I-Aspartame iboshelwe ekuzuzeni isisindo, ukuthanda ukudla okwandisiwe nokukhuluphala

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isayensi Ekuzuzeni Isisindo + Izinkinga Ezihlobene Nokukhuluphala
Isayensi Yezimboni
Ingabe “Ukudla” Kukhangisa Okukhohlisayo?
Izinkomba Zesayensi

I-Aspartame, indawo yamashukela edume kakhulu emhlabeni, itholakala ezinkulungwaneni zeziphuzo kanye nokudla okungenakubizwa ngoshukela, ushukela ophansi nalokho okubizwa ngokuthi “ukudla”. Kodwa-ke ubufakazi besayensi obuchazwe kuleli phepha lamaqiniso buxhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo, ukwanda kwesifiso sokudla, isifo sikashukela, ukuwohloka komzimba kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala.

Sicela wabelane ngale nsiza. Bheka nephepha lethu elingumngane, I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo, ngolwazi olumayelana nezifundo ezibuyekezwa ngontanga ezixhumanisa i-aspartame nomdlavuza, isifo senhliziyo, isifo se-Alzheimer, imivimbo, ukuquleka, ukunciphisa ukukhulelwa nokuphathwa yikhanda.

Amaqiniso Asheshayo

  • I-Aspartame - nayo edayiswa njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin ne-AminoSweet - iyisiphuzi sokufakelwa esisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Ikhemikhali litholakala ku- izinkulungwane zokudla neziphuzo imikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi iDiet Coke neDiet Pepsi, ushingamu ongenashukela, uswidi, ama-condiments namavithamini.
  • I-FDA inayo Kusho i-aspartame “iphephile kubantu abaningi ngaphansi kwezimo ezithile.” Ososayensi abaningi baye basho Ukuvunyelwa kwe-FDA kwakususelwa kudatha yomsolwa futhi kufanele kubhekwe kabusha.
  • Kunenqwaba yezifundo ezenziwa ukuxhumanisa kwamashumi eminyaka aspartame ezinkingeni ezinkulu zempilo.

I-Aspartame, i-Weight Gain + Izinkinga Ezihlobene Nokukhuluphala 

Ukubuyekezwa okuhlanu kwemibhalo yesayensi kuma-sweeteners okufakelwayo kusikisela ukuthi akufaki isandla ekunciphiseni isisindo, futhi esikhundleni salokho kungadala ukuzuza kwesisindo.

  • Ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwe-2017 kocwaningo kuma-sweeteners okufakelwayo, okushicilelwe ku- I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, abutholanga bufakazi obucacile bezinzuzo zokwehlisa isisindo samaswidi okufakelwa ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo ezingahleliwe, futhi wabika ukuthi izifundo zeqoqo zihlobanisa okokunandisa okufakelwayo “nokwenyuka kwesisindo nobukhulu besinqe, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokukhuluphala, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2 nenhliziyo nenhliziyo imicimbi. ”Bhekafuthi
    • "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa azisizi ekwehliseni isisindo futhi zingaholela ekutholeni amakhilogremu," nguCatherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
    • "Kungani omunye udokotela wenhliziyo ephuze isiphuzo sakhe sokugcina sokudla," nguHarlan Krumholz, IWall Street Journal (9.14.2017)
    • “Lo dokotela wenhliziyo ufuna umndeni wakhe unciphise i-diet soda. Ingabe eyakho kufanele nayo? ” by UDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly Enquirer (9.12.2017)
  • A 2013 Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology neMetabolism i-athikili yokubukeza ithola ukuthi "ubufakazi obuqongelelayo buthakamisa ukuthi abathengi abavamile balezi zinto ezingasetshenziswa esikhundleni sikashukela bangaba sengozini yokwanda kwesisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo nemithambo yegazi," nokuthi "ukusetshenziswa kaningi kwesiphuzo esinamandla kakhulu umphumela wokuphambanisa wokuheha ukungqubuzana komzimba. ”2
  • A 2009 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic i-athikili yokubukeza ithola ukuthi “ukwengezwa kwama-NNS [amaswidi angenamsoco] ekudleni akulethi nzuzo yokwehlisa isisindo noma ukunciphisa isisindo somzimba ngaphandle kokuvinjelwa kwamandla. Kunokukhathazeka osekunesikhathi eside futhi kwakamuva ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-NNS ekudleni kuthuthukisa ukudla amandla futhi kunomthelela ekukhuluphaleni. ”3
  • A 2010 Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi eziphathelene nobumnandi bokuzenzela kuphetha ngokuthi, “izifundo zocwaningo ziphakamisa ukuthi okokunandisa okufakelwayo kungafaka isandla ekuzuzeni isisindo.”4
  • A 2010 Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yokukhuluphala Kwabantwana i-athikili yokubukeza ithi, "Idatha evela ezifundweni ezinkulu, ze-epidemiologic isekela ukuba khona kwenhlangano phakathi kokusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo esenziwe ngobumnandi nokuzuza kwesisindo ezinganeni."5

