Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ilungelo Lethu Lokwazi e-US ngicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, nobungozi bamalabhoratri okuphepha kanye nokucwaninga ngomsebenzi, okuhlose ukwandisa ukwanda kokutheleleka noma ukubulala kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane. Sithumela izibuyekezo nokutholwa okusha ku- iBiohazards Blog yethu.

Amacala we-FOI kuphenyo lwe-biohazards

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-US Right to Know, iqembu eliphenya ngempilo yomphakathi elingenzi nzuzo, ifake amacala amathathu emelene nezinhlangano zombuso zokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Amacala amacala ayingxenye yemizamo yethu yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ukuvuza noma ukulimala kumalebhu ezokuvikela, kanye nobungozi bokucwaninga ngomsebenzi okufuna ukukhulisa ukuthinteka noma ukubulala amagciwane angaba khona obhubhane.

Kusukela ngoJulayi, sifake amarekhodi omphakathi angama-48, ombuso kanye nawamazwe omhlaba sicela imininingwane mayelana nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, kanye nezingozi zamalabhu ezokuphepha kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi.

Funda kabanzi mayelana okutholakele kwethu kuze kube manje, kungani senza lolu phenyo, ukufundwa okunconyiwe futhi imibhalo esiyitholile.

Amacala we-FOI afakiwe

(1) Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa e-USNgoFebhuwari 4, 2021, USRTK wafaka icala ngokumelene ne-US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-FOIA.  Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eNyakatho yesiFunda saseCalifornia, lifuna amaphepha nezincwadi noma i-Wuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina, i-Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi ixhasa iWuhan Institute yeVirology, phakathi kwezinye izifundo.

(2) UMnyango Wezemfundo wase-US: NgoDisemba 17, 2020 USRTK wafaka icala ngokumelene noMnyango Wezemfundo wase-US ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-FOIA. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eNyakatho yesiFunda saseCalifornia, lifuna imibhalo uMnyango wezeMfundo oyicelile eNyuvesi YaseTexas 'Medical Branch eGalveston mayelana nezivumelwano zayo zoxhaso kanye nokubambisana kwezesayensi kanye / noma nocwaningo neWuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina.

(3) Umnyango Wombuso wase-US: NgoNovemba 30, 2020 USRTK wafaka icala ngokumelene noMnyango Wombuso wase-US ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-FOIA. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eNyakatho yesiFunda saseCalifornia, lifuna imibhalo nezincwadi noma i-Wuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina, iWuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi ixhasa iWuhan Institute yeVirology, phakathi kwezinye izifundo. Bheka ukukhululwa kwezindaba.

(4) Izikhungo Zezempilo Zikazwelonke: Ngomhla kaNovemba 5, 2020 i-USRTK yafaka icala ngokumelene ne-National Institutes of Health (NIH) ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-FOIA. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eWashington, DC, lifuna ukuxhumana nezinhlangano ezifana ne-Wuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi ixhasa iWuhan Isikhungo seVirology. Bheka ukukhululwa kwezindaba.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi. Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngamacala we-FOI esiwafakile ukufakazela ilungelo lomphakathi lokwazi, bona i- Ikhasi lokumangalelwa kwe-FOIA.

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiQembu Lezimboni Zokudla

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) yinhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa yinkampani ezinze eWashington DC, enamahluko ayi-17 ahlangene emhlabeni jikelele. ILSI ichaza ngokwayo njengeqembu elenza “isayensi ukuze kuzuze umphakathi” futhi “lithuthukisa impilo nenhlalakahle yabantu futhi livikele imvelo.” Kodwa-ke, uphenyo olwenziwe yizifundiswa, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezintshisekelo zomphakathi lukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yiqembu lokungenela elivikela izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, hhayi impilo yomphakathi.

Izindaba zakamuva:

  • ICoca-Cola inqamule ubuhlobo bayo besikhathi eside ne-ILSI. Lesi sinyathelo "sihlasela inhlangano enamandla yokudla eyaziwa ngocwaningo nezinqubomgomo zayo ezixhasa ushukela," I-Bloomberg ibike ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • ILSI isize iCoca-Cola Company ukubumba inqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, ngokusho kocwaningo lwangoSepthemba 2020 Ijenali Yezombusazwe Yezempilo, Inqubomgomo kanye Nomthetho nguProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphansi kokuxoxwa esidlangalaleni kwe-ILSI ngesayensi engachemile futhi kungekho nqubo yokugqugquzela inqubomgomo kubeka izingqinamba zezinkampani zeziteshi ezifihliwe ezisetshenziselwa ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zazo. Ukusebenza ngalezo ziteshi, uCoca Cola waba nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwesayensi nenqubomgomo eChina phakathi nazo zonke izigaba zenqubo-mgomo, kusukela ekubekeni izingqinamba ekubhaleni inqubomgomo esemthethweni, ”kuphetha leli phephandaba.

  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ingeza obunye ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla. UMeyi 2020 funda ku-Public Health Nutrition ngokuya ngemibhalo yembula “iphethini yomsebenzi lapho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukwethembeka kososayensi nezifundiswa ukuqinisa izikhundla ezimbonini kanye nokukhuthaza okuqukethwe okusungulwe umkhakha emihlanganweni yayo, emaphephandabeni nakweminye imisebenzi.” Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yokudla neziphuzo ifuna ukuthonya ososayensi nezifundiswa, kukhonjiswa ngama-imeyili  (5.22.20)

  • Umbiko Wokuziphendulela Kwenkampani wango-Ephreli 2020 ihlola ukuthi izinkampani zokudla neziphuzo zisebenzise kanjani i-ILSI ukungena ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee, kanye nenqubekela phambili ekhubazekile kunqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke. Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yezokudla neziphuzo ezinethonya eliningi kakhulu kunemihlahlandlela yokudla yaseMelika, kusho umbiko (4.24.20) 

  • Uphenyo lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs uveza ukuthi umphatheli we-ILSI ongenzi nzuzo oxhaswe yimboni weluleke uhulumeni waseNdiya ukuthi aqhubeke ngokuletha amalebula okuxwayisa ngokudla okungenampilo. Izikhathi kuchazwe i-ILSI "njengeqembu lezimboni elinethunzi" futhi "njengeqembu elinamandla kakhulu embonini yokudla ongakaze uzwe ngalo." (9.16.19) IThe Times icaphune a Isifundo sikaJuni ku-Globalization and Health obhalwe ngokuhlanganyela nguGary Ruskin we-US Right to Know ebika ukuthi i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokwamukela abaxhasi bayo bezimboni zokudla kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

  • The I-New York Times yembula izibopho ze-ILSI ezingadalulwanga zikaBradley C. Johnston, ongumbhali-mbumbulu wezifundo ezinhlanu zakamuva ezithi inyama ebomvu nocubunguliwe azilethi izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo. UJohnston usebenzise izindlela ezifanayo ocwaningweni oluxhaswe yi-ILSI ukufuna ushukela akuyona inkinga. (10.4.19)

  • Ibhulogi Yezombusazwe Yezokudla kaMarion Nestle, ILSI: kuvezwe imibala yangempela (10.3.19)

ILSI izibophezela neCoca-Cola 

ILSI yasungulwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayeyiphini likamongameli omkhulu eCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke kusuka ngo-1969-2001. UCoca-Cola ugcine ubuhlobo obuseduze ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-VP kaCoca-Cola yezindaba zomhlaba zesayensi nezomthetho kusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI kusukela ngonyaka ka-2009-2011. Ngo 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI kwakunguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlalaphansi emsebenzini wakhe njengesikhulu esiphezulu seCoca-Cola sezempilo kanye nesayensi (futhi kusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 ngemuva kwe- New York Times futhi Associated Press ibike ukuthi uCoke uxhase i-Global Energy Balance Network engenzi nzuzo ukusiza ukususa icala lokukhuluphala kude neziphuzo ezinoshukela.  

Uxhaso lwezinkampani 

ILSI ixhaswe yiyo amalungu ezinkampani nabasekeli benkampani, kufaka phakathi izinkampani ezihola phambili zokudla nezamakhemikhali. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuthi ithola uxhaso embonini kodwa ayivezi obala ukuthi ngubani onikelayo noma unikela malini. Ucwaningo lwethu lwembula:

  • Iminikelo yebhizinisi ku-ILSI Global okufika ku- $ 2.4 million ngo-2012. Lokhu kwafaka ama- $ 528,500 kwaCropLife International, umnikelo ongu- $ 500,000 ovela eMonsanto kanye no- $ 163,500 waseCoca-Cola.
  • A kubhalwa intela ye-ILSI yango-2013 kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ithole u- $ 337,000 kusuka kwaCoca-Cola futhi ngaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 lilinye lisuka eMonsanto, Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience neBASF.
  • A okusalungiswa ukubuyiswa kwentela kwe-ILSI yonyaka we-2016 ikhombisa umnikelo ongu- $ 317,827 ovela kwaPepsiCo, iminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 200,000 evela kwaMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, neminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 evela kwaGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Isobho le-Uniliver neCampbell.  

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ifuna ukuthonya kanjani inqubomgomo yokukhuthaza imibono yezimboni 

A Ucwaningo lwangoMeyi 2020 ku-Public Health Nutrition ungeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha wezokudla. Ucwaningo, olususelwa emibhalweni etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso zamarekhodi womphakathi, lwembula ukuthi i-ILSI izikhuthaza kanjani izintshisekelo zezimboni zokudla nezolimo, kufaka phakathi iqhaza le-ILSI ekuvikeleni izithako zokudla eziyimpikiswano nokucindezela imibono engathandeki embonini; ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neCoca-Cola zingabeka iminikelo ku-ILSI ezinhlelweni ezithile; futhi, nokuthi i-ILSI izisebenzisa kanjani izifundiswa ngegunya labo kepha ivumela imboni ithonya elifihliwe ezincwadini zabo.

Ucwaningo luphinde lwembule imininingwane emisha yokuthi yiziphi izinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI namagatsha ayo, ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi eminikelweni ebhalwe phansi evela ezinkampanini ezihola phambili zokudla okungenamsoco, isoda namakhemikhali.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 ku-Globalization and Health inikeza izibonelo eziningana zokuthi i-ILSI izithuthukisa kanjani izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, ikakhulukazi ngokukhuthaza isayensi nezimboni ezisebenzisana nomkhakha kubenzi bezinqubomgomo. Ucwaningo lususelwa kwimibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngemithetho yamarekhodi womphakathi.  

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “ILSI ifuna ukuthonya abantu, izikhundla nenqubomgomo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe omhlaba, futhi amalungu ayo ezinkampani ayisebenzisa njengethuluzi lokuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zawo emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuhlaziywa kwethu kwe-ILSI kuyisixwayiso kulabo ababambe iqhaza ekuphathweni kwezempilo emhlabeni wonke ukuthi bawaqaphele amaqembu ocwaningo azimele, futhi benze ngokuzimisela ngaphambi kokuthembela ezifundweni zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kanye / noma ukuzibandakanya ebudlelwaneni nalawo maqembu. ”   

I-ILSI ibukele phansi impi yokukhuluphala eChina

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabili ngo UProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh iveze ithonya elinamandla le-ILSI kuhulumeni waseChina ezindabeni eziphathelene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abhala ukuthi uCoca-Cola nezinye izinkampani basebenze kanjani egatsheni lase-China le-ILSI ukuthonya amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseChina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokudla ezifana nohlobo 2 sikashukela kanye nomfutho wegazi ophezulu. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kahle eChina kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwesikhungo sikahulumeni Sokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaSolwazi Geenhalgh abhala ukuthi iCoca-Cola nezinye iziqhwaga zaseNtshonalanga zokudla neziphuzo “zasiza kanjani ekulolongeni amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseShayina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala nezifo ezihlobene nokudla” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukuhlakulela izikhulu eziyinhloko zaseChina “ngomzamo wokuvimbela ukunyakaza okukhulayo kokulawulwa kokudla nentela yesoda ebilokhu ishanela entshonalanga, ”kubika i New York Times.  

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe lwezifundo oluvela e-US Right to Know mayelana ne-ILSI 

Isiphelile i-UCSF ye-UCSF Industry Documents Archive Imibhalo engama-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI.  

Ucwaningo lwe-ILSI lukashukela “luphume encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi”

Ochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi basola i-ILSI exhaswa ngemali isifundo sikashukela eshicilelwe ephephabhukwini lezokwelapha elivelele ngo-2016 lokho kwaba "ukuhlaselwa okunamandla kwezeluleko zezempilo zomhlaba wonke zokudla ushukela omncane," kubika u-Anahad O'Connor kuThe New York Times. Ucwaningo oluxhaswe yi-ILSI luthi izexwayiso zokusika ushukela zisekelwe ebufakazini obuthakathaka futhi azinakuthenjwa.  

Indaba ye-Times icaphune uMarion Nestle, uprofesa waseNew York University ocwaninga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekucwaningweni kokudla, ocwaningweni lwe-ILSI: "Lokhu kuphuma ngqo encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi: kubeka ukungabaza ngesayensi," kusho uNestle. “Lesi yisibonelo sakudala sokuthi ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kukhetha imibono. Kuyihlazo. ” 

Izinkampani zikagwayi zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuvimba inqubomgomo 

Umbiko wangoJulayi 2000 wekomidi elizimele leWorld Health Organisation uveze izindlela eziningi imboni kagwayi ezame ngayo ukubukela phansi imizamo ye-WHO yokulawula ugwayi, kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa amaqembu esayensi ukuthonya izinqumo ze-WHO nokusebenzisa impikiswano yesayensi ezungeze imiphumela yezempilo. kagwayi. I-ILSI ibambe iqhaza elibalulekile kule mizamo, ngokusho kocwaningo lwe-ILSI oluhambisana nombiko. "Okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yayisetshenziswa izinkampani ezithile zikagwayi ukuvimbela izinqubomgomo zokulawulwa kukagwayi. Abaphathi abasezikhundleni eziphezulu ku-ILSI babambe iqhaza ngqo kulezi zenzo, ”ngokusho kocwaningo lwamacala. Bona: 

Isigcini Semibhalo Yezimboni Zogwayi i-UCSF sine ngaphezu kwemibhalo eyizi-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI

Abaholi be-ILSI basize ukuvikela i-glyphosate njengezihlalo zephaneli ebalulekile 

NgoMeyi 2016, i-ILSI yahlolisiswa ngemuva kwezambulo zokuthi iphini likamongameli we-ILSI Europe, uSolwazi Alan Boobis, futhi wayengusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elathola ikhemikhali likaMonsanto glyphosate bekungenakwenzeka ukuthi kube nomdlavuza ngokudla. Usihlalo obambisene we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uSolwazi Angelo Moretto, wayeyilungu lebhodi le-ILSI's Health and Environment Services Institute. Azikho izihlalo ze-JMPR ezimemezele izindima zazo zobuholi be-ILSI njengezingxabano zentshisekelo, yize iminikelo ebalulekile yezezimali ILSI eyitholile kusuka eMonsanto kanye neqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwano obuhle be-ILSI ezikhungweni zase-US Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo e-US  

Ngo-Juni 2016, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi uDkt.Barbara Bowman, umqondisi wecandelo leCDC elibhekene nokuvimbela isifo senhliziyo nesifo sohlangothi, wazama ukusiza umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nomthelela kwizikhulu zeWorld Health Organisation ukuthi zihlehlise izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa koshukela. UBowman uphakamise abantu namaqembu ukuthi iMalaspina ikhulume nabo, futhi wacela ukuphawula kwakhe ngokufingqiwe kweminye imibiko ye-CDC, ama-imeyili akhombisa. (UBowman wehla ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwendatshana yethu yokuqala ibika ngalezi zibopho.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 funda eMilbank Quarterly ichaza ama-imeyili abalulekile eMalaspina ahlangana noDkt. Bowman. Ukuze uthole ukubikwa okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona: 

Ithonya le-ILSI ekomidini Lokweluleka Lemihlahlandlela Yokudla yase-US

umbiko weqembu elingenzi nzuzo Ukuziphendulela Kwebhizinisi ibhala ukuthi i-ILSI inethonya elikhulu kanjani kwimihlahlandlela yokudla yase-US ngokungena kwayo ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee. Umbiko uhlola ukugxambukela kwezepolitiki okusabalele kokudla neziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, nePepsiCo, nokuthi lezi zinkampani zisizakale kanjani i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inqubekelaphambili ngenqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke.

Ithonya le-ILSI eNdiya 

I-New York Times ibike ngethonya le-ILSI eNdiya esihlokweni sayo esithi, “I-Shadowy Industry Group Yakha Inqubomgomo Yokudla Emhlabeni Wonke. "

I-ILSI inobudlelwano obusondelene nezikhulu ezithile zikahulumeni waseNdiya futhi, njengaseChina, inhlangano engenzi inzuzo icindezele imiyalezo efanayo neziphakamiso zenqubomgomo njengeCoca-Cola - yehlisa iqhaza likashukela nokudla njengesizathu sokukhuluphala, futhi igqugquzela ukwanda kokuzivocavoca umzimba njengesixazululo , ngokusho kwe-India Resource Centre. 

Amalungu ebhodi labaphatheli be-ILSI India afaka phakathi umphathi we-Coca-Cola India wezomthetho kanye nabamele iNestlé ne-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyengeza ukudla, kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni ezisebenza kuma-panels esayensi anikezwe umsebenzi wokuthatha isinqumo ngezinkinga zokuphepha kokudla.  

Ukukhathazeka okude nge-ILSI 

I-ILSI igcizelela ukuthi akuyona iqembu lezimboni, kepha ukukhathazeka nezikhalazo kukude mayelana nezimo zeqembu ezisekela izimboni kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo kubaholi benhlangano. Bona, isibonelo:

Ukuxazulula amathonya embonini yokudla, Imithi Yemvelo (2019)

I-ejensi yokudla iyasiphika isimangalo sempikiswano. Kepha izinsolo zobudlelwano bezimboni zingangcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophu, Imvelo (2010)

Ukudla Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Impi Yokugcina, Gcina Ukuqina Kwezomthetho, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukudla Kwangempela Ekuvivinyweni, nguDkt Tim Noakes noMarika Sboros (Columbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukushushiswa nokushushiswa okungakaze kube khona kukaProfesa Tim Noakes, usosayensi nodokotela ovelele, ecaleni elalingaphezu kwezigidi zamarandi eladlula iminyaka engaphezu kwemine. Konke nge-tweet eyodwa enikeza umbono wakhe ngokudla okunempilo. ”

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umlando Omude Wokukhathazeka
Izifundo Eziyinhloko Zesayensi ku-Aspartame
Imizamo ye-PR PR
Izinkomba Zesayensi

Imininingwane ebalulekile Ngokwe-Diet Soda Chemical 

Yini i-Aspartame?

