ambalwa eMonsanto, befuna ukugcina iningi labo livaliwe liphikisana nezicelo ezivela kubameli babamangali. Abameli benkampani bavumile ukukhishwa kwemibhalo ethile yangaphakathi, engabekwa emphakathini kuleli sonto.

Okwamanje zombili izinhlangothi zilindele isinqumo esivela kuJaji weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US uVince Chhabria ngomhlaka a ukunyakaza okwenziwe ngabameli bakaMonsanto ukuguqula kabusha bifurcate icala lokuqala lenkantolo yombuso ecaleni elibanzi lomdlavuza weRoundup. Leli cala kulindeleke ukuthi liqale ngoFebhuwari 25 futhi lithathwa njenge-bellwether elizobeka isiteji sokuthi amanye amacala aqhubeka kanjani futhi / noma axazululwe kanjani.

IMonsanto ingathanda ukuthi izivivinyo zenkantolo yenhlangano ziqhutshwe ngezigaba ezimbili — isigaba sokuqala esigxile ekubangekeni kwezokwelapha - ingabe ukubulala ukhula kwenkampani kubangele umdlavuza wommangali othile - kanti isigaba sesibili ukubhekana nesikweletu kuphela uma abamangali benqoba esigabeni sokuqala.

Izingqinamba zezimbangela kanye nomonakalo wesinxephezelo “zihlukile futhi azifani nezinsolo zobudedengu bukaMonsanto nokuziphatha kwenkampani futhi kuzobandakanya ubufakazi kofakazi abehlukene,” kusho le nkampani. Ukuhlukanisa phakathi kwemigwaqo kuzogwema “ukubambezeleka okungafanele ekuxazululeni leli cala…”

Abameli babamangali phikisana nokuhlukaniswa okuhlukile ukusho ukuthi lo mbono "awuzwakali" ezinkantolo zamanje zesifunda eziningi (MDL), nokuyinto uChabria ayengamele. Bangaphezu kuka-600 abasolwa abasolwa enkantolo yakhe abasolwa ngokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula esuselwa e-glyphosate-based based yabangela umdlavuza wabamangali, kanti iMonsanto yehluleka ukuxwayisa abathengi ngobungozi bemikhiqizo yayo.

“Akukaze kwenziwe, futhi kunesizathu esizwakalayo,” kusho abameli babamangali enkantolo ngesikhathi kufakwa inkantolo ngoDisemba 13. “Inhloso yokuqulwa kwe-bellwether ukuvumela uhlangothi ngalunye ukuthi luvivinye imibono yabo nobufakazi obumelene nejaji lomhlaba wangempela futhi, ngethemba, ukuthi bafunde imininingwane ebalulekile mayelana namandla nobuthakathaka becala ukwazisa ngesinqumo esihlangene. Ukubeka umgoqo wenqubo ohlangothini olulodwa — ongaba ngumthengisi wezinto ezithile emacaleni ayi-10,000 4 aqhubeka ezweni lonke — akuwufezi lowo mgomo. Kukhishwa noma yisiphi isinqumo kule MDL, noma ngabe yiliphi uhlangothi eliphumelelayo, akusizi. ” Ukulalelwa kwecala elilandelayo kuleli cala kubekelwe uJanuwari XNUMX.

Disemba 14, 2018 - Ummangali Ufuna Ukusingathwa Ngokudluliswa Kokudluliswa Kwezimvo Ngokushesha Kwempilo Yakhe

UDewayne “Lee” Johnson, ummangali wokuqala ukuthatha uMonsanto ayomangalela izinsolo ezibulala ukhula ezibangelwa yinkampani i-glyphosate ezibangela umdlavuza, kulindeleke ukuthi ahlinzwe namuhla ukuze kususwe isifo somdlavuza esisha engalweni yakhe.

Impilo kaJohnson ibiwohloka kusukela ekuphethweni kwecala ngo-Agasti nokuphazamiseka ekwelashweni ngenxa yokuphela kwesikhashana komshwalense. Akakatholi zimali ezivela enkantolo ngenxa yezikhalazo uMonsanto abhebhezelwa zona ngemuva kokunqoba kwenkantolo kaJohnson. UMonsanto udlulisa isinqumo ngesinqumo esingu- $ 78 million, esancishiswa yijaji elaliqhamuka emkhankasweni wejaji wama- $ 289 million.

UJohnson wafaka isaziso enkantolo ngo-Okthoba ukuthi uzowamukela lo mklomelo owehlisiwe. Kepha ngenxa yokuthi uMonsanto udlulile, abameli bakaJohnson nabo bafake isicelo sokudlulisa icala, befuna ukubuyisela umklomelo wejaji.

Inkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseCalifornia, 1st Isifunda sokudluliswa kwamacala, inombolo yecala ngu- A155940. Abameli bakaJohnson bafuna ukusheshiswa kokuphathwa kwesikhalazo futhi bathi banethemba lokuthi izokwaziswa ngokushesha ngo-Ephreli. “Kukhona… maningi amathuba okuthi uMnu Johnson uzofa ngo-2019,” i Isiphakamiso sommangali sithi. UJohnson, ohlela ukuqala kabusha i-immunotherapy ngemuva kokuhlinzwa kwakhe, akusho ukuthi uyavumelana.

