IBiohazards News Tracker: Izindatshana ezihamba phambili ngemvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2, ama-biolabs kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Nalu uhlu lokufundwayo mayelana nokwaziwayo nokungaziwa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, izingozi nokuvuza kuma laboratories e-biosafety kanye ne-biowarfare, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), oluhlose ukwandisa uhla lokusingathwa, ukuhanjiswa, ukusuleleka noma ukubakhona kwamagciwane okungenzeka kube yizifo ezihlasela ubhubhane. I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ukwenza ucwaningo ngalezi zihloko nokuthumela okutholakele ku- IBiohazards Blog.

Lolu hlu lokufunda ngumsebenzi oqhubekayo. Sizoyibuyekeza. Sicela uthumele ukufundwa okungenzeka ukuthi sikuphuthele eSainath Suryanarayanan ku- sainath@usrtk.org.

Izihloko (izixhumanisi zokwehla)

Izindatshana zakamuva kakhulu

Umuthi Wemvelo. Kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2. U-Angela Rasmussen. Januwari 13, 2021.

Bloomberg. Namanje Asazi Ukuthi I-Covid-19 Ivelaphi. UFaye Flam. Januwari 12, 2021.

New York Magazine. I-lab-leak hypothesis. UNicholson Baker. Januwari 4, 2021.

The Times. Igciwane lezikhali zebhayoloji lavuza i-coronavirus, kusho isikhulu sase-US. UDidi Tang. Januwari 4, 2021.

Associated Press. I-China ibambelela phansi ekuzingeleni okufihliwe ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UDake Kang, uMaria Cheng noSam McNeil. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Izinsuku Ezingama-25 Ezashintsha Umhlaba: Ukuthi iCovid-19 ishelele kanjani iChina. UChris Buckley, uDavid D. Kirkpatrick, u-Amy Qin noJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Intatheli YaseChinese Citizen Igwetshwe Iminyaka Engu-4 Ngokubikwa KweCovid. UVivian Wang. Disemba 28, 2020.

I-BBC. UCovid: Usosayensi waseWuhan 'angakwamukela' ukuvakashela umbono wokuvuza kwelebhu. UJohn Sudworth. Disemba 22, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. I-EcoHealth Alliance kaPeter Daszak Ifihle Cishe ama- $ 40 Million Esikhwameni Sezimali sePentagon NaseMilitarised Pandemic Science. USam Husseini. Disemba 16, 2020.

Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2?

Izinqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Ukunqanda ubhadane olulandelayo, sidinga ukuqaqa umsuka we-COVID-19. UDavid A. Relman. Novemba 3, 2020.

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Ngabe igciwane leSARS-CoV-2 livele ohlelweni locwaningo lwe-bat coronavirus elabhoratri laseChina? Kungenzeka kakhulu. UMilton Leitenberg. Juni 4, 2020.

I-Washington Post. Izintambo zoMnyango Wezwe zixwayise ngezinkinga zokuphepha elabhoratri laseWuhan ezicwaninga nge-bat coronaviruses. UJosh Rogin. Ephreli 14, 2020.

I-Houston Chronicle. Usosayensi we-UTMB uvuma izingozi zokuphepha ebhodini laseChina elenza ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus. UNick Powell. Ephreli 23, 2020. 

The Wall Street Journal. I-NIH icindezela i-US engenzi-nzuzo ukuthola ulwazi nge-Wuhan virology lab. UBetsy McKay. Agasti 19, 2020.  

The Wall Street Journal. Ngakho lavelaphi igciwane? UMat Ridley. Kwangathi 29, 2020. 

Isikhungo Sikazwelonke SaseFrance Socwaningo Lwezesayensi (CNRS). Imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 ibuzwa ngokungathí sina. Yaroslav Pigenet. Novemba 9, 2020.

The Times. Iqale kanjani iCovid-19? Ukuzingela zero isiguli sekubanjwe ukungqubuzana kwamandla amakhulu. UTom Whipple. Disemba 31, 2020.

I-Boston Magazine. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-COVID-19 yeqe ebhodini? URowan Jacobsen. Septhemba 9, 2020. 

Nature. Imfihlakalo enkulu kunazo zonke: ukuthi kuzothathani ukulandelela umthombo we-coronavirus. UDavid Cyranoski. Juni 5, 2020.

I-Newsweek. Ukuhlolwa okuyimpikiswano kanye nelabhu laseWuhan kusolwa ukuqala ubhadane lwe-coronavirus. UFred Guterl, uNaveed Jamali noTom O'Connor. Ephreli 27, 2020.

The Washington Post. UMnyango Wezwe ukhipha ikhebula elethule izimangalo zokuthi i-coronavirus yeqe ebhodini laseChina. UJohn Hudson noNate Jones. Julayi 17, 2020. 

I-Telegraph. Ososayensi bahlole ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi uCovid uputshuke ebhodini njengengxenye yophenyo ngemvelaphi yamagciwane. UPaul Nuki. Septhemba 15, 2020.  

Izindaba ze-NBC. Umbiko uthi imininingwane kamakhalekhukhwini ikhombisa ukuvalwa kwango-Okthoba e-Wuhan lab, kepha ochwepheshe bayangabaza. UKen Dilanian, uRuaridh Arrow, uCourtney Kube, uCarol E. Lee, uLouise Jones noLorand Bodo. Meyi 9, 2020. 

Washington Post. Iqale kanjani i-covid-19? Indaba yayo yokuqala yemvelaphi iyazamazama. UDavid Ignatius. Ephreli 2, 2020.

The Times. Kwembulwa: Umzila weminyaka eyisikhombisa we-coronavirus kusuka ekufeni kwezimayini kuya ebhodini laseWuhan. UGeorge Arbuthnott, uJonathan Calvert noPhilip Sherwell. Julayi 4, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. Abaseshi be-coronavirus be-WHO babheka emakethe yaseWuhan njengezindawo zemephu ezingadaluliwe. UJohn Power noSimone McCarthy. Disemba 15, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. ICoronavirus: Uphenyo lweWuhan lweWorld Health Organisation alubheki amaqembu 'anecala'. I-Agence France-Presse. Disemba 24, 2020.

BBC. I-Wuhan: Idolobha lokuthula; Ifuna izimpendulo endaweni lapho i-coronavirus iqale khona. UJohn Sudworth. Julayi 2020.

I-New York Times, Imibuzo eyi-8 evela kumseshi wesifo onomsuka wobhubhane. UWilliam J. Broad. Julayi 8, 2020.

Isayensi. Umsebenzi oholwa yi-WHO ungaphenya ngemvelaphi yalolu bhubhane. Nayi imibuzo esemqoka ongayibuza. UJon Cohen. Julayi 10, 2020.

I-New York Times. Ekuzingeleni Umthombo Wegciwane, I-WHO Vumela i-China Iphathe. Selam Gebrekidan, UMat Apuzzo, U-Amy Qin futhi . Novemba 2, 2020.

The Washington Post. Umsuka we-coronavirus useyindida. Sidinga uphenyo oluphelele. IBhodi lokuHlela. Novemba 14, 2020.

Independent. ICoronavirus: Lowo owayeyinhloko ye-MI6 ubanga ngokuthi ubhubhane 'lwaqala ngengozi' kwelabhorethri yaseChina. U-Andy Gregory. Juni 4, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Ngokunyakaza okungajwayelekile, izinhlaka zezobunhloli zase-US ziyaqinisekisa ukuthi ziyaphenya ukuthi ngabe i-coronavirus ivele engozini yaselebhu. UWarren P. Strobel noDustin Volz. Ephreli 30, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Isazi selulwane saseChina sithi ilebhu yakhe iWuhan ibingewona umthombo we-coronavirus entsha. UJames T. Areddy. Ephreli 21, 2020.