  • I-Aspartame yi-sweetener esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Iphinde idayiswe njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin ne-AminoSweet.
  • I-Aspartame ikhona kokungaphezulu kwe- 6,000 imikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi iDiet Coke neDiet Pepsi, iKool Aid, iCrystal Light, iTango nezinye iziphuzo ezenziwe ngoshukela; Imikhiqizo ye-Jell-O engenashukela; I-Trident, i-Dentyne kanye neminye imikhiqizo eminingi yezinsini ezingenashukela; Amaswidi aqinile angenashukela; iziphuzo ezinoshukela ophansi noma ongenashukela njengama-ketchups nokugqoka; imithi yezingane, amavithamini kanye namaconsi okukhwehlela.
  • I-Aspartame yikhemikhali lokwenziwa elenziwe ngama-amino acid phenylalanine ne-aspartic acid, ene-methyl ester. Lapho idliwe, i-methyl ester yehla ibe yi-methanol, engaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde.

Iminyaka eyishumi yezifundo iphakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-Aspartame

Njengoba i-aspartame yaqala ukwamukelwa ngo-1974, bobabili ososayensi be-FDA kanye nososayensi abazimele baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela yezempilo engaba khona kanye nokushiyeka kusayensi ethunyelwe ku-FDA ngumenzi, uGD Searle. (IMonsanto ithenge iSearle ngo-1984).

Ngo-1987, i-UPI yashicilela uchungechunge lwama-athikili okuphenya nguGregory Gordon ebika ngalezi zinto ezikhathazayo, kufaka phakathi izifundo zakuqala ezixhumanisa i-aspartame nezinkinga zempilo, izinga elibi locwaningo oluxhaswe imboni olwaholela ekuvunyelweni kwalo, kanye nobudlelwano bomnyango obuzungezayo phakathi kwezikhulu ze-FDA kanye nemboni yokudla. Uchungechunge lukaGordon luyisisetshenziswa esibaluleke kakhulu kunoma ngubani ofuna ukuqonda umlando we-aspartame / NutraSweet:

Amaphutha ekuhlolweni kwe-European Food Safety Authority

NgoJulayi 2019 iphepha ku-Archives of Health Public, Abaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseSussex banikeze ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe kokuhlolwa kokuphepha kwe-aspartame kwe-EFSA ngonyaka ka-2013 bathola ukuthi iphaneli linciphise njengokungathembeki esifundweni ngasinye kwezingu-73 ezikhombisa ukulimala, futhi lasebenzisa izindlela zokuxegisa kakhulu ukwamukela ukuthembeka okungu-84% wezifundo lokho akubutholanga ubufakazi bokulimala. "Uma kubhekwa ukushiyeka kokuhlolwa kobungozi be-aspartame kwe-EFSA, kanye nokushiyeka kwakho konke ukuhlolwa kwangaphambilini okuyingozi okusemthethweni kwe-aspartame, kungaphambi kwesikhathi ukuphetha ngokuthi kuphephile ngokwamukelekayo," kuphetha ucwaningo.

Bona Impendulo ye-EFSA nokulandelwa ngabaphenyi u-Erik Paul Millstone no-Elizabeth Dawson ku-Archives of Public Health, Kungani i-EFSA yehlise i-ADI yayo ye-aspartame noma yancoma ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwayo kungabe kusavunyelwa? Ukusabalala kwezindaba:

  • Ochwepheshe bathi “isiphuzo sopopayi esithandwa kakhulu emhlabeni kufanele sinqatshelwe. Ochwepheshe ababili bezokuphepha kokudla bacele ukuthi iswidi yokufakelwa esetshenziswa kabanzi, i-aspartame, ivinjelwe e-UK futhi babuze ukuthi kungani kubonakale kwamukelekile kwasekuqaleni, ” I-New Food Magazine (11.11.2020) 
  • "'Ukuthengiswa kwe-aspartame kufanele kumiswe': I-EFSA esolwa ngokwenzelela ekuhloleni ukuphepha," nguKaty Askew, I-Navigator Yezokudla (7.27.2019)

Imiphumela Yezempilo Nezifundo Eziyinhloko ku-Aspartame 

Ngenkathi izifundo eziningi, ezinye zazo zixhasiwe, azibikanga zinkinga nge-aspartame, inqwaba yezifundo ezizimele ezenziwa amashumi eminyaka zixhumanise i-aspartame nohlu olude lwezinkinga zempilo, kufaka phakathi:

Cancer

Ocwaningweni olunzulu lomdlavuza kuze kube yimanje nge-aspartame, izifundo ezintathu zokuphila ezenziwa yiCesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center yeRamazzini Institute, zinikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bokuba nomdlavuza kumagundane adalulwe kulokho.

  • I-Aspartame “ingumenzeli we-carcinogenic onamandla amaningi, noma ngabe isilinganiso sansuku zonke se-… singaphansi kakhulu kokudla kwansuku zonke okwamukelekayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwempilo ka-2006 Impilo Yemvelo.1
  • Ucwaningo olulandelwayo ngo-2007 luthole ukwanda okuphathelene nomthamo okuphawulekayo kumaqhubu amabi kwamanye amagundane. "Imiphumela ... iqinisekisa futhi iqinisa ukubonakaliswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe- [aspartame's] okungajwayelekile kwe-carcinogenic ezingeni lomthamo eliseduze kokudla okwamukelekayo kwabantu nsuku zonke ... lapho ukuvezwa kwesikhathi sokuphila kuqala ngesikhathi sokuphila kwengane, imiphumela yayo ebanga umdlavuza iyanda," kubhala abacwaningi. phakathi Impilo Yemvelo.2
  • Imiphumela yocwaningo lwempilo yango-2010 "iqinisekisa ukuthi [i-aspartame] iyisakhi se-carcinogenic ezindaweni eziningi kumagundane, nokuthi lo mphumela wenziwa ezinhlotsheni ezimbili, amagundane (abesilisa nabesifazane) kanye namagundane (abesilisa)," kusho abacwaningi ku Ijenali YaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni.3

Abaphenyi baseHarvard ngo-2012 babika ubudlelwano obuhle phakathi kokudla kwe-aspartame kanye nengozi eyengeziwe ye-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ne-myeloma eminingi emadodeni, kanye ne-leukemia kwabesilisa nabesifazane. Okutholakele "kugcina amathuba okuba nomthelela omubi ... kumdlavuza okhethiwe" kepha "akuvumeli isinqumo esiphume njengenhlanhla," kubhala abacwaningi ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.4

Encazelweni ka-2014 ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni, Abaphenyi be-Maltoni Center babhala ukuthi izifundo ezithunyelwe yi-GD Searle ukuze zivunyelwe emakethe “azihlinzeki ngosizo olwanele lwesayensi kwezokuphepha [kwe-aspartame]. Ngokuphambene nalokho, imiphumela yakamuva ye-life-span carcinogenicity bioassays kumagundane namagundane ashicilelwe kumajenali abuyekezwa ngontanga, kanye nocwaningo olulindelekile lwe-epidemiological, lunikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bamandla we-carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ngokwesisekelo sobufakazi bemiphumela engaba khona ye-carcinogenic… ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwesimo samanje sezinhlangano ezilawula umhlaba wonke kufanele kuthathwe njengendaba ephuthumayo yezempilo yomphakathi. ”5

Brain izimila

Ngo-1996, abacwaningi babika ku- Ijenali yeNeuropathology & Yokuhlola Neurology kubufakazi besifo esixhuma ukwethulwa kwe-aspartame ekwandeni kohlobo olunolaka lwamathumba anobuchopho. "Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye izinto ezithinta ezemvelo ezixhunyaniswe nezicubu zobuchopho, i-aspartame yokufakelwa ingumlingisi othembisayo ochaza ukwanda kwamuva kwesimo kanye nezinga lokulimala kwezicubu zobuchopho… Siphetha ngokuthi kunesidingo sokuhlaziya amandla we-aspartame we-carcinogenic."6

  • Isazi sezinzwa uDkt John Olney, ongumlobi oholayo wocwaningo, utshele Imizuzu engama-60 ngo-1996: “Kube nokwanda okumangazayo kwezehlakalo zamathumba anobuchopho (eminyakeni emithathu kuya kwemihlanu kulandela ukuvunyelwa kwe-aspartame)… kunesisekelo esanele sokusola i-aspartame ukuthi kumele ihlolwe kabusha. I-FDA idinga ukuyihlola kabusha, kulokhu, i-FDA kufanele ikwenze kahle. ”

Izifundo zakuqala ze-aspartame ngawo-1970 zathola ubufakazi bamathumba obuchopho ezilwaneni zaselebhu, kepha lezo zifundo azilandelwanga.

Izifo Zezinhliziyo 

Ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwe-2017 kocwaningo kuma-sweeteners wokufakelwa, okushicilelwe ku- I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, abutholanga bufakazi obucacile bezinzuzo zokwehlisa isisindo samaswidi okufakelwa ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo ezingahleliwe, futhi wabika ukuthi izifundo zeqoqo zihlobanisa okokunandisa okufakelwayo “nokwenyuka kwesisindo nobukhulu besinqe, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokukhuluphala, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2 nenhliziyo nenhliziyo imicimbi. ”7 Bona futhi:

  • "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa azisizi ekwehliseni isisindo futhi zingaholela ekutholeni amakhilogremu," nguCatherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "Kungani omunye udokotela wenhliziyo ephuze isiphuzo sakhe sokugcina sokudla," nguHarlan Krumholz, IWall Street Journal (9.14.2017)
  • “Lo dokotela wenhliziyo ufuna umndeni wakhe unciphise i-diet soda. Ingabe eyakho kufanele nayo? ” by UDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 Iphepha le-2016 ku I-Physiology nokuziphatha kubika, “kukhona ukuhlangana okuvusa amadlingozi phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo lwezilwane kanye nenqwaba yezifundo ezinkulu, zesikhathi eside zokuhlola kubantu, ekutholeni ukukhuphuka kwesisindo, ukuthambekela, ukubhebhetheka kokukhuluphala, ingozi ye-cardiometabolic, kanye nokufa okuphelele phakathi kwabantu abantu abanokuchayeka okungapheli, nsuku zonke kumakhemikhali anekhalori eliphansi - futhi le miphumela iyakhathaza. ”8

Abesifazane abaphuza iziphuzo ezingaphezu kwezimbili zokudla ngosuku “babenobungozi obukhulu bezifo [zenhliziyo nemithambo yegazi]… [isifo senhliziyo nemithambo yegazi] ukufa… kanye nokufa jikelele,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2014 lweWomen Health Initiative olushicilelwe ku I-Journal of General Medicine Internal.9

Unhlangothi, Dementia kanye Izifo ze-Alzheimer

Abantu abaphuza i-soda yokudla nsuku zonke cishe babenamathuba aphindwe kathathu okuba nesifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo njengalabo abasiphuza masonto onke noma ngaphansi. Lokhu kufaka ingozi enkulu yokushaywa yischemic, lapho kuthinteka khona imithambo yegazi ebuchosheni, kanye nesifo sengqondo i-Alzheimer's dementia, okuyindlela ejwayelekile yokuwohloka komqondo, kubika i Ucwaningo luka-2017 eStroke.10

  • Bona futhi: Ividiyo yaseBoston University School of Medicine ocwaningweni olwenziwe yisazi sezinzwa uMatthew Pase, “Ukusetshenziswa Kwansuku Zonke KwamaSodas, Iziphuzo Zezithelo kanye Nama-Sodas Okungelona Owenziwe Kuthinta Ingqondo.”
  • "Ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-diet soda engcupheni ephezulu yokushaywa yisifo sohlangothi, ukuwohloka komqondo," nguFred Barbash, IWashington Post (4.21.2017)

Emzimbeni, i-methyl ester ese-aspartame ihlangana nayo i-methanol bese-ke ingaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde, exhunywe nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Ucwaningo oluyizingxenye ezimbili olushicilelwe ngo-2014 ku I-Journal yezifo ze-Alzheimer kuxhunyaniswe nokuchayeka kwe-methanol engapheli ekulahlekelweni kwememori kanye nezimpawu ze-Alzheimer's Disease kumagundane nezinkawu.

  • "Amagundane aphethwe yi-ethanol anikezwe izimpawu ezifana ne-AD… Lokhu okutholakele kunezela ebuningini obukhulayo bobufakazi obuxhumanisa i-formaldehyde ne- [Alzheimer's disease] pathology." (Ingxenye 1)11
  • "Ukudla [i-ethanol] kudale ushintsho oluhlala isikhathi eside noluphikelelayo lwezifo olwaluhlobene [nesifo i-Alzheimer's]… lokhu okutholakele kusekela ubufakazi obandayo obuxhumanisa i-methanol ne-metabolite formaldehyde yayo [isifo se-Alzheimer's] pathology." (Ingxenye 2)12

ukuquleka

“I-Aspartame ibonakala inyusa inani le-EEG spike wave ezinganeni ezinokuquleka okungekho. Izifundo ezengeziwe ziyadingeka ukuthola ukuthi ngabe lo mphumela wenzeka ngamanani aphansi nakwezinye izinhlobo zokuquleka, ”ngokocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1992 ku Neurology.13

I-Aspartame “inomsebenzi okhuthaza ukuquleka ezinhlobonhlobo zezilwane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuthola izinto ezithinta… izehlakalo zokubanjwa,” ngokocwaningo lwango-1987 ku Impilo Yemvelo.14

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kakhulu kwe-aspartame “kungaphazamisa namathuba okuhlaselwa ngabantu abangenazimpawu kodwa abangenayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1985 I-Lancet. Ucwaningo luchaza abantu abadala abathathu ababephilile ngaphambili ababenesifo sokuwa okukhulu ngesikhathi besebenzisa imithamo ephezulu ye-aspartame.15

I-Neurotoxicity, Ukulimala kobuchopho kanye nokuphazamiseka kwemizwelo

I-Aspartame ixhunyaniswe nezinkinga zokuziphatha nezokuqonda kubandakanya nezinkinga zokufunda, ikhanda, ukuquleka, i-migraines, imizwa ecasulayo, ukukhathazeka, ukudangala, nokuqwasha, kubhale abacwaningi besifundo se-2017 ku I-Neuroscience Yezempilo. "Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Aspartame kudinga ukuthintwa ngokuqapha ngenxa yemiphumela engaba khona empilweni ye-neurobehavioral."16

“I-aspartame yomlomo ishintshe kakhulu ukusebenza, isimo sokulwa ne-oxidant kanye ne-morphology ye-hippocampus kumagundane; futhi, kungenzeka ukuthi idale i-hippocampal neurogenesis yabantu abadala, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2016 I-Neurobiology yokufunda neyeMemori.17 

“Phambilini, kuye kwabikwa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kungadala ukuphazamiseka kwemizwa nokuziphatha kubantu ababucayi. Ukuphathwa yikhanda, ukuqwasha nokuquleka nakho kungeminye yemithelela yezinzwa eke yabhekana nayo, ”kusho ucwaningo olwenziwe ngo-2008 ku I-European Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition. "Siphakamisa ukuthi ukungenisa ngokweqile kwe-aspartame kungabandakanyeka ekutholakaleni kwezifo ezithile zengqondo… kanye nasekufundeni okweqile nasekusebenzeni ngokomzwelo."18 

"(N) izimpawu zezemvelo, kufaka phakathi izinqubo zokufunda nezinkumbulo, kungenzeka zihlobene nokugxila okuphezulu noma okunobuthi kwe-sweetener [aspartame] metabolites," kusho ucwaningo lwango-2006 ku Ucwaningo lwezokwelapha.19

I-Aspartame "ingaphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori futhi ilimaze ama-hypothalamic neurons kumagundane amadala," ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2000 olushicilelwe ku Izincwadi Zobuthi.20

"(Mina) nabantu abanezinkinga zemizwelo bazwela kakhulu kulesi sithambisi sokuzenzela futhi ukusetshenziswa kwaso kulesi sibalo kufanele kungadikibali," kusho ucwaningo lwango-1993 kwiphephandaba. Ijenali ye-Biological Psychiatry.21

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kwe-aspartame “kungadala ushintsho olukhulu emithanjeni yegazi,” kubika ucwaningo olwenziwa ngo-1984 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.22

Ukuhlolwa kukhombise ukulimala kobuchopho kumagundane ezingane kulandela ukungeniswa ngomlomo kwe-aspartate, futhi kukhombisa ukuthi "i-aspartate [inobuthi] kubuthi begundane ezinganeni emazingeni aphansi kakhulu okudla ngomlomo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1970 ku Nature.23

Izinsizwa ze-Head and Migraines

“I-Aspartame, isiphuzo esidumile sokudla, ingacasula ikhanda kwabanye abantu abasengozini. Lapha, sichaza izigameko ezintathu zabesifazane abasebasha abane-migraine ababika ukuthi bangaphathwa yikhanda ngokuhlafuna inhlaka engenashukela equkethe i-aspartame, ”kusho iphephandaba lango-1997. Ikhanda Journal.24

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo eshicilelwe ngo-1994 ku Neurology, “Inikeza ubufakazi bokuthi, phakathi kwabantu abanezinhlungu zokuzibika eziphathwa ikhanda ngemuva kokuminza i-aspartame, i-subset yaleli qembu ibika amakhanda amaningi lapho ihlolwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezilawulwayo. Kubonakala sengathi abanye abantu bathinteka kakhulu ekhanda elibangelwa i-aspartame futhi bangafuna ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwabo. ”25

Ucwaningo lweziguli eziyi-171 eMontefiore Medical Center Headache Unit luthole ukuthi iziguli ezine-migraine “zibike i-aspartame njenge-precipitant kaninginingi ngokuphindwe kathathu kunalezo ezinezinye izinhlobo zekhanda… Siphetha ngokuthi i-aspartame ingaba yinto ebalulekile yokudla ikhanda kwabanye abantu, ”1989 isifundo ku Ikhanda Journal.26

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo kumvamisa namandla we-migraines "kukhombise ukuthi ukungena kwe-aspartame ngama-migraineurs kubangele ukwanda okukhulu kokuvama kwekhanda kwezinye izifundo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1988 ku Ikhanda Journal.27

Umsebenzi Wezinso Uyancipha

Ukusetshenziswa kwezinsizakalo ezingaphezu kwezimbili ngosuku lwesoda eyenziwe ngoshukela “kuhlotshaniswa nokungezwani okuphindwe kabili kokuncipha kokusebenza kwezinso kwabesifazane,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2 ku I-Clinical Journal ye-American Society of Nephrology.28

Ukuzuza Isisindo, Ukudla okwengeziwe kanye nokukhuluphala Izinkinga Ezihlobene

Izifundo eziningana zixhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo, ukwanda kwesifiso sokudla, isifo sikashukela, ukuwohloka komzimba kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala. Bona iphepha lethu lamaqiniso: Ukudla kweSoda Chemical Okuboshwe Ekuzuzeni Isisindo.

