I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

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Imininingwane ebalulekile Ngokwe-Diet Soda Chemical 

Yini i-Aspartame?

  • I-Aspartame yi-sweetener esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Iphinde idayiswe njengeNutraSweet, Equal, Sugar Twin ne-AminoSweet.
  • I-Aspartame ikhona kokungaphezulu kwe- 6,000 imikhiqizo, kufaka phakathi iDiet Coke neDiet Pepsi, iKool Aid, iCrystal Light, iTango nezinye iziphuzo ezenziwe ngoshukela; Imikhiqizo ye-Jell-O engenashukela; I-Trident, i-Dentyne kanye neminye imikhiqizo eminingi yezinsini ezingenashukela; Amaswidi aqinile angenashukela; iziphuzo ezinoshukela ophansi noma ongenashukela njengama-ketchups nokugqoka; imithi yezingane, amavithamini kanye namaconsi okukhwehlela.
  • I-Aspartame yikhemikhali lokwenziwa elenziwe ngama-amino acid phenylalanine ne-aspartic acid, ene-methyl ester. Lapho idliwe, i-methyl ester yehla ibe yi-methanol, engaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde.

Iminyaka eyishumi yezifundo iphakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-Aspartame

Njengoba i-aspartame yaqala ukwamukelwa ngo-1974, bobabili ososayensi be-FDA kanye nososayensi abazimele baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela yezempilo engaba khona kanye nokushiyeka kusayensi ethunyelwe ku-FDA ngumenzi, uGD Searle. (IMonsanto ithenge iSearle ngo-1984).

Ngo-1987, i-UPI yashicilela uchungechunge lwama-athikili okuphenya nguGregory Gordon ebika ngalezi zinto ezikhathazayo, kufaka phakathi izifundo zakuqala ezixhumanisa i-aspartame nezinkinga zempilo, izinga elibi locwaningo oluxhaswe imboni olwaholela ekuvunyelweni kwalo, kanye nobudlelwano bomnyango obuzungezayo phakathi kwezikhulu ze-FDA kanye nemboni yokudla. Uchungechunge lukaGordon luyisisetshenziswa esibaluleke kakhulu kunoma ngubani ofuna ukuqonda umlando we-aspartame / NutraSweet:

Amaphutha ekuhlolweni kwe-EFSA

NgoJulayi 2019 iphepha ku-Archives of Health Public, Abaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseSussex banikeze ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe kokuhlolwa kokuphepha kwe-aspartame kwe-EFSA ngonyaka ka-2013 bathola ukuthi iphaneli linciphise njengokungathembeki esifundweni ngasinye kwezingu-73 ezikhombisa ukulimala, futhi lasebenzisa izindlela zokuxegisa kakhulu ukwamukela ukuthembeka okungu-84% wezifundo lokho akubutholanga ubufakazi bokulimala. "Uma kubhekwa ukushiyeka kokuhlolwa kobungozi be-aspartame kwe-EFSA, kanye nokushiyeka kwakho konke ukuhlolwa kwangaphambilini okuyingozi okusemthethweni kwe-aspartame, kungaphambi kwesikhathi ukuphetha ngokuthi kuphephile ngokwamukelekayo," kuphetha ucwaningo.

Bona Impendulo ye-EFSA nokulandelwa ngabaphenyi u-Erik Paul Millstone no-Elizabeth Dawson ku-Archives of Public Health, Kungani i-EFSA yehlise i-ADI yayo ye-aspartame noma yancoma ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwayo kungabe kusavunyelwa? Ukusabalala kwezindaba:

  • Ochwepheshe bathi “isiphuzo sopopayi esithandwa kakhulu emhlabeni kufanele sinqatshelwe. Ochwepheshe ababili bezokuphepha kokudla bacele ukuthi iswidi yokufakelwa esetshenziswa kabanzi, i-aspartame, ivinjelwe e-UK futhi babuze ukuthi kungani kubonakale kwamukelekile kwasekuqaleni, ” I-New Food Magazine (11.11.2020) 
  • "'Ukuthengiswa kwe-aspartame kufanele kumiswe': I-EFSA esolwa ngokwenzelela ekuhloleni ukuphepha," nguKaty Askew, I-Navigator Yezokudla (7.27.2019)

Imiphumela yezempilo kanye nezifundo ezisemqoka  

Ngenkathi izifundo eziningi, ezinye zazo zixhasiwe, azibikanga zinkinga nge-aspartame, inqwaba yezifundo ezizimele ezenziwa amashumi eminyaka zixhumanise i-aspartame nohlu olude lwezinkinga zempilo, kufaka phakathi:

Cancer

Ocwaningweni olunzulu lomdlavuza kuze kube yimanje nge-aspartame, izifundo ezintathu zokuphila ezenziwa yiCesare Maltoni Cancer Research Center yeRamazzini Institute, zinikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bokuba nomdlavuza kumagundane adalulwe kulokho.

  • I-Aspartame “ingumenzeli we-carcinogenic onamandla amaningi, noma ngabe isilinganiso sansuku zonke se-… singaphansi kakhulu kokudla kwansuku zonke okwamukelekayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwempilo ka-2006 Impilo Yemvelo.1
  • Ucwaningo olulandelwayo ngo-2007 luthole ukwanda okuphathelene nomthamo okuphawulekayo kumaqhubu amabi kwamanye amagundane. "Imiphumela ... iqinisekisa futhi iqinisa ukubonakaliswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe- [aspartame's] okungajwayelekile kwe-carcinogenic ezingeni lomthamo eliseduze kokudla okwamukelekayo kwabantu nsuku zonke ... lapho ukuvezwa kwesikhathi sokuphila kuqala ngesikhathi sokuphila kwengane, imiphumela yayo ebanga umdlavuza iyanda," kubhala abacwaningi. phakathi Impilo Yemvelo.2
  • Imiphumela yocwaningo lwempilo yango-2010 "iqinisekisa ukuthi [i-aspartame] iyisakhi se-carcinogenic ezindaweni eziningi kumagundane, nokuthi lo mphumela wenziwa ezinhlotsheni ezimbili, amagundane (abesilisa nabesifazane) kanye namagundane (abesilisa)," kusho abacwaningi ku Ijenali YaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni.3

