Ukuhlolwa kwe-EPA kwamakhemikhali kudonsa ukugxekwa kososayensi bayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Many U.S. scientists working for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) say they don’t trust the agency’s senior leaders to be honest and they fear retaliation if they were to report a violation of the law, according to a survey of employees conducted in 2020.

Ngokusho the Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey for 2020, which was conducted by the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, 75 percent of EPA workers in the National Program Chemicals Division who responded to the survey indicated that they did not think the agency’s senior leadership maintained “high standards of honesty and integrity.” Sixty-five percent of the workers responding from the Risk Assessment Division answered the same way.

Also alarming, 53 percent of respondents in the EPA’s Risk Assessment Division said they could not disclose a suspected violation of the law or regulation without fear of reprisal. Forty-three percent of responding EPA workers in the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) answered the same way.

The negative sentiments reflected in the survey results coincide with mounting reports of malfeasance inside EPA’s chemical assessment programs, according to the Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER).

“It should be of grave concern that more than half the EPA chemists and other specialists working on crucial public health concerns do not feel free to report problems or flag violations,” PEER Executive Director Tim Whitehouse, a former EPA enforcement attorney, said in a statement.

Earlier this month, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine said the EPA’s hazard assessment practices within the framework of the Toxic Substances Control Act were of “critically low quality.”

“EPA’s new leadership will have its hands full righting this sinking ship,” Whitehouse said.

After taking office in January, President Joe Biden issued an executive order noting that the EPA under Biden may diverge in its position on several chemicals from decisions made by the agency under previous president Donald Trump.

In izincwadi dated Jan. 21, the EPA Office of General Counsel said the following:

“In conformance with President Biden’s Executive Order on Protecting Public Health and the Environment and Restoring Science to Tackle the Climate Crisis issued January 20, 2021, (Health and Environment EO), this will confirm my request on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) seek and obtain abeyances or stays of proceedings in pending litigation seeking judicial review of any EPA regulation promulgated between January 20, 2017, and January 20, 2021, or seeking to establish a deadline for EPA to promulgate a regulation in connection with the subject of any such

Olunye ucwaningo lwe-Roundup luthola izixhumanisi ezingaba nezinkinga zempilo yabantu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Kubuyekezwe uFebhuwari 17, kungeza ukugxekwa kokufunda)

A iphepha elisha lesayensi Ukuhlola imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ye-Roundup herbicides kutholakale ukuxhumana phakathi kokuchayeka kumakhemikhali okubulala ukhula i-glyphosate nokwanda kohlobo lwe-amino acid olwaziwa njengengozi yesifo senhliziyo.

Abaphenyi benza izinqumo zabo ngemuva kokudalula amagundane akhulelwe kanye namazinyane abo asanda kuzalwa ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup ngamanzi okuphuza. Bathe babheke ngqo imiphumela ye-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kuma-metabolites we-urinary nokuxhumana ne-gut microbiome ezilwaneni.

Abaphenyi bathi bathole ukwanda okukhulu kwe-amino acid ebizwa nge-homocysteine ​​emidlwane yamaduna evezwe ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup.

"Ucwaningo lwethu lunikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokuthi ukuvezwa kwe-GBH esetshenziswa kakhulu, kumthamo wokuvezwa komuntu owamukelekayo njengamanje, uyakwazi ukuguqula imetabolites yomchamo kubo bobabili abantu abadala bamagundane namazinyane," kusho abaphenyi.

Leli phepha elinesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa komthamo ophansi wemithi yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo nokusebenzisana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” kubhalwe ngabaphenyi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York kanti abane baphuma eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy. Ishicilelwe kumagazini iScientific Reports ngoFebhuwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile ukulinganiselwa okuningi esifundweni sabo, kufaka phakathi usayizi omncane wesampula, kepha bathi umsebenzi wabo ukhombisile ukuthi "ukutholakala komthamo ophansi wokukhulelwa kanye nobuncane be-glyphosate noma i-Roundup kushintshe kakhulu ama-biomarker amaningi womchamo, emadamini nasenzalweni."

Lolu cwaningo lungolokuqala ngoshintsho lwe-metabolomic ye-urinary olwenziwe ngama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate emithamo njengamanje ebhekwa njengephephile kubantu, kusho abacwaningi.

Leli phepha lilandela ukushicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ka isifundo emaphephandabeni Impilo Yemvelo ethola i-glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo we-Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute nabo babambe iqhaza kulolo cwaningo.

URobin Mesnage, ongomunye wababhali bephepha elashicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ku-Environmental Health Perspectives, wakuphikisa ukuba semthethweni kwephepha elisha. Uthe ukuhlaziywa kwedatha kukhombisa umehluko otholakele phakathi kwezilwane ezivezwe ku-glyphosate nalezo ezingadalulwanga - izilwane ezilawulayo - nazo bezingatholakala ngokufanayo ngemininingwane ekhiqizwe ngokungahleliwe.

“Sekukonke, ukuhlaziywa kwedatha akusekeli isiphetho sokuthi i-glyphosate iphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kanye ne-gut microbiota yezilwane eziveziwe,” kusho uMesnage. "Lolu cwaningo luzoqhubeka nokudida kancane impikiswano ngobuthi be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezimbalwa zakamuva ku-glyphosate naku-Roundup bathole ukukhathazeka okuningi.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

IBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe abantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-11 ukukhokha izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000 XNUMX.