Le sayensi exhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nokuba semthethweni kwemikhiqizo equkethe i-aspartame njengokudla "noma izinsiza zokwehlisa isisindo. Ngo-2015, i-USRTK ifake isicelo se- Federal Trade Commission futhi FDA ukuphenya ngezindlela zokumaketha nezokukhangisa zemikhiqizo “yokudla” equkethe ikhemikhali elixhumene nokuzuza kwesisindo. Bheka izindaba ezihlobene ukumboza, impendulo evela ku-FTC, Futhi impendulo evela ku-FDA.

Isifo Sikashukela kanye Ne-Metange Derangement

I-Aspartame ihlukaniswa ngokwengxenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa ukusebenza kwe-enzyme emathunjini ane-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebikhonjiswe phambilini ukuvimbela isifo se-metabolic syndrome (iqembu lezimpawu ezihambisana nohlobo 2 lwesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo) ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe, Ukudla okunomsoco kanye neMetabolism. Kulolu cwaningo, amagundane athola i-aspartame emanzini abo okuphuza athola isisindo esiningi futhi athuthukisa ezinye izimpawu zesifo se-metabolic kunezilwane ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi, "Imiphumela yokuvikela i-IAP maqondana ne-metabolic syndrome ingahle ivinjelwe yi-phenylalanine, i-metabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbe echaza ukungabi bikho kwesisindo esilindelekile kanye nokwenza ngcono umzimba okuhambisana neziphuzo zokudla."29

Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola “isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo,” ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2013 eyashicilelwa ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

Ocwaningweni olwalandela abesifazane abangama-66,118 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-14, zombili iziphuzo ezinoshukela kanye neziphuzo ezenziwe ngobumnandi zihlotshaniswa nengozi yesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2. “Izindlela eziqinile zokubeka engcupheni i-T2D ziphinde zabonwa kuwo wonke ama-quartiles e- ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zinhlobo zombili zesiphuzo… Akukho nhlangano eye yabonwa nge-100% yeziphuzo zezithelo, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2013 olushicilelwe ku- I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.31

I-Dysbiosis yamathumbu, i-Metabolic Derangement ne-Obesity

Ama-sweeteners okufakelwa angadala ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokusho kwe-a Ucwaningo luka-2014 eMvelweni. Abaphenyi babhala, “imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe ngeswidi], i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba, ngaleyo ndlela kudinga ukuhlolwa kabusha kokusetshenziswa okukhulu kwe-NAS… Ukuthola kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka ibe negalelo ngqo ekuqiniseni ubhadane ngqo [ukukhuluphala] ukuthi zona ngokwazo zazihloselwe ukulwa. ”32

  • Bheka futhi: “Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Angashintsha Amabhaktheriya EmiGodini Ngezindlela Eziyingozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, I-Scientific American (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwango-2016 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe Nutrition kanye neMetabolism kubika, "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kube nomthelela omkhulu ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwesisindo somzimba (i-BMI) nokubekezelelana koshukela… ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokukhubazeka okukhulu okuhlobene nokukhuluphala ekubekezeleni kweglucose."33

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2014 ku I-PLOS ONE, “I-aspartame inyuse amazinga e-glucose azila ukudla kanye nokuhlolwa kokubekezelelana kwe-insulin kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhubaza ukulahlwa kwe-glucose okuvuselelwe i-insulin… Ukuhlaziywa kwe-fecal kokuqanjwa kwamabhaktheriya esiswini kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhulisa amabhaktheriya aphelele…”34

 Ukukhulelwa Okungajwayelekile: Ukuzalwa Kwangaphambi kwesikhathi 

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwango-2010 lweqembu lama-59,334 labesifazane abakhulelwe baseDenmark elishicilelwe ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic, "Bekukhona ukuhlangana phakathi kokutholwa kweziphuzo ezibandayo ezenziwe ngoshukela nezingezona ezekhaboni kanye nengozi enkulu yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi." Ucwaningo luphethe ngokuthi, "Ukuphuza nsuku zonke iziphuzo ezithambile ezinoshukela kungenza ingozi yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi."35

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Downing Diet Soda Iboshelwe Ekuzalweni Ngaphambi Kokuzalwa," ngu-Anne Harding, I-Reuters (i-7.23.2010)

Izingane Ezikhuluphele

Ukusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo esenziwe ngobuciko ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kuxhunyaniswe nenkomba yomzimba ephezulu yezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2016 I-JAMA Pediatrics. "Ngokwazi kwethu, sinikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bomuntu bokuthi ukusetshenziswa komama okokunandisa okokufakelwa ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungathonya i-BMI yezinsana," kubhala abacwaningi.36

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Diet Soda Ekukhulelweni Ixhunyaniswe Nezingane Ezikhuluphele ngokweqile," nguNicholas Bakalar, INew York Times (5.11.2016)

Ukuya esikhathini kokuqala

I-National Heart, Lung, ne-Blood Institute Growth and Health Study ilandele amantombazane we-1988 iminyaka eyishumi ukuhlola izinhlangano ezingaba phakathi kokudla ushukela one-caffeine nongeyona i-caffeine- neziphuzo ezithambile ezenziwe ngobumnandi kanye nokuya esikhathini kokuqala. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezithambile ezine-caffeine nezenziwe ngoshukela bekuhlanganiswa nobungozi bokushesha ukuya esikhathini eqenjini laseMelika lamantombazane ase-Afrika aseMelika naseCaucasus," kuphetha ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngo-10 ku Ijenali ye-American Clinical Nutrition.37

Ukulimala Kwesidoda

"Ukwehla okuphawulekayo ekusebenzeni kwesidoda kwezilwane eziphathwa njenge-aspartame kubonwe uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawulwa kanye nokulawulwa kwe-MTX," ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-International Journal of Impotence Research. "... Lokhu okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi ama-aspartame metabolites angaba nomthelela ekuthuthukiseni ukucindezeleka okwenziwe nge-oxidative ku-epididymal sperm."38

Ukulimala Kwesibindi Nokuqedwa KweGlutathione

Ucwaningo lwegundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo I-Redox Biology kubika, "Ukuphathwa okungapheli kwe-aspartame… kubangele ukulimala kwesibindi kanye namazinga anciphisiwe we-glutathione ancishisiwe, i-glutathione ene-oxidized, i-γ-glutamylcysteine, kanye ne-metabolites eminingi yendlela ye-trans-sulphuration…"39

Ucwaningo lwamagundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo Ucwaningo Lokudla kutholakale ukuthi, “Ukudla okuphuzwayo okungatheni noma i-aspartame okubangelwe kakhulu yi-hyperglycemia kanye ne-hypertriacylglycerolemia… Kutholakale izinguquko ezimbalwa zesakhiwo se-cytoarchitecture esibindini, kufaka phakathi ukonakala, ukungena, i-necrosis, ne-fibrosis, ikakhulu i-aspartame. Le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ukuphuza isikhathi eside isiphuzo esiphuzo noma ukulimala kwe-aspartame okubangelwa i-aspartame kungahle kulandelwe ngokufakwa kwe-hyperglycemia, ukuqongelela i-lipid, kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative ngokubandakanyeka kwama-adipocytokines. ”40

Isexwayiso sabantu abasengozini

Ukubuyekezwa kwemibhalo yango-2016 kuma-sweeteners okufakelwa ku- I-Indian Journal ye-Pharmacology kubika, “kukhona okungahambelani ubufakazi bokusekela iningi lokusetshenziswa kwabo kanye nolunye ucwaningo lwamuva luye lwaveza nokuthi lezi zinzuzo ebezikhona ngaphambili… kungenzeka zingabi yiqiniso. ” Abantu abasolayo njengabesifazane abakhulelwe nabancelisayo, izingane, abanesifo sikashukela, i-migraine kanye neziguli ezinesifo sokuwa “kufanele basebenzise le mikhiqizo ngokuqapha okukhulu.”41

Imizamo Yezimboni PR namaqembu angaphambili 

Kusukela ekuqaleni, i-GD Searle (kamuva iMonsanto neNutraSweet Company) basebenzise amaqhinga e-PR anolaka ukumaketha i-aspartame njengomkhiqizo ophephile. Ngo-Okthoba 1987, uGregory Gordon kubikwe ku-UPI:

"INutraSweet Co. ibuye ikhokhe imali efinyelela ku- $ 3 million ngonyaka ngomzamo wokuxhumana nomphakathi wabantu abayi-100 ngamahhovisi aseChicago eBurson Marsteller, owake wasebenza enkampanini ye-PR eNew York. Isisebenzi sathi uBurson Marsteller uqashe ososayensi nodokotela abaningi, imvamisa eba ngu- $ 1,000 XNUMX ngosuku, ukuvikela isinambitheka ezingxoxweni zabezindaba nakwezinye izinkundla zomphakathi. UBurson Marsteller wenqabile ukuxoxa ngezinto ezinjalo. ”

Ukubika kwakamuva okususelwa emibhalweni yangaphakathi embonini kuveza ukuthi izinkampani zeziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola nazo zikhokhela kanjani izithunywa ezivela eceleni, kufaka phakathi odokotela nososayensi, ukuthi bathuthukise imikhiqizo yabo futhi basuse icala lapho isayensi ibophezela imikhiqizo yabo ezinkingeni ezinkulu zempilo.

Bona ukubikwa kuka-Anahad O'Connor kufayela le- New York Times, UCandice Choi kufayela le- Associated Press, nokutholakele kusuka ku- Uphenyo lwe-USRTK mayelana nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha kashukela nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Izindatshana zezindaba mayelana nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini yesoda:

Buka konke izindaba zezindaba mayelana ne-aspartame:

AmaSpredishithi Eqiniso e-USRTK

Imibiko ngamaqembu angaphambili nemikhankaso ye-PR

Izinkomba Zesayensi

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[2] Soffritti M, Belpoggi F, Tibaldi E, Esposti DD, Lauriola M. "Ukuvezwa kwesikhathi sokuphila emazingeni aphansi e-aspartame aqala ngesikhathi sokubeletha kwandisa imiphumela yomdlavuza kumagundane." Umbono Wezempilo We-Environ. 2007 Septhemba; 115 (9): 1293-7. I-PMID: 17805418.esihlokweni)

[3] Soffritti M et al. "I-Aspartame ehlinzekwa ekudleni, iqala ngokubeletha isikhathi eside sokuphila, inciphisa umdlavuza wesibindi namaphaphu kumagundane angamaduna aseSwitzerland." Am J Ind Med. UDisemba ka-2010; 53 (12): 1197-206. I-PMID: 20886530. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

[4] Schernhammer ES, Bertrand KA, Birmann BM, Sampson L, Willett WC, Feskanich D., "Ukusetshenziswa kwesiphungumzimba sokufakelwa-- nesoda equkethe ushukela kanye nengozi ye-lymphoma neleukemia kwabesilisa nabesifazane." Ngingu-J J Nutriti Womtholampilo. 2012 Dis; 96 (6): 1419-28. I-PMID: 23097267.abstract / esihlokweni)

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[8] I-Fowler SP. Ukusetshenziswa kwe-sweetener yekhalori ephansi nebhalansi yamandla: Imiphumela evela ezifundweni zokuhlola ezilwaneni, nasezifundweni ezinkulu ezenzelwe abantu. UPhysiol Behav. 2016 Okthoba 1; 164 (Pt B): 517-23. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.physbeh.2016.04.047. I-Epub 2016 Ephreli 26. (abstract)

[9] UVyas A et al. "Ukusetshenziswa Kokuphuza Okudliwayo Nengozi Yemicimbi Yezinhliziyo: Umbiko ovela kwi-Women's Health Initiative." J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Ephreli; 30 (4): 462-8. i-doi: 10.1007 / s11606-014-3098-0. I-Epub 2014 Dec 17. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[10] UMatthew P. Pase, PhD; UJayandra J. Himali, PhD; I-Alexa S. Beiser, i-PhD; UHugo J. Aparicio, MD; UClaudia L. Satizabal, PhD; URamachandran S. Vasan, MD; USudha Seshadri, MD; UPaul F. Jacques, DSc. “Iziphuzo ezinoshukela nezenziwe ngendlela engeyona eyokuzenzela kanye nobungozi besifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo. Isifundo Seqembu Elilindelekile. ” Unhlangothi. 2017 Ephreli; I-STROKEAHA.116.016027 (abstract / esihlokweni)

[11] Yang M et al. "Isifo i-Alzheimer's and Methanol Toxicity (Ingxenye 1): Ukondliwa KweMethanol Okungalapheki Kuholele Ekukhubazekeni Kwememori naseTau Hyperphosphorylation Kumagundane." UJ Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Ephreli 30. (abstract)

[12] Yang M et al. "Isifo i-Alzheimer's and Methanol Toxicity (Ingxenye 2): Izifundo Esizithola Ku-Four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Engapheli Yondla iMethanol." UJ Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Ephreli 30. (abstract)

[13] UCamfield PR, uCamfield CS, uDooley JM, uGordon K, uJollymore S, uWeaver DF. "I-Aspartame ikhulisa ukuphuma kwe-EEG spike-wave ezinganeni ezinesifo sokuwa jikelele: isifundo esilawulwa izimpumputhe." Neurology. Ngo-1992 uMeyi; 42 (5): 1000-3. I-PMID: 1579221.abstract)

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[18] UHumphries P, uPretorius E, uNaudé H. "Imiphumela yeselula eqondile nengaqondile ye-aspartame ebuchosheni." Umsoco we-Eur J Womtholampilo. 2008 Ephreli; 62 (4): 451-62. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[19] UTsakiris S, uGiannoulia-Karantana A, uSimintzi I, uSchulpis KH. "Umphumela wama-metabolites we-aspartame emsebenzini womuntu we-erythrocyte membrane acetylcholinesterase." IPharmacol Res. 2006 uJan; 53 (1): 1-5. I-PMID: 16129618 (.abstract)

[20] Ipaki CH et al. "I-Glutamate ne-aspartate kuphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori futhi kulimaze ama-hypothalamic neurons kumagundane amadala." I-Toxicol Lett. 2000 Meyi 19; 115 (2): 117-25. PMID: 10802387. (I-PMID)abstract)

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[22] UYokogoshi H, Roberts CH, Caballero B, Wurtman RJ. "Imiphumela ye-aspartame nokuphathwa kwe-glucose emazingeni obuchopho ne-plasma ama-amino acid amakhulu angathathi hlangothi nobuchopho ama-5-hydroxyindoles." Ngingu-J J Nutriti Womtholampilo. Ngo-1984 uJul; 40 (1): 1-7. I-PMID: 6204522.abstract)

[23] U-Olney JW, Ho OL. "Ukulimala Kobuchopho Emagundeni Ezinsana Ngokulandela Ukutholwa Ngomlomo kweGlutamate, i-Aspartate noma iCysteine." Imvelo. Ngo-1970 u-Aug 8; 227 (5258): 609-11. I-PMID: 5464249 (.abstract)

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[25] UVan den Eeden SK, uKoepsell TD, uLongstreth WT Jr, u-van Belle G, uDaling JR, uMcKnight B. "Ukungeniswa kwe-Aspartame kanye nekhanda: isilingo esingahleliwe." Neurology. 1994 Okthoba; 44 (10): 1787-93. I-PMID: 7936222. (I-PMID)abstract)

[26] ILipton RB, iNewman LC, uCohen JS, uSolomon S. "I-Aspartame njengesisusa sokudla sekhanda." Ubuhlungu bekhanda. 1989 Feb; 29 (2): 90-2. I-PMID: 2708042.abstract)

[27] Koehler SM, Glaros A. "Umphumela we-aspartame ekhanda le-migraine." Ubuhlungu bekhanda. Ngo-1988 uFebhu; 28 (1): 10-4. I-PMID: 3277925. (I-PMID)abstract)

[28] UJulie Lin noGary C. Curhan. "Izinhlangano zeShukela kanye ne-Artificially Sweetened Soda ne-Albuminuria ne-Kidney Function Yehla Kwabesifazane." Umtholampilo J Am Soc Nephrol. 2011 uJan; 6 (1): 160-166. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[29] UGul SS, Hamilton AR, Munoz AR, Phupitakphol T, Liu W, Hyoju SK, Economopoulos KP, Morrison S, Hu D, Zhang W, Gharedaghi MH, Huo H, Hamarneh SR, Hodin RA. "Ukuvinjelwa kwe-enzyme yamathumbu i-alkaline phosphatase yamathumbu kungachaza ukuthi i-aspartame ikukhuthaza kanjani ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose nokukhuluphala kwamagundane." I-Appl Physiol Nutrab Metab. 2017 uJan; 42 (1): 77-83. i-doi: 10.1139 / apnm-2016-0346. I-Epub 2016 Nov 18. (abstract / esihlokweni)

[30] USusan E. Swithers, "Amaswidi okufakelwa akhiqiza umphumela wokuphikisa wokuheha ukungqubuzana komzimba." Amathrendi we-Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Septhemba; 24 (9): 431–441. (esihlokweni)

[31] UGuy Fagherazzi, A Vilier, D Saes Sartorelli, M Lajous, B Balkau, F Clavel-Chapelon. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezinoshukela ezenziwe ngoshukela noshukela nohlobo lwesigameko sesifo sikashukela e-Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale – European Prospective Investigation ku-Cancer and Nutrition cohort." Ngingu-J Clin Nutriti. 2, uJan 2013; i-doi: 30 / ajcn.10.3945 ajcn.112.050997. (abstract/esihlokweni)

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[33] Kuk JL, Brown RE. "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokungabekezelelani okukhulu kweglucose kubantu abakhuluphele ngokweqile." I-Appl Physiol Nutrab Metab. 2016 Julayi; 41 (7): 795-8. i-doi: 10.1139 / apnm-2015-0675. I-Epub 2016 Meyi 24. (abstract)

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[41] USharma A, u-Amarnath S, uThulasimani M, uRamaswamy S. "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa njengezinto ezithatha indawo kashukela: Ingabe ziphephile ngempela?" I-Indian J Pharmacol 2016; 48: 237-40 (esihlokweni)

Izinkampani zeBayer's Shady PR: IFleishmanHillard, Ketchum, FTI Consulting

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kuthunyelwe ekuqaleni ngoMeyi 2019; ibuyekezwe ngoNovemba 2020

Kulokhu okuthunyelwe, i-US Right to Know ilandelela amahlazo okukhohlisa omphakathi ahlanganisa amafemu e-PR ukuthi imidondoshiya yezolimo iBayer AG neMonsanto bathembele kuyo ngemikhankaso yabo yokuvikela umkhiqizo: Ukubonisana kwe-FTI, uKetchum PR noFleishmanHillard. Lawa mafemu banemilando emide yokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukukhuthaza izinhloso zezepolitiki zamakhasimende abo, kubandakanya nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, imikhankaso yezokuvikela imboni kawoyela.