Abaphenyi baseHarvard ngo-2012 babika ubudlelwano obuhle phakathi kokudla kwe-aspartame kanye nengozi eyengeziwe ye-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ne-myeloma eminingi emadodeni, kanye ne-leukemia kwabesilisa nabesifazane. Okutholakele "kugcina amathuba okuba nomthelela omubi ... kumdlavuza okhethiwe" kepha "akuvumeli isinqumo esiphume njengenhlanhla," kubhala abacwaningi ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.4

Encazelweni ka-2014 ku Ijenali yaseMelika Yemithi Yezimboni, Abaphenyi be-Maltoni Center babhala ukuthi izifundo ezithunyelwe yi-GD Searle ukuze zivunyelwe emakethe “azihlinzeki ngosizo olwanele lwesayensi kwezokuphepha [kwe-aspartame]. Ngokuphambene nalokho, imiphumela yakamuva ye-life-span carcinogenicity bioassays kumagundane namagundane ashicilelwe kumajenali abuyekezwa ngontanga, kanye nocwaningo olulindelekile lwe-epidemiological, lunikeza ubufakazi obungaguquguquki bamandla we-carcinogenic [aspartame]. Ngokwesisekelo sobufakazi bemiphumela engaba khona ye-carcinogenic… ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwesimo samanje sezinhlangano ezilawula umhlaba wonke kufanele kuthathwe njengendaba ephuthumayo yezempilo yomphakathi. ”5

Brain izimila

Ngo-1996, abacwaningi babika ku- Ijenali yeNeuropathology & Yokuhlola Neurology kubufakazi besifo esixhuma ukwethulwa kwe-aspartame ekwandeni kohlobo olunolaka lwamathumba anobuchopho. "Uma kuqhathaniswa nezinye izinto ezithinta ezemvelo ezixhunyaniswe nezicubu zobuchopho, i-aspartame yokufakelwa ingumlingisi othembisayo ochaza ukwanda kwamuva kwesimo kanye nezinga lokulimala kwezicubu zobuchopho… Siphetha ngokuthi kunesidingo sokuhlaziya amandla we-aspartame we-carcinogenic."6

  • Isazi sezinzwa uDkt John Olney, ongumlobi oholayo wocwaningo, utshele Imizuzu engama-60 ngo-1996: “Kube nokwanda okumangazayo kwezehlakalo zamathumba anobuchopho (eminyakeni emithathu kuya kwemihlanu kulandela ukuvunyelwa kwe-aspartame)… kunesisekelo esanele sokusola i-aspartame ukuthi kumele ihlolwe kabusha. I-FDA idinga ukuyihlola kabusha, kulokhu, i-FDA kufanele ikwenze kahle. ”

Izifundo zakuqala ze-aspartame ngawo-1970 zathola ubufakazi bamathumba obuchopho ezilwaneni zaselebhu, kepha lezo zifundo azilandelwanga.

Izifo Zezinhliziyo 

Ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwe-2017 kocwaningo kuma-sweeteners wokufakelwa, okushicilelwe ku- I-Canadian Medical Association Journal, abutholanga bufakazi obucacile bezinzuzo zokwehlisa isisindo samaswidi okufakelwa ezivivinyweni zomtholampilo ezingahleliwe, futhi wabika ukuthi izifundo zeqoqo zihlobanisa okokunandisa okufakelwayo “nokwenyuka kwesisindo nobukhulu besinqe, kanye nezinga eliphezulu lokukhuluphala, umfutho wegazi ophakeme, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sohlobo 2 nenhliziyo nenhliziyo imicimbi. ”7 Bona futhi:

  • "Izithasiselo zokwenziwa azisizi ekwehliseni isisindo futhi zingaholela ekutholeni amakhilogremu," nguCatherine Caruso, STAT (7.17.2017)
  • "Kungani omunye udokotela wenhliziyo ephuze isiphuzo sakhe sokugcina sokudla," nguHarlan Krumholz, IWall Street Journal (9.14.2017)
  • “Lo dokotela wenhliziyo ufuna umndeni wakhe unciphise i-diet soda. Ingabe eyakho kufanele nayo? ” by UDavid Becker, MD, UPhilly Enquirer (9.12.2017)

 Iphepha le-2016 ku I-Physiology nokuziphatha kubika, “kukhona ukuhlangana okuvusa amadlingozi phakathi kwemiphumela yocwaningo lwezilwane kanye nenqwaba yezifundo ezinkulu, zesikhathi eside zokuhlola kubantu, ekutholeni ukukhuphuka kwesisindo, ukuthambekela, ukubhebhetheka kokukhuluphala, ingozi ye-cardiometabolic, kanye nokufa okuphelele phakathi kwabantu abantu abanokuchayeka okungapheli, nsuku zonke kumakhemikhali anekhalori eliphansi - futhi le miphumela iyakhathaza. ”8

Abesifazane abaphuza iziphuzo ezingaphezu kwezimbili zokudla ngosuku “babenobungozi obukhulu bezifo [zenhliziyo nemithambo yegazi]… [isifo senhliziyo nemithambo yegazi] ukufa… kanye nokufa jikelele,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2014 lweWomen Health Initiative olushicilelwe ku I-Journal of General Medicine Internal.9

Unhlangothi, Dementia kanye Izifo ze-Alzheimer

Abantu abaphuza i-soda yokudla nsuku zonke cishe babenamathuba aphindwe kathathu okuba nesifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo njengalabo abasiphuza masonto onke noma ngaphansi. Lokhu kufaka ingozi enkulu yokushaywa yischemic, lapho kuthinteka khona imithambo yegazi ebuchosheni, kanye nesifo sengqondo i-Alzheimer's dementia, okuyindlela ejwayelekile yokuwohloka komqondo, kubika i Ucwaningo luka-2017 eStroke.10