 

 

Isitshalo esonakalisa i-pesticide sivaliwe; Bona imibhalo yokulawula yeNebraska ephathelene nezinkinga ze-AltEn neonicotinoid

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

QAPHELA - NgoFebhuwari, cishe ngemuva kwenyanga ngemuva kokubika kwembule ubungozi bomkhuba wesitshalo se-AltEn wokusebenzisa imbewu ephethwe yi-pesticide, abalawuli bezwe laseNebraska wayala isitshalo ukuthi sivalwe.  

Bona le ndaba kaJanuwari 10 eThe Guardian, okwaba ngeyokuqala ukudalula amazinga ayingozi emithi yokubulala izinambuzane engcolisa umphakathi omncane eNebraska nokungasebenzi okwenziwa ngabalawuli.

Ukukhathazeka kugxile ku-AltEn, isitshalo se-ethanol eMead, eNebraska, obekulokhu kunjalo umthombo wezikhalazo eziningi zomphakathi ngaphezulu kokusetshenziswa kwembewu eboshwe ngezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze isetshenziswe ekukhiqizeni kwayo i-biofuel kanye nemikhiqizo edoti evelayo, ekhonjisiwe ukuthi iqukethe amazinga ama-neonicotinoids ayingozi namanye ama-pesticides angaphezulu kwamazinga ngokuvamile abhekwa njengaphephile.

Ukukhathazeka eMead kuyisibonelo sakamuva sokwanda kokwesaba komhlaba jikelele ngemithelela yama-neonicotinoids.

Bona lapha eminye yemibhalo elawula impikiswano kanye ezinye izinto zokwakha isizinda:

Ukuhlaziywa kokusanhlamvu kwe-wetcake okusanhlamvu

Ukuhlaziywa kwamanzi angcolile 

Ephreli 2018 isikhalazo sesakhamuzi

Impendulo yombuso ezikhalweni zika-Ephreli 2018

Kwangathi uMeyi 2018 uphendula ngezikhalazo

I-AltEn Stop sebenzisa futhi uthengise incwadi ngoJuni 2019

Incwadi yombuso yenqaba izimvume futhi ixoxa ngezinkinga

May 2018 uhlu lwabalimi lapho basabalalisa khona imfucuza

Julayi 2018 ingxoxo ngembewu emanzi ephathwa

Sep 2020 incwadi iphinde ichitheke ngezithombe

Incwadi ka-Okthoba 2020 yokungathobeli

Izithombe zasemoyeni zesayithi ezithathwe ngumbuso

I-Neonicotinoids Ingazibulala Kanjani Izinyosi

Amathrendi ezinsalela ze-neonicotinoid pesticide ekudleni nasemanzini e-United States, 1999-2015

Incwadi evela kochwepheshe bezempilo eya kwi-EPA isexwayiso ngama-neonicotinoids

Incwadi evela ku-Endocrine Society eya ku-EPA kuma-neonicotinoids 

Ama-pesticides we-Neonicotinoid angahlala emakethe yase-US, kusho i-EPA

Isikhalazo eCalifornia sokulawula imbewu ephathwe nge-neonic

Izinyosi Ezinyamalalayo: Isayensi, Ezombusazwe kanye ne-Honeybee Health (Rutgers University Press, 2017)

Ucwaningo olusha luthola izinguquko ezihlobene ne-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha lwezilwane olwenziwe iqembu labaphenyi baseYurophu lithole ukuthi amazinga aphansi okhula olubulala ukhula amakhemikhali glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo osuselwa ku-glyphosate-based Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo.

Leli phepha, ishicilelwe ngoLwesithathu kulo magazini Impilo Yemvelo, ibhalwe ngabaphenyi abayi-13, kubandakanya nomholi oqhuba izifundo uDkt.Michael Antoniou, oyinhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group eMnyangweni Wezokwelapha Nemolekyuli Yezakhi zofuzo eKing's College eLondon, noDkt. iqembu elifanayo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy, babambe iqhaza ocwaningweni njengoba kwenza ososayensi baseFrance nabaseNetherlands.

Imiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome itholwe ukuthi ibangelwe yindlela efanayo yokusebenza lapho i-glyphosate isebenza ukubulala ukhula nezinye izitshalo, kusho abacwaningi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta esinomthelela emisebenzini yokuzivikela ezifweni nakwezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile, nokuphazamiseka kwalolo hlelo kungaba nomthelela ezigulini zezifo, kusho abacwaningi.

"Kokubili i-glyphosate ne-Roundup kube nomthelela ekubunjweni kwenani lamagciwane," kusho u-Antoniou kusho engxoxweni. “Siyazi ukuthi amathumbu ethu ahlala ezinkulungwaneni zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nokulinganisela ekwakhekeni kwawo, futhi okubaluleke kakhulu ekusebenzeni kwawo, kubalulekile empilweni yethu. Ngakho-ke noma yini ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kabi, i-gut microbiome… inamandla okudala impilo ebuthaka ngoba sisuka ekusebenzeni okulinganiselayo okulungele impilo kuya ekusebenzeni okungalingani okungaholela ezinhlotsheni eziningi zezifo ezahlukahlukene. ”

Bona ingxoxo kaCarey Gillam uDkt. Michael Antonoiu noDkt. Robin Mesnage ngocwaningo lwabo olusha olubheka umthelela we-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elisha bathe banqume ukuthi, ngokungahambisani nokunye okushiwo ngabagxeki bokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge-antibiotic, ibulala amagciwane adingekayo emathunjini.