Amahlazo wakamuva

I-NYT idalula amasu e-FTI Consulting firm's shady embonini kawoyela: Phakathi ku Novemba 11, 2020 indatshana yeNew York Times, UHiroko Tabuchi wembula ukuthi i-FTI Consulting “isize kanjani ukuklama, abasebenzi nokuqhuba izinhlangano namawebhusayithi axhaswe yizinkampani zamandla ezingabonakala zimelela ukwesekwa emazingeni aphansi kohlelo lwezinto ezimbiwa phansi.” Ngokususelwa ezingxoxweni zakhe nabayishumi nababili ababengabasebenzi be-FTI namakhulu emibhalo yangaphakathi, uTabuchi ubika ngendlela i-FTI eyayiqapha ngayo izishoshovu zezemvelo, yaqhuba imikhankaso yezepolitiki ye-astroturf, yabamba izingosi ezimbili zezindaba nemininingwane futhi yabhala izindatshana ezisekela umkhakha mayelana nokuthwebula, ukumangalelwa kwesimo sezulu nokunye okushisayo Izinkinga zebutton ngesiqondiso esivela ku-Exxon Mobile.

IMonsanto kanye namafemu ayo e-PR bahlela umzamo we-GOP wokwesabisa abacwaningi bomdlavuza: U-Lee Fang kubikwe iThe Intercept ku-2019 kumadokhumenti aphakamisa ukuthi abalawuli abamelene neMonsanto futhi basebenzise ingcindezi yokwenza ucwaningo lwe-herbicide ehamba phambili emhlabeni, i-glyphosate. Indaba ibika ngamasu akhohlisayo e-PR, kufaka phakathi indlela i-FTI Consulting eyabhala ngayo incwadi emayelana nesayensi ye-glyphosate esayinwe ngusihlalo omkhulu we-GOP.

Imibhalo yeMonsanto yembula amaqhinga okudicilela phansi uphenyo lwentshisekelo yomphakathi: Imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ekhishwe ngamacala enkantolo ngo-Agasti 2019 iveze amasu amaningi inkampani kanye namafemu ayo e-PR asetshenziselwe ukukhomba izintatheli nabanye abathonya abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO, futhi bazama ukuphikisa uphenyo ngemisebenzi yabo yi-US Right to Know.

Bheka futhi ama-fact sheet ama-USRTK, asuselwa kumadokhumenti atholwe kuphenyo lwethu, abika ngabalingani benkampani yangaphandle abasiza ngokuvikela imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane: Ukulandelela Inethiwekhi Yezimboni Yezimboni Eziphathelene Nezibulala-zinambuzane.

NgoMeyi 2019, sabika ngamahlazo amaningi afaka amafemu eBayer PR:

Isikhalazo se 'Monsanto File'

Izintatheli at ULe Monde wabika ngoMeyi 9 ukuthi bathole "Ifayela leMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iFleishmanHillard ibala "inqwaba yolwazi" cishe izintatheli ezingama-200, osopolitiki, ososayensi nabanye ababonakala bengaba nomthelela empikiswaneni ye-glyphosate eFrance. Le Monde ufake isikhalazo nehhovisi lomshushisi waseParis lisola ukuthi lo mbhalo ubandakanya ukuqoqwa nokuqhutshwa kwemininingwane yomuntu ngokungemthetho, okugqugquzela ihhovisi lomshushisi vula uphenyo lobugebengu. “Lokhu kutholakala okubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu anenhloso yokuthulisa amaphimbo aqinile. Ngiyabona ukuthi bebezama ukungihlukanisa, ” Lowo owayenguNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo waseFrance uSegolene Royal, okusohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 TV.

"Lokhu kutholakale kubaluleke kakhulu ngoba kukhombisa ukuthi kunamasu afanele okuvala umsindo."

UFrancois Veillerette, isazi sezemvelo nasohlwini, utshele iFrance 24 ukuthi iqukethe imininingwane yokuxhumana yomuntu siqu, imibono nezinga lokuzibandakanya maqondana neMonsanto. "Lokhu kushaqisa kakhulu eFrance," esho. "Asicabangi ukuthi lokhu kuvamile." IBayer isivele yavuma ukuthi uFleishmanHillard waqamba “'uhlu lwamawashi 'lwezibalo ze-pro- noma anti-pesticides”Emazweni ayisikhombisa kulo lonke elaseYurophu, kubika i-AFP. Lezi zinhlu zaziqukethe imininingwane ngezintatheli, osopolitiki namanye amaqembu athintekayo. I-AFP ithe yafaka isikhalazo enkampanini yezomthetho yaseFrance ngoba ezinye zezintatheli zayo zazisohlwini olwavela eFrance.

Bayer waxolisa futhi wakusho kwamiswa ubudlelwano bayo namafemu athintekayo, kubandakanya neFleishmanHillard kanye nePublicis Consultants, kusalindwe uphenyo. "Okusemqoka kakhulu kithi ukudala obala," Kusho uBayer. "Asikubekezeleli ukungaziphathi kahle enkampanini yethu." (Amafemu kamuva asulwa ekwenzeni okungalungile yinkampani yabameli eqashwe yiBayer.)

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubeka njengentatheli ecaleni likaMonsanto 

Ukwengeza ezinkingeni zeBayer PR, i-AFP ibike ngoMeyi 18 ukuthi umsebenzi wenye inkampani "yokulawulwa kwezinhlekelele" PR isebenza neBayer neMonsanto - FTI Consulting - wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ezimele ecaleni likahulumeni waseSan Francisco elaphela ngo Isahlulelo esingu- $ 80 million ngokumelene neBayer ngenxa yokukhathazeka komdlavuza we-glyphosate.

Isisebenzi se-FTI Consulting uSylvie Barak ubonakale exoxa nezintatheli ngemibono yezindaba ecaleni. Uthe usebenzela i-BBC futhi akazange adalule ukuthi empeleni usebenzela inkampani ye-PR.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

UKetchum noFleishmanHillard basebenzisa i-GMO PR salvo

Ngo-2013, imboni yezolimo yathinta uFleishmanHillard noKetchum, bobabili ababengabakwa-Omnicom, ukuzokwakha PR kuyacasula ukuvuselela isithombe yemikhiqizo yayo ehlanganisiwe ye-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Kukhethwe iMonsanto UFleishmanHillard ukuze "akhe kabusha" igama lakhe phakathi "kokuphikisana okukhulu" nokudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo, ngokusho kweHolmes Report. Cishe ngaso leso sikhathi, uFleishmanHillard naye waba yi- I-ejensi ye-PR yerekhodi leBayer, kanye noMkhandlu Wezolwazi Lwezinto Eziphilayo (i-CBI) - iqembu lokuhweba kuxhaswe ngemali IBayer (iMonsanto), iCorteva (iDowDuPont), iSyngenta neBASF - baqashe inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yakwaKetchum ukuze yethule umkhankaso wokumaketha obizwa nge-GMO Answers.

Amaqhinga okujija aqashwe yila mafemu afaka phakathi “wooing mama Blogger”Nokusebenzisa amazwi ochwepheshe okuthiwa“ abazimele ”ku-“susa ukudideka nokungathembani”Mayelana nama-GMO. Kodwa-ke, kwavela ubufakazi bokuthi amafemu e-PR ahlela futhi abhalele abanye ochwepheshe "abazimele". Isibonelo, imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa lokho Kubhalwe uKetchum okuthunyelwe kwe GMO Izimpendulo ezisayinwe ngu- Uprofesa wase-University of Florida owathi uzimele njengoba wayesebenza ekusithekeni neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR. Iphini likamongameli omkhulu eFleishmanHillard kuhlelwe inkulumo a UC Davis uprofesa futhi wamqeqesha kanjani "ukunqoba abantu ekamelweni" at an Impikiswano ye-IQ2 ukukholisa umphakathi ukwamukela ama-GMO. UKetchum naye unikeze uprofesa amaphuzu okukhuluma kwinhlolokhono yomsakazo mayelana nocwaningo lwesayensi.

Izifundiswa beziyizithunywa ezibalulekile zemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni ukuthi ziphikisane nokulebula kwe-GMO, kubika i INew York Times ngo-2015. "Osolwazi / abacwaningi / ososayensi banesigqoko esikhulu esimhlophe kule mpikiswano kanye nokwesekwa ezifundazweni zabo, kusuka kosopolitiki kuya kubakhiqizi," uBill Mashek, iphini likamongameli eKetchum, wabhalela uprofesa wase-University of Florida. "Qhubeka nomsebenzi omuhle!" Iqembu lezentengiselwano le-CBI lisebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-11 zamaRandi kwi-GMO Answers kaKetchum kusukela ngo-2013, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela.

Impumelelo ye-GMO Answers 'management management'

Njengophawu olulodwa lwempumelelo yalo njengethuluzi le-PR spin, Izimpendulo zeGMO zazikhona kufakwe ohlwini lomklomelo wokukhangisa we-CLIO ngo-2014 esigabeni se- “Crisis Management & Issue Management.” Kule vidiyo ye-CLIO, uKetchum uziqhayisa ngokuthi kucishe kwaphindaphindeka kanjani ukunakwa kwabezindaba ngama-GMO kanye "nokulinganisa okungu-80% kokusebenzisana" ku-Twitter. Okuningi kwalokhu kuxhumana okuku-inthanethi kuvela kuma-akhawunti abonakala ezimele futhi awadaluli ukuxhumana kwawo nomkhankaso we-PR wemboni.

Yize ividiyo kaKetchum ithi Izimpendulo zeGMO "zizokuchaza kabusha obala" ngolwazi oluvela kochwepheshe "abangenalutho oluhlungiwe noma olucutshunguliwe, futhi kungekho mazwi athulisiwe," uhlelo lweMonsanto PR luphakamisa ukuthi inkampani ibheke izimpendulo zeGMO ukusiza imikhiqizo yayo ngendlela efanele. I- idokhumenti kusuka ku-2015 kubhalwe Izimpendulo ze-GMO phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" lokho kungasiza ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza; esigabeni "sezinsizakusebenza" esisekhasini 4, lolu hlelo lubhale izixhumanisi eziya kuzimpendulo ze-GMO kanye nemibhalo yeMonsanto engadlulisa umyalezo wenkampani othi "iGlyphosate ayiyona i-carcinogenic."

Le vidiyo yeKetchum yathunyelwa kuwebhusayithi ye-CLIO futhi yasuswa ngemuva kokuyinaka.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

UHillard noKetchum ka-Omnicom: imilando yenkohliso

Kungani noma iyiphi inkampani ingabeka uFleishmanHillard noma uKetchum phambi kwemizamo yokukhuthaza ukwethembana kunzima ukuyiqonda, uma kubhekwa umlando wabo wenkohliso ebhaliwe. Ngokwesibonelo:

Kuze kube ngo-2016, uKetchum wayengu- PR ngokuqinile eRussia kanye noVladimir Putin. Ngokuvumelana ne imibhalo etholwe yiProPublica, UKetchum wabanjwa ebeka ama-pro-Putin op-eds ngaphansi kwamagama "ochwepheshe ababonakala bezimele" ezindaweni ezahlukene zezindaba. Ngo-2015, i- Uhulumeni waseHonduran ohlangene waqasha uKetchum ukuzama ukuvuselela isithunzi sayo ngemuva kwesigameko senkohlakalo esabiza izigidi zamadola.

Imibhalo idalulwe kuMama Jones kukhombisa ukuthi uKetchum usebenze nenkampani yonogada ezimele "ehlola iGreenpeace nezinye izinhlangano zemvelo kusukela ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990s okungenani ngonyaka ka-2000, bephanga imibhalo emigqonyeni kadoti, bezama ukutshala izinkampani ezifihlekile ngaphakathi kwamaqembu, ukufaka amahhovisi amahhovisi, ukuqoqa amarekhodi efoni ezishoshovu, nemihlangano eyimfihlo engena ngaphakathi. ” UFleishmanHillard uphinde wabanjwa esebenzisa amaqhinga angekho emthethweni wokulwa nabameli bezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabameli bokulawulwa kukagwayi egameni lenkampani kagwayi iRJ Reynolds, ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe nguRuth Malone ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yezempilo Yomphakathi. Inkampani i-PR ize yaqopha ngokufihla umsindo imihlangano nezingqungquthela zokulawulwa kukagwayi.

UFileishman uHillard wayenjalo inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yeThe Tobacco Institute, okuyinhlangano eyinhloko yezimboni zikagwayi, iminyaka eyisikhombisa. Embhalweni ka-1996 Washington Post, uMorton Mintz elandisa le ndaba ngendlela iFleishmanHillard neTobacco Institute abaguqula ngayo iSikhungo Sempilo esincomekayo saba yiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha kagwayi emzamweni wawo wokuqeda ukukhathazeka komphakathi ngobungozi bokubhema intuthu kagwayi. UKethum futhi wasebenzela imboni kagwayi.

Womabili la mafemu kwesinye isikhathi asebenze ezinhlangothini zombili zodaba. UFleishmanHillard ubelokhu kuqashwe imikhankaso yokulwa nokubhema. Ku-2017, uKetchum wethule i- i-spin-off firm ebizwa ngokuthi yi-Cultivate ukwenza imali emakethe yokudla ephilayo ekhulayo, noma ngabe izimpendulo ze-GMO zikaKetchum zikuhlambalazile ukudla okungokwemvelo, zithi abathengi bakhokha “imali ephezulu” yokudla okungcono kunokudla okulinywa ngokujwayelekile.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubonisana kwe-FTI: ukukhohliswa kwesimo sezulu kanye nezibopho eziningi zikagwayi

I-FTI Consulting, "ukuphathwa kwezinhlekelele" PR eqinile esebenza neBayer futhi okwakungumsebenzi wakhe wabanjwa ezenza intatheli ocwaningweni lwakamuva lomdlavuza weRoundup eSan Francisco, wabelana ngokufana okuningana noFleishmanHillard noKetchum, kufaka phakathi ukusetshenziswa kwamaqhinga okucasha, ukungabi sobala kanye nomlando wokusebenzisana nomkhakha kagwayi.

Ifemu yaziwa njengomdlali ophambili emizameni ye-ExxonMobil yokubalekela ukubhekana nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Njengo-Elana Schor no-Andrew Restuccia kubikwe ePolitico ngo-2016:

“Ngaphandle kuka [Exxon] uqobo, ukuvimba okukhulu kwezwi kulokho okuvelayo kuqhamuke e-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani egcwele abasizi bakudala beRiphabhulikhi esize ukuhlanganisa i-GOP ekuvikeleni izibaseli. Ngaphansi kwesibhengezo se-Energy in Depth, okuwumsebenzi owenzelwe i-Independent Petroleum Association of America, i-FTI ifake izintatheli ngama-imeyili aphakamisa “ukuhlangana” phakathi kwezishoshovu eziluhlaza kanye nama-AGs ombuso, futhi yaphakamisa imibuzo mayelana noxhaso lwe-InsideClimate's Rockefeller. ”

Abasebenzi bakwa-FTI Consulting bake babanjwa bezenza izintatheli phambilini. UKaren Savage ubike Januwari 2019 kuzindaba Zesimo Sezulu Sezulu, “Osomaqhinga ababili bezobudlelwano nomphakathi abamele i-Exxon muva nje bazenze izintatheli emzamweni wokuxoxisana nommeli omele imiphakathi yaseColorado emangalela i-Exxon ngomonakalo ohlobene nokuguquka kwesimo sezulu. Osomaqhinga — uMichael Sandoval noMatt Dempsey — baqashwe yi-FTI Consulting, okuyinkampani ende exhumene nemboni kawoyela negesi. ” Ngokusho kwe-Climate Liability News, la madoda amabili abhalwe njengababhali beWestern Wire, iwebhusayithi ephethwe yizintshisekelo zikawoyela futhi enabasebenzi be-FTI Consulting, ebuye inikeze abasebenzi kwi-Energy In Depth, ucwaningo olwenziwe ngophethiloli umkhankaso wokufinyelela emphakathini. ”

I-Energy In Depth yaziveza njenge "mama ne-pop shop" emele abahlinzeki bamandla amancane kepha yadalwa yizinkampani ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ukunxenxa ukuqedwa komthetho, I-DeSmog blog ibike ngo-2011. Iqembu le-Greenpeace lathola i Imemo yomkhakha we-2009 ichaza I-Energy In Depth “njengomkhankaso omusha womkhakha obanzi wemboni… wokulwa nemithetho emisha yezemvelo, ikakhulukazi maqondana nokuqhekeka kuka-hydraulic” “obekungeke kwenzeke ngaphandle kokuzibophezela kwezezimali kusenesikhathi” kwezintshisekelo ezinkulu zikawoyela negesi ezibandakanya iBP, iHalliburton, iChevron, I-Shell, i-XTO Energy (manje ephethwe yi-ExxonMobil).

