Isihleli sephephabhuku esixhunywe e-China safuna usizo lokuphikisa i-Covid-19 lab origin hypothesis

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umhleli oyinhloko wephephabhuku lesayensi elinobudlelwano neChina uthumele i- ukuhlaziya ukuphikisa inkolelo-mbono yokuthi i-coronavirus yenoveli i-SARS-CoV-2 ivela ebhodini, ngokusho kwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know.

Ukuphawula kuqinise ukulandisa kwesayensi kokuqiniseka ngemvelaphi yemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2, igciwane elibangela i-Covid-19, emasontweni ambalwa nje ngemuva okokuqala kubikwa ukuqubuka eWuhan, China.

Ukwamukelwa kwephephabhuku lokuphawula ukuze kushicilelwe kungakapheli amahora ayi-12 ethunyelwe kusikisela inqubo engenamqondo yokubukeza ontanga ngokushicilelwa yisayensi ukwenza iphuzu lezepolitiki.

I-commentary, ebhalwe yi-virologists yase-US, yashicilelwa ngasikhathi sinye ne Isayensi imibiko kanye a isitatimende ososayensi abangama-27 abashicilelwe emaphephabhukwini ahlukene ukuthi bonke bagomela ukuthi i-coronavirus entsha inemvelaphi yemvelo.

The isambulo ukuthi umhleli oyinhloko, uShan Lu wase-University of Massachusetts Medical School, wacela ukuphawula kwalo magazini Ama-Microbes Asakhulayo Nezifo (EMI) kuphakamisa imibuzo ngokuthi ngabe yayikhona yini ukuxhumana phakathi kwezintshisekelo zezepolitiki nezesayensi ezihambisana ne Isikhundla sikahulumeni waseChina kulokhu inempikiswano enkulu ukukhishwa.

Iphephabhuku Ukuhlela is liphathwe yiShanghai Shangyixun Cultural Communication Co eChina, ngokusebenzisana nomshicileli uTaylor & Francis, ozinze eNgilandi. Abahleli abaningi bejenali namalungu ebhodi zizinze eChina, kufaka phakathi ezinye eziphethwe nguhulumeni waseChina.

EMI Amalungu ebhodi uShibo Jiang eFudan University School of Medicine naseYuelong Shu eSun-Yat Sen University babephakathi iqembu lososayensi baseChina abafuna ukushintsha igama le-coronavirus entsha ukuyiqhelelanisa neChina; UDong Xiaoping uyisikhulu sikahulumeni eChinese Centers for Disease Control, owayengungcweti wesibili ohlangothini lwaseChina Februwari 2020 mission ngokuhlanganyela neNhlangano Yezempilo Yomhlaba ukucacisa umsuka weSARS-CoV-2.

Ukuphawula kukaFebhuwari 2020 kunesihloko esithi “Abukho ubufakazi obunokwethenjelwa obusekela izimangalo zobunjiniyela be-laboratory yakwa-SARS-CoV-2,” futhi kwabhalwa ngabadokotela bamagciwane uShan-Lu Liu noLinda Saif base-Ohio State University; USusan Weiss waseYunivesithi yasePennsylvania; noLishan Su, ngaleso sikhathi owayexhumene ne-University of North Carolina. Ababhali baphikise ku-athikili yabo bephikisana nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 iqhamuke endaweni evuzayo yelab ye-bat coronavirus egama layo I-RaTG13 kwakuyi agciniwe ngaphakathi kweWuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) yaseChina.

I-WIV iyisikhungo sokucwaninga se-coronavirus esiphambili emhlabeni futhi itholakala amamayela nje ambalwa ukusuka kusayithi kokuqubuka kokuqala okubikiwe eWuhan, eChina. Ababhali baphinde bakuchitha ukukhathazeka ngokushintshwa kofuzo kumagciwane ahlobene ne-SARS wadala ngososayensi be-WIV ngokubambisana nelabhorethri yase-University of North Carolina bekungaba ngumthombo weSARS-CoV-2.

Kuze kube manje, ososayensi be-WIV neziphathimandla zikahulumeni waseChina unganikanga ososayensi abazimele ukufinyelela kwe Imininingwane ye-WIV wama-bat coronaviruses.

Ukwamukelwa okusheshayo

Ngofebhuwari 11, 2020 imeyili, U-Liu umeme uSaif ukuba abe ngumbhali ngokubambisana kohlaka “oluphelele” lwe- “commentary mayelana nomsuka ongaba khona we-2019-nCoV noma i-SARSCoV-2 ukuze aphikisane namahemuhemu athile.” U-Liu uthe nge-imeyili ukuthi ubhale ukuphawula kanye noSu ngesimemo somhleli omkhulu we Ama-Microbes Asakhulayo Nezifo.

USaif uvumile ukujoyina, esishoyo: "Ngihlele le nguqulo ngafaka negama lami njengoba nami ngizizwa ngigxeka lokhu."

USaif ngokwehlukana ubesayinele i- isitatimende eshicilelwe ku I-Lancet lawo ma-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ahlelwa uPeter Daszak we-EcoHealth Alliance. I-EcoHealth Alliance iyiqembu elingenzi nzuzo elinayo ithole izigidi zamaRandi of Umkhokhi wentela wase-US uxhaso ukuze ukuguqula izakhi zofuzo amagciwane, kufaka phakathi nososayensi e Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology.

NgoFebhuwari 12, 2020, uLiu naye ukumenywa USolwazi Weiss naye abe ngumbhali ngokubambisana, wavuma ngokushesha.

Liu ithunyelwe lo mbhalo kusihlwa ngoFebhuwari 12, futhi kungakapheli amahora ayi-12, ihhovisi lokuhlela eliseShanghai yamukelwe leli phepha, omunye obukeza ontanga ephawula: “Lokhu kuphawula okufika ngesikhathi. Ibhalwe kahle… Ngiphakamisa ukuthi ngiyishicilele zisuka nje. ”

Ngo-February 2020, EMI ushicilele okunye ukuphawula okumbili, konke obekuvumelana nesimo sikahulumeni waseChina ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2:

  • a Feb 4 ukuhlaziya enesihloko esithi “i-HIV-1 ayizange ifake isandla ku-2019-nCoV genome” yososayensi base-China baseMelika abanobudlelwano namanyuvesi aseChina; futhi
  • a Feb 28 ukuhlaziya enesihloko esithi “Ngabe iSARS-CoV-2 iqhamuke elabhorethri? Ukuphikisana nesimangalo sokwakheka ngokusebenzisa ukucubungula kabusha kwelebhu, ”ososayensi abazinze eShanghai abangaphansi kweChina Academy of Sciences.