  • Bona futhi: Ividiyo yaseBoston University School of Medicine ocwaningweni olwenziwe yisazi sezinzwa uMatthew Pase, “Ukusetshenziswa Kwansuku Zonke KwamaSodas, Iziphuzo Zezithelo kanye Nama-Sodas Okungelona Owenziwe Kuthinta Ingqondo.”
  • "Ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-diet soda engcupheni ephezulu yokushaywa yisifo sohlangothi, ukuwohloka komqondo," nguFred Barbash, IWashington Post (4.21.2017)

Emzimbeni, i-methyl ester ese-aspartame ihlangana nayo i-methanol bese-ke ingaguqulwa ibe yi-formaldehyde, exhunywe nesifo i-Alzheimer's. Ucwaningo oluyizingxenye ezimbili olushicilelwe ngo-2014 ku I-Journal yezifo ze-Alzheimer kuxhunyaniswe nokuchayeka kwe-methanol engapheli ekulahlekelweni kwememori kanye nezimpawu ze-Alzheimer's Disease kumagundane nezinkawu.

  • "Amagundane aphethwe yi-ethanol anikezwe izimpawu ezifana ne-AD… Lokhu okutholakele kunezela ebuningini obukhulayo bobufakazi obuxhumanisa i-formaldehyde ne- [Alzheimer's disease] pathology." (Ingxenye 1)11
  • "Ukudla [i-ethanol] kudale ushintsho oluhlala isikhathi eside noluphikelelayo lwezifo olwaluhlobene [nesifo i-Alzheimer's]… lokhu okutholakele kusekela ubufakazi obandayo obuxhumanisa i-methanol ne-metabolite formaldehyde yayo [isifo se-Alzheimer's] pathology." (Ingxenye 2)12

ukuquleka

“I-Aspartame ibonakala inyusa inani le-EEG spike wave ezinganeni ezinokuquleka okungekho. Izifundo ezengeziwe ziyadingeka ukuthola ukuthi ngabe lo mphumela wenzeka ngamanani aphansi nakwezinye izinhlobo zokuquleka, ”ngokocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1992 ku Neurology.13

I-Aspartame “inomsebenzi okhuthaza ukuquleka ezinhlobonhlobo zezilwane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ukuthola izinto ezithinta… izehlakalo zokubanjwa,” ngokocwaningo lwango-1987 ku Impilo Yemvelo.14

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kakhulu kwe-aspartame “kungaphazamisa namathuba okuhlaselwa ngabantu abangenazimpawu kodwa abangenayo,” ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe ngo-1985 I-Lancet. Ucwaningo luchaza abantu abadala abathathu ababephilile ngaphambili ababenesifo sokuwa okukhulu ngesikhathi besebenzisa imithamo ephezulu ye-aspartame.15

I-Neurotoxicity, Ukulimala kobuchopho kanye nokuphazamiseka kwemizwelo

I-Aspartame ixhunyaniswe nezinkinga zokuziphatha nezokuqonda kubandakanya nezinkinga zokufunda, ikhanda, ukuquleka, i-migraines, imizwa ecasulayo, ukukhathazeka, ukudangala, nokuqwasha, kubhale abacwaningi besifundo se-2017 ku I-Neuroscience Yezempilo. "Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Aspartame kudinga ukuthintwa ngokuqapha ngenxa yemiphumela engaba khona empilweni ye-neurobehavioral."16

“I-aspartame yomlomo ishintshe kakhulu ukusebenza, isimo sokulwa ne-oxidant kanye ne-morphology ye-hippocampus kumagundane; futhi, kungenzeka ukuthi idale i-hippocampal neurogenesis yabantu abadala, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2016 I-Neurobiology yokufunda neyeMemori.17 

“Phambilini, kuye kwabikwa ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kungadala ukuphazamiseka kwemizwa nokuziphatha kubantu ababucayi. Ukuphathwa yikhanda, ukuqwasha nokuquleka nakho kungeminye yemithelela yezinzwa eke yabhekana nayo, ”kusho ucwaningo olwenziwe ngo-2008 ku I-European Journal ye-Clinical Nutrition. "Siphakamisa ukuthi ukungenisa ngokweqile kwe-aspartame kungabandakanyeka ekutholakaleni kwezifo ezithile zengqondo… kanye nasekufundeni okweqile nasekusebenzeni ngokomzwelo."18 

"(N) izimpawu zezemvelo, kufaka phakathi izinqubo zokufunda nezinkumbulo, kungenzeka zihlobene nokugxila okuphezulu noma okunobuthi kwe-sweetener [aspartame] metabolites," kusho ucwaningo lwango-2006 ku Ucwaningo lwezokwelapha.19

I-Aspartame "ingaphazamisa ukugcinwa kwememori futhi ilimaze ama-hypothalamic neurons kumagundane amadala," ngokusho kocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2000 olushicilelwe ku Izincwadi Zobuthi.20

"(Mina) nabantu abanezinkinga zemizwelo bazwela kakhulu kulesi sithambisi sokuzenzela futhi ukusetshenziswa kwaso kulesi sibalo kufanele kungadikibali," kusho ucwaningo lwango-1993 kwiphephandaba. Ijenali ye-Biological Psychiatry.21

Ukweqiwa okuphezulu kwe-aspartame “kungadala ushintsho olukhulu emithanjeni yegazi,” kubika ucwaningo olwenziwa ngo-1984 I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.22

Ukuhlolwa kukhombise ukulimala kobuchopho kumagundane ezingane kulandela ukungeniswa ngomlomo kwe-aspartate, futhi kukhombisa ukuthi "i-aspartate [inobuthi] kubuthi begundane ezinganeni emazingeni aphansi kakhulu okudla ngomlomo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1970 ku Nature.23

Izinsizwa ze-Head and Migraines

“I-Aspartame, isiphuzo esidumile sokudla, ingacasula ikhanda kwabanye abantu abasengozini. Lapha, sichaza izigameko ezintathu zabesifazane abasebasha abane-migraine ababika ukuthi bangaphathwa yikhanda ngokuhlafuna inhlaka engenashukela equkethe i-aspartame, ”kusho iphephandaba lango-1997. Ikhanda Journal.24