Esikhundleni salokho, bathola - okokuqala ngqa, bathi - ukuthi isibulala-zinambuzane siphazamise ngendlela engaba yingozi kakhulu emzileni wamakhemikhali wamakhemikhali wamathumbu amabhaktheriya ezilwane ezisetshenziswe ekuhlolweni. Lokho kuphazamiseka kwaqokonyiswa ngoshintsho ezintweni ezithile esiswini. Ukuhlaziywa kwamathumbu negazi biochemistry kuveze ubufakazi bokuthi lezi zilwane zingaphansi kwengcindezi ye-oxidative, isimo esihambisana nokulimala kwe-DNA nomdlavuza.

Abaphenyi bathi akucaci ukuthi ukuphazamiseka okuphakathi kwegciwane le-microbiome kuthinte kanjani ukucindezela komzimba.

Inkomba yengcindezi ye-oxidative yacaca kakhulu ekuhlolweni kusetshenziswa i-herbicide esekwe eglyphosate ebizwa ngeRoundup BioFlow, umkhiqizo womnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG, kusho ososayensi.

Ababhali bokucwaninga bathi benza izifundo eziningi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuthi ngabe ingcindezi ye-oxidative abayibonayo nayo ilimaza i-DNA, ezonyusa ingozi yomdlavuza.

Ababhali bathe kudingeka ucwaningo olwengeziwe ukuqonda kahle imithelela yempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ekhazimulayo nokunye ukuphazamiseka kwemethambo ku-gut microbiome nasegazini kepha ukutholwa kokuqala kungasetshenziswa ekwakhiweni kwama-bio-markers wezifundo ze-epidemiological kanye nokuqonda uma i-glyphosate herbicides ingaba nemiphumela yezinto eziphilayo kubantu.

Ocwaningweni, amagundane abesifazane anikezwa i-glyphosate nomkhiqizo we-Roundup. Amanani ahanjiswa ngamanzi okuphuza ahlinzekwa izilwane futhi anikezwa emazingeni amele ukungena nsuku zonke okwamukelekayo okubhekwa njengokuvikelekile ngabalawuli baseYurophu nabaseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe imiphumela yocwaningo yakhela kolunye ucwaningo olwenza kucace ukuthi izilawuli zithembele ezindleleni eseziphelelwe yisikhathi lapho kunqunywa ukuthi yimaphi amazinga “aphephile” e-glyphosate namanye ama-pesticides ekudleni nasemanzini. Izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kwezolimo zivame ukutholakala ebangeni lokudla okusetshenziswa njalo.

"Abalawuli kumele bangene ekhulwini lama-XNUMX leminyaka, bayeke ukuhudula izinyawo zabo… bamukele izinhlobo zokuhlaziya esikwenzile kulolu cwaningo," kusho u-Antoniou. Uthe ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana, okuyingxenye yegatsha lesayensi eyaziwa ngokuthi “OMICS,” kuguqula isisekelo solwazi mayelana nemithelela ukuchayeka kwamakhemikhali okunayo empilweni.

Isifundo segundane kodwa esakamuva ochungechungeni lwezivivinyo zesayensi ezihlose ukunquma ukuthi ngabe i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides - kufaka phakathi i-Roundup - ingaba yingozi kubantu, ngisho nasemazingeni abalawuli be-exposure bathi baphephile.

Izifundo eziningi ezinjalo zithole ukukhathazeka okuningi, kufaka phakathi eyodwa eyanyatheliswa ngoNovemba  ngabaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland abathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate.

Njengoba abacwaningi banda bheka ukuqonda i-microbiome yomuntu neqhaza eliyidlalayo empilweni yethu, imibuzo mayelana nemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome bekungeyona nje impikiswano emibuthanweni yesayensi, kodwa futhi nasezinkantolo.

Ngonyaka odlule, iBayer bavuma ukukhokha u- $ 39.5 million ukuxazulula izimangalo zokuthi iMonsanto inezikhangiso ezidukisayo eziqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme ezitshalweni futhi ayinakuba nomthelela ofanayo ezifuyweni nakubantu. Abamangali kuleli cala kuthiwa i-glyphosate babhekise enzyme etholakala kubantu nasezilwaneni eziqinisa amasosha omzimba, ukugaya nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, iBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe ngabantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe ama- $ 11 billion ukukhokhela izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000.

Ucwaningo olusha luhlola umthelela we-Roundup herbicide kuma-honeybees

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Iqembu labacwaningi baseChina lithole ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate-based herbicide iyingozi kuma-honeybees noma ngaphansi kokunconywa okunconywayo.

