I-USRTK icela i-ODNI ukuthi ichaze imibhalo ngezingozi ezenzeka emalabhulini agcina amagciwane ayingozi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ilungelo Lokwazi I-US (USRTK) ubuzile Ihhovisi likaMqondisi Wezobunhloli Kazwelonke (i-ODNI) lokudalula imibhalo emithathu ephathelene nokushiyeka kokuvikela okwenzeka emalabhoratri agcina amagciwane ayingozi.

Isicelo esiphoqelekile sokubuyekezwa kokunciphisa (MDR) siphendula kuma-ODNI isinqumo ukugodla imibhalo emithathu ehlukanisiwe ephendula kufakwe isicelo se-Freedom of Information Act ngo-Agasti 2020.

Isicelo se-FOIA "safuna ubuhlakani obuqediwe obukhiqizwe kusukela ngoJanuwari 2015 mayelana nokukhishwa ngengozi noma ngamabomu kwama-biological agents, ukwehluleka kokutholakala ezingeni le-biosafety-level (BSL) -2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4, kanye nezinye izehlakalo zokukhathazeka ezihlobene ukusetshenziswa okubili kokucwaninga nge-biosafety ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-BSL-2, BSL-3 noma BSL-4 eCanada, China, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Iran, Israel, Netherlands, Russia, emazweni angaphambilini eSoviet Union, South Africa , ETaiwan, e-United Kingdom naseThailand. ”

I-ODNI ithe ekuphenduleni kwayo ithole amadokhumende amathathu, futhi yanquma ukuthi lawa "kumele agodliwe ngokuphelele ngokukhishwa kwe-FOIA" maqondana nokuvikelwa kwezinto ezihlukanisiwe eziphathelene nezindlela zezobunhloli kanye nemithombo yokubaluleka kwezokuphepha kuzwelonke. I-ODNI ayichazanga noma ichaze uhlobo lwemibhalo emithathu noma okuqukethwe kwayo, ngaphandle kokuthi bebephendula isicelo se-FOIA.

Ngokwesicelo sayo se-MDR, i-USRTK icele ukuthi i-ODNI ikhiphe zonke izingxenye ezingabekiwe ezihlukanisiwe zemibhalo emithathu.

I-USRTK ikholelwa ekutheni umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi imininingwane ekhona ngezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye okwenzekile emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe amagciwane angaba khona ubhubhane, nokuthi ngabe kukhona yini ukuvuza okunjalo okubandakanyekile kumsuka we-COVID-19, odale ukuthi ukufa kwabantu baseMelika abangaphezu kwama-360,000.

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I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Amasethi wedatha aguquliwe aphakamisa imibuzo eminingi ngokuthembeka kwezifundo ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubuyekezwa kwedathasethi yama-genomic ehlotshaniswa nezifundo ezine ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus engeza eminye imibuzo ngokuthembeka kwalezi zifundo, ezinikeza ukusekelwa okuyisisekelo kwe-hypothesis ukuthi uSARS-CoV-2 uqhamuke ezilwaneni zasendle. Izifundo, UPeng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou et al., ULam et al., Futhi UXiao et al., ithole ama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS-CoV-2 kumalulwane amahhashi nama-pangolin aseMalayan.

Ababhali bezifundo bafaka idatha yokulandelana kwe-DNA ebizwa ukulandelana kufundwa, ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa izakhi zofuzo ze-bat- ne-pangolin-coronavirus, e-National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ukulandelana funda ingobo yomlando (SRA). I-NCBI isungule i-database yomphakathi ukusiza ukuqinisekisa okuzimele kokuhlaziywa kwe-genomic ngokususelwa kubuchwepheshe bokulandelana okuphezulu.

I-US Right to Know ithole imibhalo ngamarekhodi womphakathi icela lokho khombisa izibuyekezo kulezi zifundo zedatha ye-SRA ngemuva kwezinyanga zishicilelwe. Lokhu kubuyekezwa kuyinqaba ngoba kwenzeke ngemuva kokushicilelwa, futhi ngaphandle kwesizathu, incazelo noma ukuqinisekiswa.

Ngokwesibonelo, UPeng Zhou et al. futhi ULam et al. bavuselele idatha yabo ye-SRA ngezinsuku ezimbili ezifanayo. Imibhalo ayichazi ukuthi kungani beguqule idatha yabo, kuphela ukuthi kwenziwa izinguquko ezithile. UXiao et al. wenze izinguquko eziningi emininingwaneni yabo ye-SRA, kufaka phakathi ukususwa kwedathasethi ezimbili ngo-Mashi 10, ukwengezwa kwedathasethi entsha ngoJuni 19, ukufakwa esikhundleni kwedatha ngoNovemba 8 kukhishwe okokuqala ngo-Okthoba 30, nokunye ukuguqulwa kwedatha ngoNovemba 13 - ngemuva kwezinsuku ezimbili Nature ungeze “inothi lokukhathazeka” loMhleli mayelana nesifundo. Hong Zhou et al. kusamele sabelane ngedathasethi ephelele ye-SRA ezonika amandla ukuqinisekisa okuzimele. Ngenkathi omagazini bethanda Nature kudinga ababhali ukuthi benze yonke imininingwane “itholakale ngokushesha”Ngesikhathi sokushicilelwa, imininingwane ye-SRA ingakhishwa ngemuva ukushicilelwa; kodwa akujwayelekile ukwenza ushintsho olunjalo ezinyangeni ezithile ngemuva kokushicilelwa.