Ubufakazi be-Epidemiological busikisela ukuthi ubumnandi bokufakelwa buyathinteka ekuzuzeni isisindo. Ngokwesibonelo:

  • The Isifundo Senhliziyo SaseSan Antonio “Kuqaphele ubudlelwane obudala, obuhle bokusabela kumthamo phakathi kwe-AS [ukusetshenziswa okunoshukela okwenziwe ngendlela] kanye nokuzuza kwesisindo isikhathi eside.” Ngaphezu kwalokho, ithole ukuthi ukuphuza iziphuzo ezingaphezu kwamashumi amabili nambili ezenziwe ngoshukela ngesonto - uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abangaziphuzi, “kuhambisana nengozi ephindwe kabili” yokukhuluphala ngokweqile noma ukukhuluphala ngokweqile. ”6
  • Ucwaningo lokusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo phakathi kwezingane nentsha eneminyaka eyi-6-19 lushicilelwe ku I-International Journal of Sciences Food and Nutrition ithole ukuthi "i-BMI ihlotshaniswa nokudla iziphuzo ezine-carbonated."7
  • Ucwaningo lweminyaka emibili ezinganeni eziyi-164 olushicilelwe ku- I-Journal ye-American College of Nutrition kutholakale ukuthi “Ukwanda kokudla i-soda okusetshenzisiwe bekukukhulu kakhulu kubantu abakhuluphele ngokweqile nezifundo ezithola isisindo uma kuqhathaniswa nezifundo ezijwayelekile zesisindo. Isisekelo se-BMI Z-score kanye nonyaka 2 wesoda ukusetshenziswa kwesoda kubikezele u-83.1% womehluko onyakeni we-2 BMI Z-score. ” Iphinde yathola ukuthi "Ukudla i-soda ukusetshenziswa yilona kuphela uhlobo lwesiphuzo oluhambisana nonyaka we-2 BMI Z-score, futhi ukusetshenziswa bekukukhulu kakhulu ezifundweni ezikhuluphele ngokweqile nezifundo ezithola isisindo uma kuqhathaniswa nezifundo ezijwayelekile zesisindo eminyakeni emibili."8
  • The I-US Ikhula Namuhla Ucwaningo lwezingane ezingaphezu kuka-10,000 9 ezineminyaka engu-14 kuya kwengu-XNUMX ubudala luthole ukuthi, kubafana, ukuphuza iziphuzo ezidaywayo “kuhlobene kakhulu nokuzuza kwesisindo.”9
  • Ucwaningo lwe-2016 ku- I-International Journal of Obesity ibike ukuthi ithole izinto eziyisikhombisa eziphindaphindwayo ezibonisa ukuhlangana okukhulu nokukhuluphala kwesisu kwabesifazane, kufaka phakathi ukudla kwe-aspartame.10
  • Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola "isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesibili sikashukela, nesifo senhliziyo,"11 ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2013 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-40 eshicilelwe ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism

Ezinye izinhlobo zezifundo ngokufanayo ziphakamisa ukuthi ubumnandi bokufakelwa abufaki isandla ekwehliseni isisindo. Isibonelo, izifundo zokungenelela aziwusekeli umbono wokuthi okokunandisa okufakelwayo kukhiqiza ukwehla kwesisindo. Ngokusho kwe- Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine kubukezwa kwezincwadi zesayensi, “ukuvumelana okuvela ocwaningweni lokungenelela kusikisela ukuthi izinto ezinoshukela zokwenziwa azisizi ukwehlisa isisindo lapho zisetshenziswa zodwa.”12

Olunye ucwaningo luphakamisa nokuthi okokunandisa okwenziwayo kukhulisa isifiso sokudla, okungakhuthaza ukuzuza kwesisindo. Isibonelo, i- Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine Ukubuyekezwa kutholakale ukuthi "ukulayishwa kokulayisha kuqala kutholile ukuthi ukunambitheka okumnandi, noma ngabe kulethwa ngoshukela noma okokunandisa okwenziwayo, kuthuthukise isifiso somuntu."13