“Ngiyakuzonda ukucabanga ngokufa,” kusho yena enkulumweni eshicilelwe ku-Time Magazine. “Ngisho noma ngizwa sengathi ngiyafa, ngivele ngizenzele ukudlula lapho. Nginomuzwa wokuthi awukwazi ukunikela kuso, ukuxilongwa, isifo, ngoba-ke ufile ngempela. Angazihluphi ngefu lokufa, imicabango emnyama, ukwesaba. Ngihlelela impilo emnandi. ”

Disemba 13, 2018 - Izicathulo eziningi zeMonsanto (Imibhalo) isethelwe kuDrop

Inkampani yabammeli iBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman, ebibambisene neMiller Firm ekunqobeni ukunqoba okungokomlando kommangali uDewayne Lee Johnson phezu kweMonsanto ngo-Agasti, ifuna ukususwa kwamakhasi angamakhulu amaningana amarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto atholakala ngokutholakala kepha kuze kube manje ugcinwe uvaliwe.

U-Baum Hedlund ngonyaka odlule wakhipha amakhulu amanye amarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto afaka phakathi ama-imeyili, ama-memos, imiyalezo kanye nokunye ukuxhumana okwaba nomthelela esinqumweni esisodwa sokuthola ukuthi iMonsanto yasebenza "ngobubi" ngokungaxwayisi amakhasimende ngezinkinga zesayensi mayelana nokubulala ukhula kwayo okususelwa ku-glyphosate . Imithombo yeJury ithi lawo marekhodi angaphakathi abenomthelela omkhulu emiklomelweni yabo yokulimaza engu- $ 250 million yokujeziswa kweMonsanto, ijaji kuleli cala elehlise laba ngama- $ 39 million ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 78 million.

Abameli babamangali ezilingo ezimbili ezizayo bathi amarekhodi eMonsanto angakaze abonwe esidlangalaleni phambilini azoba yingxenye yobufakazi obusha abahlela ukubethula kulezi zivivinyo.

Namuhla futhi kungumnqamulajuqu wokuthi abameli babamangali baphendule esinyakazweni sikaMonsanto esithi “buyisela emuva bifurcate” icala likaFebhuwari 25 elibekelwe iNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia. (bona ukufakwa kukaDisemba 11 ngezansi ukuthola eminye imininingwane)

Disemba 12, 2018 - IJaji elisha liqokwe ePilliod Case

Ijaji laseNkantolo Ephakeme Yase-Alameda County u-Ioana Petrou, osechithe isikhathi esingaphezu konyaka ebambe iqhaza enkantolo yamacala omdlavuza we-Roundup futhi wahlala ezinsukwini eziningi ekwethulweni kobufakazi besayensi ngabamangali nochwepheshe bezokuvikela enkantolo yomfelandawonye ngoMashi 2017, akekho kuleli cala . Umphathi waseCalifornia uJerry Brown wamemezela ngoNovemba 21 ukuthi uPetrou uqokelwe ubulungiswa obusondelene naye, iDivision Three yeNkantolo Yokuqala Yokudlulisa Amacala.

IJaji uWinifred Smith uqokwe esikhundleni sikaPetrou ukwengamela icala likaPilliod V. Monsanto, okulindeleke ukuthi liqulwe ngoMashi 8 e-Oakland, eCalifornia. USmith waqokwa nguMphathi uGrey Davis ngoNovemba 2000, futhi ngaphambi kokuqokwa kwakhe, wasebenza njengesekela lomsizi wommeli-jikelele woMnyango Wezobulungiswa eSan Francisco.

Icala likaPilliod lizoba ngelesithathu ukuthethwa kwecala elibhekene ne-Roundup mass tort. U-Alva Pilliod nomkakhe u-Alberta Pilliod, bobabili abaseminyakeni yama-70s futhi abashade iminyaka engama-48, basola ukuthi umdlavuza wabo - izinhlobo ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma - kungenxa yokuchayeka kwabo isikhathi eside kuRoundup. Iminyaka yabo esezingeni eliphezulu kanye nokuxilongwa komdlavuza kuqinisekisa ukuqulwa kwecala ngokushesha, ngokokugcwaliswa kwenkantolo ngabameli babo. UMonsanto uphikisana nesicelo sabo sosuku lokuqulwa kwecala olusheshayo kepha uPetrou wathola ukuthi ukugula kanye neminyaka yalombhangqwana kufanele ikhethwe. I-Alberta inomdlavuza wobuchopho kuyilapho u-Alva enenkinga yomdlavuza ohlasele ukhalo nomgogodla. U-Alva watholakala ngo-2011 kwathi i-Alberta yatholakala ngo-2015. Basebenzise i-Roundup kusukela cishe maphakathi nawo-1970 kwaze kwaba yiminyaka embalwa edlule.

Isimangalo sePilliod sinanela abanye lapho bethi "iMonsanto ihole umkhankaso wesikhathi eside wolwazi olungelona iqiniso ukuze kuqinisekiswe izinhlaka zikahulumeni, abalimi kanye nomphakathi jikelele ukuthi iRoundup iphephile."

UDisemba 11, 2018 - Abammeli Abaphikisana Phambi Kokulingwa Okulandelayo

Ngokuqulwa kwecala elilandelayo enkantolo yamacala omdlavuza weRoundup abekelwe uFebhuwari 25 eSan Francisco, abameli beMonsanto kanye nabamangali bayaphikisana nokuthatha imali engaphezulu kweshumi nambili emasontweni kaDisemba nangoJanuwari njengoba bephikisana ngokuthi icala kufanele zihleleke.