Impikiswano yomsuka iyaqhubeka 

Ochwepheshe ababhale i- EMI ukuphawula akubonanga ukuthi izindlu ze-WIV akushicilelwe Ama-bat coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS, abengasebenza njengethempulethi yomsuka webhu we-SARS-CoV-2, ngokusho kwabanye ososayensi. Kuze kube manje, impikiswano ngendaba yemvelaphi yaleli gciwane isekhona evulekile, futhi kukhona growing izingcingo ukuphenya izimo zemvelo kanye neze-lab-Origin.

USolwazi waseStanford uDavid Relman wabhala kwi I-PNAS isihloko esithi izimpikiswano eziphikisana nezimo zobunjiniyela ngamabomu “zehluleka ukwamukela ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi okhokho ababili noma ngaphezulu abangakadalulwa (okungukuthi, okhokho ababedlula abanye kuneRaTG13 neRmYN02) base betholakele futhi babefundwa elabhorethri — ngokwesibonelo, eyodwa ne Umgogodla we-SARS-CoV-2 kanye ne-spike protein receptor-binding domain, kanti enye enesiza se-SARS-CoV-2 polybasic furin cleavage. Bekungaba yisinyathelo esilandelayo esizwakalayo ukuzibuza ngezakhi zegciwane elihlanganisayo bese ulidala elabhorethri. ”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Ama-imeyili kaProfesa Linda Saif waseOhio State University, atholakala lapha nge-US Right to Know ngokufaka isicelo samarekhodi womphakathi: Iqoqo lama-imeyili eSaif # 1: I-Ohio State University (Amakhasi we-303)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

IBiohazards News Tracker: Izindatshana ezihamba phambili ngemvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2, ama-biolabs kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Nalu uhlu lokufundwayo mayelana nokwaziwayo nokungaziwa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, izingozi nokuvuza kuma laboratories e-biosafety kanye ne-biowarfare, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), oluhlose ukwandisa uhla lokusingathwa, ukuhanjiswa, ukusuleleka noma ukubakhona kwamagciwane okungenzeka kube yizifo ezihlasela ubhubhane. I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ukwenza ucwaningo ngalezi zihloko nokuthumela okutholakele ku- IBiohazards Blog.

Lolu hlu lokufunda ngumsebenzi oqhubekayo. Sizoyibuyekeza. Sicela uthumele ukufundwa okungenzeka ukuthi sikuphuthele eSainath Suryanarayanan ku- sainath@usrtk.org.

Izihloko (izixhumanisi zokwehla)

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Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ngamagciwane, amagciwane, nezimfihlo: ukwanda buthule kwama-bio-laboratories e-United States, 110th Congress. Okthoba 4, 2007.

Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ku-Federal Oversight of High-Containment Biolaboratories, Ikhulu Elilodwa Eleventh Congress. Septemba 22, 2009.

BMJ. Ukwephulwa kwemithetho yokuphepha kuyimbangela yokuqhamuka kwamuva kweSARS, kusho i-WHO. UJane Parry. Meyi 22, 2004. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.328.7450.1222-b

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GMWatch. I-COVID-19: Ucingo lokuvusa i-biosafety. UJonathan Matthews. Ephreli 24, 2020. 

USA Today. I-CDC yehlulekile ukudalula izehlakalo zelebhu ezinamagciwane e-bioterror kwiCongress. U-Alison Young. Juni 24, 2016.

I-Global Times. Umhlahlandlela we-biosafety okhishwe ukulungisa izikhala zokuphatha okungapheli kumalebhu wamagciwane. Liu Caiyu no Leng Shumei. Februwari 16, 2020.

Izindaba ze-CBS. Ukuphenya: Inkampani yase-US ibungled impendulo ye-Ebola. I-Associated Press. Mashi 7, 2016. 

GMWatch. Ithiyori yokucwaninga imithombo yolwazi yamajenali yakwaSARS-CoV-2. UClaire Robinson. Julayi 16, 2020. 

Amanethiwekhi we-biodefense ne-biowarfare 

Indawo yokwenza izinwele. Ngabe leli gciwane livele lab? Mhlawumbe hhayi - kepha kuveza usongo lomjaho wezikhali ze-biowarfare. USam Husseini. Ephreli 24, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. I-EcoHealth Alliance kaPeter Daszak Ifihle Cishe ama- $ 40 Million Esikhwameni Sezimali sePentagon NaseMilitarised Pandemic Science. USam Husseini. Disemba 16, 2020.

I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukunqanda ukubuka kwethu kusuka ku-biowarfare: ubhadane lwezifo neziphrofetho ezizigcwalisayo. USam Husseini. Meyi 2020. 

IBoston Globe. Ukuheha kwezikhali ze-bio. UBernard Lown noPrasannan Parthasarathi. Februwari 23, 2005. 

IMonterey Institute of International Study. I-Beijing kuma-biohazard: Ongoti baseChina ezindabeni ze-bioweapons nonproliferation. U-Amy E. Smithson, uMhleli. Agasti 2007. Isikhungo SikaJames Martin Sezifundo Ezingahambisani Nokukhiqiza.

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I-Biowarfare kanye nobuphekula. UFrancis Boyle. 2005. I-Clarity Press, Inc.

Ukuvimbela umjaho wezikhali zebhayoloji. USusan Wright (Umhleli). I-MIT Press, 1990. 

I-Biohazard. UKen Alibek noStephen Handelman. Indlu engahleliwe: ENew York, 1999. 

Izinkulumompikiswano zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi

Abezindaba Kazwelonke. Izingozi ezingaba khona nezinzuzo zokwenza ucwaningo ngomsebenzi: isifinyezo somhlangano wokusebenzela. 2015. 

Forbes. Kufanele sivumele ososayensi ukuthi bakhe ama-super-virus ayingozi? USteven Salzberg. Okthoba 20, 2014. 

ICambridge Working Group. Isitatimende sokuvumelana seCambridge Working Group ngokwakhiwa kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane (PPPs). Julayi 14, 2014. 