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo eshicilelwe ngo-1994 ku Neurology, “Inikeza ubufakazi bokuthi, phakathi kwabantu abanezinhlungu zokuzibika eziphathwa ikhanda ngemuva kokuminza i-aspartame, i-subset yaleli qembu ibika amakhanda amaningi lapho ihlolwa ngaphansi kwezimo ezilawulwayo. Kubonakala sengathi abanye abantu bathinteka kakhulu ekhanda elibangelwa i-aspartame futhi bangafuna ukunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwabo. ”25

Ucwaningo lweziguli eziyi-171 eMontefiore Medical Center Headache Unit luthole ukuthi iziguli ezine-migraine “zibike i-aspartame njenge-precipitant kaninginingi ngokuphindwe kathathu kunalezo ezinezinye izinhlobo zekhanda… Siphetha ngokuthi i-aspartame ingaba yinto ebalulekile yokudla ikhanda kwabanye abantu, ”1989 isifundo ku Ikhanda Journal.26

Isivivinyo se-crossover ngokuqhathanisa i-aspartame ne-placebo kumvamisa namandla we-migraines "kukhombise ukuthi ukungena kwe-aspartame ngama-migraineurs kubangele ukwanda okukhulu kokuvama kwekhanda kwezinye izifundo," kubike ucwaningo lwango-1988 ku Ikhanda Journal.27

Umsebenzi Wezinso Uyancipha

Ukusetshenziswa kwezinsizakalo ezingaphezu kwezimbili ngosuku lwesoda eyenziwe ngoshukela “kuhlotshaniswa nokungezwani okuphindwe kabili kokuncipha kokusebenza kwezinso kwabesifazane,” ngokocwaningo lwango-2 ku I-Clinical Journal ye-American Society of Nephrology.28

Ukuzuza Isisindo, Ukudla okwengeziwe kanye nokukhuluphala Izinkinga Ezihlobene

Izifundo eziningana zixhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo, ukwanda kwesifiso sokudla, isifo sikashukela, ukuwohloka komzimba kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala. Bona iphepha lethu lamaqiniso: Ukudla kweSoda Chemical Okuboshwe Ekuzuzeni Isisindo.

Le sayensi exhumanisa i-aspartame nokuzuza kwesisindo nezifo ezihlobene nokukhuluphala iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nokuba semthethweni kwemikhiqizo equkethe i-aspartame njengokudla "noma izinsiza zokwehlisa isisindo. Ngo-2015, i-USRTK ifake isicelo se- Federal Trade Commission futhi FDA ukuphenya ngezindlela zokumaketha nezokukhangisa zemikhiqizo “yokudla” equkethe ikhemikhali elixhumene nokuzuza kwesisindo. Bheka izindaba ezihlobene ukumboza, impendulo evela ku-FTC, Futhi impendulo evela ku-FDA.

Isifo Sikashukela kanye Ne-Metange Derangement

I-Aspartame ihlukaniswa ngokwengxenye ibe yi-phenylalanine, ephazamisa ukusebenza kwe-enzyme emathunjini ane-alkaline phosphatase (IAP) ebikhonjiswe phambilini ukuvimbela isifo se-metabolic syndrome (iqembu lezimpawu ezihambisana nohlobo 2 lwesifo sikashukela nesifo senhliziyo) ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe, Ukudla okunomsoco kanye neMetabolism. Kulolu cwaningo, amagundane athola i-aspartame emanzini abo okuphuza athola isisindo esiningi futhi athuthukisa ezinye izimpawu zesifo se-metabolic kunezilwane ezondla izidlo ezifanayo ezingenayo i-aspartame. Ucwaningo luphetha ngokuthi, "Imiphumela yokuvikela i-IAP maqondana ne-metabolic syndrome ingahle ivinjelwe yi-phenylalanine, i-metabolite ye-aspartame, mhlawumbe echaza ukungabi bikho kwesisindo esilindelekile kanye nokwenza ngcono umzimba okuhambisana neziphuzo zokudla."29

Abantu abadla njalo iziswidi zokufakelwa basengozini enkulu yokuthola “isisindo ngokweqile, isifo se-metabolic, uhlobo lwesifo sikashukela sesibili, nesifo senhliziyo,” ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwe-Purdue ka-2 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-2013 eyashicilelwa ku Amathrendi ku-Endocrinology & Metabolism.30

Ocwaningweni olwalandela abesifazane abangama-66,118 eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-14, zombili iziphuzo ezinoshukela kanye neziphuzo ezenziwe ngobumnandi zihlotshaniswa nengozi yesifo sikashukela soHlobo 2. “Izindlela eziqinile zokubeka engcupheni i-T2D ziphinde zabonwa kuwo wonke ama-quartiles e- ukusetshenziswa kwalezi zinhlobo zombili zesiphuzo… Akukho nhlangano eye yabonwa nge-100% yeziphuzo zezithelo, ”kubika ucwaningo lwango-2013 olushicilelwe ku- I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic.31

I-Dysbiosis yamathumbu, i-Metabolic Derangement ne-Obesity

Ama-sweeteners okufakelwa angadala ukungabekezelelani kwe-glucose ngokuguqula i-gut microbiota, ngokusho kwe-a Ucwaningo luka-2014 eMvelweni. Abaphenyi babhala, “imiphumela yethu ixhumanisa ukusetshenziswa kwe-NAS [okungeyona ikhalori elenziwe ngeswidi], i-dysbiosis kanye nokungajwayelekile komzimba, ngaleyo ndlela kudinga ukuhlolwa kabusha kokusetshenziswa okukhulu kwe-NAS… Ukuthola kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi i-NAS kungenzeka ibe negalelo ngqo ekuqiniseni ubhadane ngqo [ukukhuluphala] ukuthi zona ngokwazo zazihloselwe ukulwa. ”32

  • Bheka futhi: “Ama-Artificial Sweeteners Angashintsha Amabhaktheriya EmiGodini Ngezindlela Eziyingozi,” ngu-Ellen Ruppel Shell, I-Scientific American (4.1.2015)