Abameli beMonsanto ngoDisemba 10 bafaka isiphakamiso sokuthi "kubuyiselwe emuva bifurcate" icala elilandelayo, U-Edwin Hardeman V. Monsanto (3: 16-cv-00525). IMonsanto ifuna ukuthi ijaji lilalele ubufakazi kuphela obugxile kunkambiso ethile yezokwelapha kuqala - ingabe ukhula lwalo lokubulala ukhula lwadala umdlavuza kommangali - ngesigaba sesibili esizobhekana nesibopho seMonsanto kanye nomonakalo odingekayo kuphela uma ijaji litholwa ngummangali esigabeni sokuqala. Bheka Impikiswano kaMonsanto lapha. IJaji uChhabria unikeze isicelo sabameli bommangali ukuthi bavunyelwe kuze kube nguLwesine ukufaka impendulo yabo.

U-Edwin Hardeman nomkakhe bachitha iminyaka eminingi behlala endaweni engamahektare angama-56, okuyisiphephelo sangaphambilini sezilwane eSonoma County, eCalifornia lapho uHardeman wayehlala esebenzisa imikhiqizo yakwaRoundup ukwelapha utshani nokhula obukhule kakhulu kusukela ngawo-1980. Kutholwe ukuthi une-B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngoFebhuwari 2015, inyanga nje ngaphambi kokuthi i-International Agency for Research on Cancer imemezele ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu.

Icala likaHardeman lakhethwa njengelokuqala ukuqulwa enkantolo yaseSan Francisco (esifundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia) phambi kweJaji uVince Chhabria. Ummeli u-Aimee Wagstaff waseDenver, eColorado, ungummeli wommangali ohola leli cala. Ummeli uBrent Wisner wenkampani yabammeli iBaum Hedlund eLos Angeles, kanye nommeli owahlonishwa ngokuhola ukunqoba empumelelweni yomlando ka-Agasti ka-Dewayne Lee Johnson behlula iMonsanto, bekulindeleke ukuthi basize ekuzameni leli cala kodwa manje sekuzoba nelinye icala okumele liqale ngoMashi. Leli cala nguPilliod, et al V. Monsanto eNkantolo Ephakeme Yase-Alameda County. Bona amadokhumenti ahlobene ku- IMonsanto Papers ikhasi eliyinhloko.

Umnikazi omusha weMonsanto uBayer AG akanelisekile ngokuthembela eqenjini lecala likaMonsanto elahlulwa yicala likaJohnson futhi liletha iqembu lalo lezokuvikela. Ithimba leBayer, elisize inkampani yaseJalimane ukunqoba amacala okulwa ne-Xarelto blood thinner, manje sekubandakanya uPamela Yates no-Andrew Solow we-Arnold & Porter Kaye Scholer noBrian Stekloff kaWilkinson Walsh Eskovitz.

Ukulalelwa kwezingqinamba ezithile kusethwe ecaleni likaHardeman likaFebhuwari 4, 6, 11, no-13 ngokukhethwa kwabasizi bejaji okuhlelelwe uFebhuwari 20. Ukuphikisana kokuvula kuzoqala ngoFebhuwari 25, ngokwesheduli yamanje.

Disemba 6, 2018 - Izinsuku Zesilingo ZaseMonsanto Ezizayo

2/25/2019 - Inkantolo Yombuso - uHardeman

3/18/2019 - CA JCCP - Pilliod (2 abamangali)

4/1/2019 - ISt. Louis City Court - IHholo

4/22/2019 - ISt. Louis County Court - Gordon

5/25/2019 - IFederal Court - uStevick noma uGebeyehou

9/9/2019 - INkantolo Yesifunda saseSt. Louis - abamangali abayi-4

1/21/2020 - Inkantolo yaseSt. Louis City - abamangali abayi-10

3/23/2020 - Inkantolo yaseSt

Novemba 21, 2018 - Ingxoxo kaLee Johnson

UDewayne “Lee” Johnson waba ngumuntu wokuqala ukuyisa uMonsanto enkantolo esola ukuthi ukuvezwa kwe-Roundup herbicide kwamenza waba ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi inkampani yahlanganisa izingozi. Ngo-Agasti 2018, ijaji eSan Francisco ngazwi linye lathola ukuthi iMonsanto yehlulekile ukuxwayisa ngobungozi be-carcinogenic ye-Roundup herbicide nemikhiqizo ehlobene nayo, base benika uJohnson $ 289 million. Kamuva ijaji lanciphisa lelo nani laba amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-78. UCarey Gillam ukhulume noJohnson ngemiphumela yecala lakhe kule ngxoxo yephephabhuku i-TIME:Ngiwine Icala Lomlando Kodwa Ngingaze Ngithole Imali

 

Ukuhlolwa kwe-EPA kwamakhemikhali kudonsa ukugxekwa kososayensi bayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ososayensi abaningi baseMelika abasebenzela i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bathi ababethembi abaholi abaphezulu balesi sikhungo ukuthi bazothembeka futhi bayesaba ukuziphindiselela uma bezobika ukwephulwa komthetho, ngokocwaningo lwabasebenzi olwenziwe ngo-2020.

Ngokusho the I-Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey yango-2020, okwenziwe yi-US Office of Personnel Management, amaphesenti angama-75 abasebenzi be-EPA ophikweni lweNational Program Chemicals Division abaphendule kulolu cwaningo bakhombisa ukuthi abacabangi ukuthi ubuholi obuphezulu bale nhlangano bugcine “amazinga aphezulu okuthembeka nobuqotho.” Amaphesenti angamashumi ayisithupha nanhlanu abasebenzi abaphendula oPhikweni Lokuhlola Ubungozi baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Okushaqisayo futhi, amaphesenti angama-53 abaphenduli ophikweni lwe-EPA's Risk Assessment Division athe abakwazi ukudalula ukusolwa kokwephula umthetho noma umthethonqubo ngaphandle kokwesaba ukujeziswa. Amaphesenti angamashumi amane nantathu abaphendula abasebenzi be-EPA e-Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Imizwa engemihle ekhonjiswe emiphumeleni yocwaningo ihambisana nemibiko ekhulayo yokungalungi ngaphakathi kwezinhlelo zokuhlolwa kwamakhemikhali ze-EPA, ngokusho kwePublic Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER).