ABC News. Uxolo, izazi zetulo. Ucwaningo luphetha ukuthi i-COVID-19 'akuyona eyokwakhiwa kwelebhu'. UKate Holland. Mashi 27, 2020. 

The Economist. Izingcezu zepuzzle zemvelaphi kaCovid-19 zizovela. Meyi 2, 2020. 

The Wall Street Journal. Umbono welebhu yeWuhan. IBhodi lokuHlela. Meyi 6, 2020. 

The Guardian. Ziba imibono yetulo: Ososayensi bayazi ukuthi iCovid-19 ayidalwanga elebhu. UPeter Daszak. Juni 9, 2020. 

I-Daily Telegraph. Ososayensi bathi kungenzeka ukuthi i-COVID-19 iphekwe ebhodini. USharri Markson. Juni 1, 2020.

Isayensi. UTrump 'usikweleta ukuxolisa.' Usosayensi waseChina enkabeni yemibono yemvelaphi ye-COVID-19 uyakhuluma. UJon Cohen. Julayi 24, 2020.

Isayensi. Phendula kuSayensi Magazine: I-Q & A yeShi Zhengli. Shi Zhengli. Julayi 15, 2020.

Minerva. Izitatimende eziphikisanayo zenza ukungabaza ngemininingwane eluhlaza yaseChina. Aksel Fridstrøm. Septhemba 10, 2020. 

Minerva. Incazelo enengqondo kunazo zonke ukuthi ivela elabhoratri. U-Aksel Fridstrøm noNils August Andresen. Julayi 2, 2020. 

Newsweek. UDkt Fauci usekele i-Wuhan lab enempikiswano ngamadola wase-US ocwaningweni oluyingozi lwe-coronavirus. UFred Guterl. Ephreli 28, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Icala lakha ukuthi i-COVID-19 ibinomsuka webhu. UJonathan Latham no-Allison Wilson. Juni 5, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Umsuka ohlongozwayo we-SARS-CoV-2 nobhadane lwe-COVID-19. UJonathan Latham no-Allison Wilson. Julayi 15, 2020.

I-Federalist. Isazi seVirologist sichaza ukufuna kwaso ukulandelela umsuka we-COVID-19. UJulian Vigo. Septhemba 2, 2020. 

I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukubuza i-CDC: Ingabe kwenzeka ngengozi ephelele ukuthi i-BSL4 yaseChina kuphela iseWuhan? Umsindo nevidiyo. USam Husseini. Ephreli 17, 2020.

GMWatch. Ososayensi baseWuhan nabaseMelika basebenzise izindlela ezingatholakali zobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo kuma-bat coronaviruses. UJonathan Matthews noClaire Robinson. Meyi 20, 2020. 

Intatheli Yobulelesi Benkampani. Andrew Kimbrell ngomsuka we-COVID-19. URussell Mokhiber. Agasti 11, 2020.

GMWatch. Ngabe igciwane le-COVID-19 lenzelwe izakhi zofuzo? UJonathan Matthews. Ephreli 22, 2020.

GMWatch. Kungani ababaleki bebalekela ukuphika bekhuluma amanga anjalo? UJonathan Matthews. Juni 17, 2020. 

Izindaba ze-NBC. Ngaphakathi kwelebhu yaseChina emaphakathi ekusesheni umsuka we-coronavirus. UJanis Mackey Frayer noDenise Chow. Agasti 10, 2020.

I-Intercept. Ekushisekeleni Kwayo Ukusola iChina ngeCoronavirus, uHulumeni WeTrump Uvimbela Uphenyo Ngomsuka Wobhubhane. UMara Hvistendahl. Meyi 19, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. I-WHO iqamba uhlu lweqembu lomhlaba wonke elibheke kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus. USimone McCarthy. Novemba 25, 2020.

U-Edizioni Cantagalli. Cina Covid 19. La chimera che ha cambiato il mondo (I-China COVID-19: IChimera Eyashintsha Umhlaba). UJoseph Tritto. Agasti 2020. 

Ukwehluleka kokubonisa ngale kanye nokucindezelwa kobufakazi maqondana ne-COVID-19

The Wall Street Journal. Emhlabathini eWuhan, izimpawu zeChina eziqinisa uphenyo lwemvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UJeremy Page noNatasha Khan. Meyi 12, 2020.

I-New York Times. Izinsuku Ezingama-25 Ezashintsha Umhlaba: Ukuthi iCovid-19 ishelele kanjani iChina. UChris Buckley, uDavid D. Kirkpatrick, u-Amy Qin noJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Intatheli YaseChinese Citizen Igwetshwe Iminyaka Engu-4 Ngokubikwa KweCovid. UVivian Wang. Disemba 28, 2020.

I-ProPublica. Imibhalo evuzayo ikhombisa ukuthi amasosha ase-China akhokhelwa i-Intanethi amaTolls asize kanjani ukuhlola iCoronavirus. URaymond Zhong, uPaul Mozur, u-Aaron Krolik noJeff Kao. Disemba 19, 2020.

I-New York Times. I-China ihambisa amanga ukuze icindezele umbono wokuthi leli gciwane livele kwenye indawo. UJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 6, 2020.

Bloomberg. I-China Yenza Kwanzima Ukuxazulula Imfihlakalo Yokuthi I-Covid Yaqala Kanjani. Disemba 30, 2020.

Financial Times. Imithombo yezindaba yaseChina inyusa umkhankaso wokuhlola udaka ngemvelaphi yeCovid. Umalusi ongumKristu. Novemba 26, 2020.

ISky News Australia. Ama-imeyili akhishwe aveza ukuthi 'alikho iqiniso noma okusobala' encwadini ephathelene nemvelaphi ye-COVID-19. USharri Markson. Novemba 22, 2020.

Izingozi, ukuvuza, ukwehluleka kokuqukethwe, ukwehluleka ukwenza izinto obala ezindaweni zokuvikela ukuphepha

I-New Yorker. Ubungozi bokwakha ama-bio labs amaningi kakhulu. Elisabeth Eaves Mashi 18, 2020. 

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Iphutha lomuntu kumalebhu aphezulu e-biocontainment: usongo olungaba yinkinga. ULynn Klotz. Februwari 25, 2019. 

Isikhungo saseJames Martin sokungavikeleki Izifundo. Umhlahlandlela Wokuphenya Imvelaphi Yokuqubuka: Imvelo kuqhathaniswa neLaboratory. URichard Pilch, uMiles Pomper, uJill Luster noFilippa Lentzos. Okthoba 2020.

I-ProPublica. Nazi izingozi eziyisithupha abacwaningi be-UNC ababa nazo ngama-coronaviruses enziwe elebhu. U-Alison Young noJessica Blake. Agasti 17, 2020. 

CBC. Usosayensi waseCanada wathumela amagciwane abulalayo eWuhan lab izinyanga ngaphambi kokuba i-RCMP icele ukuphenya. Juni 16, 2020.

I-Frederick News-Post. Ukutholwa kokuhlolwa kwe-CDC kuveza okuningi mayelana nokumiswa kocwaningo lwe-USAMRIID. UHeather Mongilio. Novemba 23, 2019. 

Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo (CDC) noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US. I-US Army Medical Research Institute yezifo ezithathelwanayo (i-USAMRIID): incazelo yezincazelo zokutholwa kokuhlolwa. Agasti 2019.

IHhovisi Lokuziphendulela kuHulumeni wase-US. Amalabhorethri athwala kakhulu: Izinqubomgomo eziphelele nezisesikhathini nezindlela ezinamandla zokubheka ezidingekayo ukwenza ngcono ukuphepha. Ephreli 19, 2016. I-GAO-16-305. 