Ucwaningo lwango-2016 ku I-Physiology esetshenzisiwe Nutrition kanye neMetabolism kubika, "Ukudla kwe-Aspartame kube nomthelela omkhulu ebudlelwaneni obuphakathi kwesisindo somzimba (i-BMI) nokubekezelelana koshukela… ukusetshenziswa kwe-aspartame kuhlotshaniswa nokukhubazeka okukhulu okuhlobene nokukhuluphala ekubekezeleni kweglucose."33

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwamagundane lwango-2014 ku I-PLOS ONE, “I-aspartame inyuse amazinga e-glucose azila ukudla kanye nokuhlolwa kokubekezelelana kwe-insulin kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhubaza ukulahlwa kwe-glucose okuvuselelwe i-insulin… Ukuhlaziywa kwe-fecal kokuqanjwa kwamabhaktheriya esiswini kukhombise i-aspartame ukukhulisa amabhaktheriya aphelele…”34

 Ukukhulelwa Okungajwayelekile: Ukuzalwa Kwangaphambi kwesikhathi 

Ngokuya ngocwaningo lwango-2010 lweqembu lama-59,334 labesifazane abakhulelwe baseDenmark elishicilelwe ku I-American Journal of Nutrition Clinic, "Bekukhona ukuhlangana phakathi kokutholwa kweziphuzo ezibandayo ezenziwe ngoshukela nezingezona ezekhaboni kanye nengozi enkulu yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi." Ucwaningo luphethe ngokuthi, "Ukuphuza nsuku zonke iziphuzo ezithambile ezinoshukela kungenza ingozi yokulethwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi."35

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Downing Diet Soda Iboshelwe Ekuzalweni Ngaphambi Kokuzalwa," ngu-Anne Harding, I-Reuters (i-7.23.2010)

Izingane Ezikhuluphele

Ukusetshenziswa kwesiphuzo esenziwe ngobuciko ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kuxhunyaniswe nenkomba yomzimba ephezulu yezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2016 I-JAMA Pediatrics. "Ngokwazi kwethu, sinikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bomuntu bokuthi ukusetshenziswa komama okokunandisa okokufakelwa ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungathonya i-BMI yezinsana," kubhala abacwaningi.36

  • Bheka futhi: "I-Diet Soda Ekukhulelweni Ixhunyaniswe Nezingane Ezikhuluphele ngokweqile," nguNicholas Bakalar, INew York Times (5.11.2016)

Ukuya esikhathini kokuqala

I-National Heart, Lung, ne-Blood Institute Growth and Health Study ilandele amantombazane we-1988 iminyaka eyishumi ukuhlola izinhlangano ezingaba phakathi kokudla ushukela one-caffeine nongeyona i-caffeine- neziphuzo ezithambile ezenziwe ngobumnandi kanye nokuya esikhathini kokuqala. "Ukusetshenziswa kweziphuzo ezithambile ezine-caffeine nezenziwe ngoshukela bekuhlanganiswa nobungozi bokushesha ukuya esikhathini eqenjini laseMelika lamantombazane ase-Afrika aseMelika naseCaucasus," kuphetha ucwaningo olushicilelwe ngo-10 ku Ijenali ye-American Clinical Nutrition.37

Ukulimala Kwesidoda

"Ukwehla okuphawulekayo ekusebenzeni kwesidoda kwezilwane eziphathwa njenge-aspartame kubonwe uma kuqhathaniswa nokulawulwa kanye nokulawulwa kwe-MTX," ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2017 ku I-International Journal of Impotence Research. "... Lokhu okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi ama-aspartame metabolites angaba nomthelela ekuthuthukiseni ukucindezeleka okwenziwe nge-oxidative ku-epididymal sperm."38

Ukulimala Kwesibindi Nokuqedwa KweGlutathione

Ucwaningo lwegundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo I-Redox Biology kubika, "Ukuphathwa okungapheli kwe-aspartame… kubangele ukulimala kwesibindi kanye namazinga anciphisiwe we-glutathione ancishisiwe, i-glutathione ene-oxidized, i-γ-glutamylcysteine, kanye ne-metabolites eminingi yendlela ye-trans-sulphuration…"39

Ucwaningo lwamagundane olushicilelwe ngo-2017 ngo Ucwaningo Lokudla kutholakale ukuthi, “Ukudla okuphuzwayo okungatheni noma i-aspartame okubangelwe kakhulu yi-hyperglycemia kanye ne-hypertriacylglycerolemia… Kutholakale izinguquko ezimbalwa zesakhiwo se-cytoarchitecture esibindini, kufaka phakathi ukonakala, ukungena, i-necrosis, ne-fibrosis, ikakhulu i-aspartame. Le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ukuphuza isikhathi eside isiphuzo esiphuzo noma ukulimala kwe-aspartame okubangelwa i-aspartame kungahle kulandelwe ngokufakwa kwe-hyperglycemia, ukuqongelela i-lipid, kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative ngokubandakanyeka kwama-adipocytokines. ”40

Isexwayiso sabantu abasengozini

Ukubuyekezwa kwemibhalo yango-2016 kuma-sweeteners okufakelwa ku- I-Indian Journal ye-Pharmacology kubika, “kukhona okungahambelani ubufakazi bokusekela iningi lokusetshenziswa kwabo kanye nolunye ucwaningo lwamuva luye lwaveza nokuthi lezi zinzuzo ebezikhona ngaphambili… kungenzeka zingabi yiqiniso. ” Abantu abasolayo njengabesifazane abakhulelwe nabancelisayo, izingane, abanesifo sikashukela, i-migraine kanye neziguli ezinesifo sokuwa “kufanele basebenzise le mikhiqizo ngokuqapha okukhulu.”41

Imizamo Yezimboni PR namaqembu angaphambili 

Kusukela ekuqaleni, i-GD Searle (kamuva iMonsanto neNutraSweet Company) basebenzise amaqhinga e-PR anolaka ukumaketha i-aspartame njengomkhiqizo ophephile. Ngo-Okthoba 1987, uGregory Gordon kubikwe ku-UPI:

"INutraSweet Co. ibuye ikhokhe imali efinyelela ku- $ 3 million ngonyaka ngomzamo wokuxhumana nomphakathi wabantu abayi-100 ngamahhovisi aseChicago eBurson Marsteller, owake wasebenza enkampanini ye-PR eNew York. Isisebenzi sathi uBurson Marsteller uqashe ososayensi nodokotela abaningi, imvamisa eba ngu- $ 1,000 XNUMX ngosuku, ukuvikela isinambitheka ezingxoxweni zabezindaba nakwezinye izinkundla zomphakathi. UBurson Marsteller wenqabile ukuxoxa ngezinto ezinjalo. ”

Ukubika kwakamuva okususelwa emibhalweni yangaphakathi embonini kuveza ukuthi izinkampani zeziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola nazo zikhokhela kanjani izithunywa ezivela eceleni, kufaka phakathi odokotela nososayensi, ukuthi bathuthukise imikhiqizo yabo futhi basuse icala lapho isayensi ibophezela imikhiqizo yabo ezinkingeni ezinkulu zempilo.

Bona ukubikwa kuka-Anahad O'Connor kufayela le- New York Times, UCandice Choi kufayela le- Associated Press, nokutholakele kusuka ku- Uphenyo lwe-USRTK mayelana nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha kashukela nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Izindatshana zezindaba mayelana nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini yesoda:

Buka konke izindaba zezindaba mayelana ne-aspartame:

AmaSpredishithi Eqiniso e-USRTK

Imibiko ngamaqembu angaphambili nemikhankaso ye-PR

Izinkomba Zesayensi

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[10] UMatthew P. Pase, PhD; UJayandra J. Himali, PhD; I-Alexa S. Beiser, i-PhD; UHugo J. Aparicio, MD; UClaudia L. Satizabal, PhD; URamachandran S. Vasan, MD; USudha Seshadri, MD; UPaul F. Jacques, DSc. “Iziphuzo ezinoshukela nezenziwe ngendlela engeyona eyokuzenzela kanye nobungozi besifo sohlangothi nesokuwohloka komqondo. Isifundo Seqembu Elilindelekile. ” Unhlangothi. 2017 Ephreli; I-STROKEAHA.116.016027 (abstract / esihlokweni)

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[12] Yang M et al. "Isifo i-Alzheimer's and Methanol Toxicity (Ingxenye 2): Izifundo Esizithola Ku-Four Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) Engapheli Yondla iMethanol." UJ Alzheimers Dis. 2014 Ephreli 30. (abstract)

[13] UCamfield PR, uCamfield CS, uDooley JM, uGordon K, uJollymore S, uWeaver DF. "I-Aspartame ikhulisa ukuphuma kwe-EEG spike-wave ezinganeni ezinesifo sokuwa jikelele: isifundo esilawulwa izimpumputhe." Neurology. Ngo-1992 uMeyi; 42 (5): 1000-3. I-PMID: 1579221.abstract)

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[16] UChoudhary AK, u-Lee YY. "Izimpawu ze-Neurophysiological ne-aspartame: Yini ukuxhumana?" UNutr Neurosci. 2017 Feb 15: 1-11. i-doi: 10.1080 / 1028415X.2017.1288340. (abstract)

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Izigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto Kuzo Zonke I-Newsweek's Hit on Organic Food

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

buyekeza: Impendulo eyinqaba yeNewsweek

NguStacy Malkan

"Umkhankaso wokudla okuphilayo ngumkhonyovu okhohlisayo, obizayo," ngokusho komhlaka-19 Januwari Newsweek esihlokweni ebhalwe nguDkt.Henry I. Miller weSikhungo seHoover.

Uma lelo gama lizwakala lijwayelekile - uHenry I. Miller - kungahle kube ngoba New York Times muva iveze ihlazo okubandakanya uMiller: ukuthi ubanjwe eshicilela i-athikili ebhalwe ghost nguMonsanto ngaphansi kwegama lakhe ku Forbes. I-athikili, ebikhombisa kakhulu uhlaka olunikezwe uMonsanto, ihlasele ososayensi bephaneli lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation (IARC) labo isinqumo sokufaka ohlwini Amakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kaMonsanto, i-glyphosate, njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukubika ku ukushintshana nge-imeyili ekhishwe ngamacala neMonsanto mayelana nokukhathazeka komdlavuza, i- Izikhathi ' UDanny Hakim wabhala:

"UMonsanto ubuze uMnu. Miller ukuthi angathanda yini ukubhala indatshana ngalesi sihloko, futhi wathi, 'Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala kusuka embhalweni osezingeni eliphezulu.'

Lo mbhalo uvele ngaphansi kwegama likaMnu. Miller, nangokuthi 'imibono evezwe ngabakwa-Forbes Contributors ingeyabo.' Lo magazini awuzange ukhulume ngokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto ekulungiseleleni lo mbhalo…

UForbes ususe lolu daba kwi-webhusayithi yakhe ngoLwesithathu wathi buqedile ubudlelwano bakhe noMnuz Miller phakathi kokudaluliwe. ”

Intambo yombono Iphrojekthi Syndicate kwalandela okufanayo, ngemuva kokuqala ukufaka isimangalo kumazwana kaMiller lapho aqaphela ukuthi ayezokwaliwa uma ukusebenzisana kwakhe noMonsanto kwakwaziwa.

Ithemba Lokwehlisa I-Organic

Ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki alikaze limnciphise uMiller; uqhubekile nokuhlunga okuqukethwe okwenyuswayo embonini yezolimo kusuka ezitolo ezinjenge Newsweek futhi The Wall Street Journal, ngaphandle kokudalula kubafundi ubuhlobo bakhe neMonsanto.

Noma kunjalo kaMiller Newsweek Ukudla okune-organic kunezigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto ngokusobala kuyo yonke indawo.

Okokuqala, uMiller usebenzisa imithombo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukwenza izimangalo ezingenabufakazi (nezindidayo) mayelana nezolimo eziphilayo - ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi ukulima ngokwemvelo "empeleni kuyingozi kakhulu emvelweni" kunokulima okuvamile, noma ukuthi ababambisene nabo bachitha u- $ 2.5 billion ngonyaka bekhankasa ngokumelene nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo eNyakatho Melika.