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mBio. Ucwaningo nge-Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus: The Way Forward. U-Anthony S. Fauci. Septhemba-Okthoba 2012, 3 (5): e00359-12. i-doi: 10.1128 / mBio.00359-12

Umuthi we-PLoS. Ezinye izindlela zokuziphatha ekuhlolweni ngamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane enoveli. UMarc Lipsitch no-Alison Galvani. 2014. 11 (5): e1001646. i-doi: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001646  

Amaphepha wesayensi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2

Izincwadi Zamakhemikhali Ezemvelo. Ukulandela umsuka weSARS-COV-2 kuma-coronavirus phylogenies: ukubuyekeza. U-Erwan Sallard, uJosé Halloy, uDidier Casane, u-Etienne Decroly noJacques van Helden. Februwari 4, 2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-020-01151-1

I-Lancet. Izici zemitholampilo yeziguli ezinegciwane le-coronavirus yango-2019 eWuhan, China. UChaolin Huang et al. Janawari 30, 2020. Umqulu 395: 497-506. 

Imvelo. Ukuqhamuka kwe-pneumonia okuhambisana ne-coronavirus entsha yemvelaphi yelulwane. UPeng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… noZheng-Li Shi. Februwari 3, 2020. 579 (7798): 270-273. i-doi: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2012-7

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Umuthi Wemvelo. Umsuka oyinhloko we-SARS-CoV-2. UKristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, u-Edward C. Holmes, uRobert F. Garry. Ephreli 2020. Umqulu 26, amakhasi 450-455. 

I-Journal of Medical Virology. Imibuzo emayelana nomsuka oyisisekelo we-SARS-CoV-2. UMurat Seyran, uDamiano Pizzol, uParis Adadi… no-Adam M. Brufsky. Septhemba 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

BioEssays. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi abakwa-SARS ‐ CoV-2 bavele ngendlela eyindilinga enqwabelana ngezilwane noma amasiko eseli? UKarl Sirotkin noDan Sirotkin. Agasti 12, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Imingcele Kwezempilo Yomphakathi. Amacala e-Lethal pneumonia ezimayini zaseMojiang (2012) kanye ne-mineshaft anganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Septhemba 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

BioEssays. Isakhiwo sofuzo seSARS ‐ CoV-2 asisho ukuthi imvelaphi yelabhoratri. URossana Segreto futhi Yuri Deigin. Novemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRxiv. I-SARS-CoV-2 isetshenziswe kahle kubantu. Kusho ukuthini lokhu ukuphinda kuvele? UShing Hei Zhan, uBenjamin E. Deverman, uYujia Alina Chan. Meyi 2, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

UZenodo. Uqalephi Ubhubhane Lwe-Coronavirus 2019 futhi Lwasakazeka Kanjani? Isibhedlela Sabantu Sokukhululeka EsiseWuhan China kanye Nomugqa 2 Wuhan Metro System Ziyizimpendulo Eziphoqayo. USteven Carl Quay. Okthoba 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

UZenodo. Ukuhlaziywa kwe-Bayesian kuphetha ngaphandle kokungabaza okunengqondo ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 akuyona i-zoonosis engokwemvelo kepha kunalokho itholakala elebhu. UDkt Steven Quay. Januwari 29, 2021.

Minerva. Ubufakazi obukhombisa ukuthi leli akulona igciwane eliguquke ngokwemvelo: I-aetiology yomlando eyakhiwe kabusha ye-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2. UBirger Sørensen, u-Angus Dalgleish no-Andres Susrud. Julayi 1, 2020.

ResearchGate. Ngabe ukubheka imvelaphi yokukhohliswa kofuzo kukaSARS-CoV-2 kuyimbono yetulo okumele ihlolwe? URossana Segreto noYuri Deigin. Ephreli 2020. DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

Iziqalo. Ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokuhlonza uhlobo lwe-bat coronavirus strain i-RaTG13 nekhwalithi yephepha elihlobene ne-Nature. UXiaoxu Lin, uShizhong Chen. Juni 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

Iziqalo. Isimo esingajwayelekile sesampula ye-fecal swab esetshenziselwe ukuhlaziywa kwe-NGS yokulandelana kwe-RaTG13 genome ibeka umbuzo ngokunemba kokulandelana kwe-RaTG13. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Agasti 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Amaphrinta we-OSF. I-COVID-19, i-SARS namalulwane ama-coronaviruses genomes ukulandelana okungalindelekile kwe-RNA okungalindelekile. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Ephreli 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

UZenodo. Izindlela zokuziphendukela kwemvelo ze-HIV ezilawulwa ngumuntu. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Agasti 2, 2020. 

Ama-Microbes Asakhulayo Nezifo. I-HIV-1 ayizange ibambe iqhaza ku-2019-nCoV genome. UXiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang noGao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. i-doi: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

i-arXiv. Ekuqhathaniseni i-silico kwamafinyela abophayo we-spike protein-ACE2 kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo; Ukubaluleka kwemvelaphi engaba khona yegciwane le-SARS-CoV-2. USakshi Piplani, uPuneet Kumar Singh, uDavid A. Winkler, uNikolai Petrovsky. Meyi 13, 2020. 

Nature. Ukukhomba ama-coronavirus ahlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. UTommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- UFang Sun, Si Qin, Ji-Cheng Huang, uGabriel M. Leung, u-Edward C. Holmes, uYan-Ling Hu, u-Yi Guan no-Wu-Chun Cao. Mashi 26, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Amagciwane e-PLoS. Ngabe ama-pangolin angumsingathi ophakathi nendawo we-2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? UPing Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Meyi 14, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

Nature. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-coronavirus ehlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kusuka kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi Yena. Meyi 7, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Biology yamanje. Umsuka wePangolin ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 Okuhambisana nokuqubuka kwe-COVID-19. UTao Zhang, uQunfu Wu, uZhigang Zhang. Mashi 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Umthombo owodwa wama-pangolin CoV ane-Spike RBD eseduze ne-SARS-CoV-2. U-Yujia Alina Chan noShing Hei Zhan. Okthoba 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

Ukutheleleka, i-Genetics kanye ne-Evolution. I-COVID-19: Isikhathi sokukhipha i-pangolin ekudlulisweni kwe-SARS-CoV-2 iye kubantu. URoger Frutos, uJordi Serra-Cobo, uTianmu Chen noChristian A. Devaux. Umqulu 84, Okthoba 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRxiv. Abukho ubufakazi bama-coronaviruses noma amanye amagciwane angaba yi-zoonotic kuma-Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) angena ekuhwebeni kwezilwane zasendle ngeMalaysia. Jimmy Lee, Tom Hughes, Mei-Ho Lee, Hume Field, Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Symphorosa Sipangkui, Senthilvel KSS Nathan, Diana Ramirez, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Helen Lasimbang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Peter Daszak. Juni 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

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I-Biology yamanje. I-bat coronavirus yenoveli ehlobene eduze ne-SARS-CoV-2 iqukethe okufakiwe okungokwemvelo endaweni yokuhlanza ye-S1 / S2 ye-protein spike. Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, noWeifeng Shi. Juni 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

aRxiv. I-bat coronavirus RmYN02 ibonakala ngokususwa okungu-6-nucleotide lapho kuhlangana khona i-S1 / S2, futhi ukufakwa kwayo okufunwayo kwe-PAA akungabazeki. UYuri Deigin noRossana Segreto. Disemba 1, 2020.