USA Namuhla. Izehlakalo eziyi-10 ezitholwe kuma-biolabs esizwe. U-Alison Young noNick Penzenstadler. Meyi 29, 2015. 

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Ubhadane olusongelwayo nelebhu kuyaphunyuka: iziprofetho ezizigcwalisa. UMartin Furmanski. Mashi 31, 2014.

Isikhungo Sokulawulwa Kwezikhali Nokungasebenzi. Ukuphunyuka Kwelabhorethri Nomqedazwe “Wokuzifeza”. UMartin Furmanski. Februwari 17, 2014.

UMkhandlu Kazwelonke Wokucwaninga. Izinselelo zokuphepha kokuvikela ukwanda komhlaba wonke kwama-laboratories e-biology ephezulu: isifinyezo somhlangano wokusebenzela. 2012. IWashington, DC: I-National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13315 

Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ngamagciwane, amagciwane, nezimfihlo: ukwanda buthule kwama-bio-laboratories e-United States, 110th Congress. Okthoba 4, 2007.

Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ku-Federal Oversight of High-Containment Biolaboratories, Ikhulu Elilodwa Eleventh Congress. Septemba 22, 2009.

BMJ. Ukwephulwa kwemithetho yokuphepha kuyimbangela yokuqhamuka kwamuva kweSARS, kusho i-WHO. UJane Parry. Meyi 22, 2004. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.328.7450.1222-b

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Umlando omude wokukhishwa ngephutha kwelabhoratri kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane awunakwa ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kwe-COVID-19. USam Husseini. Meyi 5, 2020.

GMWatch. I-COVID-19: Ucingo lokuvusa i-biosafety. UJonathan Matthews. Ephreli 24, 2020. 

USA Today. I-CDC yehlulekile ukudalula izehlakalo zelebhu ezinamagciwane e-bioterror kwiCongress. U-Alison Young. Juni 24, 2016.

I-Global Times. Umhlahlandlela we-biosafety okhishwe ukulungisa izikhala zokuphatha okungapheli kumalebhu wamagciwane. Liu Caiyu no Leng Shumei. Februwari 16, 2020.

Izindaba ze-CBS. Ukuphenya: Inkampani yase-US ibungled impendulo ye-Ebola. I-Associated Press. Mashi 7, 2016. 

GMWatch. Ithiyori yokucwaninga imithombo yolwazi yamajenali yakwaSARS-CoV-2. UClaire Robinson. Julayi 16, 2020. 

Amanethiwekhi we-biodefense ne-biowarfare 

Indawo yokwenza izinwele. Ngabe leli gciwane livele lab? Mhlawumbe hhayi - kepha kuveza usongo lomjaho wezikhali ze-biowarfare. USam Husseini. Ephreli 24, 2020.

 I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukunqanda ukubuka kwethu kusuka ku-biowarfare: ubhadane lwezifo neziphrofetho ezizigcwalisayo. USam Husseini. Meyi 2020. 

IBoston Globe. Ukuheha kwezikhali ze-bio. UBernard Lown noPrasannan Parthasarathi. Februwari 23, 2005. 

IMonterey Institute of International Study. I-Beijing kuma-biohazard: Ongoti baseChina ezindabeni ze-bioweapons nonproliferation. U-Amy E. Smithson, uMhleli. Agasti 2007. Isikhungo SikaJames Martin Sezifundo Ezingahambisani Nokukhiqiza.

Amasiko Abulalayo: Izikhali zebhayoloji kusukela ngo-1945. UMark Wheelis, uLajos Rózsa, noMalcolm Dando (Abahleli). IHarvard University Press, 2006.

I-Biowarfare kanye nobuphekula. UFrancis Boyle. 2005. I-Clarity Press, Inc.

Ukuvimbela umjaho wezikhali zebhayoloji. USusan Wright (Umhleli). I-MIT Press, 1990. 

I-Biohazard. UKen Alibek noStephen Handelman. Indlu engahleliwe: ENew York, 1999. 

Izinkulumompikiswano zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi

Abezindaba Kazwelonke. Izingozi ezingaba khona nezinzuzo zokwenza ucwaningo ngomsebenzi: isifinyezo somhlangano wokusebenzela. 2015. 

Forbes. Kufanele sivumele ososayensi ukuthi bakhe ama-super-virus ayingozi? USteven Salzberg. Okthoba 20, 2014. 

ICambridge Working Group. Isitatimende sokuvumelana seCambridge Working Group ngokwakhiwa kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane (PPPs). Julayi 14, 2014. 

mBio. Ngabe inani elilinganiselwe lesayensi lokuhlolwa okungahle kube khona kobhubhane lwezifo lingazithethelela izingozi? UMarc Lipsitch. Okthoba 14, 2014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02008-14 

mBio. Ucwaningo nge-Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus: The Way Forward. U-Anthony S. Fauci. Septhemba-Okthoba 2012, 3 (5): e00359-12. i-doi: 10.1128 / mBio.00359-12

mBio. Ukuwa phansi komgodi wonogwaja: i-aTRIP ibheke ekunembeni kwesichazamazwi empikiswaneni "yokuthola umsebenzi". W. Paul Duprex no-Arturo Casadevall. vol. 5,6 e02421-14. 12 Dis. 2014, doi: 10.1128 / mBio.02421-14

Umuthi we-PLoS. Ezinye izindlela zokuziphatha ekuhlolweni ngamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane enoveli. UMarc Lipsitch no-Alison Galvani. 2014. 11 (5): e1001646. i-doi: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001646  

Amaphepha wesayensi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2

I-Lancet. Izici zemitholampilo yeziguli ezinegciwane le-coronavirus yango-2019 eWuhan, China. UChaolin Huang et al. Janawari 30, 2020. Umqulu 395: 497-506. 

Imvelo. Ukuqhamuka kwe-pneumonia okuhambisana ne-coronavirus entsha yemvelaphi yelulwane. UPeng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… noZheng-Li Shi. Februwari 3, 2020. 579 (7798): 270-273. i-doi: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2012-7

Imvelo. I-Addendum: Ukuqhamuka kwesifo se-pneumonia okuhambisana ne-coronavirus entsha yemvelaphi yelulwane. UPeng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… noZheng-Li Shi. Novemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2951-z

Umuthi Wemvelo. Umsuka oyinhloko we-SARS-CoV-2. UKristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, u-Edward C. Holmes, uRobert F. Garry. Ephreli 2020. Umqulu 26, amakhasi 450-455. 

I-Journal of Medical Virology. Imibuzo emayelana nomsuka oyisisekelo we-SARS-CoV-2. UMurat Seyran, uDamiano Pizzol, uParis Adadi… no-Adam M. Brufsky. Septhemba 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

BioEssays. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi abakwa-SARS ‐ CoV-2 bavele ngendlela eyindilinga enqwabelana ngezilwane noma amasiko eseli? UKarl Sirotkin noDan Sirotkin. Agasti 12, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Imingcele Kwezempilo Yomphakathi. Amacala e-Lethal pneumonia ezimayini zaseMojiang (2012) kanye ne-mineshaft anganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Septhemba 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

BioEssays. Isakhiwo sofuzo seSARS ‐ CoV-2 asisho ukuthi imvelaphi yelabhoratri. URossana Segreto futhi Yuri Deigin. Novemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRxiv. I-SARS-CoV-2 isetshenziswe kahle kubantu. Kusho ukuthini lokhu ukuphinda kuvele? UShing Hei Zhan, uBenjamin E. Deverman, uYujia Alina Chan. Meyi 2, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

UZenodo. Uqalephi Ubhubhane Lwe-Coronavirus 2019 futhi Lwasakazeka Kanjani? Isibhedlela Sabantu Sokukhululeka EsiseWuhan China kanye Nomugqa 2 Wuhan Metro System Ziyizimpendulo Eziphoqayo. USteven Carl Quay. Okthoba 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

Minerva. Ubufakazi obukhombisa ukuthi leli akulona igciwane eliguquke ngokwemvelo: I-aetiology yomlando eyakhiwe kabusha ye-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2. UBirger Sørensen, u-Angus Dalgleish no-Andres Susrud. Julayi 1, 2020.