Ephepheni elishicilelwe ku iphephabhuku online Imibiko yeSayensi, Abaphenyi abasebenzisana neChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kanye neChinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathe bathole imithelela eminingi engemihle kuzinyosi lapho bebeka izinyosi kuRoundup - a glyphosateumkhiqizo osuselwe kuthengiswa ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Ukukhunjulwa kwezinyosi zezinyosi "kwakuphazamiseke kakhulu ngemuva kokuchayeka kuRoundup" kusikisela ukuthi ukuvezwa kwezinyosi ezingapheli emakhemikhali okubulala ukhula "kungaba nomthelela omubi ekuseshweni nasekuqoqweni kwezinsizakusebenza nasekuhlanganiseni imisebenzi yokudla" yizinyosi, abacwaningi bathi .

Futhi, "amandla okukhuphuka wezinyosi zezinyosi anciphe kakhulu ngemuva kokwelashwa ngokuhlungwa okunconyiwe kweRoundup," abacwaningi bathola.

Abaphenyi bathi kunesidingo “sohlelo lokuxwayisa nge-herbicide olunokwethenjelwa” ezindaweni zasemakhaya eChina ngoba abafuyi bezinyosi kulezo zindawo “ngokuvamile abaziswa ngaphambi kokuba kufuthwe amakhambi okubulala ukhula” futhi “kwenzeka izehlakalo ezinobuthi njalo zezinyosi zezinyosi”.

Ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo eziningi ezibalulekile zokudla kuncike kuzinyosi zezinyosi nezinyosi zasendle ukuze kuthunyelwe impova, futhi ukwehla okuphawuliwe kubantu bezinyosi baphakamise ukukhathazeka emhlabeni jikelele mayelana nokutholakala kokudla.

Iphepha elivela eRutgers University eshicilelwe ehlobo eledlule uxwayise ngokuthi "isivuno sezithelo sama-aphula, ama-cherry kanye namajikijolo kulo lonke elase-United States sincishiswa ukungabi khona kwezipolishi."

Ukufa nokuhlala njengoba iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuqeda amacala we-Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinyangeni eziyisikhombisa ngemuva kweBayer AG umemezele izinhlelo ngokuxazululwa kokushonelwa kwamacala omdlavuza we-US Roundup, umnikazi waseJalimane weMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo ezilethwe abantu abaphethwe umdlavuza abathi zibangelwe yimikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye icala livele lathola ukuvalwa, yize ummangali angiphilelanga ukukubona.

Abameli bakaJaime Alvarez Calderon, bavumelane ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto ngesinqumo esanikezwa yiBayer ngemuva kweJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoMsombuluko inqatshelwe isahlulelo esifingqiwe ngokuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela icala ukuthi lisondele ecaleni.

Isivumelwano sizoya emadodaneni amane ka-Alvarez ngoba ubaba wabo oneminyaka engu-65, osebenza isikhathi eside esebenzela iwayini eNapa County, California, ushone nje esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka esedlule kusuka kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma usola umsebenzi wakhe wokufafaza i-Roundup ezungeze impahla ye-winery iminyaka.

Ekulalelweni kwenkantolo ngoLwesithathu, ummeli womndeni wakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi lesi sinqumo sizolivala leli cala.

Ngemuva kokuqulwa kwecala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze e-winery iminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isifutho sasebhakeni ukufaka isicelo sikaMonsanto kusekelwe ku-glyphosate ukubulala ukhula kuma-acreage asakazekayo eqembu le-Sutter Home lamawayini. Wayevame ukuya ekhaya kusihlwa nezingubo ezimanzi ngomuthi wokubulala ukhula ngenxa yokuvuza kwemishini kanye nombulali wokhula okhukhuleka emoyeni. Watholwa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, elashwa kaningi ngamakhemikhali nezinye izindlela zokwelashwa ngaphambi kokushona ngoDisemba 2019.

UDiamond uthe ujabule ngokuxazulula leli cala kodwa unamacala angama-Roundup "angu-400 plus" amanye angakalungiswa.

Akayedwa. Okungenani uhhafu weshumi namanye amafemu wezomthetho wase-US anabamangali baseRoundup abafuna izilungiselelo zesilingo zango-2021 nangaphezulu.

Kusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto ku-2018, iBayer ibilokhu ilwela ukuthola ukuthi ungayenza kanjani kuqedwe ukuqulwa kwamacala lokho kufaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube yimanje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ngaphezu kwemizamo yokuxazulula izimangalo ezisalindile njengamanje, iBayer inethemba lokuthi izokwakha indlela yokuxazulula izimangalo ezingaba khona ezingabhekana nazo kubasebenzisi beRoundup abathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngokuzayo. Uhlelo lwayo lokuqala lokusingatha amacala esikhathi esizayo yenqatshwa nguJaji Chhabria futhi inkampani ayikamemezeli uhlelo olusha.

I-Neonicotinoids: ukukhathazeka okukhulayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NgoJanuwari 10, iThe Guardian lashicilela le ndaba mayelana nomphakathi omncane wasemaphandleni waseNebraska obelokhu unenkinga okungenani iminyaka emibili nokungcola okuhlanganiswe nembewu yommbila eboshwe nge-neonicotinoid. Umthombo uyisitshalo sendawo se-ethanol ebesizikhangisa njengesihlelekile “Ukwenza kabusha” indawo yezinkampani zembewu ezinjengeBayer, iSyngenta kanye nezinye ezazidinga indawo yokulahla okweqile kwalezi zitoko zembewu ephethwe yi-pesticide. Umphumela, abantu basemadolobheni bathi, indawo ehlanganiswe namazinga aphakeme ngokumangalisayo ezinsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula kubantu nasezilwaneni. Besaba ukuthi umhlaba wabo namanzi manje sekonakele ngendlela engalungiseki.