Lezi zinguquko ezingavamile zemininingwane ye-SRA azenzi ngokuzenzakalela ukuthi lezi zifundo ezine namasethi wedatha ahlobene nazo angathembeki. Kodwa-ke, ukubambezeleka, izikhala kanye nezinguquko kwimininingwane ye-SRA kuphazamise ukuhlangana okuzimele nokuqinisekisa yokulandelana kwe-genome okushicilelwe, bese ufaka ku imibuzo futhi ukukhathazeka mayelana the ukufaneleka kwezifundo ezine, njenge:

  1. Yikuphi ukubuyekezwa okuqondile ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwedatha ye-SRA? Kungani zenziwa? Zikuthinte kanjani ukuhlaziywa okuhambisanayo kwe-genomic nemiphumela?
  2. Ngabe lokhu kubuyekezwa kwe-SRA kuqinisekiswe ngokuzimela? Uma kunjalo, kanjani? I- Ukuqinisekiswa kweNCBI kuphela indinganiso yokushicilela i-SRA BioProject– ngale kwemininingwane eyisisekelo efana "negama lomzimba" - ukuthi ngeke ibe yimpinda.

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The Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Semininingwane Yebhayoloji (i-NCBI) imibhalo ingatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili we-NCBI (Amakhasi we-63)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Akukho ukubuyekezwa kontanga kwesengezo esifundweni esivelele semvelaphi ye-coronavirus?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ijenali Nature akuzange kuhlolisise ukuthembeka kwezimangalo ezibalulekile ezenziwe ngoNovemba 17 isithasiselo kuya ku cwaningo ngemvelaphi yelulwane le-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ukuxhumana ne Nature abasebenzi basikisela.

NgoFebhuwari 3, 2020, ososayensi baseWuhan Institute of Virology babika ukuthi bathola isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-SARS-CoV-2, i-bat coronavirus ebizwa nge-RaTG13. I-RaTG13 isibe maphakathi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.

Amakheli esengezo engaphendulwa imibuzo mayelana nokuvela kweRaTG13. Ababhali, uZhou et al., Bacacisile ukuthi bathole iRaTG13 ngo-2012-2013 "endaweni encane eshiyiwe eMojiang County, esifundazweni saseYunnan," lapho abavukuzi abayisithupha bahlupheka khona isifo sokuphefumula okunamandla ngemuva kokuchayeka endleni yelulwane, Futhi abathathu bashona. Uphenyo lwe- izimpawu zabavukuzi abagulayo zinganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. UZhou et al. babike ukuthi abatholanga ama-coronavirus ahlobene no-SARS kumasampula agcinwe abagibeli abagulayo, kodwa abazisekelanga izimangalo zabo ngemininingwane nangezindlela mayelana nokuhlolwa kwabo kanye nezilawuli zokuhlola.

Ukungabi khona kwemininingwane esemqoka kwisengezo kunakho kwaphakamisa eminye imibuzo ngokwethembeka kweZhou et al. funda. NgoNovemba 27, i-US Right to Know yabuza Nature imibuzo mayelana nezicelo zesengezo, futhi wakucela lokho Nature shicilela yonke imininingwane esekelayo uZhou et al. kungenzeka unikeze.

NgoDisemba 2, Nature INhloko Yezokuxhumana uBex Walton Waphendula ukuthi uZhou wokuqala et al. isifundo “besinembile kepha kungacaci,” nokuthi isengezo besifanelekile ipulatifomu yokushicilelwa ngemuva kokushicilelwa ukuthola ukucaciselwa. Ubuye wathi: “Mayelana nemibuzo yakho, singakuqondisa ukuthi uye kubabhali bephepha ukuthola izimpendulo, njengoba le mibuzo ayithinti ucwaningo esilushicilele kodwa kolunye ucwaningo olwenziwe ngababhali, esingakwazi ukuphawula ngalo ”(kugcizelelwa okwethu). Njengoba imibuzo yethu ihlobene nocwaningo oluchazwe kusengezo, i Nature Isitatimende sabamele sikhombisa ukuthi isengezo sikaZhou et al asizange sihlolwe njengocwaningo.