ResearchGate. Ngabe ukubheka imvelaphi yokukhohliswa kofuzo kukaSARS-CoV-2 kuyimbono yetulo okumele ihlolwe? URossana Segreto noYuri Deigin. Ephreli 2020. DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

Iziqalo. Ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokuhlonza uhlobo lwe-bat coronavirus strain i-RaTG13 nekhwalithi yephepha elihlobene ne-Nature. UXiaoxu Lin, uShizhong Chen. Juni 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

Iziqalo. Isimo esingajwayelekile sesampula ye-fecal swab esetshenziselwe ukuhlaziywa kwe-NGS yokulandelana kwe-RaTG13 genome ibeka umbuzo ngokunemba kokulandelana kwe-RaTG13. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Agasti 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Amaphrinta we-OSF. I-COVID-19, i-SARS namalulwane ama-coronaviruses genomes ukulandelana okungalindelekile kwe-RNA okungalindelekile. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Ephreli 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

UZenodo. Izindlela zokuziphendukela kwemvelo ze-HIV ezilawulwa ngumuntu. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Agasti 2, 2020. 

Ama-Microbes Asakhulayo Nezifo. I-HIV-1 ayizange ibambe iqhaza ku-2019-nCoV genome. UXiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang noGao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. i-doi: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

i-arXiv. Ekuqhathaniseni i-silico kwamafinyela abophayo we-spike protein-ACE2 kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo; Ukubaluleka kwemvelaphi engaba khona yegciwane le-SARS-CoV-2. USakshi Piplani, uPuneet Kumar Singh, uDavid A. Winkler, uNikolai Petrovsky. Meyi 13, 2020. 

Nature. Ukukhomba ama-coronavirus ahlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. UTommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- UFang Sun, Si Qin, Ji-Cheng Huang, uGabriel M. Leung, u-Edward C. Holmes, uYan-Ling Hu, u-Yi Guan no-Wu-Chun Cao. Mashi 26, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Amagciwane e-PLoS. Ngabe ama-pangolin angumsingathi ophakathi nendawo we-2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? UPing Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Meyi 14, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

Nature. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-coronavirus ehlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kusuka kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi Yena. Meyi 7, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Biology yamanje. Umsuka wePangolin ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 Okuhambisana nokuqubuka kwe-COVID-19. UTao Zhang, uQunfu Wu, uZhigang Zhang. Mashi 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Umthombo owodwa wama-pangolin CoV ane-Spike RBD eseduze ne-SARS-CoV-2. U-Yujia Alina Chan noShing Hei Zhan. Okthoba 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

Ukutheleleka, i-Genetics kanye ne-Evolution. I-COVID-19: Isikhathi sokukhipha i-pangolin ekudlulisweni kwe-SARS-CoV-2 iye kubantu. URoger Frutos, uJordi Serra-Cobo, uTianmu Chen noChristian A. Devaux. Umqulu 84, Okthoba 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRxiv. Abukho ubufakazi bama-coronaviruses noma amanye amagciwane angaba yi-zoonotic kuma-Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) angena ekuhwebeni kwezilwane zasendle ngeMalaysia. Jimmy Lee, Tom Hughes, Mei-Ho Lee, Hume Field, Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Symphorosa Sipangkui, Senthilvel KSS Nathan, Diana Ramirez, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Helen Lasimbang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Peter Daszak. Juni 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

Izingobo zomlando zeVirology. A umabhebhana Ukulandelana kwe-RNA njengomnikeli ojwayelekile wokuqhekeka kokukopisha ukukhethwa kokukhetha ku-SARS-CoV-2. UWilliam R. Gallaher. Julayi 31, 2020.

Iseli. Umbono we-genomic ngemvelaphi nokuvela kwe-SARS-CoV-2. UYong-Zhen Zhang, u-Edward C. Holmes. Ephreli 2020 181 (2): 223-227. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.03.035.

Izinqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Uhlamvu lwe-Superantigenic lokufaka okuhlukile ku-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2 esekelwa yi-repertoire ye-TCR eboshiwe ezigulini ezine-hyperinfigueation. UMary Hongying Cheng, She Zhang, Rebecca A. Porritt, Magali Noval Rivas, Lisa Paschold, Edith Willscher, Mascha Binder, Moshe Arditi, no-Ivet Bahar. Septhemba 28, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010722117

I-Biology yamanje. I-bat coronavirus yenoveli ehlobene eduze ne-SARS-CoV-2 iqukethe okufakiwe okungokwemvelo endaweni yokuhlanza ye-S1 / S2 ye-protein spike. Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, noWeifeng Shi. Juni 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

aRxiv. I-bat coronavirus RmYN02 ibonakala ngokususwa okungu-6-nucleotide lapho kuhlangana khona i-S1 / S2, futhi ukufakwa kwayo okufunwayo kwe-PAA akungabazeki. UYuri Deigin noRossana Segreto. Disemba 1, 2020.

bioRxiv. Isiza sokuhlanza i-Furin siyisihluthulelo se-SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. UBryan A. Johnson,… uKari Debbink, uPei Yong Shi, u-Alexander Freiberg noVineet Menachery. Agasti 26, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.26.268854 

bioRxiv. Isiza se-furin cleavage se-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein siyisici esibalulekile sokudluliswa ngenxa yokuphindaphindeka okuthuthukile kumaseli womoya. UThomas Peacock, uDaniel H. Goldhill, uJie Zhou,… noWendy S. Barclay. Septhemba 30, 2020. doi. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.30.318311 

UZenodo. Izici ezingajwayelekile ze-SARS-CoV-2 genome ephakamisa ukuguqulwa okuyinkimbinkimbi kwelabhorethri kunokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokucaciswa kwendlela yayo yokwenziwa okungenzeka. Li-Meng Yan, Shu Kang, Jie Guan, futhi Shanchang Hu. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

Johns Hopkins Isikhungo Sokuphepha Kwezempilo. Ukuphendula: Yan et al Preprint Examinations of the Origin of SARS-CoV-2. UKelsey Lane Warmbrod, uRachel M. West, uNancy D. Connell noGigi Kwik Gronvall. Septhemba 21, 2020.

UZenodo. Isiphakamiso seSARS-CoV-2 Spillover Ngesikhathi Sokubukeza Kwamasampula sango-2019 esivela eMineshaft eMojiang, esifundazweni saseYunnan, eChina. Ongaziwa. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Izindatshana zebhulogi eziphenyayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2

Medium. Kwenziwe ilebhu? I-SARS-CoV-2 yohlu lozalo ngokusebenzisa i-lens yocwaningo lomsebenzi. Yuri Deigin. Ephreli 22, 2020.

Medium. Ama-virus ayesabekayo nokuthi ungawathola kuphi. UMoreno Colaiacovo. Novemba 15, 2020.

Okuphakathi. Ukuqoqwa kwemininingwane esheshayo yamacala asolwa ekuqaleni kukaCovid-19 eWuhan. UGilles Demaneuf. Okthoba 15, 2020.

I-USRTK icela i-ODNI ukuthi ichaze imibhalo ngezingozi ezenzeka emalabhulini agcina amagciwane ayingozi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ilungelo Lokwazi I-US (USRTK) ubuzile Ihhovisi likaMqondisi Wezobunhloli Kazwelonke (i-ODNI) lokudalula imibhalo emithathu ephathelene nokushiyeka kokuvikela okwenzeka emalabhoratri agcina amagciwane ayingozi.