Iziphathimandla zezemvelo zombuso zirekhode amazinga ama-neonicotinoids ku- izingxenye ezimangazayo ezingama-427,000 ngezigidigidi (ppb) ekuhlolweni kwelinye lamagquma amakhulu emfucuza esizeni sesakhiwo se-ethanol. Lokho kuqhathanisa namabhentshimakhi wokulawula athi amazinga kufanele abe ngaphansi kuka-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengaphephile.

Bona leli khasi ukuthola eminye imininingwane nemibhalo.

Inganekwane yomgwaqo eMead, eNebraska, iyisibonakaliso sakamuva nje sokuthi ukwenganyelwa kokulawulwa kwezwe neonicotinoids kudinga ukuqiniswa, ngokusho kwabameli bezemvelo nabaphenyi abavela emanyuvesi amaningi aseMelika.

Impikiswano ngesigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-neonicotinoids, noma ama-neonics, ibilokhu ikhula eminyakeni yamuva nje futhi isiphenduke impikiswano yomhlaba wonke phakathi kwama-behemoth ezinkampani athengisa ama-neonics kanye namaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi ama-insecticide anesibopho sezempilo ebanzi yemvelo kanye neyabantu ukulimaza.

Kusukela yethulwa ngawo-1990s, ama-neonicotinoids abe yisigaba esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni semithi yokubulala izinambuzane, esithengiswa emazweni angama-120 okungenani ukusiza ukulawula izinambuzane ezilimazayo nokuvikela ukukhiqizwa kwezolimo. Izibulala-zinambuzane azifuthwa kuphela ezitshalweni kodwa futhi zimbozwe nembewu. Ama-Neonicotinoids asetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo, kufaka phakathi irayisi, ukotini, ummbila, amazambane nosoya. Kusukela ngo-2014, ama-neonicotinoids amelwe ngaphezu kwe- Amaphesenti angama-25 omuthi wokubulala zinambuzane womhlaba wonke emakethe, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

Ngaphakathi kwekilasi, i-clothianidin ne-imidacloprid yizona ezisetshenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokusho kwephepha lowe-2019 elishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Environmental Protection Agency yakhipha i- izinqumo eziphakanyisiwe zesikhashana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kanye thiamethoxam, izinambuzane ezithile ngaphakathi kwesigaba se-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe ibisebenza ukunciphisa inani elisetshenzisiwe ezitshalweni ezihambisana "nobungozi bezemvelo obungahle bube khona," ibeke umkhawulo lapho izibulala-zinambuzane zingasetshenziswa ekutshalweni kwezitshalo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobufakazi besayensi ukhombisa ukuthi ama-neonicotinoids ayimbangela ekusakazekeni i-colony collapse disorder yezinyosi, okuyizinambuzane ezibalulekile lapho kukhiqizwa ukudla. Babukwa futhi okungenani njengengxenye yokusolwa kwe- an “I-apocalypse yezinambuzane. Ama-insecticide nawo aboshelwe emaphutheni amakhulu ngezinyamazane ezinomsila omhlophe, kujulisa ukukhathazeka ngamandla amakhemikhali okulimaza izilwane ezinkulu ezincelisayo, kuhlanganise nabantu.

I-European Union ivimbele ukusetshenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid ne-thiamethoxam ngo-2018, kanye ne IZizwe Ezihlangene zithi Ama-neonics ayingozi kangangoba kufanele abekelwe imigoqo “ebucayi”. Kepha e-United States, ama-neonics ahlala esetshenziswa kabanzi.

Isimemo sikaBayer sokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza wase-US Roundup ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni izinkulungwane zamacala aseMelika alethwe ngabantu abathi bona noma abathandekayo babo baba nomdlavuza ngemuva kokuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Izincwadi zakamuva ezivela kubameli babamangali eziya kumakhasimende abo zigcizelele leyo nqubekelaphambili, eqinisekisa ukuthi iningi labamangali likhetha ukubamba iqhaza kulesi sikhokhelo, yize kunezikhalazo zabamangali abaningi zokuthi babhekene neziphakamiso zokukhokha ezincane ezingafanele.

Kwezinye izibalo, ukukhokhiswa okujwayelekile kuzoshiya isinxephezelo esincane, mhlawumbe izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamaRandi, kubamangali ngabanye ngemuva kokukhokhwa kwemali yabameli kanye nezindleko ezithile zezokwelapha ezibuyiswayo.

Yize kunjalo, ngokwencwadi ethunyelwe kwabamangali ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba ngenye yamafemu abameli abahamba phambili enkantolo, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-95 "wabamangali abafanelekile" banquma ukubamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokuxazulula okuxoxiswene ngalo nenkampani neBayer. “Umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala” manje unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokubuyekeza amacala bese eqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukuthola izimali zokuhlala, ngokusho kwezincwadi.

Abantu bangakhetha ukuphuma kuleso sivumelwano bese befaka izicelo zabo ekulamuleni, kulandelwe ukulamula okuyisibopho uma befisa noma bezama ukuthola ummeli omusha ozoqula icala labo. Labo bamangali bangaba nesikhathi esinzima sokuthola ummeli ozobasiza bathathe udaba lwabo baluse enkantolo ngoba amafemu abameli avumelana nokuxazululwa kweBayer avumile ukuthi angazami amanye amacala noma asize ekulingweni okuzayo.