"Kufanele kube nokukhathazeka okukhulu ukuthi ngaphezu kwengxenye yamakhemikhali e-EPA kanye nabanye ochwepheshe abasebenza ngezinkinga ezibalulekile zezempilo yomphakathi abazizwa bekhululekile ukubika izinkinga noma ukwephulwa kwefulegi," kusho uMqondisi Omkhulu we-PEER uTim Whitehouse, owayengummeli we-EPA. isitatimende.

Ekuqaleni kwale nyanga, iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine kusho i-EPAImikhuba yokuhlola ubungozi ngaphakathi kohlaka loMthetho Wokulawulwa Kwezinto Eziyingozi "ibiphansi kakhulu."

"Ubuholi obusha be-EPA buzosebenza ngokugcwele ekulungiseni lo mkhumbi ocwilayo," kusho uWhitehouse.

Ngemuva kokuthatha izintambo ngoJanuwari, uMongameli uJoe Biden wakhipha umyalelo omkhulu wokuthi i-EPA ngaphansi kweBiden ingaphambukela esimweni sayo kumakhemikhali amaningana ezinqumweni ezenziwa yile nhlangano ngaphansi kukamongameli wangaphambilini uDonald Trump.

In izincwadi yangomhla kaJanuwari 21, i-EPA Office of General Counsell yathi okulandelayo:

“Ngokuhambisana ne-Executive Order kaMongameli Biden Yokuvikela Impilo Yomphakathi kanye Nezemvelo kanye Nokubuyisela Isayensi Ukubhekana Nesimo Sezulu esikhishwe ngoJanuwari 20, 2021, (Health and Environment EO), lokhu kuzoqinisekisa isicelo sami egameni le-US Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA) ukuthi uMnyango Wezobulungiswa wase-US (i-DOJ) ufune futhi uthole ama-abeyance noma ukuhlala kwezinqubo zamacala okulindelwe enkantolo afuna ukubuyekezwa kokwahlulela kwanoma imuphi umthethonqubo we-EPA owakhishwa phakathi kukaJanuwari 20, 2017, noJanuwari 20, 2021, noma ufuna ukusungula umnqamulajuqu we-EPA ukumemezela umthethonqubo maqondana nesihloko sanoma yikuphi okunjalo

Olunye ucwaningo lwe-Roundup luthola izixhumanisi ezingaba nezinkinga zempilo yabantu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Kubuyekezwe uFebhuwari 17, kungeza ukugxekwa kokufunda)

A iphepha elisha lesayensi Ukuhlola imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ye-Roundup herbicides kutholakale ukuxhumana phakathi kokuchayeka kumakhemikhali okubulala ukhula i-glyphosate nokwanda kohlobo lwe-amino acid olwaziwa njengengozi yesifo senhliziyo.

Abaphenyi benza izinqumo zabo ngemuva kokudalula amagundane akhulelwe kanye namazinyane abo asanda kuzalwa ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup ngamanzi okuphuza. Bathe babheke ngqo imiphumela ye-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kuma-metabolites we-urinary nokuxhumana ne-gut microbiome ezilwaneni.

Abaphenyi bathi bathole ukwanda okukhulu kwe-amino acid ebizwa nge-homocysteine ​​emidlwane yamaduna evezwe ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup.

"Ucwaningo lwethu lunikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokuthi ukuvezwa kwe-GBH esetshenziswa kakhulu, kumthamo wokuvezwa komuntu owamukelekayo njengamanje, uyakwazi ukuguqula imetabolites yomchamo kubo bobabili abantu abadala bamagundane namazinyane," kusho abaphenyi.

Leli phepha elinesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa komthamo ophansi wemithi yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo nokusebenzisana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” kubhalwe ngabaphenyi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York kanti abane baphuma eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy. Ishicilelwe kumagazini iScientific Reports ngoFebhuwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile ukulinganiselwa okuningi esifundweni sabo, kufaka phakathi usayizi omncane wesampula, kepha bathi umsebenzi wabo ukhombisile ukuthi "ukutholakala komthamo ophansi wokukhulelwa kanye nobuncane be-glyphosate noma i-Roundup kushintshe kakhulu ama-biomarker amaningi womchamo, emadamini nasenzalweni."

Lolu cwaningo lungolokuqala ngoshintsho lwe-metabolomic ye-urinary olwenziwe ngama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate emithamo njengamanje ebhekwa njengephephile kubantu, kusho abacwaningi.

Leli phepha lilandela ukushicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ka isifundo emaphephandabeni Impilo Yemvelo ethola i-glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo we-Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute nabo babambe iqhaza kulolo cwaningo.

URobin Mesnage, ongomunye wababhali bephepha elashicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ku-Environmental Health Perspectives, wakuphikisa ukuba semthethweni kwephepha elisha. Uthe ukuhlaziywa kwedatha kukhombisa umehluko otholakele phakathi kwezilwane ezivezwe ku-glyphosate nalezo ezingadalulwanga - izilwane ezilawulayo - nazo bezingatholakala ngokufanayo ngemininingwane ekhiqizwe ngokungahleliwe.