Esinye isici esifana nalawa mafemu yizinhlangano zawo zemboni kagwayi. I-FTI Consulting “inomlando omude wokusebenzisana nemboni kagwayi,” ngokusho kuka AmaTactics Tactics.org. Ukuseshwa kwelabhulali ye-UCSF Tobacco Industry Documents uletha amadokhumende angaphezu kuka-2,400 XNUMX ephathelene ne-FTI Consulting.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

Ukubikwa okuningi kumahlazo kaBayer PR

Ukufunda ngesiFulentshi:

Ukufunda ngesiNgisi:

AmaChlorpyrifos: i-pesticide ejwayelekile eboshelwe ekulimaleni kwengqondo ezinganeni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Chlorpyrifos, isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu, ixhunyaniswe kakhulu ne ukulimala kwengqondo ezinganeni. Lokhu nokunye ukukhathazeka kwezempilo kuholele amazwe amaningana futhi amanye amazwe aseMelika ukuvimbela i-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali yilokho kusavunyelwe ezitshalweni zokudla e-US ngemuva ukunxenxa ngempumelelo ngomkhiqizi wayo.

AmaChlorpyrifos ekudleni  

AmaChlorpyrifos ama-insecticide afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo kumagama omkhiqizo iDursban neLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos isibulala-zinambuzane se-organophosphate, i-acaricide kanye ne-miticide esetshenziswa ikakhulu ukulawula amahlamvu nezinambuzane ezithwalwa ngumhlabathi ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zokudla nezokudla. Imikhiqizo iza ifomu eliwuketshezi kanye nama-granules, izimpushana, namaphakethe ancibilikiswa ngamanzi, futhi ingasetshenziswa ngumhlabathi noma imishini yasemoyeni.

AmaChlorpyrifos asetshenziswa ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene ezibandakanya ama-apula, amawolintshi, ama-strawberry, ummbila, ukolweni, ezisawolintshi nokunye ukudla imindeni nezingane zabo ezikudlayo nsuku zonke. Ama-USDA Uhlelo Lwemininingwane Yezibulala-zinambuzane kutholwe izinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos kuma-citrus namakhabe ngisho nangemva kokugezwa nokuhluzwa. Ngokwevolumu, i-chlorpyrifos isetshenziswa kakhulu emmbileni nakosoya, kunamakhilogremu angaphezu kwesigidi asetshenziswa minyaka yonke esitshalweni ngasinye. Amakhemikhali awavunyelwe ezitshalweni eziphilayo.

Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ukukhathazeka ngempilo yabantu

I-American Academy of Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane abangaphezu kwama-66,000, uxwayise lokho ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwama-chlorpyrifos kubeka engcupheni enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, i-IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kokukhula kwezimoto. Izifundo ezisemqoka zibhalwe ngezansi.

IChlorpyrifos ibuye ixhunyaniswe nobuthi bezibulala-zinambuzane obunzima futhi ingadala ukudlikizela, ukukhubazeka kokuphefumula, futhi kwesinye isikhathi, nokufa.

I-FDA ithi ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile

I-Chlorpyrifos inobuthi obukhulu kangangoba i-European Food Safety Authority ukuthengiswa okungavunyelwe kwekhemikhali kusukela ngoJanuwari 2020, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ezinye izifundazwe zaseMelika zivimbele ama-chlorpyrifos ekusetshenzisweni kokulima, kufaka phakathi California futhi Hawaii.

I-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow Chemical ngo-2000 ukuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwama-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yocwaningo lwesayensi olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Kwakungavunyelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni ngo-2012.

Ngo-Okthoba 2015, i-EPA yathi ihlela uku kuhoxise konke ukubekezelela izinsalela zokudla i-chlorpyrifos, okusho ukuthi bekungeke kusaba semthethweni ukuyisebenzisa kwezolimo. Le nhlangano ithe "izinsalela ezilindelekile zama-chlorpyrifos ezitshalweni zokudla zidlula izinga lokuphepha ngaphansi komthetho iFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act." Lesi sinyathelo sivele ngenxa yesicelo sokuvinjelwa koMkhandlu Wezokuvikelwa Kwemvelo kanye ne-Pesticide Action Network.

NgoNovemba 2016, i-EPA yakhipha Ukubuyekezwa kokuhlolwa kwengozi yomuntu kwezempilo kuma-chlorpyrifos eqinisekisa ukuthi akuphephile ukuvumela ikhemikhali ukuthi liqhubeke lisetshenziswe kwezolimo. Phakathi kokunye, i-EPA ithe konke ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-1-2 ubudala. I-EPA ithe lokhu kuvinjelwa kuzokwenzeka ngo-2017.

I-Trump EPA ibambezela ukuvinjelwa

Ngemuva kokukhethwa kukaDonald Trump njengoMongameli wase-United States, ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwe-chlorpyrifos kwabambezeleka. NgoMashi 2017, ngo esinye sezenzo zakhe zokuqala ezisemthethweni njengesikhulu esiphezulu sezemvelo esizweni, Umphathi we-EPA uScott Pruitt wasenqaba isicelo ngamaqembu ezemvelo futhi wathi ukuvinjelwa kwama-chlorpyrifos ngeke kuqhubekele phambili.

The Associated Press kubikwa ngoJuni 2017 ukuthi uPruitt uhlangane nesikhulu esiphezulu seDow u-Andrew Liveris ezinsukwini ezingama-20 ngaphambi kokumisa ukuvinjelwa. Abezindaba nabo babike ukuthi uDow unikele ngo- $ 1 million emisebenzini yokuqala kaTrump.

NgoFebhuwari ka-2018, i-EPA ufinyelele endaweni yokuhlala edinga iSyngenta ukukhokha inhlawulo engu- $ 150,000 nokuqeqesha abalimi ukuthi basebenzise izibulala-zinambuzane ngemuva kokuba inkampani yehlulekile ukuxwayisa abasebenzi ukuthi bagweme amasimu lapho kusanda kufuthwa khona ama-chlorpyrifos nabasebenzi abaningana abangena emasimini babegula futhi edinga ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha. I-Obama EPA ekuqaleni yayihlongoze inhlawulo cishe ephindwe kasishiyagalolunye emikhulu.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience (phambilini uDowDuPont) wathi izophela ukukhiqizwa kwama-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okushicilelwe ngoJulayi 2020, abalawuli base-US kuncike emininingwaneni engelona iqiniso enikezwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos emakhaya aseMelika iminyaka. Ukuhlaziywa okuvela kubacwaningi base-University of Washington bathi ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1970 yeDow.

NgoSepthemba 2020 i-EPA yakhipha okwesithathu ukuhlolwa kwengozi kuma-chlorpyrifos, ethi "yize kutadwe iminyaka eminingana, ukubuyekezwa kontanga, kanye nenqubo yomphakathi, isayensi ekhuluma ngemiphumela yokuthuthuka ihlala ingasonjululwanga," futhi isengasetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni ukudla.

Isinqumo size ngemuva imihlangano eminingi phakathi kwe-EPA neCorteva.

Amaqembu nezifundazwe zimangalela i-EPA

Ngemuva kwesinqumo sabaphathi bakaTrump sokubambezela noma yikuphi ukuvinjelwa kuze kube okungenani u-2022, i-Pesticide Action Network kanye noMkhandlu Wezokuvikela Wezemvelo wafaka icala ngokumelene ne-EPA ngo-Ephreli 2017, efuna ukuphoqa uhulumeni ukuthi alandele izincomo zokuphatha kuka-Obama zokuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos. Ngo-Agasti 2018, umbuso Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala itholakele ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos, futhi yayalela i-EPA ukuthi iphothule ukuvinjelwa kwayo okuhlongozwayo zingakapheli izinyanga ezimbili. Ngemuva kwalokho ukubambezeleka okuningi, Umphathi we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler umemezele ngoJulayi 2019 ukuthi i-EPA ngeke ivimbele ikhemikhali.

Izifundazwe eziningana ziye zamangalela i-EPA ngokwehluleka kwayo ukuvimba ama-chlorpyrifos, kufaka phakathi iCalifornia, New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Maryland, Vermont futhi Oregon. Izifundazwe zithi emibhalweni yasenkantolo yokuthi ama-chlorpyrifos kufanele avinjelwe ekukhiqizeni ukudla ngenxa yezingozi ezihambisana nakho.

I-Earthjustice ibuye yafaka icala eNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika eNkantolo Yesifunda Yesishiyagalolunye ukufuna ukuvinjelwa ezweni lonke egameni lamaqembu akhuthaza abezemvelo, abasebenzi basemapulazini kanye nabantu abakhubazeke ngokufunda.

Izifundo zezokwelapha nezesayensi

Intuthuko ye-neurotoxicity

“Ucwaningo lwezifo olubukeziwe lapha lubike ukuhlangana kwezibalo phakathi kokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kuya kuCPF [chlorpyrifos] kanye nezinkinga zemizwa zangemva kokubeletha, ikakhulukazi ukushoda kwengqondo okuhlobene nokuphazamiseka kwesimo sobuchopho…. Amaqembu ahlukahlukene okucwaninga ngaphambi komhlaba emhlabeni wonke akhombise ngokungaguquki ukuthi i-CPF iyi-neurotoxicant yentuthuko. Intuthuko ye-CPF neurotoxicity, esekelwa kahle yizifundo ezisebenzisa izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezilwane, imizila yokuchayeka, izimoto, nezindlela zokuhlola, imvamisa ibonakala ngokushoda kwengqondo kanye nokuphazamisa ubuqotho besakhiwo. ” Ukuthuthukiswa kwe-neurotoxicity ye-organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos: kusuka ekutholeni komtholampilo kuya kumamodeli wangaphambi kokusebenza kanye nezinqubo ezingaba khona. Ijenali yeNeurochemistry, 2017.

"Kusukela ngo-2006, izifundo ze-epidemiological ziye zabhala ezinye izinzwa eziyisithupha ezithuthukisa i-neurotoxicants — i-manganese, i-fluoride, i-chlorpyrifos, i-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, i-tetrachlorethylene, ne-polybrominated diphenyl ether." Imiphumela ye-Neurobehavioural yobuthi bokuthuthuka. ILancet Neurology, 2014.

I-IQ yezingane nokukhula kwengqondo

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort lokufunda komama nezingane ezisemadolobheni luthola ukuthi “ukutholakala okuphezulu kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], ngaphambi kokuzalwa, njengoba kulinganiswa ngentambo yegazi le-umbilical, kwakuhlotshaniswa nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo kuma-indices amabili e-WISC-IV, kusampula yedolobha izingane ezincane ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala… i-Working Memory Index ibihlobene kakhulu nokuchayeka kwe-CPF kulesi sibalo sabantu. ” Izikolo zeminyaka eyisikhombisa ze-Neurodevelopmental Scores kanye nokuvezwa kokubeletha kweChlorpyrifos, umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile wezolimo. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo lweqembu lokuzalwa lemindeni esebenza kakhulu epulazini laseLatino eCalifornia luthinta imethabolite yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ye-organophosphate etholakala emchameni kwabesifazane abakhulelwe abanezibalo ezimbi kakhulu ezinganeni zabo zememori, isivinini sokucubungula, ukuqonda ngamazwi, ukucabanga okunengqondo kanye ne-IQ. “Okutholakele kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha emithini yokubulala izinambuzane i-OP [organophosphate], njengoba kulinganiswa ngama-metabolite e-urap DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kubantu besifazane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, kuhlotshaniswa namakhono empofu okuqonda ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Izingane ezisezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu lokugxila komama be-DAP zazinokushoda okuphakathi kwamaphoyinti angu-7.0 IQ uma kuqhathaniswa nalezo ezikwi-quintile ephansi kakhulu. Ososeshini babebambisene, futhi asizange sibheke mngcele. ” Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi kokubeletha ku-Organophosphate Pesticides kanye ne-IQ ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu besifazane nezingane zabo "liphakamisa ukuthi ukutholakala ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-organophosphates kuhlotshaniswa kabi nokukhula kwengqondo, ikakhulukazi ukucabanga okunengqondo, nobufakazi bemiphumela eqala ezinyangeni eziyi-12 futhi kuqhubeke kusukela ebuntwaneni." Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi Kokubeletha ku-Organophosphates, iParaoxonase 1, kanye Nokuthuthukiswa Kokuqonda Kwezobuntwana. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu abaphakathi nedolobha lathola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu okuchayeka kuma-chlorpyrifos “zithole, ngokwesilinganiso, amaphuzu angu-6.5 aphansi kwi-Bayley Psychomotor Development Index namaphoyinti angu-3.3 aphansi ku-Bayley Mental Development Index eneminyaka emithathu ubudala uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abanamazinga aphansi okuchayeka. Izingane ezivezwe izinga eliphakeme, uma kuqhathaniswa namazinga aphansi, ama-chlorpyrifos nawo mancane amathuba okuthi abhekane nokubambezeleka kwe-Psychomotor Development Index kanye ne-Mental Development Index, izinkinga zokunaka, ukunakekelwa kokushoda / izinkinga zokuphazamiseka kwengqondo, kanye nezinkinga zesifo sokukhula ezisabalele ziseneminyaka emithathu ubudala. ” Umthelela Wokuvezwa Kwe-Chlorpyrifos Yangaphambi Kokubeletha Ekuthuthukisweni Kwe-Neurodevelopment Eminyakeni Eyi-3 Yokuqala Yokuphila Phakathi Kwezingane Zangaphakathi Nasedolobheni. Ijenali yeAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort esifundeni sezolimo eCalifornia lwandisa "ukutholwa kwangaphambilini kwezinhlangano phakathi kwe-PON1 genotype namazinga we-enzyme kanye nezizinda ezithile ze-neurodevelopment phakathi neminyaka yobudala besikole, kuveza ubufakazi obusha bokuthi izinhlangano ezingezinhle phakathi kwamazinga we-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kanye ne-IQ zingaba namandla kakhulu ezinganeni zomama ezinamazinga aphansi kakhulu enzyme ye-PON1. ” Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate pesticide, i-PON1, kanye ne-neurodevelopment ezinganeni ezifunda isikole esifundweni se-CHAMACOS. Ucwaningo Lwemvelo, 2014.

I-Autism nezinye izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenziwa ngabantu luthole ukuthi, "Ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha noma kwengane kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane okhethiwe — kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate, i-chlorpyrifos, i-diazinon, ne-permethrin-kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwamathuba okuba ne-autism spectrum disorder." Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nosana emithini yokubulala izinambuzane eziseduze kanye nokuphazamiseka kwe-autism spectrum ezinganeni: isifundo esilawulwa ngamacala abantu. BMJ, 2019.

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenzelwe abantu "lubone ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwe-ASD [i-autism spectrum disorders] kanye nokuhlala ngaphambi kokubeletha okusondelene nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane e-organophosphate okwesibili (kwe-chlorpyrifos) kanye ne-trimesters yesithathu (i-organophosphates jikelele)". Ukuphazamiseka kweNeurodevelopmental kanye nePrenatal Residential Resurial to the Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2014.

Bona futhi: Ukunciphisa ibhalansi yengozi ye-Autism: Izindlela Ezinokwenzeka Zokuxhuma I-Pesticides ne-Autism. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2012.

Okudidayo kobuchopho

"Okutholakele kwethu kukhombisa ukuthi ukutholakala kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni abonwe ngokusetshenziswa okujwayelekile (ukungasebenzi) nangaphansi kombundu wanoma yiziphi izimpawu zokuvezwa kanzima, kunomthelela ongaba khona esakhiweni sobuchopho esampula yezingane ezingama-40 5.9-11.2 y of ubudala. Sithole ukungajwayelekile okuphawulekayo ezilinganisweni ze-morphological ze-cerebral surface ehambisana nokuvezwa okuphezulu kwe-CPF ngaphambi kokubeletha… .Ukukhuliswa kwesifunda kobuso be-cerebral kugqame kakhulu futhi bekutholakala endaweni ephakeme yesikhashana, yangemuva yesikhashana, kanye ne-postyral gyri ephansi, kanye ne-gyrus ephezulu engaphambili. , i-gyrus rectus, i-cuneus, ne-precuneus ngasodongeni lwe-mesial lwe-hemisphere yangakwesokudla ”. Ukungafani kobuchopho ezinganeni kudalulwe ngokweqile kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile we-organophosphate. Izinqubo zeNational Academy of Sciences, 2012.

Ukukhula kwesisu

Lolu cwaningo "lubone ukuhlangana okuphawuleka kakhulu phakathi kwamazinga we-umbilical cord chlorpyrifos kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa phakathi kwezinsana eqenjini lamanje elizalwe ngaphambi kwezinyathelo zomthetho ze-EPA zase-US zokuqeda ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokubulala izinambuzane." Ama-biomarkers ekuhloleni ukutholakala kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa nemiphumela ekukhuleni kwengane. I-Toxicology kanye ne-Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile, lweqembu lamaqembu amaningi lathola ukuthi “lapho kubhekwa izinga lomsebenzi womama we-PON1, amazinga omama ama-chlorpyrifos angaphezulu komkhawulo wokutholwa okuhambisana nomsebenzi ophansi womama we-PON1 ahlotshaniswa nokwehliswa okuphawulekayo kodwa okuncane kokuzungezwa kwekhanda. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amazinga we-PON1 womama kuphela, kepha hhayi ama-polymorphisms ezakhi zofuzo e-PON1, ahlotshaniswa nosayizi wekhanda owehlisiwe. Ngenxa yokuthi usayizi omncane wekhanda utholakale ubikezela ikhono elilandelayo lokuqonda, le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos angaba nomthelela omubi ekukhuleni kwe-fetal neurodevelopment komama abakhombisa umsebenzi ophansi we-PON1. ” Ku-Utero Pesticide Exposure, Umsebenzi We-Maternal Paraoxonase, kanye ne-Head Circumference. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labomama abambalwa nezinsana zabo ezisanda kuzalwa "luqinisekisa ukutholwa kwethu kwangaphambilini kokuhlangana okuphambene phakathi kwamazinga ama-chlorpyrifos ku-umbilical cord plasma kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude ... Ngaphezu kwalokho, ubudlelwane bokuphendula ngomthamo babuye babonwa esifundweni samanje. Ngokuqondile, ukuhlangana phakathi kwentambo ye-plasma chlorpyrifos nesisindo esincishisiwe sokuzalwa nobude kwatholakala ikakhulu ezinganeni ezisanda kuzalwa ezinamazinga aphezulu okuvezwa angama-25%. ” Ukuchayeka kokubulala izinambuzane ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude phakathi kweqoqo elincane lase-Urban. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2004.