Isicelo esiphoqelekile sokubuyekezwa kokunciphisa (MDR) siphendula kuma-ODNI isinqumo ukugodla imibhalo emithathu ehlukanisiwe ephendula kufakwe isicelo se-Freedom of Information Act ngo-Agasti 2020.

Isicelo se-FOIA "safuna ubuhlakani obuqediwe obukhiqizwe kusukela ngoJanuwari 2015 mayelana nokukhishwa ngengozi noma ngamabomu kwama-biological agents, ukwehluleka kokutholakala ezingeni le-biosafety-level (BSL) -2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4, kanye nezinye izehlakalo zokukhathazeka ezihlobene ukusetshenziswa okubili kokucwaninga nge-biosafety ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-BSL-2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4 eCanada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, Russia, emazweni angaphambilini eSoviet Union, South Africa , ETaiwan, e-United Kingdom naseThailand. ”

I-ODNI ithe ekuphenduleni kwayo ithole amadokhumende amathathu, futhi yanquma ukuthi lawa "kumele agodliwe ngokuphelele ngokukhishwa kwe-FOIA" maqondana nokuvikelwa kwezinto ezihlukanisiwe eziphathelene nezindlela zezobunhloli kanye nemithombo yokubaluleka kwezokuphepha kuzwelonke. I-ODNI ayichazanga noma ichaze uhlobo lwemibhalo emithathu noma okuqukethwe kwayo, ngaphandle kokuthi bebephendula isicelo se-FOIA.

Ngokwesicelo sayo se-MDR, i-USRTK icele ukuthi i-ODNI ikhiphe zonke izingxenye ezingabekiwe ezihlukanisiwe zemibhalo emithathu.

I-USRTK ikholelwa ekutheni umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi imininingwane ekhona ngezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye okwenzekile emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe amagciwane angaba khona ubhubhane, nokuthi ngabe kukhona yini ukuvuza okunjalo okubandakanyekile kumsuka we-COVID-19, odale ukuthi ukufa kwabantu baseMelika abangaphezu kwama-360,000.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Amasethi wedatha aguquliwe aphakamisa imibuzo eminingi ngokuthembeka kwezifundo ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubuyekezwa kwedathasethi yama-genomic ehlotshaniswa nezifundo ezine ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus engeza eminye imibuzo ngokuthembeka kwalezi zifundo, ezinikeza ukusekelwa okuyisisekelo kwe-hypothesis ukuthi uSARS-CoV-2 uqhamuke ezilwaneni zasendle. Izifundo, UPeng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou et al., ULam et al., Futhi UXiao et al., ithole ama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS-CoV-2 kumalulwane amahhashi nama-pangolin aseMalayan.

Ababhali bezifundo bafaka idatha yokulandelana kwe-DNA ebizwa ukulandelana kufundwa, ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa izakhi zofuzo ze-bat- ne-pangolin-coronavirus, e-National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ukulandelana funda ingobo yomlando (SRA). I-NCBI isungule i-database yomphakathi ukusiza ukuqinisekisa okuzimele kokuhlaziywa kwe-genomic ngokususelwa kubuchwepheshe bokulandelana okuphezulu.

I-US Right to Know ithole imibhalo ngamarekhodi womphakathi icela lokho khombisa izibuyekezo kulezi zifundo zedatha ye-SRA ngemuva kwezinyanga zishicilelwe. Lokhu kubuyekezwa kuyinqaba ngoba kwenzeke ngemuva kokushicilelwa, futhi ngaphandle kwesizathu, incazelo noma ukuqinisekiswa.

Ngokwesibonelo, UPeng Zhou et al. futhi ULam et al. bavuselele idatha yabo ye-SRA ngezinsuku ezimbili ezifanayo. Imibhalo ayichazi ukuthi kungani beguqule idatha yabo, kuphela ukuthi kwenziwa izinguquko ezithile. UXiao et al. wenze izinguquko eziningi emininingwaneni yabo ye-SRA, kufaka phakathi ukususwa kwedathasethi ezimbili ngo-Mashi 10, ukwengezwa kwedathasethi entsha ngoJuni 19, ukufakwa esikhundleni kwedatha ngoNovemba 8 kukhishwe okokuqala ngo-Okthoba 30, nokunye ukuguqulwa kwedatha ngoNovemba 13 - ngemuva kwezinsuku ezimbili Nature ungeze “inothi lokukhathazeka” loMhleli mayelana nesifundo. Hong Zhou et al. kusamele sabelane ngedathasethi ephelele ye-SRA ezonika amandla ukuqinisekisa okuzimele. Ngenkathi omagazini bethanda Nature kudinga ababhali ukuthi benze yonke imininingwane “itholakale ngokushesha”Ngesikhathi sokushicilelwa, imininingwane ye-SRA ingakhishwa ngemuva ukushicilelwa; kodwa akujwayelekile ukwenza ushintsho olunjalo ezinyangeni ezithile ngemuva kokushicilelwa.

Lezi zinguquko ezingavamile zemininingwane ye-SRA azenzi ngokuzenzakalela ukuthi lezi zifundo ezine namasethi wedatha ahlobene nazo angathembeki. Kodwa-ke, ukubambezeleka, izikhala kanye nezinguquko kwimininingwane ye-SRA kuphazamise ukuhlangana okuzimele nokuqinisekisa yokulandelana kwe-genome okushicilelwe, bese ufaka ku imibuzo futhi ukukhathazeka mayelana the ukufaneleka kwezifundo ezine, njenge:

  1. Yikuphi ukubuyekezwa okuqondile ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwedatha ye-SRA? Kungani zenziwa? Zikuthinte kanjani ukuhlaziywa okuhambisanayo kwe-genomic nemiphumela?
  2. Ngabe lokhu kubuyekezwa kwe-SRA kuqinisekiswe ngokuzimela? Uma kunjalo, kanjani? I- Ukuqinisekiswa kweNCBI kuphela indinganiso yokushicilela i-SRA BioProject– ngale kwemininingwane eyisisekelo efana "negama lomzimba" - ukuthi ngeke ibe yimpinda.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe: 

The Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Semininingwane Yebhayoloji (i-NCBI) imibhalo ingatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili we-NCBI (Amakhasi we-63)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Akukho ukubuyekezwa kontanga kwesengezo esifundweni esivelele semvelaphi ye-coronavirus?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ijenali Nature akuzange kuhlolisise ukuthembeka kwezimangalo ezibalulekile ezenziwe ngoNovemba 17 isithasiselo kuya ku cwaningo ngemvelaphi yelulwane le-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ukuxhumana ne Nature abasebenzi basikisela.

NgoFebhuwari 3, 2020, ososayensi baseWuhan Institute of Virology babika ukuthi bathola isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-SARS-CoV-2, i-bat coronavirus ebizwa nge-RaTG13. I-RaTG13 isibe maphakathi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.

Amakheli esengezo engaphendulwa imibuzo mayelana nokuvela kweRaTG13. Ababhali, uZhou et al., Bacacisile ukuthi bathole iRaTG13 ngo-2012-2013 "endaweni encane eshiyiwe eMojiang County, esifundazweni saseYunnan," lapho abavukuzi abayisithupha bahlupheka khona isifo sokuphefumula okunamandla ngemuva kokuchayeka endleni yelulwane, Futhi abathathu bashona. Uphenyo lwe- izimpawu zabavukuzi abagulayo zinganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. UZhou et al. babike ukuthi abatholanga ama-coronavirus ahlobene no-SARS kumasampula agcinwe abagibeli abagulayo, kodwa abazisekelanga izimangalo zabo ngemininingwane nangezindlela mayelana nokuhlolwa kwabo kanye nezilawuli zokuhlola.