Omunye ummangali, ocele ukungadalulwa ngegama ngenxa yobumfihlo bezinqubo zokukhokha, uthe uyaphuma kuleso sinqumo ngethemba lokuthola imali ethe xaxa ngokulamula noma ngecala elizayo. Uthe udinga ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo nokwelashwa komdlavuza wakhe kanti nohlaka oluhlongozwayo lokuhlalisa abantu ngeke lumshiye ngalutho ukukhokhela lezo zindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokukhokha imali encane ngangokunokwenzeka ngaphandle kokuya ecaleni," esho.

Ukulinganiselwa okulinganiselwe kokukhokhwa okujwayelekile kwemali ngayinye kummangali kungama- $ 165,000, abameli nabamangali abathintekayo ezingxoxweni bathe. Kepha abanye abamangali bangathola okuningi kakhulu, kanti abanye bathola okungaphansi, kuya ngemininingwane yecala labo. Kunemigomo eminingi yokunquma ukuthi ngubani ongabamba iqhaza ekukhokhelweni nokuthi ingakanani imali lowo muntu angayithola.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufanele abe yisakhamuzi sase-US, kutholakale ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), futhi wadalulwa ku-Roundup okungenani unyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokutholakala ukuthi une-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokukhokha neBayer sizophela lapho umphathi eqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-93 abafaka izicelo abafanelekile, ngokwemigomo yesivumelwano.

Uma umphathi wezokukhokha ethola ummangali engafanelekile, lowo mmangali unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokudlulisa isinqumo.

Kwabamangali ababhekwa njengabafanelekile umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala uzonikeza icala ngalinye amaphuzu amaningi ngokuya ngemibandela ethile. Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye azolithola lisuselwa kunani lamaphoyinti abalwe ngesimo sawo ngasinye.

Amaphuzu esisekelo asungulwa kusetshenziswa iminyaka yomuntu lowo ngesikhathi etholakala ukuthi une-NHL kanye nezinga lobunzima "bokulimala" njengoba kunqunywa izinga lokwelashwa nomphumela. Amazinga agijima u-1-5. Umuntu oshone nge-NHL unikezwa amaphuzu esisekelo ezingeni lesi-5, ngokwesibonelo. Amaphuzu amaningi anikezwa abantu abasha abahlushwa imijikelezo eminingi yokwelashwa kanye / noma abashona.

Ngaphezu kwamaphoyinti esisekelo, ukulungiswa kuvunyelwe okunikeza amaphuzu amaningi kubamangali ababenokuchayeka okuningi ku-Roundup. Kukhona nezibonelelo zamaphoyinti amaningi ezinhlobo ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali abatholakale benohlobo lwe-NHL olubizwa nge-Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma bathola ukukhushulwa ngamaphesenti ayi-10 kumanani abo, isibonelo.

Abantu futhi bangadonswa amaphuzu ngokususelwa ezicini ezithile. Nazi izibonelo ezithile ezithile ezivela kumatrix wamaphoyinti asungulwe ngecala le-Roundup:

  • Uma umsebenzisi womkhiqizo we-Roundup ashone ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amaphuzu aphelele wesimangalo alethwe egameni lawo azokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angama-50.
  • Uma ummangali oshonile ebengenaye umlingani noma izingane ezincane ngesikhathi sokushona kwabo kudonswa amaphesenti angama-20.
  • Uma ummangali enomdlavuza wegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amaphuzu abo anqunywa ngamaphesenti angama-30.
  • Uma isikhathi phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-Roundup kommangali nokutholakala kwe-NHL bekungaphansi kweminyaka emibili amaphuzu asikwa ngamaphesenti angama-20.

Izimali zokuhlala kufanele ziqale ukugelezela kubahlanganyeli entwasahlobo ngezinkokhelo zokugcina ezinethemba lokuthi zenziwe ehlobo, ngokusho kwabameli abathintekayo.

Abamangali nabo bangafaka izicelo zokuba yingxenye yesikhwama semali sokulimala esingajwayelekile, esakhelwe iqembu elincane labamangali abahlushwa ukulimala okukhulu okuhlobene neNHL. Isimangalo singafanelekela isikhwama sokulimala esingajwayelekile uma ukufa komuntu ku-NHL kwenzeka ngemuva kwezifundo ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ezigcwele ze-chemotherapy nezinye izindlela zokwelapha ezinolaka.

Kusukela ethenge iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo ebandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based, njengeRoundup, idala umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Ukudluliswa Kwezilingo Kuyaqhubeka

Noma iBayer ihlose ukuqeda ukuvivinywa okuzayo ngamadola okukhokha, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula imiphumela yezilingo ezintathu inkampani elahlekile.

Ekulahlekelweni kokuqala kwesivivinyo - Icala likaJohnson v. Monsanto - IBayer ilahlekelwe yimizamo yokuguqula amajaji athola ukuthi uMonsanto ubhekene nesifo somdlavuza kaJohnson ezingeni lenkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, kwathi ngo-Okthoba, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia unqabile ukubuyekeza icala.