“Sekukonke, ukuhlaziywa kwedatha akusekeli isiphetho sokuthi i-glyphosate iphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kanye ne-gut microbiota yezilwane eziveziwe,” kusho uMesnage. "Lolu cwaningo luzoqhubeka nokudida kancane impikiswano ngobuthi be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezimbalwa zakamuva ku-glyphosate naku-Roundup bathole ukukhathazeka okuningi.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

IBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe abantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-11 ukukhokha izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000 XNUMX.

 

 

Isitshalo esonakalisa i-pesticide sivaliwe; Bona imibhalo yokulawula yeNebraska ephathelene nezinkinga ze-AltEn neonicotinoid

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

QAPHELA - NgoFebhuwari, cishe ngemuva kwenyanga ngemuva kokubika kwembule ubungozi bomkhuba wesitshalo se-AltEn wokusebenzisa imbewu ephethwe yi-pesticide, abalawuli bezwe laseNebraska wayala isitshalo ukuthi sivalwe.  

Bona le ndaba kaJanuwari 10 eThe Guardian, okwaba ngeyokuqala ukudalula amazinga ayingozi emithi yokubulala izinambuzane engcolisa umphakathi omncane eNebraska nokungasebenzi okwenziwa ngabalawuli.

Ukukhathazeka kugxile ku-AltEn, isitshalo se-ethanol eMead, eNebraska, obekulokhu kunjalo umthombo wezikhalazo eziningi zomphakathi ngaphezulu kokusetshenziswa kwembewu eboshwe ngezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze isetshenziswe ekukhiqizeni kwayo i-biofuel kanye nemikhiqizo edoti evelayo, ekhonjisiwe ukuthi iqukethe amazinga ama-neonicotinoids ayingozi namanye ama-pesticides angaphezulu kwamazinga ngokuvamile abhekwa njengaphephile.

Ukukhathazeka eMead kuyisibonelo sakamuva sokwanda kokwesaba komhlaba jikelele ngemithelela yama-neonicotinoids.

Bona lapha eminye yemibhalo elawula impikiswano kanye ezinye izinto zokwakha isizinda:

Ukuhlaziywa kokusanhlamvu kwe-wetcake okusanhlamvu

Ukuhlaziywa kwamanzi angcolile 

Ephreli 2018 isikhalazo sesakhamuzi

Impendulo yombuso ezikhalweni zika-Ephreli 2018

Kwangathi uMeyi 2018 uphendula ngezikhalazo

I-AltEn Stop sebenzisa futhi uthengise incwadi ngoJuni 2019

Incwadi yombuso yenqaba izimvume futhi ixoxa ngezinkinga

May 2018 uhlu lwabalimi lapho basabalalisa khona imfucuza

Julayi 2018 ingxoxo ngembewu emanzi ephathwa

Sep 2020 incwadi iphinde ichitheke ngezithombe

Incwadi ka-Okthoba 2020 yokungathobeli

Izithombe zasemoyeni zesayithi ezithathwe ngumbuso

I-Neonicotinoids Ingazibulala Kanjani Izinyosi

Amathrendi ezinsalela ze-neonicotinoid pesticide ekudleni nasemanzini e-United States, 1999-2015

Incwadi evela kochwepheshe bezempilo eya kwi-EPA isexwayiso ngama-neonicotinoids

Incwadi evela ku-Endocrine Society eya ku-EPA kuma-neonicotinoids 

Ama-pesticides we-Neonicotinoid angahlala emakethe yase-US, kusho i-EPA

Isikhalazo eCalifornia sokulawula imbewu ephathwe nge-neonic

Izinyosi Ezinyamalalayo: Isayensi, Ezombusazwe kanye ne-Honeybee Health (Rutgers University Press, 2017)

IBayer yenza uhlelo olusha lwama- $ 2 billion lokuqeda izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngoLwesithathu ubesazama futhi ukuphatha nokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo, kubekwa eceleni isivumelwano esingu- $ 2 billion neqembu labammeli bommangali uBayer athemba ukuthi bazothola ukuvunywa yijaji likahulumeni ngubani wenqaba uhlelo lwangaphambilini Ihlobo elidlule.

Ngokuphawulekile, lesi sivumelwano sidinga iBayer ukuthi ifune imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukufaka imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela ezifundweni zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate.

Ukwengeza, ngokusho kukaBayer, lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama esizonxephezela "abafaka izicelo ezifanelekile" ohlelweni lweminyaka emine; ukusungula iphaneli lesayensi elelulekayo okutholakele kwalo kungasetshenziswa njengobufakazi kumacala angahle abe khona esikhathini esizayo; kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokucwaninga nokuxilonga zocwaningo lwezokwelapha kanye / noma lwesayensi ekuhloleni nasekwelapheni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Uhlelo kumele luvunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni saseNyakatho saseCalifornia. UChhabria ubengamele ukubekwa kwamacala amaningi eRoundup multidistrict.

UBayer uthe amalungu amakilasi afanelekayo eminyakeni emine ezayo azokwazi ukuthola amazinga wemiklomelo ekhokhelwayo ngokuya ngemikhombandlela ebekwe esivumelwaneni. “Isigaba sokuhlala” sibhekise kubantu ababekade bevezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup kepha bengakafaki icala enkantolo abathi balimalekile ngenxa yalokho kuvezwa.