Ukungabi khona kwemininingwane esemqoka kwisengezo kunakho kwaphakamisa eminye imibuzo ngokwethembeka kweZhou et al. funda. NgoNovemba 27, i-US Right to Know yabuza Nature imibuzo mayelana nezicelo zesengezo, futhi wakucela lokho Nature shicilela yonke imininingwane esekelayo uZhou et al. kungenzeka unikeze.

NgoDisemba 2, Nature INhloko Yezokuxhumana uBex Walton Waphendula ukuthi uZhou wokuqala et al. isifundo “besinembile kepha kungacaci,” nokuthi isengezo besifanelekile ipulatifomu yokushicilelwa ngemuva kokushicilelwa ukuthola ukucaciselwa. Ubuye wathi: “Mayelana nemibuzo yakho, singakuqondisa ukuthi uye kubabhali bephepha ukuthola izimpendulo, njengoba le mibuzo ayithinti ucwaningo esilushicilele kodwa kolunye ucwaningo olwenziwe ngababhali, esingakwazi ukuphawula ngalo ”(kugcizelelwa okwethu). Njengoba imibuzo yethu ihlobene nocwaningo oluchazwe kusengezo, i Nature Isitatimende sabamele sikhombisa ukuthi isengezo sikaZhou et al asizange sihlolwe njengocwaningo.

Sabuza umbuzo olandelayo ngoDisemba 2: “ngabe lesi sengezo sakhonjelwa ekubuyekezweni kontanga kanye / noma ekuqondisweni kokuhlelwa ngu Nature? ” UNks Walton akazange aphendule ngqo; yena Waphendula: “Ngokuvamile, abahleli bethu bazohlola ukuphawula noma ukukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe nathi ekuqaleni, babonisane nababhali, futhi bafune izeluleko kubabuyekezi boontanga nakwabanye ochwepheshe bangaphandle uma sikubona kunesidingo. Inqubomgomo yethu yobumfihlo isho ukuthi asikwazi ukuphawula ngendlela ethile yokuphathwa kwamacala ngamanye. ”

Kusukela Nature ubheka isengezo njenge- a post-isibuyekezo sokushicilelwa, futhi ayikubeki lokho kungezwa kokushicilelwa kokushicilelwa kumazinga afanayo okubukeza ontanga njengezincwadi zokuqala, kubonakala sengathi iZhou et al. isengezo asizange sibuyekezwe ngontanga.

Ababhali uZhengli Shi noPeng Zhou abaphendulanga imibuzo yethu mayelana yabo Nature Eyongeziwe.

Ama-imeyili amasha akhombisa izingxoxo zososayensi zokuxoxa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ama-imeyili asanda kuthola anikela amazwibela okuthi ukulandisa kokuqiniseka kuthuthuke kanjani ngemvelaphi yemvelo yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ngenkathi kusala imibuzo ebalulekile yesayensi. Izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi yososayensi zikhombisa ochwepheshe bexoxa ngezikhala zolwazi nemibuzo engaphenduliwe ngemvelaphi yelabhu, njengoba abanye bebefuna ukucindezela imibono “engemuva” yokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Ososayensi abanethonya nezindawo eziningi zezindaba bachaze ubufakazi ngokuthi “nzima”Ukuthi leli gciwane lavela ezilwaneni zasendle, hhayi ebhodini. Kodwa-ke, ngemuva konyaka amacala okuqala abikiwe we-SARS-CoV-2 edolobheni laseChina iWuhan, kuncane okwaziwayo kanjani noma kuphi kwavela igciwane. Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2, obangela isifo i-COVID-19, kungabaluleka ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo.

Ama-imeyili ochwepheshe be-coronavirus USolwazi Ralph Baric - etholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi omphakathi yi-US Right to Know - khombisa izingxoxo phakathi kwabamele iNational Academy of Sciences (NAS), kanye nochwepheshe bokungavikeleki kwezifo ezithathelwanayo emanyuvesi ase-US nase Umanyano we-EcoHealth.

NgoFebhuwari 3, i-White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) kubuziwe iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) ukuze “ibize umhlangano wochwepheshe… ukuze kuhlolwe ukuthi iyiphi idatha, ulwazi namasampula adingekayo ukubhekana nokungaziwa, ukuze kuqondwe imvelaphi yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ye-2019-nCoV, futhi iphendule ngempumelelo kokubili ukugqashuka kwanoma yikuphi ukwaziswa okungaqondile okuba umphumela. ”

I-Baric nezinye izazi zezifo ezithathelwanayo zazibandakanyeka ekubhaleni impendulo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi zochwepheshe kanye ne okusalungiswa kusenesikhathi yangomhla kaFebhuwari 4.

Umbhalo wokuqala wachaza "imibono yokuqala yochwepheshe" ukuthi "imininingwane etholakalayo ye-genomic iyahambisana nokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokuthi okwamanje abukho ubufakazi bokuthi igciwane lenzelwe ukusabalala ngokushesha okukhulu phakathi kwabantu." Lo musho osalungiswa waphakamisa umbuzo, kubakaki: “[cela ochwepheshe ukuthi bangeze imininingwane ethile yamasayithi okubopha?]” Iphinde yafaka umbhalo waphansi kubakaki: ukuvela kwama-coronaviruses ahlobene]. ”

In i-imeyili eyodwa, yangomhla kaFebruwari 4, uchwepheshe wezifo ezithathelwanayo uTrevor Bedford waphawula: “Ngeke ngikhulume ngezindawo zokubopha lapha. Uma uqala ukukala ubufakazi kuningi okufanele ucabange ngakho kuzo zombili lezi zimo. ” Ngazo “zombili lezi zimo,” kubonakala sengathi iBedford ibhekisa kuzimo zelebhu kanye nemvelaphi yemvelo.

Umbuzo wezindawo ezibophezelayo ubalulekile engxoxweni mayelana nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. Izindawo ezihlukanisayo ezibophayo ku-SARS-CoV-2's spike protein confer “Okuseduze” ukubopha nokungena kwegciwane emangqamuzaneni omuntu, nokwenza i-SARS-CoV-2 itheleleke kakhulu kune-SARS-CoV. Ososayensi baphikise ngokuthi izingosi ezihlukile zokubopha zeSARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka ukuthi zivele ngenxa ye- zemvelo spillover endle noma ngamabomu I-laboratory ukulungisa kabusha kokhokho wemvelo ongakadalulwa okwamanje we-SARS-CoV-2.

The incwadi yokugcina eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 6 ayizange isho izingosi ezibophezelayo noma ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ivela kulabhorethri. Kuyacaca ukuthi kuneminye imininingwane edingekayo yokuthola umsuka weSARS-CoV-2. Incwadi ithi, “Ochwepheshe basazise ukuthi imininingwane eyengeziwe yokulandelana kwe-genomic evela kumasampula egciwane ngokwendawo - nangokwesikhashana - ayadingeka ukunquma umsuka nokuvela kwegciwane. Amasampula aqoqwe kusenesikhathi ekuqhamukeni kweWuhan namasampula avela ezilwaneni zasendle abaluleke kakhulu. ”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa abanye ochwepheshe bexoxa ngesidingo solimi olucacile ukuphikisana nalokho okuchazwe ngokuthi yi "crackpot theories" yemvelaphi yelabhu. UKristian Andersen, umbhali oholayo we iphepha elinomthelela leMvelo Medicine egomela imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2, uthe okusalungiswa kwasekuqaleni “kwakukukhulu, kodwa ngiyazibuza ukuthi ngabe sidinga yini ukuqina kakhulu embuzweni wobunjiniyela.” Uqhube wathi, “Uma enye yezinhloso zalo mbhalo kungukuphikisana nalezi zinkolelo-mbono, ngicabanga ukuthi kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi sikwenze lokho ngokuqinile nangolimi olucacile…”