UZenodo. Izici ezingajwayelekile ze-SARS-CoV-2 genome ephakamisa ukuguqulwa okuyinkimbinkimbi kwelabhorethri kunokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokucaciswa kwendlela yayo yokwenziwa okungenzeka. Li-Meng Yan, Shu Kang, Jie Guan, futhi Shanchang Hu. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

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UZenodo. Isiphakamiso seSARS-CoV-2 Spillover Ngesikhathi Sokubukeza Kwamasampula sango-2019 esivela eMineshaft eMojiang, esifundazweni saseYunnan, eChina. Ongaziwa. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Izindatshana zebhulogi eziphenyayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2

Medium. Kwenziwe ilebhu? I-SARS-CoV-2 yohlu lozalo ngokusebenzisa i-lens yocwaningo lomsebenzi. Yuri Deigin. Ephreli 22, 2020.

Medium. Ama-virus ayesabekayo nokuthi ungawathola kuphi. UMoreno Colaiacovo. Novemba 15, 2020.

Okuphakathi. Ukuqoqwa kwemininingwane esheshayo yamacala asolwa ekuqaleni kukaCovid-19 eWuhan. UGilles Demaneuf. Okthoba 15, 2020.

Ososayensi baseChina bafuna ukuguqula igama le-coronavirus ebulalayo ukuze baliqhelelanise neChina

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinsukwini zokuqala zesifo esiwumshayabhuqe se-COVID-19, iqembu lososayensi abasebenzisana nohulumeni waseChina bazama ukuqhelisa i-coronavirus neChina ngokuthonya ukuqanjwa kwayo ngokusemthethweni. Ngokuncika ekutheni leli gciwane litholakale okokuqala eWuhan, eChina, ososayensi bathe besaba ukuthi leli gciwane lizokwaziwa ngokuthi yi- "Wuhan coronavirus" noma "Wuhan pneumonia," ama-imeyili atholakele ngumbukiso wase-US Right to Know.

Ama-imeyili aveza ukubheka phambili empini yolwazi eqhutshwa uhulumeni waseChina ukubumba ukulandisa ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus.

Ukuqanjwa kwaleli gciwane "bekuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kubantu baseChina" kanye nezinkomba ngegciwane elikhomba ukuthi uWuhan "ubandlulula futhi uthuka" izakhamuzi zaseWuhan, izincwadi ezivela ngoFebhuwari 2020 zithi.

Ngokuqondile ososayensi baseChina baphikisana nokuthi igama elisemthethweni lobuchwepheshe elinikezwe igciwane - "i-acute acute yokuphefumula syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)" - kwakungeyona "okunzima ukuyikhumbula noma ukuyibona" ​​kodwa futhi "kwakudukisa ngempela" ngoba kwakuxhuma igciwane elisha lokuqubuka kweSARS-CoV ngo-2003 eladabuka eChina.

Leli gciwane laqanjwa yiCoronavirus Study Group (CSG) ye-International Committee on Virus Taxonomy (ICTV).

Usosayensi omkhulu waseWuhan Institute of Virology uZhengli Shi, owayehola ukuqanjwa kabusha umzamo, echazwe nge-imeyili eya ku-University of North Carolina udokotela wezifo ezinamagciwane e-University of North Carolina uRalph Baric, "ingxoxo eshubile phakathi kwama-virologist aseChina" ngegama elithi SARS-CoV-2.

UDeyin Guo, owayengumphathi wesikole i-Wuhan University's School of Biomedical Sciences kanye nombhali ngokubambisana wesiphakamiso sokushintsha igama, wabhala kumalungu e-CSG ukuthi ahlulekile ukubonisana nesinqumo sawo sokuqamba igama "nama-virologists kubandakanya nokutholwa kokuqala [sic] ngegciwane kanye nabahlaziyi bokuqala besifo ”abavela ezweni lase China.

"Akufanelekile ukusebenzisa igama elilodwa legciwane elisuselwa kwizifo (njenge-SARS-CoV) ukuqamba wonke amanye amagciwane emvelo angohlobo olulodwa kodwa anezinto ezihluke kakhulu," wabhala encwadini eyathunyelwa egameni lakhe abanye ososayensi abahlanu baseChina.

Iqembu lihlongoze elinye igama - “Transmissible acute respiratory coronavirus (TARS-CoV). Enye indlela, bathi, kungaba i- “Human acute respiratory coronavirus (HARS-CoV).”

Intambo ye-imeyili echaza ushintsho lwegama oluphakanyisiwe yabhalelwa uSihlalo we-CSG uJohn Ziebuhr.

Izincwadi zikhombisa ukuthi uZiebuhr akavumelani nomqondo weqembu laseChina. Uphendule wathi “igama elithi SARS-CoV-2 lixhumanisa leli gciwane namanye amagciwane (abizwa nge-SARS-CoVs noma ama-SARSr-CoVs) kulezi zinhlobo ezibandakanya igciwane lesinhlobo salolo hlobo kunaleso sifo esake sakhuthaza ukuqanjwa kwalesi sibonelo igciwane cishe eminyakeni engama-20 edlule. Isijobelelo -2 sisetshenziswa njengesikhombi esiyingqayizivele futhi sikhombisa ukuthi i-SARS-Co V-2 iseligciwane LELINYE (kodwa elihlobene kakhulu) kulolu hlobo. ”

Inkampani yabezindaba yaseChina i-CGTN kubika omunye umzamo ngoMashi 2020 ngama-virologists aseChina ukuqamba kabusha i-SARS-CoV-2 njenge-coronavirus yabantu i-2019 (HCoV-19), nayo engazange idlule ku-CSG.