Umthombo kulesi simangalo esingalungile nguJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto (ongaziwa kanjalo kwi Newsweek athikili), manje oqondisa inkampani ye-PR ebizwa nge-v-Fluence Interactive.

Ukuhwebelana nge-imeyili kuveza ukuthi iMonsanto isebenza kanjani nabantu abanjengoJay Byrne - kanye noByrne ngqo - ukusunduza lolu hlobo lokuhlaselwa kwezitha zikaMonsanto ngenkathi kugcinwa ukubandakanyeka kwenkampani kuyimfihlo.

Ngokwama-imeyili atholwe iqembu lami Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi, U-Byrne wadlala indima enkulu ekusizeni iMonsanto ukuba isungule iqembu eliphambili lenkampani elibizwa nge-Academics Review elashicilela umbiko ohlasela imboni yezimboni njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha - okuyisihloko ngqo kuMiller's Newsweek isihloko.

Uhlu lukaJay Byrne lwezitha zaseMonsanto. 

Umqondo weqembu langaphambili - kuchazwe ku- ama-imeyili engiwabike lapha - bekuzokwakha ipulatifomu enomsindo othembekile lapho izifundiswa zingahlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo ngenkathi bethi zizimele, kepha zithola imali ngasese emaqenjini ezimboni. Ukucwayiza, ukucwayiza, ha, ha.

"Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi," kubhale umphathi weMonsanto ohilelekile ohlelweni.

Indima kaByrne, ngokusho kwama-imeyili, ibizosebenza njenge "moto yokuhweba" ukusiza ukuthola imali yenkampani. U-Byrne uphinde wathi uhlanganisa uhlu “lwamathuba” okuhlosiwe - abagxeka imboni yezolimo okungenzeka ukuthi "bafakwe umjovo" endaweni yesikhulumi sabafundi.

Abantu abaningana kuhlu lwamathuba ka-Byrne, noma kamuva bahlaselwa yi-Academics Review, babeyizisulu ku-Miller's Newsweek isihloko, futhi.

IMiller's Newsweek ucezu naye uzame ukudicilela phansi umsebenzi we New York Times ' intatheli uDanny Hakim, ngaphandle kokudalula ukuthi kwakunguHakim owadalula ihlazo likaMiller lokubhala ngesipoki likaMiller.

Njengakamuva nje ukuhlaselwa kwemboni yemvelo, yonke iminwe ikhomba emuva ezinkampanini zezolimo ezizolahlekelwa kakhulu uma isidingo sabathengi siqhubeka nokukhuphuka kokudla okungenawo ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Ukusetshenziswa KukaMonsanto “Okuzimele Kwezemfundo”

UHenry Miller une- umlando omude wokusebenzisana no - no ebeka izinsizakalo zakhe ze-PR - izinkampani ezidinga usizo lokukholisa umphakathi ukuthi imikhiqizo yazo ayiyona ingozi futhi ayidingi ukulawulwa.

Futhi iMonsanto incike kakhulu kubantu abaneziqinisekiso zesayensi noma amaqembu azwakala engathathi hlangothi ukwenza lezo zingxabano - abantu abazimisele ukuxhumana nombhalo wenkampani ngenkathi bethi bangabalingisi abazimele. Leli qiniso lisungulwe ngokubika ku New York Times, Okwezwe, WBEZ, lo Ukuqhubeka phambili futhi ezinye izindawo eziningi eminyakeni yakamuva.

Idokhumenti esanda kukhishwa yeMonsanto inikeza imininingwane eyengeziwe mayelana nokuthi inkulumo-ze kaMonsanto nokusebenza kokunxenxa kusebenza kanjani, kanye nendima esemqoka edlalwa nguHenry Miller kuyo.

Lo 2015 “uhlelo lokulungiselela”- ekhishwe abameli ezinkantolo zomdlavuza i-glyphosate - ibeka isu likaMonsanto le-PR" lokuhlela ukukhala "ngokumelene nososayensi bomdlavuza we-IARC ngombiko wabo we-glyphosate. Owokuqala ongakhishwa: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller."

Uhlelo luzoqhubeka lunezigaba ezine "zabalingani bemboni" - amaqembu ezokuhweba ayishumi nambili, amaqembu ezemfundo kanye namaqembu aphambili abonakala ezimele afana ne Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project - lokho kungasiza "ukugoma" ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza futhi "kuvikele isithunzi… se-Roundup."

UMiller uhambisele iMonsanto ngoMashi 2015 esihlokweni eForbes - lo mbhalo kamuva wembula njengombhalo kaMonsanto - uhlasela ososayensi be-IARC. Ozakwethu bezimboni bebelokhu bephusha izimpikiswano ezifanayo ngemigudu ehlukahlukene kaninginingi, selokhu, ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi bomdlavuza.

Okuningi kwalokhu kugxeka kubonakale emphakathini njengokuvukela okuzenzekelayo kokukhathazeka, kungakhulunywa ngeqhaza likaMonsanto njengomqambi nomqhubi womlando: i-hoodwink yenkampani yakudala.

Njengoba eminye imibhalo ingena embusweni womphakathi - nge Amaphepha eMonsanto futhi uphenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi - iqhinga "lokufunda elizimele" kuzoba nzima ukuligcinela abasebenza embonini njengoHenry I. Miller, kanye nabezindaba nabenzi benqubomgomo abangayinaki.

Okwamanje, Newsweek ayihlehli. Ngisho nangemva kokubuyekeza imibhalo eqinisekisa amaqiniso akule ndatshana, Newsweek Umhleli wemibono uNicholas Wapshott ubhale ku-imeyili ukuthi, “Ngiyakuqonda ukuthi wena noMiller ninomlando omude wokuphikisana ngalesi sihloko. Ukuphika ngokusobala okuqinisekisile. ”

UMiller noWapshott abaphendulanga eminye imibuzo.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu elibheka abathengi nelisebenza obala, i-US Right to Know. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry” (New Society, 2007). Ukudalulwa: I-US Right to Know ixhaswe ngokwengxenye yi-Organic Consumers Association eshiwo ku-athikili kaMiller futhi evela kuhlu olushaywayo lukaByrne.