In impendulo yakhe, IBaric ihlose ukudlulisa isisekelo sesayensi ngemvelaphi yemvelo yakwaSARS-CoV-2. “Ngicabanga ukuthi sidinga ukusho ukuthi isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu naleli gciwane (96%) satholwa kumalulwane azungeza emhumeni waseYunnan, eChina. Lokhu kwenza isitatimende esiqinile ngemvelaphi yezilwane. ”

Okokugcina Incwadi kusuka kubongameli be-NASEM abathathi hlangothi ngemvelaphi yegciwane. Ithi, “Ucwaningo lwezocwaningo ukuqonda kangcono imvelaphi ye-2019-nCoV nokuthi ihlobana kanjani namagciwane atholakala kumalulwane nakwezinye izinhlobo zezinto eseziqalile. Isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-2019-nCoV sibonakala njenge-coronavirus ekhonjwe kumasampula athathwe ngamalulwane aqoqwe eChina. ” Incwadi ibhekisiwe ezimbili izifundo lokho kwenziwa yi-EcoHealth Alliance neWuhan Institute of Virology. Zombili ziveza imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Emasontweni ambalwa kamuva, incwadi kaMongameli yeNASEM yavela njengomthombo onegunya lomuntu onethonya Isitatimende sabososayensi esishicilelwe ku I-Lancet lokho kudlulise isiqiniseko esithe xaxa ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. I-USRTK ibike ngaphambilini ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala la mazwi, aqinisekisa ukuthi "ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi… baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle." Lesi sikhundla, kusho isitatimende, "sisekelwa futhi yincwadi evela kubongameli be-US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine."

Ukuqokwa okwalandela kukaPeter Daszak nabanye ababambisene ne-EcoHealth Alliance ukuze Ikhomishini yeLancet COVID19 noDaszak kuye Uphenyo lweWorld Health Organisation Imvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2 kusho ukuthi ukwethembeka kwale mizamo kucekelwa phansi ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, nangokubukeka sengathi sebevele behlulele ngaphambi kwalolu daba.

---

“Izingqinamba okufanele sizigweme”

Ama-imeyili eBaric akhombisa nomele i-NAS ukuphakamisa kososayensi base-US kufanele “mhlawumbe bagweme” imibuzo emayelana nemvelaphi yakwa-SARS-CoV-2 emihlanganweni yamazwe womabili ababeyihlela nochwepheshe be-Chinese COVID-19. Ama-imeyili ngoMeyi nangoJuni 2020 axoxa ngezinhlelo zemihlangano. Ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseMelika, iningi labo elingamalungu e-NAS Ikomidi Elimi Ngezifo Ezithathelwanayo Eziqhamukayo Nezinsongo Zempilo Zekhulu Lama-21, kubalwa uRalph Baric, Peter Daszak, David Franz, James Le Duc, Stanley Perlman, David Relman, Linda Saif, noPeiyong Shi.

The ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseChina kufaka phakathi uGeorge Gao, uZhengli Shi, noZhiming Yuan. UGeorge Gao unguMqondisi we-China CDC. UZhengli Shi uhola ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan Institute of Virology, kanti uZhiming Yuan unguMqondisi weWIV.

In i-imeyili kubahlanganyeli baseMelika mayelana neseshini yokuhlela, Isikhulu Sezinhlelo Eziphezulu se-NAS uBenjamin Rusek uchaze inhloso yomhlangano: “ukukugcwalisa ngemvelaphi yengxoxo, xoxa ngezihloko / imibuzo (uhlu kuhlu lwesimemo sakho nokunamathiselwe) nezinkinga okufanele gwema (imibuzo yemvelaphi, ipolitiki)…

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Xhumanisa nama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric wase-University of North Carolina angatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (Amakhasi we-83,416)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo evela kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi ze uphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili kaRalph Baric we-coronavirus 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Leli khasi libala imibhalo kuma-imeyili kaProfessor Ralph Baric, atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. UDkt Baric isazi se-coronavirus e-University of North Carolina, eChapel Hill (UNC). Unakho kuthuthukiswe izindlela zofuzo kuya ukuthuthukisa amandla obhadane lwama-bat coronaviruses akhona in ukusebenzisana noDkt Zhengli Shi eWuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi ebalulekile yososayensi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-coronavirus, futhi sakhanyisela ubudlelwano phakathi kongoti baseMelika nabaseChina kwizifo ezithathelwanayo nezifo ezithathelwanayo, kanye nezindima zezinhlangano ezifana ne-EcoHealth Alliance neNational Academy of Sciences (NAS).

Sicela uthumele i-imeyili noma yini oyithandayo okungenzeka ukuthi siyiphuthele sainath@usrtk.org, ukuze sikwazi ukuwafaka ngezansi.

izinto kusuka kuma-imeyili eBaric

  1. UTracy McNamara, uSolwazi wePathology eWestern University of Health Sciences ePomona, eCalifornia wabhala ngoMashi 25, 2020: “I-Federal govt isebenzise imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ukuxhasa i-Global Health Security Agenda ukusiza amazwe asathuthuka ukuthi akhe amandla okuthola / okubika / okuphendula ezinsongweni eziwubhadane. Kusetshenziswe enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 1 kwiphrojekthi ye-PREDICT nge-USAID ifuna amagciwane aqhamukayo kumalulwane, amagundane nezinkawu phesheya kwezilwandle. Futhi manje iGlobal Virome Project ifuna amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 200 ukugijima emhlabeni wonke izingela lonke igciwane ebusweni bomhlaba. Cishe bazoluthola uxhaso. Kodwa azikho kulezi zinhlelo ezenze abakhokhi bentela baphephe kakhudlwana khona lapha ekhaya. ” (kugcizelelwa koqobo)
  2. UDkt. Jonathan Epstein, Iphini Likamongameli Wezesayensi Nokufinyelela ku-EcoHealth Alliance, wafuna umhlahlandlela wesicelo esivela ku-US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (i-DARPA) mayelana nokuxhumana "ngemininingwane yokusebenzisa i-dual-use" (Mashi 2018).
  3. Umanyano we-EcoHealth zikhokhwe UDkt Baric isamba esingadalulwanga njenge-honarium (Januwari 2018).
  4. Isimemo kuya e-US National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) kanye ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) I-US China Dialogue kanye neWorkshop mayelana Nezinselelo Zokutheleleka Okuqhamukayo, Ukuphepha Kwelebhu, Ukuphepha Kwezempilo Emhlabeni Wonke Nokuziphatha Okufanelekile Ekusetshenzisweni Kokuhlelwa Kofuzo Ekucwaningweni Kwezifo Ezithathelwanayo, Harbin, China, Jan 8-10, 2019 (Novemba 2018-Januwari 2019). Ukulungiselela Ama-imeyili futhi imemorandamu yezokuvakasha khombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika.
  5. Isimemo se-NAS emhlanganweni wochwepheshe baseMelika nabaseChina abasebenza ukulwa nezifo ezithathelwanayo nokwenza ngcono impilo yomhlaba (Novemba 2017). Umhlangano ububizwe yi-NAS kanye neGalveston National Laboratory. Kwenzeka ngoJanuwari 16-18, 2018, eGalveston, eTexas. A imemorandamu yezokuvakasha ikhombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika. Okulandelayo Ama-imeyili khombisa ukuthi uDkt Zhengli Shi we-WIV ukhona emhlanganweni.
  6. NgoFebhuwari 27, 2020, iBaric wabhala, "Njengamanje imvelaphi enkulu ngamalulwane, futhi ngiyabona ukuthi kuyiphutha ukucabanga ukuthi kudingeka umuntu ongumninikhaya ophakathi nendawo."
  7. NgoMashi 5, 2020, iBaric wabhala, “Abukho ubufakazi bokuthi leli gciwane lenzelwe izinto eziphilayo.”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Isixhumanisi sama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (~ Ama-83,416 amakhasi)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka ku- uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Usosayensi onokushayisana kwezintshisekelo ezihola iLancet COVID-19 i-task force emsukeni wegciwane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Evikini eledlule, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi isitatimende esinomthelela ku-The Lancet esisayinwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 sihlelwe ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo elithole izigidi zamadola oxhaso lwabakhokhi bentela base-US lokusebenzisa ama-coronaviruses ngokwezakhi zofuzo nososayensi e-Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV). 