Izifundo ezisuselwa kumagundane ziphakamisa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwamaswidi okufakelwa kungaholela ekudleni ukudla okwengeziwe. Ngokusho kwe- Ukubuyekezwa kweYale Journal of Biology and Medicine, "Ukuhlangana okungahambisani phakathi kokunambitheka okumnandi nokuqukethwe kwe-caloric kungaholela ekudleni ngokweqile nokulinganisela kwamandla." Ngaphezu kwalokho, ngokwesihloko esifanayo, “iziswidi zokufakelwa, ngenxa yokuthi zimnandi, zikhuthaza ukulangazelela ushukela nokuncika kushukela.”14

Ucwaningo lwe-2014 ku- I-American Journal of Health Public ithole ukuthi “abantu abadala abakhuluphele nabakhuluphele e-United States baphuza iziphuzo eziningi zokudla kunabantu abadala abanesisindo esinempilo, badla amakhalori amaningi kakhulu ekudleni okuqinile — kokubili ekudleni nakukudla okulula - kunabantu abadala abakhuluphele nabakhuluphele ngokweqile abaphuza ama-SSB [iziphuzo ezinoshukela], futhi kudle inani elilinganisiwe lama-calories njengabantu abadala abakhuluphele nabakhuluphele ngokweqile abaphuza ama-SSB. ”15

Ucwaningo lwango-2015 lwabantu abadala asebekhulile ku- Ijenali ye-American Geriatrics Society ithole "Kubudlelwano bokuphendula ngomthamo obumangazayo," lokho "okwandisa i-DSI [i-diet soda intake] kwakuhlotshaniswa nokukhuphuka kwesisu esiswini…"16

Ucwaningo olubalulekile lwango-2014 olushicilelwe ku- Nature ithole ukuthi “ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS okusetshenzisiwe [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe nge-sweetener yokufakelwa] kubangela ukuthuthukiswa kokungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokufakwa kokushintshana kokuqambekayo nokusebenzayo kwi-microbiota yamathumbu… imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS, i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba ... Imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka banikele ngokuqondile ekuqhakambiseni ubhadane oluqondile bona ngokwabo ababehloselwe ukulwisana nalo. ”17

Isifo Sikashukela kanye Ne-Metange Derangement

I-Aspartame yehlukana ngokwengxenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa ukusebenza kwe-enzyme emathunjini ane-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebikhonjiswe phambilini ukuvimbela isifo se-metabolic, okuyiqembu lezimpawu ezihambisana nohlobo 2 lwesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo. Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe, Ukudla okunomsoco kanye neMetabolism, amagundane athola i-aspartame emanzini awo okuphuza athola isisindo esikhulu futhi athuthukisa ezinye izimpawu zesifo se-metabolic kunezilwane ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi, "Imiphumela yokuvikela i-IAP maqondana ne-syndrome ye-metabolic ingahle ivinjelwe yi-phenylalanine, i-metabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbe echaza ukungabi bikho kokwehla kwesisindo okulindelekile kanye nokwenza ngcono umzimba okuhambisana neziphuzo zokudla."18

Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola “isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo,” ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2013 eyashicilelwa ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism.19

Ocwaningweni olwalulandela abesifazane abangama-66,118 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-14, zombili iziphuzo ezinoshukela neziphuzo ezingelona iqiniso zihlotshaniswa nengozi yesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2. "Izimo eziqinile zobungozi be-T2D ziphinde zabonwa kuzo zonke izinhlobo zesiphuzo… Akukho nhlangano eye yabonwa nge-100% yeziphuzo zezithelo," kubika ucwaningo lwango-2013 olushicilelwe ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.20

I-Dysbiosis yamathumbu, i-Metabolic Derangement ne-Obesity

Ama-sweeteners okufakelwa angadala ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokusho kwe-a Ucwaningo luka-2014 eMvelweni. Abaphenyi babhala, “imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe ngeswidi], i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba, ngaleyo ndlela kudinga ukuhlolwa kabusha kokusetshenziswa okukhulu kwe-NAS… Ukuthola kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka ibe negalelo ngqo ekuqiniseni ubhadane ngqo [ukukhuluphala] ukuthi zona ngokwazo zazihloselwe ukulwa. ”21