Ukuqamba igama ngegciwane elibangela ubhadane — umthwalo we-World Health Organisation (WHO) - bekuvame ukuba yi- icala lezepolitiki ukuzivocavoca ngezigaba zentela.

Ekuqubukeni kwangaphambilini kwe- Umkhuhlane we-H5N1 igciwane elivela eChina, uhulumeni waseChina wacindezela i-WHO ukuthi yakhe amagama abizwa ngokuthi ama-virus angabopheli amagama abo emlandweni noma ezindaweni abadabuka kuzo.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Ama-imeyili ase-University of North Carolina uProfesa Ralph Baric, atholwa yi-US Right to Know ngokuthola amarekhodi omphakathi, angatholakala lapha: Iqoqo le-imeyili le-Baric # 2: University of North Carolina (Amakhasi we-332)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ososayensi baxoxa ngokufihla ukubandakanyeka kwabo encwadini ebalulekile yamaphephabhuku ngemvelaphi yeCovid

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UMengameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak, inhloko yenhlangano ebambe iqhaza ocwaningweni olusebenzisa ufuzo ngama-coronavirus, uxoxe ngokufihla iqhaza lakhe isitatimende esishicilelwe ngonyaka owedlule ngo I-Lancet egxeka “imibono yetulo” ikhathaza ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi igciwane le-COVID-19 livele endaweni yokucwaninga, ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know show.

Isitatimende seLancet, esisayinwe ososayensi abaqavile abangama-27, sibe nomthelela omkhulu ekuqedeni izinsolo zososayensi abathile zokuthi iCOVID-19 ingaba nobudlelwano neWuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina, enocwaningo ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

UDaszak wabhala lesi sitatimende wasisabalalisa nakwabanye ososayensi ukuze basayine. Kepha i Ama-imeyili kwembula ukuthi uDaszak nabanye ososayensi abasebenzisana ne-EcoHealth babecabanga ukuthi akufanele basayine isitatimende ukuze bafihle ukuzibandakanya kwabo kuso. Ukushiya amagama abo esitatimendeni kungayinika "ibanga elithile kude nathi ngakho-ke ayisebenzi ngendlela ephikisayo," kubhala uDaszak.

UDaszak uqaphele ukuthi "angayithumela nxazonke" kwabanye ososayensi ukuze basayine. “Sizobe sesikubeka ngendlela engayixhumanisi nokubambisana kwethu ukuze sikhulise izwi elizimele,” wabhala.

Ososayensi ababili uDaszak ababhalela ngesidingo sokwenza leli phepha libonakale lizimele nge-EcoHealth, bangongoti be-coronavirus uRalph Baric noLinfa Wang.

Kuma-imeyili, uBaric uvumelane nesiphakamiso sikaDaszak sokuthi angasayini I-Lancet isitatimende, sibhala ukuthi "Ngaphandle kwalokho kubukeka kuzenzela wena, futhi silahlekelwa umthelela."

UDaszak ekugcineni wasisayina ngokwakhe lesi sitatimende, kepha akazange akhonjwe njengombhali noma umxhumanisi womzamo.

Ama-imeyili ayingxenye yemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ekhombisa ukuthi uDaszak ubesebenza okungenani ekuqaleni konyaka odlule ukubukela phansi umbono ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka iputshukile kusuka ku- Isikhungo seWuhan.

Ukuqubuka kokuqala kwe-COVID-19 okubikiwe bekuse-Wuhan.

I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngaphambili ubike ukuthi uDaszak ubhale lesi sitatimende ukuze I-Lancet, futhi uyihlelele i- "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”.

I-EcoHealth Alliance iyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo eseNew York esethole izigidi zamadola oxhaso lwabakhokhi bentela baseMelika ukuze basebenzise izakhi zofuzo, kubandakanya nososayensi baseWuhan Institute.

Ngokuphawulekile, uDaszak uvele njengomuntu ophakathi nophenyo olusemthethweni ngemvelaphi kaSARS-CoV-2. Uyilungu le- i-World Health OrganizationIthimba lochwepheshe elicwaninga ngemvelaphi yenoveli ye-coronavirus, futhi I-Lancet COVID 19 Ikhomishini.

Bona ukubika kwethu kwangaphambilini ngalesi sihloko: 

Bhalisela i-newsletter yethu yamahhala ukuthola izibuyekezo ezijwayelekile kuphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. 

Imibhalo yaseColorado State University ocwaningweni lwe-bat pathogen

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kuchaza imibhalo yoSolwazi baseColorado State University (CSU) uRebekah Kading noTony Schountz, i-US Right to Know eyithole esicelweni samarekhodi omphakathi. UKading noSchountz bangama-virologists abacwaninga amagciwane ahlobene nelulwane ezindaweni ezishisayo emhlabeni jikelele. Basebenzisana ne-EcoHealth Alliance, uMnyango Wezokuvikela wase-US (DoD) kanye ne-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), uphiko lwezocwaningo nentuthuko yamasosha aseMelika.

Imibhalo inikeza amazwibela kufayela le- inkimbinkimbi yezempi-yezifundo zososayensi abafunda ukuthi bangavimbela kanjani ukugeleza kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane avela kumalulwane. Imibhalo iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nezingozi ezithathelanayo, ngokwesibonelo, zokuthunyelwa kwamalulwane namagundane atheleleke ngamagciwane ayingozi. Futhi aqukethe ezinye izinto eziphawuleka, kufaka phakathi:

  1. NgoFebhuwari 2017, abaxhumanisi beDoD boHlelo Lokusebenzisana Lokuzibandakanya Kwezinto Ezisongela Ezokuvikela kumemezela umfelandawonye omusha wamalulwane omhlaba wonke “ukwakha nokusimamisa amakhono ezwe nawesifunda ukukhiqiza ukuqonda okuthuthukile kwamalulwane nemvelo yawo ngaphansi kwesimo sezinto ezibangela ukuphepha.” Okuhambisana nalokhu, ama-imeyili show ukusebenzisana phakathi kwe-CSU, i-EcoHealth Alliance kanye ne-National Institutes of Health's Rocky Mountain Laboratories ukwakha indawo yokucwaninga amalulwane e-CSU ukukhulisa izifundo zokutheleleka ngamalulwane.
  2. Umfelandawonye wamalulwane womhlaba wonke waba yiqembu elibizwa ngeBat One Health Research Network (I-BOHRN). Ngo-2018, ososayensi abakhulu be-BOHRN babesebenza ne-DARPA kuphrojekthi ebizwa nge-PREEMPT. Amarekhodi e-CSU ku-PREEMPT kukhombisa ukuthi iRocky Mountain Laboratories, i-CSU kanye neMontana State University bakha imishanguzo "ehlukanisiwe" yokugoma ukusabalalisa kubantu bamalulwane "ukuvimbela ukuvela nokugeleza" kwamagciwane angaba ubhadane avela kumalulwane aye kubantu babantu. Inhloso yabo ukuthuthukisa “imishanguzo yokuzisabalalisa ” - okusakazeka ngokutheleleka phakathi kwamalulwane - ngethemba lokuqeda ama-pathogen ezinqolobaneni zabo zezilwane ngaphambi kokuphonswa kwabantu. Lolu cwaningo luyaphakama ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela engahlosiwe yokukhiphela obala izinhlangano ezizisakazele zofuzo, kanye nezingozi zemvelo zokuvela kwazo okungaziwa, ubudlova nokusabalala.
  3. Ukuthumela amalulwane namagundane atheleleke ngamagciwane ayingozi kudala amandla e-spillover engahlosiwe kubantu. UTony Schountz wabhala ku-EcoHealth Alliance VP uJonathan Epstein ngoMashi 30, 2020: “I-RML [Rocky Mountain Labs] ingenise inqolobane yegciwane le-Lassa ngokuthi izalelwe ekuthunjweni e-Afrika, bese kuthi inzalo ingeniswe ngqo ku-RML. Angazi noma amalulwane amahhashi angazalelwa yini ekuthunjweni, kodwa lokho kungaba yindlela yokunciphisa ukukhathazeka kwe-CDC. ” Igciwane le-Lassa isakazwa ngamagundane atholakala entshonalanga ye-Afrika. Kubanga ukugula okunamandla okubizwa nge-Lassa fever ebantwini, okuholela ekufeni okulinganiselwa ku-5,000 1 njalo ngonyaka (izinga lokufa elingu-XNUMX%).
  4. NgoFebhuwari 10, 2020, uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak uthumele i-imeyili ukucela abasayinela uhlaka lwe- The I-Lancet isitatimende "Ukugxeka kakhulu imibono yetulo ethi i-2019-nCoV ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo." Kule imeyili, uDaszak wabhala: “UDkt. ULinda Saif, uJim Hughes, uRita Colwell, uWilliam Karesh noHume Field babhale isitatimende esilula sokweseka ososayensi, ezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabasebenzi bezokwelapha baseChina abalwa nalokhu kuqubuka (okunamathiselwe), futhi siyakumema ukuba uhlanganyele nathi njengabasayini bokuqala. ” Akazange akhulume ngokubandakanyeka kwakhe ekubhaleni isitatimende.  Ukubika kwethu kwangaphambili wabonisa lokho I-Daszak wabhala isitatimende esashicilelwa ku- I-Lancet.
  5. UTony Schountz ushintshisane ngama-imeyili nososayensi abalulekile beWuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) uPeng Zhou, uZhengli Shi noBen Hu. Ku- i-imeyili yango-Okthoba 30, 2018, USchountz uphakamise uZhengli Shi ukuthi abe “yinhlangano engahambisani nhlobo” phakathi kwe-CSU's Arthropod-borne and Infectious Disease Laboratory ne-WIV, okubandakanya “ukusebenzisana kumaphrojekthi afanele (isib. Ama-arboviruses namagciwane athwalwa ngamalulwane) nokuqeqeshwa kwabafundi.” UZhengli Shi waphendula kahle kusiphakamiso sikaSchountz. Amarekhodi awasikiseli ukuthi noma yikuphi ukusebenzisana okunjalo kwaqalwa.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lemibhalo yaseColorado State University singatholakala lapha: Amarekhodi e-CSU

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Kuphephe kangakanani ama-biolabs eColorado State?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

uhlaka isiphakamiso sezimali fnoma ukwakhiwa kwe-biolab entsha eColorado State University iphakamisa imibuzo ngokuphepha nokuvikeleka kuma-biolabs ayo akhona eFort Collins, eColorado.

Isiphakamiso sohlaka sifuna izimali ezivela ezikhungweni zikazwelonke zezempilo ukuze zithathe indawo yengqalasizinda “yokuguga” ngaphakathi kwama-CSU Isikhungo Sezifo Ezithathelwanayo Ezithwalwa Vector, phambilini ebibizwa ngeLarthropod-borne and Infectious Disease Laboratory (AIDL). Lesi sikhungo sikhulisa amakoloni ezinambuzane namalulwane ekuhlolweni kwezifo ezithathelwanayo ngamagciwane ayingozi njenge-SARS, Zika, Nipah kanye ne-Hendra virus. Ukuhlolwa kwe-Live-pathogen lapho kwenziwa ngokwengxenye ku- BSL-3 izikhungo, okungama-laboratories avalwe ngumoya anobuchwepheshe obukhethekile ukuvimbela abacwaningi ekutholeni izifo nokusabalalisa izifo.

Ababhali besiphakamiso (uTony Schountz noGreg Ebel abavela ku-CSU noJonathan Epstein, iphini likamongameli e-EcoHealth Alliance) babhala ukuthi, “izakhiwo zethu eziningi sezidlulile empilweni yazo yokusebenziseka.” Bafaka izithombe zesikhunta nesikhutha esiqongelelayo njengobufakazi bezindawo “ezilulaza ngokushesha” “ezivuzayo lapho lina.”

Lesi siphakamiso sichaza nokuthi umklamo okhona kulelebhu udinga amasampula amaseli amalulwane nezinambuzane ezinegciwane "ukuhanjiswa ezakhiweni ezahlukene ngaphambi kokusetshenziswa." Ithi ama-autoclaves akhona, abulala izinto eziyingozi, "ahlala engasebenzi kahle futhi kunokukhathazeka okufanelekile ukuthi bazoqhubeka nokwenza njalo."

Kungenzeka izinkathazo zeqiswe ngoba basekela isicelo soxhaso. Nayi ingcaphuno evela kusiphakamiso sezimali ngezithombe.