The Isitatimende sikaFebhuwari 18 wagxeka "imibono yetulo" ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ebhodini, futhi wathi ososayensi "baphetha ngokumangazayo" leli gciwane livela ezilwaneni zasendle. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-USRTK uveze ukuthi uMengameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wayibhala le ncwadi wayihlelela ukuthi "kugwemeke ukuvela kwesitatimende sezombusazwe." 

ILancet yehlulekile ukudalula ukuthi abanye abasayine lesi sitatimende banezikhundla ne-EcoHealth Alliance, enesandla kwezezimali ekuphambukiseni imibuzo kude nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Manje, iLancet ihambisa ithonya elingaphezulu eqenjini elinokushayisana kwezintshisakalo embuzweni obalulekile wezempilo yomphakathi ngemvelaphi yobhadane. NgoNovemba 23, iThe Lancet yaqamba igama elithi a iphaneli entsha yamalungu ayi-12 kuKhomishini yeLancet COVID 19. Usihlalo wethimba elisha lokuphenya i- “Origins, Early Spread of the Pandemic, kanye ne-One Health Solutions to Future Pandemic Usongo” akekho omunye ngaphandle kukaPeter Daszak we-EcoHealth Alliance. 

Ingxenye yamalungu eqembu - kubalwa iDaszak, Hume Field, Gerald Keusch, Sai Kit Lam, Stanley Perlman noLinda Saif - nabo bangabasayina esitatimendeni sikaFebhuwari 18 abathi bazi umsuka waleli gciwane cishe ngemuva kwesonto ngemuva kweWorld Health. Inhlangano imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-coronavirus yenoveli sizobizwa nge-COVID-19. 

Ngamanye amagama, okungenani isigamu seKhomishini ye-Lancet ye-COVID Commission ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 kubonakala sengathi seyihlulele lo mphumela ngaphambi kokuthi kuqale uphenyo. Lokhu kwehlisa ukwethembeka negunya leqembu.

Imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 yile kuseyimfihlakalo futhi uphenyo olunzulu noluthembekile kungenzeka lubaluleke kakhulu ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo. Umphakathi ufanele uphenyo olungangcoliswanga yizingxabano zentshisekelo ezinjalo.

Ukuvuselelwa (Novemba 25, 2020): UPeter Daszak naye uqokelwe esikhundleni se- Ithimba labantu abayishumi le-World Health Organisation ngicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

I-EcoHealth Alliance yahlela isitatimende sososayensi abalulekile "ngemvelaphi yemvelo" ye-SARS-CoV-2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi a isitatimende ku I-Lancet ebhalwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 begxeka "imibono yetulo ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi yemvelo" yahlelwa ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo ithole izigidi zamaRandi of Umkhokhi wentela wase-US uxhaso ukuze ukuguqula izakhi zofuzo Ama-coronavirus nososayensi e Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala lo mbhalo I-Lancet isitatimende, nokuthi wayehlose ukukwenza "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”. UDaszak ubhale ukuthi ufuna "ukugwema ukuvela kwesitatimende sezepolitiki".

Incwadi yososayensi yavela ku I-Lancet ngoFebhuwari 18, kusasele isonto elilodwa nje ukuthi i-World Health Organisation imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-novel coronavirus sizobizwa nge-COVID-19.

Ababhali abangama-27 “bayigxeka ngokuqinile imibono yetulo yokuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo,” futhi babika ukuthi ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi “baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.” Le ncwadi ibingafaki izinkomba zesayensi zokuphikisa imfundiso-mbumbulu yegciwane. Usosayensi oyedwa, uLinda Saif, ubuze nge-imeyili ukuthi kungasiza yini “Ukufaka isitatimende esisodwa noma ezi-2 ukuxhasa ukuthi kungani i-nCOV kungelona igciwane elenziwa elebhu futhi kuvele ngokwemvelo? Kubonakala kubalulekile ekuphikiseni lokho kushiwo! ” UDaszak uphendule wathi, “Ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele sinamathele esitatimendeni esibanzi. "

Izingcingo ezikhulayo ukuphenya iWuhan Institute of Virology njengomthombo ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 kuholele kulokhu ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe we-EcoHealth Alliance. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi amalungu e-EcoHealth Alliance adlale kanjani indima yokuqala ekubunjweni kwemibuzo mayelana nokuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingavela kanjani njengemibono “edabukisayo edinga ukulungiswa,” njenge UDaszak utshele The Guardian.

Yize ibinzana elithi "EcoHealth Alliance" livele kanye kuphela I-Lancet isitatimende, ngokuhlangana nombhali-mbhali uDaszak, abanye ababhali ababambisene nabo banobudlelwano ngqo neqembu elingadalulwanga njengokushayisana kwezintshisekelo. URita Colwell noJames Hughes banjalo amalungu weBhodi labaQondisi be-EcoHealth Alliance, UWilliam Karesh uyiPhini Likamongameli Ophethe weqembu lezeMpilo neNqubomgomo, futhi Inkambu yeHume ungumeluleki weSayensi neNqubomgomo.

Ababhali besitatimende baphinde bathi "ukwabiwa okusheshayo, okuvulelekile, nokusobala kwemininingwane ngalokhu kuqubuka manje sekusongelwa amahemuhemu nolwazi olungelona iqiniso ngemvelaphi yalo." Namuhla, noma kunjalo, kuncane okwaziwayo mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nophenyo ngemvelaphi yayo ngo- i-World Health Organization futhi I-Lancet Ikhomishini ye-COVID-19 ziye zaba kusitshekelwe ekusithekeni futhi ngicindezelwe ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo.

UPeter Daszak, uRita Colwell, no I-Lancet Umhleli uRichard Horton akazange anikeze imibono ephendula izicelo zethu zale ndaba.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance: University of Maryland (Amakhasi we-466)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Iphephabhuku i-Nature lenezela “Inothi lomhleli” liqhakambisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthembeka kwesifundo esixhumanisa ama-pangolin coronaviruses nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NgoNovemba 9, 2020, i-US Right to Know ikhishwe ama-imeyili nababhali abaphezulu be- U-Liu et al. futhi UXiao et al, nabasebenzi nabahleli ku Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature amajenali. Lezi zifundo zinikeze ukwethembeka kwesayensi ku-zoonotic hypothesis yokuthi ama-coronaviruses ahlobene kakhulu ne-SARS-CoV-2 ajikeleza endle, nokuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 inomthombo wezilwane zasendle. NgoNovemba 11, 2020, Nature wengeze inothi elilandelayo ephepheni likaXiao et al. “Inothi Lomhleli: Abafundi bayaziswa ukuthi kukhona ukukhathazeka okuvelile mayelana nokuthi ungubani amasampula epangolini abikwe kuleli phepha kanye nobudlelwano bawo namasampula epangolin ashicilelwe ngaphambilini. Izinyathelo ezifanele zokuhlela zizothathwa uma lolu daba seluxazululwe. ”

Inothi liyabonakala lapha: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2313-x