  • Bheka futhi: “Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Angashintsha Amabhaktheriya EmiGodini Ngezindlela Eziyingozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, I-Scientific American (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwango-2016 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe Nutrition kanye neMetabolism kubika, "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kube nomthelela omkhulu ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwesisindo somzimba (i-BMI) nokubekezelelana koshukela… ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokukhubazeka okukhulu okuhlobene nokukhuluphala ekubekezeleni kweglucose."22

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2014 ku PLoS ONE, “I-aspartame inyuse amazinga e-glucose azila ukudla kanye nokuhlolwa kokubekezelelana kwe-insulin kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhubaza ukulahlwa kwe-glucose okuvuselelwe i-insulin… Ukuhlaziywa kwe-fecal kokuqanjwa kwamabhaktheriya esiswini kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhulisa amabhaktheriya aphelele…”23

Isayensi Yezimboni

Akuzona zonke izifundo zakamuva ezithola ukuxhumana phakathi kweswidi lokufakelwa nokuzuza kwesisindo. Izifundo ezimbili ezixhaswe imboni azizange.

  • A 2014 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic ukuhlaziywa kwe-meta kuphethe ngokuthi “Ukutholwa kwezifundo zokubhekisisa akubonisanga ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-LCS [i-low-calorie sweetener] yokudla kanye nesisindo somzimba noma isisindo samafutha kanye nokuhlangana okuncane okuhle ne-BMI [body mass index]; kodwa-ke, imininingwane evela kuma-RCTs [izilingo ezilawulwa ngokungahleliwe], enikeza ubufakazi obuphakeme kakhulu bokuhlola imiphumela engaba khona yokudla kwe-LCS, ikhombisa ukuthi ukufaka izinketho ze-LCS ezinhlotsheni zazo zekhalori ezijwayelekile kuphumela ekunciphiseni kwesisindo okuncane futhi kungaba wusizo ithuluzi lokudla ukuze uthuthukise ukuhambisana nokuncipha noma izinhlelo zokunakekelwa kwesisindo. ” Ababhali “bathole imali yokwenza lolu cwaningo egatsheni laseNyakatho Melika le-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI).”24

I-International Life Sciences Institute, engenzi nzuzo ekhiqiza isayensi embonini yezokudla, inempikiswano phakathi kochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi ngenxa yokuxhaswa kwayo okuvela ezinkampanini zamakhemikhali, zokudla nezemithi kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okungaba khona, ngokusho kwe Indatshana ka-2010 ku-Nature.25 Bheka futhi: ILungelo Lase-US Lokwazi ishidi lamaqiniso mayelana ne-International Life Sciences Institute.

A uchungechunge lwezindaba olushicilelwe ku-UPI ngo-1987 ngentatheli ephenyayo uGreg Gordon uchaza ukubandakanyeka kwe-ILSI ekuqondiseni ucwaningo ku-aspartame ezifundweni ezingase zisekele ukuphepha kweswidi.

  • Ucwaningo lwe-2014 ku- iphephabhuku Ukukhuluphala amanzi ahlolwe eziphuzweni ezinoshukela zokuzenzela zohlelo lokulahlekelwa isisindo lwamasonto ayi-12, ethola ukuthi “amanzi awekho ngaphezu kweziphuzo ze-NNS [ezingenamsoco] zokwehlisa isisindo ngesikhathi sohlelo lokuziphatha lokunciphisa umzimba.” Ucwaningo “luxhaswe ngokuphelele yi-American Beverage Association,”26 okuyiqembu eliphambili lokunxenxa imboni yesoda.

Kunobufakazi obuqinile bokuthi izifundo ezixhaswa ngezimboni ocwaningweni lwezinto eziphilayo azithembeki kangako kunalezo ezixhaswa ngokuzimela. A Ucwaningo luka-2016 ku-PLOS One nguDaniele Mandrioli, uCristin Kearns noLisa Bero bahlole ubudlelwano phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo nobungozi bokuchema, uxhaso lokufunda nokubhala ukungqubuzana kwezezimali kwezintshisekelo ekubukezweni kwemiphumela yeziphuzo ezenziwe ngobumnandi emiphumeleni yesisindo.27 Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi, "Ukubuyekezwa okuxhasiwe komkhakha wokufakelwa kwamakhemikhali kungenzeka ukuthi kube nemiphumela emihle kunezibuyekezo ezingekho embonini ezixhaswe… kanye neziphetho ezivumayo." Ukungqubuzana kwenzalo kwezezimali akuzange kuvezwe ku-42% wokubuyekezwa, nokubuyekezwa okwenziwe ngababhali abanezingxabano zezimali zentshisekelo nomkhakha wezokudla (noma ngabe kudaluliwe noma cha) bebengaba neziphetho ezihle ngalo mkhakha kunezibuyekezo ezenziwa ababhali ngaphandle ukungqubuzana kwezimali kwezintshisekelo. 