Lung Cancer  

Ekuhlolweni kwabasebenzisi abangaphezu kwama-54,000 bezibulala-zinambuzane ku-Agricultural Health Study, ososayensi e-National Cancer Institute babike ukuthi izehlakalo zomdlavuza wamaphaphu zihambisana nokuchayeka kwe-chlorpyrifos. "Kulokhu kuhlaziywa kwesifo somdlavuza phakathi kwabafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane ezinelayisense e-chlorpyrifos eNyakatho Carolina nase-Iowa, sithole ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwezibalo zokwanda komdlavuza wamaphaphu, kodwa hhayi komunye umdlavuza ohloliwe, ngokuchayeka okwandayo kwe-chlorpyrifos." Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafakizicelo Bezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KumaChlorpyrifos Esifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Ijenali yeNational Cancer Institute, 2004.

Isifo sikaParkinson

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala kwabantu abahlala eCentral Valley eCalifornia lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa okukhona kuma-pesticides angama-36 asetshenziswa kakhulu e-organophosphate ngokwehlukana kwandise ingozi yokuhlaselwa yisifo sikaParkinson. Ucwaningo "lunezela ubufakazi obuqinile" bokuthi i-organophosphate pesticides "iyathinteka" ku-etiology yesifo se-idiopathic Parkinson. Ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka kuma-organophosphates kanye nengozi yesifo sikaParkinson. Imithi Yokusebenza Nemvelo, 2014.

Imiphumela yokuzalwa

Iqoqo labazali be-Multiethnic labesifazane abakhulelwe nezinsana ezisanda kuzalwa lithole ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos “ahlotshaniswa nokwehla kwesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa kukonke (p = 0.01 futhi p = 0.003, ngokulandelana) nangesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi phakathi kwabase-Afrika baseMelika (p = 0.04) futhi banciphisa ubude bokuzalwa kumaDominican (p <0.001) ". Imiphumela Yokuchayeka Kokutshalwa Kwendawo Kokungcola Kwemvelo Emiphumeleni Yokuzalwa Emphakathini Wabantu Abaningi. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Neuroendocrine

“Ngokuhlaziywa kwezindlela eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuziphatha kobulili-dimorphic sibonisa ukuthi imisebenzi ye-neurotoxic ne-endocrine ephazamisa imisebenzi yeCPF [chlorpyrifos] iyahlangana. Lo muthi we-organophosphorus osatshalaliswa kabanzi ungabhekwa njengesiphazamiso se-neuroendocrine okungenzeka simelele ubungozi bokuphazamiseka kwengqondo okubangelwa ucansi ezinganeni. ” Ukuziphatha kwe-sex dimorphic njengezimpawu zokuphazanyiswa kwe-neuroendocrine ngamakhemikhali ezemvelo: Icala le-chlorpyrifos. I-NeuroToxicology, 2012.

eliqhaqhazelayo

"Okutholakele njengamanje kukhombisa ukuthi izingane ezinokuchayeka okuphezulu kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos zazisemathubeni amakhulu okukhombisa ukuzamazama okuncane noma okumaphakathi ukuya kokulinganayo engalweni eyodwa noma zombili lapho kuhlolwe phakathi kweminyaka yobudala eyi-9 nengu-13.9 yeminyaka…. Sihlangene, ubufakazi obandayo busikisela ukuthi Ukuchayeka kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni asetshenziswayo njengamanje, kuhlotshaniswa nezinkinga zokuthuthuka eziqhubekayo nezinhlobonhlobo. ” Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kwi-organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos nokuzamazama kwengane. I-NeuroToxicology, 2015.

Izindleko zama-chlorpyrifos

Izilinganiso zezindleko zokuchayeka kumakhemikhali aphazamisa i-endocrine e-European Union zithole ukuthi "Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate kuhlotshaniswa nezigidi eziyi-13.0 (ukuhlaziywa kobucayi, izigidi ezingama-4.24 kuya kweziyi-17.1) kulahlekelwe amaphuzu e-IQ kanye nama-59 300 (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, amacala ayi-16 500 kuya ku-84 400) yokukhubazeka ngokwengqondo, kubiza u- € 146 billion (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, € 46.8 billion kuya ku- € 194 billion). ” Ukushoda kwe-Neurobehaisheral, Izifo, kanye Nezindleko Ezihlanganisiwe Zokuchayeka Kumakhemikhali Aphazamisa i-Endocrine e-European Union. Ijenali ye-Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015.

Indlala yegilo kumagundane

"Ucwaningo lwamanje lukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamagundane e-CD1, ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kokubeletha nangemuva kokubeletha, emazingeni emithamo ye-CPF [chlorpyrifos] ngaphansi kwalawo avimbela ubuchopho i-AchE, kungadala ushintsho ku-thyroid." Ukuvezwa Kokuthuthuka Kwama-Chlorpyrifos Kukhuthaza Ukushintshwa Kumazinga we-Thyroid ne-Thyroid Hormone Ngaphandle Kwezinye Izimpawu Zobuthi kumagundane e-Cd1. Isayensi Yezobuthi, 2009.

Izinkinga ngezifundo zomkhakha

“NgoMashi 1972, uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo e-Albany Medical College babika imiphumela yocwaningo lwenhloso ye-chlorpyrifos kumxhasi walolu cwaningo, iDow Chemical Company. Umbiko wabo uphethe ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli elingabonwa-elibi-lomthelela (i-NOAEL) lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Sikhombisa lapha ukuthi ukuhlaziywa okufanele kwendlela yokuqala yezibalo bekufanele kutholakale i-NOAEL ephansi (i-0.014 mg / kg-day), nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezindlela zezibalo ezitholakale okokuqala ku-1982 bekuzokhombisa ukuthi nomthamo ophansi kakhulu ocwaningweni umphumela wokwelashwa obalulekile. Ukuhlaziywa kwangempela, okwenziwe ngabasebenzi bezibalo abaqashwe yi-Dow, akuzange kubuyekezwe okusemthethweni; noma kunjalo, i-EPA icaphune ucwaningo lwaseCoulston njengocwaningo oluthembekile futhi yagcina i-NOAEL yayo ebikiwe njengendawo yokuhamba yokuhlolwa kwezingcuphe kuwo wonke ama-1980 kanye nama-1990. Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokuhlala eziningi ezakhanselwa kamuva ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo ezingaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ” Ukuhlaziywa okunamaphutha kwesifundo somthamo womuntu ngamabomu kanye nomthelela wawo ekuhlolweni kwengozi ye-chlorpyrifos. Imvelo Yomhlaba Wonke, 2020.

"Ekubuyekezweni kwethu kwedatha eluhlaza kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ovelele, i-chlorpyrifos, kanye nenye into ehlobene nayo, kutholakale ukungafani phakathi kokubona kwangempela kanye neziphetho ezitholwe ilabhorethri yokuhlola embikweni olethwe ukugunyazwa kwe-pesticide." Ukuphepha Kokuhlolwa Kokuphepha Kwezibulala-zinambuzane: i-neurotoxicity yentuthuko ye-chlorpyrifos ne-chlorpyrifos-methyl. Impilo Yezemvelo, 2018.

Amanye amaphepha eqiniso

Isikhungo saseHarvard Kennedy School Shorenstein: Isibulala-zinambuzane esinempikiswano nomphumela waso ekukhuleni kobuchopho: Ucwaningo nezinsizakusebenza

IHarvard University: I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu, ngonyaka owodwa kamuva

Ukulungiswa komhlaba: Ama-Chlorpyrifos: I-pesticides enobuthi elimaza izingane zethu kanye nemvelo

ISierra Club: Izingane namaChlorpyrifos

Ubuntatheli kanye nemibono

Ukulingiswa nguBradley Peterson, ngeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; New York Times

Ifa likaTrump: Ubuchopho Obonakele, nguNicholas Kristof, New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane, esesigaba samakhemikhali esenziwe njengegesi yezinzwa eyenziwe yiNazi Germany, manje sesitholakala ekudleni, emoyeni nasemanzini okuphuza. Ucwaningo lwabantu nolwezilwane lukhombisa ukuthi lulimaza ubuchopho futhi linciphise ama-IQ ngenkathi lubangela ukuthuthumela ezinganeni. ”

Vikela Ubuchopho Bezingane Zethu, nguSharon Lerner, New York Times. “Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-chlorpyrifos kukhomba eqinisweni ukuthi akulona uhlobo lwamakhemikhali olulimaza wonke umuntu ohlangana nalo - noma olubangela ukuthi bawele phansi. Esikhundleni salokho, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukwanda engcupheni yokuhlushwa yizinkinga ezithile zentuthuko okuthi noma zincane kangako, futhi zikhuthazelele. ”

Izithelo Zobuthi: IDow Chemical Ifuna Abalimi ukuthi Baqhubeke Basebenzisa I-Pesticide Exhumene Ne-Autism ne-ADHD, nguSharon Lerner, The Intercept. “IDow, inkampani enkulu yamakhemikhali enelungelo lobunikazi lama-chlorpyrifos futhi esenza iningi lemikhiqizo enayo, ibuphikisana ngokungaguquguquki nobufakazi besayensi obukhulayo bokuthi ikhemikhali yayo eyi-blockbuster iyazilimaza izingane. Kodwa umbiko kahulumeni wakwenza kwacaca ukuthi i-EPA manje isemukela isayensi ezimele ekhombisa ukuthi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane osetshenziselwa ukutshala ukudla kwethu okuningi akuphephile. ”

Lapho idatha eyanele inganele ukwenza inqubomgomo: Ukwehluleka ukuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos, nguLeonardo Trasande, i-PLOS Biology. “Ososayensi banesibopho sokukhuluma uma abenzi bezinqubomgomo behluleka ukwamukela imininingwane yesayensi. Badinga ukumemezela ngokugcizelela imiphumela yokwehluleka kwenqubomgomo, noma ngabe ezinye zezisekelo zesayensi zihlala zingaqinisekile. ”

Akavinjelwanga Kanjani Lo Muthi Wezibulala-zinambuzane? yibhodi yabahleli beThe New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuthi i-chlorpyrifos ngokusobala siyingozi futhi sisetshenziswa kakhulu. Kuyaziwa ukuthi kudlula kalula kusuka kumama kuya embungwini futhi kuxhunyaniswe nezinkinga ezahlukahlukene ezibucayi zezokwelapha, kufaka phakathi ukukhula kahle, isifo sikaParkinson nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Lokho akumangazi ngokuphelele. Ikhemikhali lakhiwa ekuqaleni ngamaNazi ngesikhathi seMpi Yezwe II ukuze lisetshenziswe njengegesi yezinzwa. Nakhu okumangazayo: Amathani esibulala-zinambuzane asafuthwa njalo ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-United States minyaka yonke, cishe eminyakeni emihlanu ngemuva kokuthi i-Environmental Protection Agency inqume ukuthi kufanele ivinjelwe. ”

Lesi sibulala-zinambuzane sihlobene kakhulu nama-nerve agents asetshenziswa eMpini Yesibili Yomhlaba. I-EPA kaTrump ayinandaba, nguJoseph G. Allen, Washington Post. “Esikwaziyo ngama-chlorpyrifos kuyethusa. Mhlawumbe ucwaningo olwaziwa kakhulu ngolwenziwa ngabaphenyi baseColumbia University abenza ukucabanga kobuchopho ezinganeni ezisencane kakhulu ezinama-chlorpyrifos. Imiphumela iyashaqisa futhi ayicaci. Ngokwamagama abacwaningi: "Lolu cwaningo lubika izinhlangano ezibalulekile zokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kwisidakamizwa esisetshenziswa kakhulu kwezemvelo, emazingeni asetshenziswayo, ngezinguquko ezihlelekile ebuchosheni bomuntu obusakhulayo."

Icala Elinamandla Lokulwa Nesibulala-zinambuzane Alisho I-EPA Ngaphansi Kwetrump, nguRoni Caryn Robin, New York Times. “Ukubuyekezwa kwengozi yezempilo yabantu ehlanganiswe yi-EPA ngoNovemba kwathola ukuthi izinkinga zezempilo zazenzeka emazingeni aphansi okuchayeka kunalokho okwakucatshangwa ukuthi kuyingozi. Izinsana, izingane, amantombazane amancane nabesifazane bavezwa amazinga ayingozi ama-chlorpyrifos ngokudla kuphela, kusho le nhlangano. Izingane zichayeke emazingeni aphindwe kayi-140 kunomkhawulo wokuphepha. ”

Izingane Zikhudlwana Ngemuva Kokuvinjelwa Kwama-pesticides ama-2, Ukuthola Okufundwayo, nguRichard Pérez-Peña, eNew York Times. "Abesifazane abakhulelwe eManhattan engenhla ababesengozini enkulu yokubulala izinambuzane ezivamile babenezingane ezincane ukwedlula omakhelwane babo, kodwa imikhawulo yakamuva kulezi zinto ezimbili yehlisa ukutholakala kalula futhi yanda nosayizi wezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo olushicilelwa namuhla."

Ubuthi Yithi, nguTimothy Egan, New York Times. “Uma uluma ucezu lwesithelo, kufanele kube yinjabulo engenangqondo. Impela, lelo sitrobheli elibukeka njenge-steroidal elinendawo emhlophe yokugcoba amazinyo akubonakali kulungile ukuqala ngalo. Kepha akumele ucabange ngokukhula kobuchopho bengane lapho uyibeka ngaphezu kokusanhlamvu kwakho. Abaphathi bakaTrump, ngokubeka amathoyizi embonini yamakhemikhali phakathi kokudla kwethu nokuphepha komphakathi, kuphoqe ukuthi kuhlolisiswe kabusha ibhulakufesi neminye imikhuba okungafanele yethuse. ”

Epuletini lakho lesidlo sakusihlwa nasemzimbeni wakho: Isibulala-zinambuzane esiyingozi kakhulu ongakaze uzwe ngaso, nguStaffan Dahllöf, Ukuphenya Ukubika IDenmark. “Umphumela onoshevu wama-chlorpyrifos ezinambuzaneni awuphikiswa. Umbuzo ongaxazululeki ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos kuyingozi kangakanani kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo ezinjengezinhlanzi emanzini aseduze noma abasebenzi basemapulazini emasimini, noma kunoma ngubani odla imikhiqizo elashwa. ”

Ama-Neurotoxin ku-broccoli yengane yakho: lokho kuyimpilo ngaphansi kukaTrump, nguCarey Gillam, The Guardian. “Ingakanani impilo yengane yakho? Impendulo evela ebuholini be-US Environmental Protection Agency ithi: hhayi kangako… Ngakho-ke silapha - sinokukhathazeka kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwezingane zethu ezingenacala nezisengozini ngakolunye uhlangothi nabadlali abanamandla, abacebile bezinkampani ngakolunye uhlangothi. Abaholi bethu bezepolitiki nabezomthetho bakhombisile ukuthi bazithanda kakhulu kabani.

Ukubulala Izinambuzane Okuvamile Kungalimaza Ubuchopho Babafana Ngaphezu Kwamantombazane, nguBrett Israel, Environmental Health News. “Kubafana, ukuvezwa ama-chlorpyrifos esibelethweni kwakuhlanganiswa nakho amaphuzu aphansi ekuhlolweni kwememori yesikhashana uma kuqhathaniswa namantombazane avezwe inani elifanayo.

Amashidi amaningi wesayensi kumakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu 

Thola amanye amashidi eqiniso e-US Right to Know:

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba 

I-US Right to Know iyiqembu lezempilo lomphakathi eliphenyayo elisebenza emhlabeni wonke ukuveza ububi bezinkampani kanye nokwehluleka kukahulumeni okusongela ubuqotho bohlelo lwethu lokudla, imvelo yethu kanye nempilo yethu.  Ungakwazi nikela lapha kuphenyo lwethu futhi bhalisela iphephandaba lethu lamasonto onke.  

Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Glyphosate, i-herbicide yokwenziwa enelungelo lobunikazi ngonyaka we-1974 yiMonsanto Company futhi manje eyenziwe futhi ithengiswa yizinkampani eziningi emikhiqizweni engamakhulu, ihlotshaniswa nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo. IGlyphosate yaziwa kakhulu njengesithako esisebenzayo kuma-herbicides anohlobo lwe-Roundup, kanye ne-herbicide esetshenziswa ne-"Roundup Ready" yezinto eziphilayo eziguqulwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs).

Ukubekezelelana kwe-Herbicide kuyisici esande kakhulu se-GMO esenziwe izitshalo zokudla, kanti amanye ama-90% ommbila nama-94% kabhontshisi wase-US enzelwe ukubekezelela ukubulala ukhula, ngokusho kwedatha ye-USDA. A Ucwaningo lwe-2017 ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kwabantu baseMelika ku-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe 500 amaphesenti selokhu kwethulwa izitshalo ze-Roundup Ready GMO e-US ngo-1996. Nawa amanye amaqiniso abalulekile nge-glyphosate:

I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ngokombiko othile NgoFebhuwari 2016 isifundo, i-glyphosate yiyona isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu: "E-US, asikho isibulala-zinambuzane esiseduze kakhulu nokusetshenziswa okunamandla nokusakazeke kangaka." Okutholakele kufaka phakathi:

  • AbaseMelika basebenzise amathani ayi-1.8 wezigidi ze-glyphosate selokhu yethulwa ngo-1974.
  • Emhlabeni wonke kufuthwe amathani ayizigidi eziyi-9.4 amakhemikhali emasimini - anele ukufafaza cishe isigamu sephawundi seRoundup kuwo wonke amahektare alinywayo emhlabeni.
  • Emhlabeni jikelele, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kukhuphuke cishe izikhathi eziyi-15 selokhu kwethulwe izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

Izitatimende ezivela kososayensi nabahlinzeki bokunakekelwa kwempilo 

Ukukhathazeka Ngomdlavuza

Imibhalo yesayensi kanye neziphetho zokulawula maqondana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides ikhombisa ukuxubana kokutholakele, okwenza ukuphepha kwe-herbicide kube yindaba ephikisanayo. 