IBayer manje inezinsuku eziyi-150 kusukela kuleso sinqumo sokucela ukuthi lolu daba luthathwe yiNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US. Le nkampani ayikasithathi isinqumo sokugcina mayelana nalesi sinyathelo, ngokusho komkhulumeli weBayer, kodwa iveze phambilini ukuthi ihlose ukuthatha lesi sinyathelo.

Uma iBayer ifaka isicelo eNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US, abameli bakaJohnson kulindeleke ukuthi bafake isicelo sokuphikisa esinemibandela becela inkantolo ukuthi ihlolisise izinyathelo zokwahlulela ezanciphisa umklomelo wamajaji kaJohnson kusuka ku- $ 289 million kuya ku- $ 20.5 million.

Amanye amacala enkantolo yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ngaphezu kwesikweletu uBayer abhekene nesibopho sakwaMonsanto sikaRoundup somdlavuza, inkampani ilwa nezikweletu zeMonsanto ezinkantolo zokungcola kwePCB nasenkingeni yokulimala kwezitshalo okubangelwe uhlelo lwezitshalo olususelwa ku-Micanto dicamba herbicide.

Ijaji lombuso eLos Angeles ngesonto eledlule wasenqaba isiphakamiso yiBayer ukukhokha imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 648 ukuxazulula amacala asezingeni elilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukungcoliswa okuvela kuma-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB, enziwe iMonsanto.

Nangesonto eledlule, ijaji eliqulile icala le I-Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto wenqaba iziphakamiso zikaBayer zokuqulwa kwecala elisha. Ijaji lisike umonakalo wokujeziswa onikezwe yijaji, noma kunjalo, kusuka ku- $ 250 million kuya ku- $ 60 million, kushiya umonakalo ongaphelele we $ 15 million, ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 75 million.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe ngokutholwa kwecala likaBader kuveze ukuthi iMonsanto ne-giant BASF yamakhemikhali babazi iminyaka ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zokwethula uhlelo lwembewu yezolimo kanye namakhemikhali olususelwa ku-dicamba kungenzeka ziholele emonakalweni emapulazini amaningi ase-US.

Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

Ucwaningo olusha lungeza ubufakazi bokuthi ukhula olubulala ukhula luphazamisa ama-hormone

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha lungeza ubufakazi obukhathazayo ekukhathazekeni kokuthi ukubulala ukhula okusetshenziswa kabanzi ikhemikhali glyphosate angaba namandla okuphazamisa ama-hormone abantu.

Ephepheni elishicilelwe ephephabhukwini I-Chemosphere okubizwa ngokuthi IGlyphosate nezimpawu ezibalulekile zokuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine: Ukubuyekezwa, abathathu bososayensi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate ibonakala inezici ezisemqoka eziyisishiyagalombili kwezilishumi ezihambisana i-endocrine ephazamisa amakhemikhali . Ababhali baxwayisile, nokho, ukuthi izifundo ezizayo zamaqoqo zisadingeka ukuqonda kahle imithelela ye-glyphosate ohlelweni lomuntu lwe-endocrine.

Ababhali, uJuan Munoz, Tammy Bleak noGloria Calaf, ngamunye ohlangene neYunivesithi yaseTarapacá eChile, uthe iphepha labo libuyekeza okokuqala ukuhlanganisa ubufakazi bemishini ku-glyphosate njenge-endocrine-disruptting chemical (EDC).

Obunye bobufakazi bukhombisa ukuthi i-Roundup, i-herbicide eyaziwayo esekwe eMonsanto, ingaguqula i-biosynthesis yamahomoni ezocansi, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

Ama-EDC angalingisa noma aphazamise amahomoni omzimba futhi axhumene nezinkinga zokukhula nezokuzala kanye nokungasebenzi kahle kobuchopho namasosha omzimba.

Leli phepha elisha lilandela ukushicilelwa ekuqaleni konyaka ukuhlanganiswa kwezifundo zezilwane okukhombise ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunomthelela ezithweni zokuzala futhi kusongela ukuzala.

IGlyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, edayiswa emazweni ayi-140. Yangeniswa ngokuthengisa ngonyaka we-1974 ngabakwaMonsanto Co, ikhemikhali liyisithako esisebenzayo emikhiqizweni ethandwayo efana neRoundup kanye namakhulu abanye ababulali bokhula abasetshenziswa ngabathengi, omasipala, izinsiza, abalimi, abasebenzisa igalofu, nabanye emhlabeni jikelele.

UDana Barr, uprofesa wase-Emory University eRollins School of Public Health, uthe ubufakazi “buvame ukuveza ngokusobala ukuthi i-glyphosate ine-endocrine ephazamisa izakhiwo.”

“Akuyona into engalindelekile ngoba i-glyphosate inokufana okuthile kwesakhiwo namanye ama-endocrine aphazamisa ukubulala izinambuzane; kodwa-ke, ikhathaza kakhulu ngoba ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kudlula kude eminye imithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ”kusho uBarr, oqondisa uhlelo esikhungweni sokucwaninga ngokuvezwa kwabantu esixhaswe yiNational Institutes of Health esikhishwe e-Emory. "IGlyphosate isetshenziswa ezitshalweni eziningi kakhulu nasezicelweni eziningi zokuhlala ezinjengokuchayeka kokuqoqeka nokuqoqekayo kungabonakala."