Amalungu ekilasi lezokuhlala azokwazi ukuthola isinxephezelo phakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000, kusho uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ukusatshalaliswa kwesikhwama sokuhlala kuzokwenzeka kanjena:
* Isikhwama Sesinxephezelo - Okungenani ama- $ 1.325 billion
* Uhlelo Lokuhlinzeka Ngokutholakala Kokuxilonga - $ 210 million
* Uhlelo Lwezimali Zocwaningo - $ 40 million
* Izindleko Zokulawulwa Kwezokuhlala, Izindleko Zokweluleka KwePhaneli Yesayensi, Izindleko Zesigaba Sokuhlala, Izintela,
kanye nezimali nezindleko ze-Ecrow Agent - Kuze kube yizigidi ezingama- $ 55
Uhlelo lokuhlongozwa oluhlongozwayo lwamacala ezenzo zesigaba esizayo luhlukile ku- isivumelwano sokukhokha IBayer yenziwa nabameli bamangali angamashumi ezinkulungwane asebevele baletha izimangalo ezithi ukutholakala kweRoundup nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate kubenze ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.
Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ucwaningo olusha luthola izinguquko ezihlobene ne-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha lwezilwane olwenziwe iqembu labaphenyi baseYurophu lithole ukuthi amazinga aphansi okhula olubulala ukhula amakhemikhali glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo osuselwa ku-glyphosate-based Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo.

Leli phepha, ishicilelwe ngoLwesithathu kulo magazini Impilo Yemvelo, ibhalwe ngabaphenyi abayi-13, kubandakanya nomholi oqhuba izifundo uDkt.Michael Antoniou, oyinhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group eMnyangweni Wezokwelapha Nemolekyuli Yezakhi zofuzo eKing's College eLondon, noDkt. iqembu elifanayo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy, babambe iqhaza ocwaningweni njengoba kwenza ososayensi baseFrance nabaseNetherlands.

Imiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome itholwe ukuthi ibangelwe yindlela efanayo yokusebenza lapho i-glyphosate isebenza ukubulala ukhula nezinye izitshalo, kusho abacwaningi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta esinomthelela emisebenzini yokuzivikela ezifweni nakwezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile, nokuphazamiseka kwalolo hlelo kungaba nomthelela ezigulini zezifo, kusho abacwaningi.

"Kokubili i-glyphosate ne-Roundup kube nomthelela ekubunjweni kwenani lamagciwane," kusho u-Antoniou kusho engxoxweni. “Siyazi ukuthi amathumbu ethu ahlala ezinkulungwaneni zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nokulinganisela ekwakhekeni kwawo, futhi okubaluleke kakhulu ekusebenzeni kwawo, kubalulekile empilweni yethu. Ngakho-ke noma yini ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kabi, i-gut microbiome… inamandla okudala impilo ebuthaka ngoba sisuka ekusebenzeni okulinganiselayo okulungele impilo kuya ekusebenzeni okungalingani okungaholela ezinhlotsheni eziningi zezifo ezahlukahlukene. ”

Bona ingxoxo kaCarey Gillam uDkt. Michael Antonoiu noDkt. Robin Mesnage ngocwaningo lwabo olusha olubheka umthelela we-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elisha bathe banqume ukuthi, ngokungahambisani nokunye okushiwo ngabagxeki bokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge-antibiotic, ibulala amagciwane adingekayo emathunjini.

Esikhundleni salokho, bathola - okokuqala ngqa, bathi - ukuthi isibulala-zinambuzane siphazamise ngendlela engaba yingozi kakhulu emzileni wamakhemikhali wamakhemikhali wamathumbu amabhaktheriya ezilwane ezisetshenziswe ekuhlolweni. Lokho kuphazamiseka kwaqokonyiswa ngoshintsho ezintweni ezithile esiswini. Ukuhlaziywa kwamathumbu negazi biochemistry kuveze ubufakazi bokuthi lezi zilwane zingaphansi kwengcindezi ye-oxidative, isimo esihambisana nokulimala kwe-DNA nomdlavuza.

Abaphenyi bathi akucaci ukuthi ukuphazamiseka okuphakathi kwegciwane le-microbiome kuthinte kanjani ukucindezela komzimba.

Inkomba yengcindezi ye-oxidative yacaca kakhulu ekuhlolweni kusetshenziswa i-herbicide esekwe eglyphosate ebizwa ngeRoundup BioFlow, umkhiqizo womnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG, kusho ososayensi.

Ababhali bokucwaninga bathi benza izifundo eziningi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuthi ngabe ingcindezi ye-oxidative abayibonayo nayo ilimaza i-DNA, ezonyusa ingozi yomdlavuza.

Ababhali bathe kudingeka ucwaningo olwengeziwe ukuqonda kahle imithelela yempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ekhazimulayo nokunye ukuphazamiseka kwemethambo ku-gut microbiome nasegazini kepha ukutholwa kokuqala kungasetshenziswa ekwakhiweni kwama-bio-markers wezifundo ze-epidemiological kanye nokuqonda uma i-glyphosate herbicides ingaba nemiphumela yezinto eziphilayo kubantu.

Ocwaningweni, amagundane abesifazane anikezwa i-glyphosate nomkhiqizo we-Roundup. Amanani ahanjiswa ngamanzi okuphuza ahlinzekwa izilwane futhi anikezwa emazingeni amele ukungena nsuku zonke okwamukelekayo okubhekwa njengokuvikelekile ngabalawuli baseYurophu nabaseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe imiphumela yocwaningo yakhela kolunye ucwaningo olwenza kucace ukuthi izilawuli zithembele ezindleleni eseziphelelwe yisikhathi lapho kunqunywa ukuthi yimaphi amazinga “aphephile” e-glyphosate namanye ama-pesticides ekudleni nasemanzini. Izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kwezolimo zivame ukutholakala ebangeni lokudla okusetshenziswa njalo.