Isiphakamiso siphakamisa imibuzo eminingana: Ngabe izimpilo zabantu zisengozini kusuka kwimishini nengqalasizinda engalungile ye-AIDL? Ingabe lokhu kwehla kwamandla kwandisa amathuba okuvuza ngengozi kwamagciwane ayingozi? Ngabe zikhona ezinye izikhungo ezihambisana ne-EcoHealth Alliance emhlabeni wonke ezehliswe ngendlela efanayo futhi ezingaphephile? Ngabe izimo zazingaphephile ngendlela efanayo, ngokwesibonelo, i-Wuhan Institute of Virology exhaswa yi-EcoHealth Alliance? Leso sikhungo ikhonjwe njengomthombo ongaba khona we-SARS-CoV-2, igciwane elibangela i-Covid-19.

Amarekhodi ekomidi lezokuphepha le-CSU (IBC), etholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi, kubonakala ngathi kuqinisa ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwama-biolabs e-CSU. Isibonelo, imizuzu yomhlangano kusuka ngoMeyi 2020 kukhombisa ukuthi umcwaningi we-CSU uthole ukutheleleka ngegciwane le-Zika kanye nezimpawu ngemuva kokusebenzisa omiyane abatheleleke ngokuzama. I-IBC yaphawula: "Cishe lokhu bekungukulunywa omiyane abangazange babonakale ngesikhathi sesiyaluyalu ngenxa yokuvalwa kwezinguquko ze-COVID-19."

Okuxakayo ukuthi ukwanda kocwaningo lwezifo ezithathelwanayo kwaSARS-CoV-2 kungahle kwandise ingozi yokuphelelwa yisikhathi kanye nokulimala e-CSU. Imizuzu ye-IBC zwakalisa ukusekela i- "Ukukhathazeka okuphakanyisiwe mayelana nenani elikhulu lamaphrojekthi ocwaningo abandakanya i-SARS-CoV-2 ebeke izingqinamba kuzinsizakusebenza ezinjenge-PPE, indawo yezelebhu, kanye nabasebenzi."

Uma ungathanda ukuthola izibuyekezo ezijwayelekile mayelana nophenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards, unga bhalisela iphephandaba lethu lamasonto onke lapha

I-USRTK icela i-ODNI ukuthi ichaze imibhalo ngezingozi ezenzeka emalabhulini agcina amagciwane ayingozi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ilungelo Lokwazi I-US (USRTK) ubuzile Ihhovisi likaMqondisi Wezobunhloli Kazwelonke (i-ODNI) lokudalula imibhalo emithathu ephathelene nokushiyeka kokuvikela okwenzeka emalabhoratri agcina amagciwane ayingozi.

Isicelo esiphoqelekile sokubuyekezwa kokunciphisa (MDR) siphendula kuma-ODNI isinqumo ukugodla imibhalo emithathu ehlukanisiwe ephendula kufakwe isicelo se-Freedom of Information Act ngo-Agasti 2020.

Isicelo se-FOIA "safuna ubuhlakani obuqediwe obukhiqizwe kusukela ngoJanuwari 2015 mayelana nokukhishwa ngengozi noma ngamabomu kwama-biological agents, ukwehluleka kokutholakala ezingeni le-biosafety-level (BSL) -2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4, kanye nezinye izehlakalo zokukhathazeka ezihlobene ukusetshenziswa okubili kokucwaninga nge-biosafety ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-BSL-2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4 eCanada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, Russia, emazweni angaphambilini eSoviet Union, South Africa , ETaiwan, e-United Kingdom naseThailand. ”

I-ODNI ithe ekuphenduleni kwayo ithole amadokhumende amathathu, futhi yanquma ukuthi lawa "kumele agodliwe ngokuphelele ngokukhishwa kwe-FOIA" maqondana nokuvikelwa kwezinto ezihlukanisiwe eziphathelene nezindlela zezobunhloli kanye nemithombo yokubaluleka kwezokuphepha kuzwelonke. I-ODNI ayichazanga noma ichaze uhlobo lwemibhalo emithathu noma okuqukethwe kwayo, ngaphandle kokuthi bebephendula isicelo se-FOIA.

Ngokwesicelo sayo se-MDR, i-USRTK icele ukuthi i-ODNI ikhiphe zonke izingxenye ezingabekiwe ezihlukanisiwe zemibhalo emithathu.

I-USRTK ikholelwa ekutheni umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi imininingwane ekhona ngezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye okwenzekile emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe amagciwane angaba khona ubhubhane, nokuthi ngabe kukhona yini ukuvuza okunjalo okubandakanyekile kumsuka we-COVID-19, odale ukuthi ukufa kwabantu baseMelika abangaphezu kwama-360,000.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Amasethi wedatha aguquliwe aphakamisa imibuzo eminingi ngokuthembeka kwezifundo ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubuyekezwa kwedathasethi yama-genomic ehlotshaniswa nezifundo ezine ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus engeza eminye imibuzo ngokuthembeka kwalezi zifundo, ezinikeza ukusekelwa okuyisisekelo kwe-hypothesis ukuthi uSARS-CoV-2 uqhamuke ezilwaneni zasendle. Izifundo, UPeng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou et al., ULam et al., Futhi UXiao et al., ithole ama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS-CoV-2 kumalulwane amahhashi nama-pangolin aseMalayan.

Ababhali bezifundo bafaka idatha yokulandelana kwe-DNA ebizwa ukulandelana kufundwa, ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa izakhi zofuzo ze-bat- ne-pangolin-coronavirus, e-National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ukulandelana funda ingobo yomlando (SRA). I-NCBI isungule i-database yomphakathi ukusiza ukuqinisekisa okuzimele kokuhlaziywa kwe-genomic ngokususelwa kubuchwepheshe bokulandelana okuphezulu.

I-US Right to Know ithole imibhalo ngamarekhodi womphakathi icela lokho khombisa izibuyekezo kulezi zifundo zedatha ye-SRA ngemuva kwezinyanga zishicilelwe. Lokhu kubuyekezwa kuyinqaba ngoba kwenzeke ngemuva kokushicilelwa, futhi ngaphandle kwesizathu, incazelo noma ukuqinisekiswa.