Sabuza umbuzo olandelayo ngoDisemba 2: “ngabe lesi sengezo sakhonjelwa ekubuyekezweni kontanga kanye / noma ekuqondisweni kokuhlelwa ngu Nature? ” UNks Walton akazange aphendule ngqo; yena Waphendula: “Ngokuvamile, abahleli bethu bazohlola ukuphawula noma ukukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe nathi ekuqaleni, babonisane nababhali, futhi bafune izeluleko kubabuyekezi boontanga nakwabanye ochwepheshe bangaphandle uma sikubona kunesidingo. Inqubomgomo yethu yobumfihlo isho ukuthi asikwazi ukuphawula ngendlela ethile yokuphathwa kwamacala ngamanye. ”

Kusukela Nature ubheka isengezo njenge- a post-isibuyekezo sokushicilelwa, futhi ayikubeki lokho kungezwa kokushicilelwa kokushicilelwa kumazinga afanayo okubukeza ontanga njengezincwadi zokuqala, kubonakala sengathi iZhou et al. isengezo asizange sibuyekezwe ngontanga.

Ababhali uZhengli Shi noPeng Zhou abaphendulanga imibuzo yethu mayelana yabo Nature Eyongeziwe.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili kaRalph Baric we-coronavirus 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Leli khasi libala imibhalo kuma-imeyili kaProfessor Ralph Baric, atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. UDkt Baric isazi se-coronavirus e-University of North Carolina, eChapel Hill (UNC). Unakho kuthuthukiswe izindlela zofuzo kuya ukuthuthukisa amandla obhadane lwama-bat coronaviruses akhona in ukusebenzisana noDkt Zhengli Shi eWuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi ebalulekile yososayensi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-coronavirus, futhi sakhanyisela ubudlelwano phakathi kongoti baseMelika nabaseChina kwizifo ezithathelwanayo nezifo ezithathelwanayo, kanye nezindima zezinhlangano ezifana ne-EcoHealth Alliance neNational Academy of Sciences (NAS).

Sicela uthumele i-imeyili noma yini oyithandayo okungenzeka ukuthi siyiphuthele sainath@usrtk.org, ukuze sikwazi ukuwafaka ngezansi.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili e-Baric

  1. UTracy McNamara, uSolwazi wePathology eWestern University of Health Sciences ePomona, eCalifornia wabhala ngoMashi 25, 2020: “I-Federal govt isebenzise imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ukuxhasa i-Global Health Security Agenda ukusiza amazwe asathuthuka ukuthi akhe amandla okuthola / okubika / okuphendula ezinsongweni eziwubhadane. Kusetshenziswe enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 1 kwiphrojekthi ye-PREDICT nge-USAID ifuna amagciwane aqhamukayo kumalulwane, amagundane nezinkawu phesheya kwezilwandle. Futhi manje iGlobal Virome Project ifuna amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 200 ukugijima emhlabeni wonke izingela lonke igciwane ebusweni bomhlaba. Cishe bazoluthola uxhaso. Kodwa azikho kulezi zinhlelo ezenze abakhokhi bentela baphephe kakhudlwana khona lapha ekhaya. ” (kugcizelelwa koqobo)
  2. UDkt. Jonathan Epstein, Iphini Likamongameli Wezesayensi Nokufinyelela ku-EcoHealth Alliance, wafuna umhlahlandlela wesicelo esivela ku-US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (i-DARPA) mayelana nokuxhumana "ngemininingwane yokusebenzisa i-dual-use" (Mashi 2018).
  3. Umanyano we-EcoHealth zikhokhwe UDkt Baric isamba esingadalulwanga njenge-honarium (Januwari 2018).
  4. Isimemo kuya e-US National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) kanye ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) I-US China Dialogue kanye neWorkshop mayelana Nezinselelo Zokutheleleka Okuqhamukayo, Ukuphepha Kwelebhu, Ukuphepha Kwezempilo Emhlabeni Wonke Nokuziphatha Okufanelekile Ekusetshenzisweni Kokuhlelwa Kofuzo Ekucwaningweni Kwezifo Ezithathelwanayo, Harbin, China, Jan 8-10, 2019 (Novemba 2018-Januwari 2019). Ukulungiselela Ama-imeyili futhi imemorandamu yezokuvakasha khombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika.
  5. Isimemo se-NAS emhlanganweni wochwepheshe baseMelika nabaseChina abasebenza ukulwa nezifo ezithathelwanayo nokwenza ngcono impilo yomhlaba (Novemba 2017). Umhlangano ububizwe yi-NAS kanye neGalveston National Laboratory. Kwenzeka ngoJanuwari 16-18, 2018, eGalveston, eTexas. A imemorandamu yezokuvakasha ikhombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika. Okulandelayo Ama-imeyili khombisa ukuthi uDkt Zhengli Shi we-WIV ukhona emhlanganweni.
  6. NgoFebhuwari 27, 2020, iBaric wabhala, "Njengamanje imvelaphi enkulu ngamalulwane, futhi ngiyabona ukuthi kuyiphutha ukucabanga ukuthi kudingeka umuntu ongumninikhaya ophakathi nendawo."
  7. NgoMashi 5, 2020, iBaric wabhala, “Abukho ubufakazi bokuthi leli gciwane lenzelwe izinto eziphilayo.”

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Isixhumanisi sama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (~ Ama-83,416 amakhasi)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka ku- uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.