Ngo 2015, the I-International Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njengo-mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu”Ngemuva kokubukeza iminyaka yocwaningo lwesayensi olushicilelwe nolubuyekezwa ontanga. Ithimba lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba lithole ukuthi kukhona ukuhlangana okuthile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Izinhlangano ze-US: Ngesikhathi sokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yayiqhuba ukubuyekeza ukubhalisa. IKomidi Lokubuyekeza Umdlavuza we-EPA (CARC) ukhiphe umbiko ngoSepthemba 2016 siphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate "bekungeke kwenzeke ukuthi ibe yi-carcinogenic kubantu" ngemithamo efanele impilo yomuntu. NgoZibandlela wezi-2016, i-EPA yabiza iSigungu Sabeluleki Besayensi ukuze sibuyekeze lo mbiko; amalungu ayekhona ihlukaniswe ekuhloleni kwabo umsebenzi we-EPA, abanye bathola ukuthi i-EPA yenze iphutha ekutheni iluhlole kanjani ucwaningo oluthile. Ngokwengeziwe, iHhovisi Lezokucwaninga Nentuthuko le-EPA linqume ukuthi iHhovisi Lezinhlelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane ze-EPA ayilandelwa imigomo efanele ekuhloleni kwayo i-glyphosate, futhi yathi ubufakazi bungathathwa njengobusekela ubufakazi “obungenzeka” bomdlavuza noma “obusikisela” bokwehlukaniswa kwe-carcinogenicity. Noma kunjalo i-EPA ukhiphe umbiko osalungiswa ku-glyphosate ngoDisemba 2017 eqhubeka nokubamba ukuthi ikhemikhali akunakwenzeka ukuthi libe yi-carcinogenic. Ngo-Ephreli 2019, i-EPA kwaqinisekisa isikhundla sayo leyo glyphosate ayibeki bungozi empilweni yomphakathi. Kepha ekuqaleni kwenyanga efanayo, i-US Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry (ATSDR) ibike ukuthi kunokuxhumana phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza. Ngokusho kwe- umbiko wokusalungiswa ovela ku-ATSDR, "Ucwaningo oluningi lubike izilinganiso zobungozi ezinkulu kunezinye zezinhlangano eziphakathi kokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate kanye nengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma noma i-myeloma eminingi." 

I-EPA ikhiphe i- Isinqumo Sokubukeza Okwesikhashana ngoJanuwari 2020 ngolwazi olusha mayelana nokuma kwalo ku-glyphosate. 

Iyuniyani yase-Europe: The Isiphathimandla Sezokuphepha KwaseYurophu futhi I-European Chemicals Agency bathe i-glyphosate ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic kubantu. A Umbiko ka-Mashi 2017 ngamaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi abalawuli bathembele ngokungafanele ocwaningweni olwaluqondiswa futhi lusetshenziswa imboni yamakhemikhali. A Ucwaningo lwe-2019 ithole ukuthi umbiko weFederal Institute for Risk Assessment waseJalimane ngeglyphosate, ongatholanga ubungozi bomdlavuza, ubufaka phakathi izingxenye zombhalo kukhishwe izifundo zeMonsanto. NgoFebhuwari 2020, kwavela imibiko yokuthi izifundo zesayensi ezingama-24 ezithunyelwe kubalawuli baseJalimane ukufakazela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate zaqhamuka elabhorethri enkulu yaseJalimane osolwa ngokukhwabanisa nokunye okungalungile.

Umhlangano ohlangene we-WHO / FAO wezinsalela ze-Pesticide kunqunywe ngo-2016 ukuthi i-glyphosate yayingenakwenzeka ukufaka ingozi ye-carcinogenic kubantu kusukela ekuvezweni ngokudla, kepha lokhu kutholakala kungcoliswe ngu ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo ukukhathazeka ngemuva kokuvela ukuthi usihlalo kanye nosihlalo weqembu nabo babephethe izikhundla zobuholi ne I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elixhaswe ngokwengxenye yiMonsanto nenye yezinhlangano zalo zokunxenxa.

California OEHHA: Ngo-Mashi 28, 2017, iHhovisi Lezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-California Environmental Protection Agency laqinisekisa ukuthi kuzokwenzeka engeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwe-Proposition 65 lwaseCalifornia lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza. UMonsanto wamangalela ukuvimba lesi senzo kodwa icala lachithwa. Kwelinye icala, inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ayinakudinga izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo equkethe i-glyphosate. NgoJuni 12, 2018, iNkantolo yesiFunda e-US yasenqaba isicelo se-California Attorney General sokuthi inkantolo isiphinde icubungule lesi sinqumo. Inkantolo ithole ukuthi iCalifornia ingadinga kuphela inkulumo yezentengiso edalula "imininingwane eyiqiniso futhi engenakuphikiswa," futhi nesayensi ezungeze i-glyphosate carcinogenicity ayizange itholakale.

Isifundo Sezempilo Kwezolimo: Ucwaningo lukahulumeni wase-US olwalusekelwa isikhathi eside oluzoxhaswa yimindeni yasepulazini e-Iowa naseNyakatho Carolina alutholanga ukuxhumana phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kodwa abacwaningi babika ukuthi “phakathi kwabafaka izicelo ku-quartile yokuvezwa okuphezulu kakhulu, kwakukhona ingozi eyengeziwe ye-acute myeloid leukemia (AML) uma iqhathaniswa nabangakaze basebenzise… ”Ukubuyekezwa kwakamuva kakhulu okushicilelwe ocwaningweni yenziwa umphakathi ngasekupheleni kuka-2017.

Izifundo zakamuva ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza nokunye ukukhathazeka ngempilo 

Cancer

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Endocrine, ukukhathazeka nokuzala 

Isifo sesibindi 

  • Ucwaningo lwango-2017 luhambisana nokuchayeka okungapheli, okunezinga eliphansi kakhulu le-glyphosate isifo sesibindi esingenawo utshwala kumagundane. Ngokusho kwabaphenyi, imiphumela "isho ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okungapheli kwamazinga aphansi kakhulu ekwakhiweni kwe-GBH (Roundup), ezindaweni ezivumelekile ezilingana ne-glyphosate, kuhlotshaniswa nokuguqulwa okuphawulekayo kwe-proteome yesibindi ne-metabolism," ama-biomarkers we-NAFLD.

Ukuphazanyiswa kweMicrobiome 

  • November 2020 iphepha ku-Journal of Materials Hazardous ibika ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisenkabeni ye-gut gut microbiome "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamabhaktheriya esiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho abalobi ephepheni labo. 
  • A 2020 ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi kwemiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome iphetha ngokuthi, "izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni zingadala i-dysbiosis, uma kubhekwa ukuthi amagciwane angosomathuba amelana kakhulu ne-glyphosate uma kuqhathaniswa nama-bacteria asebenzayo." Leli phephandaba liyaqhubeka, “IGlyphosate ingase ibe yisici esibucayi kwezemvelo ku-etiology yezifo eziningana ezihambisana ne-dysbiosis, kufaka phakathi isifo se-celiac, isifo samathumbu esivuthayo kanye nesifo samathumbu esivele sicasuke. Ukuvezwa kweGlyphosate nakho kungaba nemiphumela empilweni yengqondo, kufaka phakathi ukukhathazeka nokudangala, ngokushintsha kwesisu segciwane. ”
  • Ucwaningo lwama-rat lwango-2018 olwenziwe yiRamazzini Institute lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamazinga aphansi ku-Roundup emazingeni athathwa njengaphephe kakhulu kushintshe i-gut microbiota kwamanye amazinyane egundane.
  • Olunye ucwaningo lwango-2018 lubike ukuthi amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate afakwa kumagundane aphazamisa i-gut microbiota futhi kubangele ukukhathazeka nokuziphatha okufana nokudana.

Imiphumela emibi yezinyosi nezimvemvane ze-monarch.

Amacala omdlavuza

Bangaphezu kuka-42,000 abantu abafake isimangalo eMonsanto Company (manje eyiBayer) bethi ukutholakala kwe-Roundup herbicide kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), nokuthi iMonsanto yamboza izingozi. Njengengxenye yenqubo yokutholwa, iMonsanto kudingeke ukuthi ivule izigidi zamakhasi amarekhodi angaphakathi. Singa ukuthumela la Maphepha eMonsanto njengoba ezotholakala. Ukuze uthole izindaba namathiphu mayelana nomthetho oqhubekayo, bheka uCarey Gillam's I-Roundup Trial Tracker. Izilingo ezintathu zokuqala zaphetha ngemiklomelo emikhulu kwabamangali ngesikweletu nomonakalo, amajaji athatha isinqumo sokuthi umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto waba nomthelela omkhulu ekubangeleni ukuthi bathuthukise i-NHL. IBayer iyasidlulisa lesi sinqumo. 

Ithonya leMonsanto ocwaningweni: Ngo-Mashi 2017, ijaji lenkantolo yombuso livule imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto leyo kwaphakamisa imibuzo emisha mayelana nethonya likaMonsanto kunqubo ye-EPA nangabalawuli bocwaningo abathembele kulo. Le mibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi izimangalo zikaMonsanto ezimi isikhathi eside mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ne-Roundup musa ukuthembela kwisayensi ezwakalayo njengoba inkampani iqinisekisa, kepha ivuliwe imizamo yokusebenzisa isayensi

Imininingwane engaphezulu mayelana nokuphazamiseka kwesayensi:

Ososayensi baseSri Lankan banikeze umklomelo wenkululeko we-AAAS wocwaningo lwezifo zezinso

I-AAAS inikeze ososayensi ababili baseSri Lankan, uDkt. UChanna Jayasumana noSarath Gunatilake, the Umklomelo we-2019 Wenkululeko Yesayensi Nokuzibophezela ngomsebenzi wabo "wokuphenya ukuxhumana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-glyphosate nesifo esingapheliyo sezinso ngaphansi kwezimo eziyinselele." Ososayensi babike ukuthi i-glyphosate idlala indima enkulu ekuhambiseni izinsimbi ezisindayo ezinso zalabo abaphuza amanzi angcolile, okuholela emazingeni aphezulu esifo esingapheliyo sezinso emiphakathini yokulima. Bona amaphepha ku-  I-SpringerPlus (2015), I-BMC Nephrology (2015), Health Environmental (2015), Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Wocwaningo Lwezemvelo kanye Nezempilo Yomphakathi (2014). Umklomelo we-AAAS ubukade ukhona imisiwe phakathi komkhankaso ophikisayo wokuphikisana wabalingani bemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wososayensi. Ngemuva kokubuyekezwa, i-AAAS ubuyisele umklomelo

Ukwehliswa: omunye umthombo wokuchayeka ekudleni 

Abanye abalimi basebenzisa i-glyphosate ezitshalweni ezingezona eze-GMO ezifana nokolweni, ibhali, i-oats, nama-lentile ukomisa isivuno ngaphambi kokuvuna ukuze kusheshiswe isivuno. Lo mkhuba, eyaziwa ngokuthi i-desiccation, kungaba ngumthombo obalulekile wokuchayeka ekudleni kwe-glyphosate.

IGlyphosate ekudleni: I-US idonsa izinyawo zayo ekuhlolweni

I-USDA yehlisa buthule uhlelo lokuqala ukuhlola ukudla kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate ngo-2017. Imibhalo ye-ejensi yangaphakathi etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi yayihlele ukuqala ukuhlola amasampula angaphezu kuka-300 wesiraphu yommbila i-glyphosate ngo-Ephreli 2017. Kodwa i-ejensi yabulala iphrojekthi ngaphambi kokuthi iqale. Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa e-US kwaqala uhlelo lokuhlola olunomkhawulo ngo-2016, kodwa umzamo wawugcwele impikiswano nobunzima bangaphakathi kanti uhlelo lwalunjalo yamiswa ngoSepthemba 2016. Womabili la ma-ejensi anezinhlelo ezivivinya minyaka yonke ukudla kwezinsalela ze-pesticides kodwa zombili ziye zeqa ukuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate.

Ngaphambi kokumiswa, kutholakale isazi samakhemikhali esisodwa se-FDA amazinga ashaqisayo e-glyphosate kumasampula amaningi oju lwase-US, amazinga ayengavumelekile ngokomthetho ngoba awekho amazinga avunyelwe ukusetshenziselwa uju yi-EPA. Nayi impinda yezindaba mayelana ne-glyphosate etholakala ekudleni:

Ama-pesticides ekudleni kwethu: Ikuphi idatha yokuphepha?

Idatha ye-USDA yango-2016 ikhombisa amazinga atholakala ngezibulala-zinambuzane kokungu-85% kokudla okungaphezulu kuka-10,000 XNUMX okusampuli, konke kusuka kumakhowe kuya kumagilebhisi kuya kubhontshisi oluhlaza. Uhulumeni uthi zincane izingozi zezempilo, kepha abanye ososayensi bathi akukho lwazi oluncane lokusekela leso simangalo. Bona “Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma "kuphephile" kungahle kungaphephi ngempela: Ukuhlolwa kwesayensi kwensalela ye-pesticin ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa, ”NguCarey Gillam (11/2018).

IGates Foundation iphinda kabili emkhankasweni wokwaziswa okungelona iqiniso eCornell njengoba abaholi base-Afrika befuna i-agroecology 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubika okuhlobene: Ukuguquka okuluhlaza okwehlulekayo kweGates Foundation e-Afrika (7.29.20)

I-Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation unikeze omunye u- $ 10 million ngesonto eledlule kwiCornell Alliance for Science eyimpikiswano, a umkhankaso wezokuxhumana obuseCornell ukuthi izitimela abafo e-Afrika nakwezinye izindawo ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nezolimo. Isibonelelo esisha siletha izibonelelo zeBMGF eqenjini zifike ku- $ 22 million.

Utshalomali lwe-PR luza ngesikhathi lapho iGates Foundation isolwa ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika abagxeki abathi zigxilisa izindlela zokulima ezisiza izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Abaholi bezenkolo banxusa iGates Foundation 

NgoSepthemba 10, abaholi bezenkolo e-Afrika bathumela i- incwadi evulekile eya eGates Foundation ukuyicela ukuthi ibuyekeze amasu ayo okwenza izibonelelo e-Afrika. 

“Yize sibonga iBill and Melinda Gates Foundation ngokuzinikela kwayo ekunqobeni ukungabi nokudla, kanye nokwamukela usizo lwezingqalasizinda olunikezwa ohulumeni bezwekazi lethu, sibhala ngokukhathazeka okukhulu ukuthi ukwesekwa yiGates Foundation ekwandiseni ezolimo ezinamandla zezimboni zijulisa inkinga yezenhlalakahle, ”kusho incwadi yokusayinwa eqondiswa yi- Isikhungo Sezemvelo SaseNingizimu Afrika Sokholo (SAFCEI).  

Incwadi ibalula i-Alliance eholwa yiGates Alliance for a Green Revolution (AGRA) ngokusekelwa kwayo "okuyinkinga kakhulu" kwezinhlelo zembewu ezentengiselwano ezilawulwa izinkampani ezinkulu, ukusekelwa kwayo kwemithetho yokuhlwanyela kabusha imbewu ukuvikela imbewu eqinisekisiwe nokwenza ubugebengu imbewu engaqinisekisiwe, kanye ukwesekwa kwabathengisi bezimbewu abanikeza izeluleko ezincanyana mayelana nemikhiqizo yezinkampani ngezinsizakalo zokwandiswa komkhakha womphakathi ezidingeka kakhulu 

Iphephandaba laseUganda eliphuma nsuku zonke libike ngokungaphumeleli kwephrojekthi ye-AGRA

"Sinxusa iGates Foundation ne-AGRA ukuthi bayeke ukukhuthaza ubuchwepheshe obuhlulekile nezindlela zokuphelelwa yisikhathi futhi baqale ukulalela abalimi abathuthukisa izixazululo ezifanele zezimo zabo," kusho abaholi bezenkolo.

Yize kusetshenziswe izigidigidi zamaRandi neminyaka engu-14 yezethembiso, i-AGRA yehlulekile ukufeza izinhloso zayo zokunciphisa ububha nokukhuphula imali yabalimi abancane, ngokusho NgoJulayi kubika Izithembiso Zamanga. Ucwaningo lwenziwe umfelandawonye wamaqembu ase-Afrika nawaseJalimane kanti lubandakanya nemininingwane evela ku- iphepha elimhlophe lakamuva enyatheliswa yiTufts Global Development and Environment Institute. 

IGates Foundation ayikaphenduli ezicelweni zokuphawula ngale ndatshana kodwa yathi nge-imeyili yangaphambilini, "Siyazeseka izinhlangano ezifana ne-AGRA ngoba zisebenzisana namazwe ukuwasiza ukuthi asebenzise izinto eziseqhulwini nezinqubomgomo eziqukethwe kumasu abo kazwelonke wokuthuthukisa ezolimo."

Ukushabalala kwezithembiso zenguquko eluhlaza 

Yethulwe ngo-2006 yiGates and Rockefeller Foundations, i-AGRA sekuyisikhathi eside ithembise ukuphinda kabili isivuno nemali engenayo emindenini yokulima eyizigidi ezingama-30 e-Afrika ngo-2020. Kepha iqembu lisuse ngokuthula lezo zinhloso kuwebhusayithi yalo esikhathini esithile ngonyaka odlule. UMphathi Wezabasebenzi we-AGRA u-Andrew Cox uthe nge-imeyili ukuthi leli qembu alisinciphisanga isifiso sakhe kodwa liyalungisa izindlela zalo nokucabanga kwalo ngamamethrikhi. Uthe i-AGRA izokwenza ukuhlolwa okuphelele ngemiphumela yayo ngonyaka ozayo. 

I-AGRA yenqabile ukuhlinzeka ngemininingwane noma ukuphendula imibuzo ebalulekile evela kubaphenyi bombiko Wezithembiso Zamanga, kusho ababhali bayo. Abamele iBIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia neHOMEF Nigeria bathumele i- incwadi eya kuCox Septhemba 7 becela impendulo kulokho abakutholile ocwaningweni. I-Cox kuphendule uSepthemba 15 ngalokho omunye umcwaningi akuchaze ngokuthi “ngokuyisisekelo amakhasi amathathu e-PR.” (Bheka ngokugcwele izincwadi lapha kufaka impendulo ye-BIBA ka-Okthoba 7.)

"Abalimi base-Afrika bafanelwe yimpendulo evela ku-AGRA," kusho incwadi eya ku-Cox ivela ku-Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima noNgimmo Bassay.  “Kanjalo nabaxhasi bomkhakha kahulumeni be-AGRA, ababonakala sengathi bathola imbuyiselo embi kakhulu kutshalomali lwabo. Ohulumeni base-Afrika nabo kudingeka banikeze ukubalwa kwezimali okucacile ngemithelela yesabelomali sabo esisekela izinhlelo zeGreen Revolution. ”

Ohulumeni base-Afrika basebenzisa cishe u- $ 1 billion ngonyaka kwizibonelelo zokuxhasa imbewu yokuhweba kanye nezolimo. Ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu kuzuzo lokukhiqiza kwezolimo, indlala inyuke ngamaphesenti angamashumi amathathu phakathi neminyaka ye-AGRA, ngokusho kombiko weFalse Promises.