Ngokwesibonelo, UPeng Zhou et al. futhi ULam et al. bavuselele idatha yabo ye-SRA ngezinsuku ezimbili ezifanayo. Imibhalo ayichazi ukuthi kungani beguqule idatha yabo, kuphela ukuthi kwenziwa izinguquko ezithile. UXiao et al. wenze izinguquko eziningi emininingwaneni yabo ye-SRA, kufaka phakathi ukususwa kwedathasethi ezimbili ngo-Mashi 10, ukwengezwa kwedathasethi entsha ngoJuni 19, ukufakwa esikhundleni kwedatha ngoNovemba 8 kukhishwe okokuqala ngo-Okthoba 30, nokunye ukuguqulwa kwedatha ngoNovemba 13 - ngemuva kwezinsuku ezimbili Nature ungeze “inothi lokukhathazeka” loMhleli mayelana nesifundo. Hong Zhou et al. kusamele sabelane ngedathasethi ephelele ye-SRA ezonika amandla ukuqinisekisa okuzimele. Ngenkathi omagazini bethanda Nature kudinga ababhali ukuthi benze yonke imininingwane “itholakale ngokushesha”Ngesikhathi sokushicilelwa, imininingwane ye-SRA ingakhishwa ngemuva ukushicilelwa; kodwa akujwayelekile ukwenza ushintsho olunjalo ezinyangeni ezithile ngemuva kokushicilelwa.

Lezi zinguquko ezingavamile zemininingwane ye-SRA azenzi ngokuzenzakalela ukuthi lezi zifundo ezine namasethi wedatha ahlobene nazo angathembeki. Kodwa-ke, ukubambezeleka, izikhala kanye nezinguquko kwimininingwane ye-SRA kuphazamise ukuhlangana okuzimele nokuqinisekisa yokulandelana kwe-genome okushicilelwe, bese ufaka ku imibuzo futhi ukukhathazeka mayelana the ukufaneleka kwezifundo ezine, njenge:

  1. Yikuphi ukubuyekezwa okuqondile ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwedatha ye-SRA? Kungani zenziwa? Zikuthinte kanjani ukuhlaziywa okuhambisanayo kwe-genomic nemiphumela?
  2. Ngabe lokhu kubuyekezwa kwe-SRA kuqinisekiswe ngokuzimela? Uma kunjalo, kanjani? I- Ukuqinisekiswa kweNCBI kuphela indinganiso yokushicilela i-SRA BioProject– ngale kwemininingwane eyisisekelo efana "negama lomzimba" - ukuthi ngeke ibe yimpinda.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

The Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Semininingwane Yebhayoloji (i-NCBI) imibhalo ingatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili we-NCBI (Amakhasi we-63)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Akukho ukubuyekezwa kontanga kwesengezo esifundweni esivelele semvelaphi ye-coronavirus?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ijenali Nature akuzange kuhlolisise ukuthembeka kwezimangalo ezibalulekile ezenziwe ngoNovemba 17 isithasiselo kuya ku cwaningo ngemvelaphi yelulwane le-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ukuxhumana ne Nature abasebenzi basikisela.

NgoFebhuwari 3, 2020, ososayensi baseWuhan Institute of Virology babika ukuthi bathola isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-SARS-CoV-2, i-bat coronavirus ebizwa nge-RaTG13. I-RaTG13 isibe maphakathi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.

Amakheli esengezo engaphendulwa imibuzo mayelana nokuvela kweRaTG13. Ababhali, uZhou et al., Bacacisile ukuthi bathole iRaTG13 ngo-2012-2013 "endaweni encane eshiyiwe eMojiang County, esifundazweni saseYunnan," lapho abavukuzi abayisithupha bahlupheka khona isifo sokuphefumula okunamandla ngemuva kokuchayeka endleni yelulwane, Futhi abathathu bashona. Uphenyo lwe- izimpawu zabavukuzi abagulayo zinganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. UZhou et al. babike ukuthi abatholanga ama-coronavirus ahlobene no-SARS kumasampula agcinwe abagibeli abagulayo, kodwa abazisekelanga izimangalo zabo ngemininingwane nangezindlela mayelana nokuhlolwa kwabo kanye nezilawuli zokuhlola.

Ukungabi khona kwemininingwane esemqoka kwisengezo kunakho kwaphakamisa eminye imibuzo ngokwethembeka kweZhou et al. funda. NgoNovemba 27, i-US Right to Know yabuza Nature imibuzo mayelana nezicelo zesengezo, futhi wakucela lokho Nature shicilela yonke imininingwane esekelayo uZhou et al. kungenzeka unikeze.

NgoDisemba 2, Nature INhloko Yezokuxhumana uBex Walton Waphendula ukuthi uZhou wokuqala et al. isifundo “besinembile kepha kungacaci,” nokuthi isengezo besifanelekile ipulatifomu yokushicilelwa ngemuva kokushicilelwa ukuthola ukucaciselwa. Ubuye wathi: “Mayelana nemibuzo yakho, singakuqondisa ukuthi uye kubabhali bephepha ukuthola izimpendulo, njengoba le mibuzo ayithinti ucwaningo esilushicilele kodwa kolunye ucwaningo olwenziwe ngababhali, esingakwazi ukuphawula ngalo ”(kugcizelelwa okwethu). Njengoba imibuzo yethu ihlobene nocwaningo oluchazwe kusengezo, i Nature Isitatimende sabamele sikhombisa ukuthi isengezo sikaZhou et al asizange sihlolwe njengocwaningo.

Sabuza umbuzo olandelayo ngoDisemba 2: “ngabe lesi sengezo sakhonjelwa ekubuyekezweni kontanga kanye / noma ekuqondisweni kokuhlelwa ngu Nature? ” UNks Walton akazange aphendule ngqo; yena Waphendula: “Ngokuvamile, abahleli bethu bazohlola ukuphawula noma ukukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe nathi ekuqaleni, babonisane nababhali, futhi bafune izeluleko kubabuyekezi boontanga nakwabanye ochwepheshe bangaphandle uma sikubona kunesidingo. Inqubomgomo yethu yobumfihlo isho ukuthi asikwazi ukuphawula ngendlela ethile yokuphathwa kwamacala ngamanye. ”

Kusukela Nature ubheka isengezo njenge- a post-isibuyekezo sokushicilelwa, futhi ayikubeki lokho kungezwa kokushicilelwa kokushicilelwa kumazinga afanayo okubukeza ontanga njengezincwadi zokuqala, kubonakala sengathi iZhou et al. isengezo asizange sibuyekezwe ngontanga.

Ababhali uZhengli Shi noPeng Zhou abaphendulanga imibuzo yethu mayelana yabo Nature Eyongeziwe.