Phil Landrigan, umqondisi weGlobal Observatory on Pollution and Health, kanye noprofesa wesayensi yezinto eziphilayo
eBoston College, uthe ukubuyekeza kudonse ndawonye "ubufakazi obuqinile" bokuthi i-glyphosate iyisiphazamisi se-endocrine.

“Umbiko uhambisana nenqwaba yezincwadi ezibonisa ukuthi i-glyphosate inemiphumela engemihle yezempilo - okutholakele okuguqula isikhathi eside sokusebenza kukaMonsanto ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate njengekhemikhali enobungozi engenayo imithelela emibi empilweni yabantu, ”kusho uLandrigan.

Ama-EDC bekuyinto ekhathazayo kusukela ngama-1990s ngemuva kochungechunge lwezincwadi eziphakamise ukuthi amanye amakhemikhali asetshenziswa kakhulu kuma-pesticides, izinyibilikisi zezimboni, amapulasitiki, okokuhlanza, nezinye izinto angaba namandla okuphazamisa ukuxhumana phakathi kwamahomoni nama-receptors awo.

Ososayensi ngokuvamile babona izakhiwo eziyishumi ezisebenzayo zama-ejenti aguqula isenzo se-hormone, ebhekisa kulezi njengezici eziyishumi "eziyinhloko" zabaphazamisi be-endocrine. Izici eziyishumi zimi kanje:

Ama-EDC anga:

  • Ukusatshalaliswa kwama-hormone okuguqula amazinga wokujikeleza kwamahomoni
  • Yenza ushintsho ku-hormone metabolism noma imvume
  • Guqula isiphetho samaseli akhiqiza ama-hormone noma aphendula nge-hormone
  • I-Alter hormone receptor expression
  • Hlanganisa ama-hormone receptors
  • Hlanganyela noma usebenze ama-hormone receptors
  • Ukudluliswa kwesiginali eguquguqukayo kumaseli aphendula ama-hormone
  • Yenza ukuguqulwa kwe-epigenetic kumaseli akhiqiza ama-hormone noma aphendula ama-hormone
  • Alter hormone synthesis
  • Ukuhambisa ama-hormone okuhamba ngaphesheya kwezingqamuzana zeseli

Ababhali bephepha elisha bathe ukubuyekezwa kwemininingwane yemishini kukhombisile ukuthi i-glyphosate ihlangabezane nazo zonke izici ezibalulekile ngaphandle kwezimbili: "Mayelana ne-glyphosate, abukho ubufakazi obuhambisana namandla aphikisayo ama-hormonal receptors," kusho bona. Futhi, "abukho ubufakazi bokuthi kunomthelela ekuguqulweni kwamahomoni noma ekususweni," ngokusho kwabalobi.

Ucwaningo olwenziwe emashumini ambalwa edlule lubhekise kakhulu kwizixhumanisi ezitholakala phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza, ikakhulukazi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL.) Ngo-2015, i-World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer i-glyphosate ehlukanisiwe njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Bangaphezu kuka-100,000 abantu bamangalele uMonsanto e-United States okusolwa ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula egxilwe enkampanini ye-glyphosate kubangele bona noma abathandekayo babo ukuba bathuthukise i-NHL.

Abamangali ecaleni lamacala ezweni lonke bathi iMonsanto sekuyisikhathi eside ifuna ukufihla izingozi zemithi yayo yokubulala ukhula. IMonsanto ilahlekelwe izivivinyo ezintathu kwezintathu kanti umnikazi wayo waseGerman uBayer AG usebenzise unyaka nohhafu odlule uzama ukuhlala amacala aphume enkantolo.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baqaphela ubuningi be-glyphosate, bethi "ukusetshenziswa okukhulu" kwaleli khemikhali "kuholele ekusakazekeni kwemvelo okubanzi," kufaka phakathi ukuvezwa okukhulayo okuxhumene nokusetshenziswa komuntu kombulali wokhula ngokudla.

Abaphenyi bathi yize abalawuli bethi amazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate atholakala kakhulu ekudleni aphansi ngokwanele ukuthi aphephe, "ngeke bakwazi ukubekeka engcupheni" yabantu abadla ukudla okune-chemical, ikakhulukazi okusanhlamvu nezinye izitshalo- ukudla okusekelwe, okuvame ukuba namazinga aphezulu kunobisi, inyama noma imikhiqizo yenhlanzi.

Imibhalo kahulumeni wase-US ikhombisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zitholakele ezinhlotsheni eziningi zokudla, kufaka phakathi uju oluphilayo, Futhi i-granola nabaqhekezi.

Abaphenyi bakahulumeni waseCanada nabo babike izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni. Umbiko owodwa okhishwe ngo-2019 ososayensi abavela e-Agri-Food Laboratories yaseCanada e-Alberta Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry bathola i-glyphosate kuma-sampuli ayi-197 kwangu-200 oju abaluhlolayo.

Ngaphandle kokukhathazeka ngemithelela ye-glyphosate empilweni yomuntu, kufaka phakathi nokuchayeka ekudleni, abalawuli base-US bakuvikele ngokuqinile ukuphepha kwamakhemikhali. I- Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwemvelo sigcina ukuthi ayitholakalanga "noma iziphi izingozi empilweni yomuntu ngenxa yokuchayeka ku-glyphosate. ”