Ukutshalwa kwezimali kweGates Foundation kunomthelela omkhulu ekutheni izinhlelo zokudla zakhiwe kanjani e-Afrika, ngokusho kukaJuni umbiko ovela kwi-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES). Iqembu libike ukuthi izigidigidi zamaRandi kwizibonelelo zeGates Foundation zikhuthaze ezolimo zezimboni e-Afrika futhi zabuyisa notshalomali ezinhlelweni zokudla ezizinzile, ezilinganayo.  

"IBMGF ibheka izimbuyiselo ezisheshayo nezibonakalayo kutshalo-mali, ngaleyo ndlela ithande izixazululo ezihlosiwe," kusho i-IPES.

Abakhiqizi bendawo namaketanga okudla amafushane 

Indlela yokuthuthukisa ezolimo yeGates Foundation yokwakha izimakethe zezitshalo ezinkulu, ezinokufakwa okuphezulu kuyibeka ekuphikisaneni nokucabanga okuvelayo ngokuthi ungabhekana kanjani kangcono nezimo eziguquguqukayo ezibangelwa izingqinamba ezimbili zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nobhadane lweCovid-19.

NgoSepthemba, I-UN Food and Agriculture Organisation ithe kubalulekile ukwakha amasistimu okudla asendaweni aqinile njengoba lolu bhubhane “lubeke izinhlelo zokudla zasendaweni engcupheni yokuphazamiseka kulo lonke uchungechunge lokudla.” Umbiko ubhala izingqinamba ezihlobene nobhubhane nezifundo ezivela ocwaningweni lomhlaba wonke olwenziwe ngo-Ephreli nangoMeyi ezadonsa izimpendulo ezingama-860. 

“Umyalezo ocacile ngukuthi, ukuze sikwazi ukubhekana nokwethuka okufana ne-COVID-19, amadolobha anezimo ezifanele zenhlalo-mnotho nezomnotho kufanele amukele izinqubomgomo nezinhlelo zokunika amandla abakhiqizi bendawo ukuthi batshale ukudla, futhi bakhuthaze amaketanga okudla amafushane ukuze bakwazi ukwenza izakhamizi ezisemadolobheni ukuthola imikhiqizo yokudla, ”kuphetha lo mbiko. "Amadolobha kufanele ahlukanise ukudla kwawo kanye nemithombo yawo yokudla, aqinise imithombo yendawo lapho kungenzeka khona, kodwa ngaphandle kokuvala ukunikezwa kukazwelonke nasemhlabeni jikelele."

Njengoba ubhadane lusongela imiphakathi yabalimi esivele inenkinga yokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, i-Afrika isesiphambanweni, kubhala uMillion Belay, umxhumanisi we-African Food Ubukhosi Alliance, noTimothy Wise, ongumcwaningi oholayo wokuhlaziywa kweTufts kwe-AGRA, ku Septhemba 23 ivuliwe. “Ngabe abantu bayo kanye nohulumeni babo bazoqhubeka nokuzama ukuphindaphinda izindlela zokulima zezimboni ezithuthukiswa amazwe athuthukile? Noma bazongena ngesibindi esikhathini esizayo esingaqinisekile, bamukele ezolimo nemvelo? ”

UBelay noWise bachaze ezinye izindaba ezinhle ezivela ocwaningweni lwakamuva; "Amazwe amabili e-AGRA anciphise isibalo nesabelo sabantu abangondlekile - i-Ethiopia neMali - bakwenze lokhu ngenxa yezinqubomgomo ezisekela ezolimo."

Indaba enkulu kakhulu yempumelelo, iMali, ibone ukuthi indlala yehle isuka ku-14% yaya ku-5% kusukela ngo-2006. Ngokocwaningo lwamacala ku Umbiko wezithembiso ezingamanga, “Inqubekela phambili ayivelanga ngenxa ye-AGRA kepha yingoba uhulumeni nezinhlangano zabalimi bakuphikisile ukusebenza kwayo,” kubhala uBelay noWise, bekhomba imithetho yomhlaba kanye nembewu eqinisekisa amalungelo abalimi okuzikhethela izilimo zabo kanye nemikhuba yabo yokulima, nezinhlelo zikahulumeni ukuthi gqugquzela hhayi nje ummbila kepha izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezitshalo zokudla.

"Isikhathi sokuthi ohulumeni base-Afrika babuyele emuva ku-Green Revolution ehlulekayo futhi bahlele uhlelo olusha lokudla oluhlonipha amasiko nemiphakathi yasendaweni ngokugqugquzela ezolimo ezingabizi kakhulu, ezinomthelela ophansi kwezolimo," babhala. 

Ukuphinda kabili umkhankaso we-PR obuseCornell 

Ngokuphikisana nalokhu okwenzeka ngemuva, iGates Foundation iphinda kabili ekutshalweni kwayo kuCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), umkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi owasungulwa ngonyaka we-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates futhi uthembisa "ukudicilela phansi impikiswano" ezungeze ama-GMO. Ngama- $ 10 million amasha, I-CAS ihlela ukukhulisa ukugxila kwayo "Ukulwa nemibono yozungu kanye nemikhankaso yokukhipha imininingwane engavimbeli inqubekela phambili ekuguqukeni kwesimo sezulu, i-synthetic biology, ezolimo." 

Kepha iCornell Alliance for Science isiphenduke amandla okuqhakambisa nomthombo wolwazi okungelona njengoba iqeqesha abafo emhlabeni wonke ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo, iningi labo e-Afrika. 

Izitshudeni eziningi, amaqembu okudla kanye nochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo bamemeze iqembu imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo. Amaqembu omphakathi asebenzela ukulawula ama-pesticides kanye ne-biosafety asole i-CAS ngokuthi usebenzisa amaqhinga okuhlukumeza eHawaii futhi ukuxhaphaza abalimi e-Afrika emikhankasweni yalo yokuphromotha neyokungenisa izivakashi.  

A Isihloko se-July 30 nguMark Lynas, umuntu ovakashele eCornell osebenzela i-CAS, ukhanyisa impikiswano mayelana nemiyalezo yeqembu. Icaphuna okwakamuva ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwezolimo lokongiwa kwemvelo, kusho uLynas,  "I-agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu futhi yenze kube nokulingana ngokobulili e-Afrika." Ukuhlaziywa kwakhe kwakukhathalelwe kabanzi ngochwepheshe kulo mkhakha.

UMarc Corbeels, isazi sezolimo nomhlaba owabhala ukuhlaziywa kwe-meta, uthe lo mbhalo wenza "ukwenziwa okwandile. ” Ezinye izifundiswa zichaze udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “inamaphutha ngempela, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""demagogic futhi okungezona ezesayensi, ”Ukungqubuzana okuyiphutha okugxumela ku“iziphetho zasendle, ”Kanye no “Okuyihlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi. ”

Lesi sihloko kufanele ihoxiswe, kusho uMarci Branski, owayenguchwepheshe kwezokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu e-USDA futhi UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezombangazwe eQueen's University.

Impikiswano mayelana i-agroecology uyafudumala

Impikiswano iphinde yavela kuleli sonto nge-webinar CAS ibamba NgoLwesine uMfumfu 1 ngesihloko se-agroecology. Ukucaphuna ukukhathazeka ukuthi iqembu elizinze eCornell "alizimisele ngokwanele ukuthi lingabamba iqhaza engxoxweni evulekile, engachemile", ochwepheshe ababili bohlelo lokudla bahoxile kwi-webinar ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto.

Ososayensi ababili bathi bavumile ukubamba iqhaza kwi-webinar ngemuva kokubona amagama abo phakathi kwama-panelists; "Lokho kwanele ukuthi sobabili sithembe nenhlangano eyenze lo mcimbi," kubhala UPablo Tittonell, PhD, Principal Research Scientist eMkhandlwini Kazwelonke Wezesayensi Nobuchwepheshe e-Argentina (CONICET) kanye USieglinde Snapp, I-PhD, uProfesa Wezomhlaba kanye Nezinqubo Zokutshalwa Kwezitshalo eMichigan State University, ukuze abe ngumongameli wephaneli uJoan Conrow, umhleli we-CAS. 

“Kepha ngifunda amanye ama-blogs nemibono ekhishwe yi-Alliance, okushicilelwe ngamanye ama-panelists, ngifunda ngezinsolo zokuchema nezingazi ngokumelene ne-agroecology, i-push-ideated technologies yezobuchwepheshe obuthile, njll. safika esiphethweni sokuthi le ndawo ayifanele ngokwanele ukuba ihlanganyele engxoxweni evulekile, engakhethi, eyakhayo futhi, okubaluleke kakhulu, ingxoxo yesayensi enolwazi, ”uTittonell noSnapp babhalela IConrow.

"Ngakho-ke siyazihoxisa kule mpikiswano." UConrow akaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono.

 I-webinar izoqhubeka phambili ne- Nassib Mugwanya, ongumfundi ofunda nobudokotela emhlabeni wonke we-CAS ka-2015 eNorth Carolina State University, naye osolwa ngokuhlasela ngokungafanele i-agroecology. Kwi Isihloko se-2019 we-Breakthrough Institute, uMugwanya wathi, "imikhuba yendabuko yezolimo ayikwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika." 

Lo mbhalo ukhombisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile yomkhakha we-biotech: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla “se-pro-science” ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge- 'anti-science,' engenasisekelo futhi eyingozi,” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

“Okuphawuleka kakhulu esihlokweni,” kusho leli qembu, “ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezifenqo (isib. I-agroecology ifaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokungalungi okuningana okuyiqiniso.”

Njengoba uTittonell noSnapp besusiwe ohlwini lwewebhu ngoLwesine, uMugwanya uzojoyina uPamela Ronald, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, eDavis, izibopho embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu angaphambili, Futhi UFrédéric Baudron, usosayensi omkhulu e-International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), iGates Iqembu elixhaswe yisisekelo. 

Ukucela 'ukulwa okulungile'

UMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Center for Biodiversity, ubheka imikhankaso ye-PR eshubile "njengobufakazi bokuphelelwa yithemba" lokuthi "abakwazi ukuyithola kahle ezwenikazi." 

Iqembu lakhe linayo iminyaka ibhala “Imizamo yokusabalalisa i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, neziphetho zayo kuzoholela kulokhu: ukuncipha kwempilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwemvelo yezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, nokuvalelwa kwabalimi base-Afrika ohlelweni olungakhelwanga inzuzo yabo , kodwa inzuzo yabantu abaningi baseNyakatho yamazwe ngamazwe. ”

ICornell Alliance for Science kumele ibuse, kusho uMayet ku-webinar ka-Agasti mayelana negalelo leGates Foundation e-Afrika, “ngenxa yolwazi olungelona iqiniso (nangendlela) abangahloniphi ngokweqile futhi abangenalo iqiniso.” Wabuza, “Kungani ungalwi nathi?”

UStacy Malkan ungumsunguli nentatheli ye-US Right to Know, iqembu labacwaningi elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ezindabeni zezempilo zomphakathi. Ungumbhali wencwadi yango-2007 ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.” Mlandele ku-Twitter @StacyMalkan 

ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

Imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane eyinhloko iqembu le-PR liyavalwa; Izimpendulo zeGMO zidlulela kuCropLife

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Council for Biotechnology Information (CBI), okuyisinyathelo esikhulu sobudlelwano bomphakathi esethulwe eminyakeni engamashumi amabili edlule ngokuhola izinkampani zezolimo ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, sekuvalile. Okhulumela i-imeyili ukuqinisekisile nge-imeyili ukuthi i-CBI "ichithakele ekupheleni kuka-2019, nezimpahla zayo, kubalwa nenkundla yezimpendulo i-GMO, zidluliselwe eCrocLife International yaseBelgium."

Ukudalulwa kwangaphambilini kusuka ku-GMOAnswers.com

I-CBI isaqhubeka nokukhuthaza ukubukwa komkhakha namaqembu angaphambili nge ikhasi layo le-Facebook, Its iphrojekthi ye-flagship Izimpendulo ze-GMO, umkhankaso wokumaketha owandisa amazwi ezifundiswa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, manje uthi uxhaso lwawo luvela kwaCropLife, iqembu lokuhweba lamazwe omhlaba lezinkampani zokubulala izinambuzane.

GMOAnswers.com iwebhusayithi manje iyachaza, "Kusukela ngo-2020, iGMO Answers wuhlelo lweCropLife International." Le webhusayithi iphinde ibhale umlando waleli qembu “njengomkhankaso owenziwe yi-The Council for Biotechnology Information, onamalungu ayo abandakanya iBASF, Bayer, Dow AgroSciences, iDuPont, iMonsanto Company neSyngenta.”

Bona iphepha lethu lamaqiniso elisha ngemininingwane eminingi ngemisebenzi ye- Umkhandlu Wezokwazisa nge-Biotechnology kanye nezimpendulo ze-GMO

"Ukuqeqesha abakhulumela abantu besithathu"

I-CBI ichithe imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 28 emizamweni yayo yokuvikela umkhiqizo kusuka ku-2014-2019, ngokusho kwamarekhodi entela. (Amafomu entela neminye imibhalo esekelayo ithunyelwe lapha.)

Amafomu entela aqhakambisa indima ebaluleke kakhulu engabahlanganyeli “bomuntu wesithathu” - ikakhulukazi izifundiswa, odokotela bokudla kanye nabalimi - abadlala imizamo yokuvikela imikhiqizo yezinkampani ezinkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni zezibulala-zinambuzane nembewu. Into yomugqa kuma-CBI's Ifomu lentela lika-2015 ngezigidi eziyi-1.4 zamaRandi ezichithwe eNyakatho Melika kuyaphawulwa: “ICanada igxile ekuqeqesheni abantu abakhuluma nabo (abalimi, izifundiswa, odokotela bokudla) ukufundisa abezindaba nomphakathi ngezinzuzo ze-ag biotech.” EMexico, ifomu lentela liphawula ukuthi, i-CBI "ibibambe ukuqeqeshwa kwabezindaba nezingqungquthela zabafundi, abalimi, kanye nezifundiswa" futhi "ibambisene namaqembu abalimi, izifundiswa, kanye nohlu lokudla ukuqinisa ukwamukelwa" kwama-GMO. I-CBI futhi "idale izingxoxo zenqubomgomo zomthethoama-ators. ”

Izindleko ezinkulu ze-CBI, ezingaphezu kwezigidi eziyi-14 zamaRandi kusukela ngo-2013, zazenzelwe Inkampani yakwaKetchum yomphakathi ukwenza i-GMO Answers, ekhuthaza amazwi nokuqukethwe kochwepheshe "abazimele", iningi labo elinobudlelwano nomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane. Yize izimpendulo zeGMO ziveza uxhaso lwezimboni zalo, imisebenzi ibe ngaphansi kokusobala.

Amanye amaqembu axhaswe yi-CBI afaka i-Global Farmer's Network kanye Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo ehlele uchungechunge lwe “Amakamu ebhuthi” emanyuvesi aphezulu ukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-CBI nayo ikhiqize incwadi yezingane yokufaka imibala nomsebenzi ukugqugquzela imibono yezimboni kwi-biotechnology. I- isixhumanisi sencwadi, kanye newebhusayithi ye-WhyBiotech.com eyenziwe yi-CBI, manje eqondisa kabusha eqenjini lokuhweba labakhiqizi nabasabalalisi bama-cannabinoids asuselwa ku-hemp.

I-Backstory: Ukwakha umbono womphakathi ngama-GMO

The I-backstory ye-CBI yachazwa ngo-2001 ngumhlaziyi wemboni yezobudlelwano bomphakathi uPaul Holmes, umsunguli we-PRovoke (phambilini owaba yiHolmes Report): Ngo-1999, izinkampani eziyisikhombisa ezihamba phambili zokubulala izinambuzane kanye namaqembu azo ezohwebo “zahlangana njengomfelandawonye futhi zakha uhlelo lolwazi lomphakathi oluholwa umkhakha” "Kwakha umbono womphakathi kanye nokwakhiwa kwenqubomgomo yomphakathi nge-biotechnology yokudla." I-CBI "izokwakha ubuhlobo phakathi kwento yonke yokudla"… ukugxila ekukhuthazeni izinzuzo ze-biotechnology yokudla, ”kubika uHolmes.

“Umkhankaso ungaphikisana nokugxekwa kokuthi ukudla kwe-biotech bekungaphephile, ngokugcizelela ukuhlolwa okubanzi kokudla kwe-biotech,” futhi “kuzohlelwa ukuze kuphendulwe imibuzo nokukhathazeka okuvela emphakathini futhi kuphendulwe ulwazi olungelona iqiniso kanye 'nokwethusa amaqhinga' ngabaphikisi be-biotechnology , ”Kuphawula uHolmes. Uchaze ukuthi imininingwane izotholwa ngumphakathi "hhayi kuphela ngemboni ye-biotechnology, kodwa ngemithombo ehlukahlukene yezemfundo, isayensi, uhulumeni kanye nemithombo ezimele, evela eceleni."

Ukuvela kweminyaka emibili kwe-CBI nakho kugcizelela ukuhlanganiswa kwamandla embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane / i-GMO. Isungula amalungu e-CBI ayekhona I-BASF, iDow Chemical, iDuPont, iMonsanto, iNovartis, imikhiqizo yeZeneca Ag, i-Aventis CropScience, i-American Crop Protection Association (manje eyiCropLife) ne-BIO.

Lezi zinkampani eziyisikhombisa selokhu zahlanganiswa zaba ezine: I-Aventis neMonsanto zamuncwa Bayer; IDow Chemical neDuPont baba yiDow / DuPont futhi baqala imisebenzi yebhizinisi lezolimo ukuze ICorteva Agriscience; INovartis neZenica (ezahlanganiswa kamuva ne-Astra) zahlangana ndawonye ngaphansi kwesibhengezo se- Syngenta (okwathi kamuva yaphinde yathola iChemChina); ngenkathi BASF kutholakale okuphawulekayo izimpahla ezivela eBayer.

Ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Ishidi lamaqiniso le-CBI

Ishidi lamaqiniso lempendulo le-GMO

Ishidi lamaqiniso lokubuyekezwa kwezifundo

Amashidi amaningi weqiniso avela e-US Right to Know: Ukulandelela inethiwekhi yenkulumo-ze yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane

I-US Right to Know iyiqembu labaphenyi elingenzi nzuzo elenza uphenyo oluqhakazile ukuveza ukuthi izintshisekelo ezinamandla zokudla nezimboni zamakhemikhali zikuthinta kanjani ukudla esikudlayo nokondla izingane zethu.