"Abalawuli kumele bangene ekhulwini lama-XNUMX leminyaka, bayeke ukuhudula izinyawo zabo… bamukele izinhlobo zokuhlaziya esikwenzile kulolu cwaningo," kusho u-Antoniou. Uthe ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana, okuyingxenye yegatsha lesayensi eyaziwa ngokuthi “OMICS,” kuguqula isisekelo solwazi mayelana nemithelela ukuchayeka kwamakhemikhali okunayo empilweni.

Isifundo segundane kodwa esakamuva ochungechungeni lwezivivinyo zesayensi ezihlose ukunquma ukuthi ngabe i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides - kufaka phakathi i-Roundup - ingaba yingozi kubantu, ngisho nasemazingeni abalawuli be-exposure bathi baphephile.

Izifundo eziningi ezinjalo zithole ukukhathazeka okuningi, kufaka phakathi eyodwa eyanyatheliswa ngoNovemba  ngabaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland abathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate.

Njengoba abacwaningi banda bheka ukuqonda i-microbiome yomuntu neqhaza eliyidlalayo empilweni yethu, imibuzo mayelana nemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome bekungeyona nje impikiswano emibuthanweni yesayensi, kodwa futhi nasezinkantolo.

Ngonyaka odlule, iBayer bavuma ukukhokha u- $ 39.5 million ukuxazulula izimangalo zokuthi iMonsanto inezikhangiso ezidukisayo eziqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme ezitshalweni futhi ayinakuba nomthelela ofanayo ezifuyweni nakubantu. Abamangali kuleli cala kuthiwa i-glyphosate babhekise enzyme etholakala kubantu nasezilwaneni eziqinisa amasosha omzimba, ukugaya nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, iBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe ngabantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe ama- $ 11 billion ukukhokhela izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000.

Ucwaningo olusha luhlola umthelela we-Roundup herbicide kuma-honeybees

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Iqembu labacwaningi baseChina lithole ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate-based herbicide iyingozi kuma-honeybees noma ngaphansi kokunconywa okunconywayo.

Ephepheni elishicilelwe ku iphephabhuku online Imibiko yeSayensi, Abaphenyi abasebenzisana neChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kanye neChinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathe bathole imithelela eminingi engemihle kuzinyosi lapho bebeka izinyosi kuRoundup - a glyphosateumkhiqizo osuselwe kuthengiswa ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Ukukhunjulwa kwezinyosi zezinyosi "kwakuphazamiseke kakhulu ngemuva kokuchayeka kuRoundup" kusikisela ukuthi ukuvezwa kwezinyosi ezingapheli emakhemikhali okubulala ukhula "kungaba nomthelela omubi ekuseshweni nasekuqoqweni kwezinsizakusebenza nasekuhlanganiseni imisebenzi yokudla" yizinyosi, abacwaningi bathi .

Futhi, "amandla okukhuphuka wezinyosi zezinyosi anciphe kakhulu ngemuva kokwelashwa ngokuhlungwa okunconyiwe kweRoundup," abacwaningi bathola.

Abaphenyi bathi kunesidingo “sohlelo lokuxwayisa nge-herbicide olunokwethenjelwa” ezindaweni zasemakhaya eChina ngoba abafuyi bezinyosi kulezo zindawo “ngokuvamile abaziswa ngaphambi kokuba kufuthwe amakhambi okubulala ukhula” futhi “kwenzeka izehlakalo ezinobuthi njalo zezinyosi zezinyosi”.

Ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo eziningi ezibalulekile zokudla kuncike kuzinyosi zezinyosi nezinyosi zasendle ukuze kuthunyelwe impova, futhi ukwehla okuphawuliwe kubantu bezinyosi baphakamise ukukhathazeka emhlabeni jikelele mayelana nokutholakala kokudla.

Iphepha elivela eRutgers University eshicilelwe ehlobo eledlule uxwayise ngokuthi "isivuno sezithelo sama-aphula, ama-cherry kanye namajikijolo kulo lonke elase-United States sincishiswa ukungabi khona kwezipolishi."

Ukufa nokuhlala njengoba iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuqeda amacala we-Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinyangeni eziyisikhombisa ngemuva kweBayer AG umemezele izinhlelo ngokuxazululwa kokushonelwa kwamacala omdlavuza we-US Roundup, umnikazi waseJalimane weMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo ezilethwe abantu abaphethwe umdlavuza abathi zibangelwe yimikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye icala livele lathola ukuvalwa, yize ummangali angiphilelanga ukukubona.

Abameli bakaJaime Alvarez Calderon, bavumelane ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto ngesinqumo esanikezwa yiBayer ngemuva kweJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoMsombuluko inqatshelwe isahlulelo esifingqiwe ngokuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela icala ukuthi lisondele ecaleni.

Isivumelwano sizoya emadodaneni amane ka-Alvarez ngoba ubaba wabo oneminyaka engu-65, osebenza isikhathi eside esebenzela iwayini eNapa County, California, ushone nje esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka esedlule kusuka kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma usola umsebenzi wakhe wokufafaza i-Roundup ezungeze impahla ye-winery iminyaka.

Ekulalelweni kwenkantolo ngoLwesithathu, ummeli womndeni wakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi lesi sinqumo sizolivala leli cala.

Ngemuva kokuqulwa kwecala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze e-winery iminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isifutho sasebhakeni ukufaka isicelo sikaMonsanto kusekelwe ku-glyphosate ukubulala ukhula kuma-acreage asakazekayo eqembu le-Sutter Home lamawayini. Wayevame ukuya ekhaya kusihlwa nezingubo ezimanzi ngomuthi wokubulala ukhula ngenxa yokuvuza kwemishini kanye nombulali wokhula okhukhuleka emoyeni. Watholwa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, elashwa kaningi ngamakhemikhali nezinye izindlela zokwelashwa ngaphambi kokushona ngoDisemba 2019.