A Ucwaningo lwezokwelapha lwe-PLOS luka-2007 ekusekelweni kwemboni ocwaningweni lwezemvelo kutholakale ukuthi “Ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kwezindatshana zesayensi ezihlobene nokudla kungaphatha iziphetho ezivuna imikhiqizo yabaxhasi, okungaba nomthelela omkhulu empilweni yomphakathi… izindatshana zesayensi ezimayelana neziphuzo ezidliwayo ezixhaswe ngokuphelele yimboni bezicishe zibe yisine kuya kweziyisishiyagalombili amathuba okuba avikele izintshisekelo zezezimali zabaxhasi kunezindatshana ezingenazo izimali ezihlobene nomkhakha. Okuthakazelisa kakhulu, azikho kulezi zifundo zokungenelela nakho konke ukwesekwa kwemboni okwaba nesiphetho esingesihle… ”28

Ingabe “Ukudla” Kukhangisa Okukhohlisayo?

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, i-US Right to Know ifake isicelo se- Federal Trade Commission (FTC) kanye ne Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa (FDA) ukuphenya ngezindlela zokumaketha nezokukhangisa zemikhiqizo “yokudla” equkethe ikhemikhali elixhumene nokuzuza kwesisindo.

Siphikise ngokuthi igama elithi "ukudla" libukeka likhohlisa, linamanga futhi lidukisa ngokwephula isigaba 5 seFederal Trade Commission Act kanye nesigaba 403 seFederal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Ama-ejensi kuze kube manje anqabile ukwenza okuthile ecaphuna ukungabi bikho kwezinsizakusebenza nezinye izinto eziseqhulwini (bheka FDA futhi FTC izimpendulo).

“Kuyadabukisa ukuthi i-FTC ngeke ithathe isinyathelo sokumisa ukukhohlisa kwemboni yesoda 'yokudla'. Ubufakazi obuningi besayensi buxhumanisa izithombothi zokwenziwa nokuzuza kwesisindo, hhayi ukuncipha, ”kusho uGary Ruskin, ongumqondisi obambisene ne-US Right to Know. "Ngiyakholelwa ukuthi isoda 'yokudla' izongena emlandweni wase-US njengenye yezinkohliso ezinkulu zabathengi ezake zenzeka."

Ukusabalala kwezindaba:

Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba ze-USRTK nokuthunyelwe:

Izinkomba Zesayensi 

[1] U-Azad, Meghan B., et al. Ama-sweeteners angenamsoco kanye nempilo ye-cardiometabolic: ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile nokuhlaziywa kwemeta kwezilingo ezilawulwa ngokungahleliwe kanye nezifundo ezizayo zeqembu. I-CMAJ July 17, 2017 vol. 189 cha. I-28 doi: I-10.1503 / cmaj.161390 (abstract / esihlokweni)

[2] I-Swithers SE, "Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Aveza Umphumela Ophikisayo Wokuheha I-Metangement Metangement." Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology and Metabolism, Julayi 10, 2013. 2013 Sep; 24 (9): 431-41. I-PMID: 23850261. (Imininingwaneabstract / esihlokweni)

[3] UMatt RD, uPopkin BM, "Ukusetshenziswa Okungadleki Kokudla Okumnandi Kubantu: Imiphumela Yokudla Okudliwayo Nokudla Okudla kanye Nezindlela Zabo Zokubeka." Ijenali yaseMelika Yezempilo Yomtholampilo, uDisemba 3, 2008. 2009 Jan; 89 (1): 1-14. I-PMID: 19056571.esihlokweni)

[4] Yang Q, "Zuza isisindo ngokuthi 'Ukudla?' Ama-Artificial Sweeteners neNeurobiology of Sugar Cravings. ” Ijenali yeYale yeBiology and Medicine, 2010 Jun; 83 (2): 101-8. I-PMID: 20589192.esihlokweni)

[5] Brown RJ, de Banate MA, Rother KI, "Artificial Sweeteners: Ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile kwemiphumela ye-Metabolic Ebusheni." Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yokukhuluphala Kwabantwana, 2010 Aug; 5 (4): 305-12. I-PMID: 20078374. (I-PMID)abstract / esihlokweni)

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