UDiamond uthe ujabule ngokuxazulula leli cala kodwa unamacala angama-Roundup "angu-400 plus" amanye angakalungiswa.

Akayedwa. Okungenani uhhafu weshumi namanye amafemu wezomthetho wase-US anabamangali baseRoundup abafuna izilungiselelo zesilingo zango-2021 nangaphezulu.

Kusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto ku-2018, iBayer ibilokhu ilwela ukuthola ukuthi ungayenza kanjani kuqedwe ukuqulwa kwamacala lokho kufaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube yimanje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ngaphezu kwemizamo yokuxazulula izimangalo ezisalindile njengamanje, iBayer inethemba lokuthi izokwakha indlela yokuxazulula izimangalo ezingaba khona ezingabhekana nazo kubasebenzisi beRoundup abathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngokuzayo. Uhlelo lwayo lokuqala lokusingatha amacala esikhathi esizayo yenqatshwa nguJaji Chhabria futhi inkampani ayikamemezeli uhlelo olusha.

I-Neonicotinoids: ukukhathazeka okukhulayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NgoJanuwari 10, iThe Guardian lashicilela le ndaba mayelana nomphakathi omncane wasemaphandleni waseNebraska obelokhu unenkinga okungenani iminyaka emibili nokungcola okuhlanganiswe nembewu yommbila eboshwe nge-neonicotinoid. Umthombo uyisitshalo sendawo se-ethanol ebesizikhangisa njengesihlelekile “Ukwenza kabusha” indawo yezinkampani zembewu ezinjengeBayer, iSyngenta kanye nezinye ezazidinga indawo yokulahla okweqile kwalezi zitoko zembewu ephethwe yi-pesticide. Umphumela, abantu basemadolobheni bathi, indawo ehlanganiswe namazinga aphakeme ngokumangalisayo ezinsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula kubantu nasezilwaneni. Besaba ukuthi umhlaba wabo namanzi manje sekonakele ngendlela engalungiseki.

Iziphathimandla zezemvelo zombuso zirekhode amazinga ama-neonicotinoids ku- izingxenye ezimangazayo ezingama-427,000 ngezigidigidi (ppb) ekuhlolweni kwelinye lamagquma amakhulu emfucuza esizeni sesakhiwo se-ethanol. Lokho kuqhathanisa namabhentshimakhi wokulawula athi amazinga kufanele abe ngaphansi kuka-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengaphephile.

Bona leli khasi ukuthola eminye imininingwane nemibhalo.

Inganekwane yomgwaqo eMead, eNebraska, iyisibonakaliso sakamuva nje sokuthi ukwenganyelwa kokulawulwa kwezwe neonicotinoids kudinga ukuqiniswa, ngokusho kwabameli bezemvelo nabaphenyi abavela emanyuvesi amaningi aseMelika.

Impikiswano ngesigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-neonicotinoids, noma ama-neonics, ibilokhu ikhula eminyakeni yamuva nje futhi isiphenduke impikiswano yomhlaba wonke phakathi kwama-behemoth ezinkampani athengisa ama-neonics kanye namaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi ama-insecticide anesibopho sezempilo ebanzi yemvelo kanye neyabantu ukulimaza.

Kusukela yethulwa ngawo-1990s, ama-neonicotinoids abe yisigaba esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni semithi yokubulala izinambuzane, esithengiswa emazweni angama-120 okungenani ukusiza ukulawula izinambuzane ezilimazayo nokuvikela ukukhiqizwa kwezolimo. Izibulala-zinambuzane azifuthwa kuphela ezitshalweni kodwa futhi zimbozwe nembewu. Ama-Neonicotinoids asetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo, kufaka phakathi irayisi, ukotini, ummbila, amazambane nosoya. Kusukela ngo-2014, ama-neonicotinoids amelwe ngaphezu kwe- Amaphesenti angama-25 omuthi wokubulala zinambuzane womhlaba wonke emakethe, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

Ngaphakathi kwekilasi, i-clothianidin ne-imidacloprid yizona ezisetshenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokusho kwephepha lowe-2019 elishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Environmental Protection Agency yakhipha i- izinqumo eziphakanyisiwe zesikhashana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kanye thiamethoxam, izinambuzane ezithile ngaphakathi kwesigaba se-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe ibisebenza ukunciphisa inani elisetshenzisiwe ezitshalweni ezihambisana "nobungozi bezemvelo obungahle bube khona," ibeke umkhawulo lapho izibulala-zinambuzane zingasetshenziswa ekutshalweni kwezitshalo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobufakazi besayensi ukhombisa ukuthi ama-neonicotinoids ayimbangela ekusakazekeni i-colony collapse disorder yezinyosi, okuyizinambuzane ezibalulekile lapho kukhiqizwa ukudla. Babukwa futhi okungenani njengengxenye yokusolwa kwe- an “I-apocalypse yezinambuzane. Ama-insecticide nawo aboshelwe emaphutheni amakhulu ngezinyamazane ezinomsila omhlophe, kujulisa ukukhathazeka ngamandla amakhemikhali okulimaza izilwane ezinkulu ezincelisayo, kuhlanganise nabantu.

I-European Union ivimbele ukusetshenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid ne-thiamethoxam ngo-2018, kanye ne IZizwe Ezihlangene zithi Ama-neonics ayingozi kangangoba kufanele abekelwe imigoqo “ebucayi”. Kepha e-United States, ama-neonics ahlala esetshenziswa kabanzi.

Bhalisela incwadi yethu yezindaba. Thola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke ebhokisini lakho lokungenayo.