ISayensi Media Center Ithuthukisa Ukubukwa Kwebhizinisi Lwesayensi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IScience Media Center (SMC) iyinhlangano ye-PR engenzi nzuzo eqale e-UK ethola indawo yayo enkulu kakhulu ye- imali evela embonini amaqembu. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iBayer, iDuPont, iMonsanto, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye namaqembu ezindaba, izinhlaka zikahulumeni, izisekelo namanyuvesi. Imodeli ye-SMC isakazeka emhlabeni wonke futhi ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwemithombo yezindaba ngesayensi, kwesinye isikhathi ngezindlela ezehlisa ubungozi bemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Leli phepha lichaza umlando we-SMC, ifilosofi, imodeli yezimali, amaqhinga nemibiko evela kubagxeki abathi i-SMC inikeza imibono yezesayensi yezimboni, isimilo i-SMC esiyiphikayo.

Related:

Amaqiniso asemqoka

I-Science Media Centre yethulwa ngo-2002 iphendula “imisindvo yabezindaba mayelana neMMR, izitshalo zeGM kanye nocwaningo lwezilwane” ukusiza abezindaba bamele kangcono isayensi enkulu, ngokusho kwe iphepha lamaqiniso leqembu.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko wokusungulaIScience Media Center ichaza ukuthi yadalelwa ukubhekana kanjani:

  • “inkinga yenkinga” ekhulayo emibonweni yomphakathi ngesayensi
  • ukuwa kwenhlonipho ngegunya nobungoti
  • umphakathi onganaki ubungozi nokusakazwa kwabezindaba okwethusayo futhi
  • “amasu abezindaba abonakala sengathi aphakeme kakhulu” asetshenziswa ama-NGO ezemvelo njengeGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth.

Ama-SMC azimele abelana nge umqulu ofanayo njengoba okwangempela manje kusebenza eCanada, e-Australia, eNew Zealand, eJalimane naseJapane, futhi ama-SMC ahlelwa eBrussels nase I-united states.

Imodeli yeSMC ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngesayensi. A ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba yamaphephandaba ase-UK ngo-2011 nango-2012 athola ukuthi iningi lezintatheli elisebenzisa izinsizakalo ze-SMC alifunanga imibono eyengeziwe ngezindaba zabo. Leli qembu futhi linethonya kwezepolitiki. Ngonyaka we-2007, iSMC yamisa ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwemibungu ehlanganisa abantu / yezilwane ngomkhankaso wayo wezindaba wokushintsha ukusabalala kokukhathazeka kokuziphatha kuye ezinzuzweni zemibungu njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho kwe ku-Nature.

Izifundiswa eziningana nabaphenyi bagxeke iSMC ngokuxosha imibono yenkampani yesayensi, nangokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo nobempilo babantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Imibiko ibhale ukuthambekela kwe-SMC yokuphusha imiyalezo ye-pro-industry futhi ngaphandle kwemibono ephikisanayo ngezihloko ezinjenge ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi I-GMO.

Ku-imeyili, uMqondisi weSMC uFiona Fox uthe iqembu lakhe alihambisani nomkhakha wezimboni: “Silalela ngokucophelela noma yikuphi ukugxekwa kweSMC emphakathini wezesayensi noma ezintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK kodwa asikutholi ukugxekwa ngokuchema komkhakha wezimboni kusuka kulaba ababambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokuchema kwemboni yezimboni futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi labezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba ezingundabuzekwayo zesayensi sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile. ”

Izingcaphuno mayelana neSayensi Media Center

Izintatheli nabaphenyi ngethonya nobandlululo lweSayensi Media Center (ukugcizelelwa kufakwe kuzingcaphuno ezingezansi):

  • “Izikhungo zeSayensi Media ... seziphenduke abadlali abanethonya, kepha abanempikiswano emhlabeni wobuntatheli. Yize ezinye izintatheli zikuthola kuwusizo, ezinye zikholelwa ukuthi zithambekele kososayensi bakahulumeni nezimboni. ” Ukubuyekezwa kobuntatheli beColumbia
  • “Kuya ngokuthi ubuza kubani, (Umqondisi weSMC) UFiona Fox usindisa ubuntatheli besayensi noma ayibhubhise," U-Ewen Callway, Nature
  • “Ukwehla kwesibalo sezintatheli zesayensi zase-UK ezicindezeleke isikhathi asisayi emkhakheni wemba izindaba. Baya emihlanganweni ehlelwe kusengaphambili e-SMC… The ikhwalithi yokubika kwesayensi kanye nokwethembeka kolwazi olutholakala emphakathini konke lokhu kuhlupheke, kuhlanekezela ikhono lomphakathi lokwenza izinqumo ngengozi. ” UConnie St. Louis, iCity College yaseLondon, eCJR
  • “Inkinga akukhona ukuthi bathuthukisa isayensi, njengoba besho ukuthi benza, kodwa ukuthi bona khuthaza isayensi esebenza ngokuhlanganyela. " UDavid Miller, University of Bath, eSciDev
  • "Kulabo abangaphuphuthekiswanga yi-aura ekhangayo ye-SMC, kubonakala sengathi inhloso yayo ecashile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izintatheli nabezindaba babika izindaba zesayensi nezokwelapha kuphela ngendlela yokuthi kuvumelana 'nenqubomgomo' kahulumeni nezimboni ezindabeni okukhulunywa ngazo. " UMalcolm Hooper, iYunivesithi yaseSunderland, iphepha leCFS / ME
  • “Kuyabonakala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezihlangene ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK ukuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe beBiotec kanye nezokuxhumana ngocingo. ” Iphepha likaDon Maisch kumaselula
  • "The Indima ye-SMC ibonakala ifaka umbono omncane of, ezimweni eziningi imibono emihle, yokuphepha kokuthwebula ama-fracking. ” UPaul Mobbs, Uphenyo Lwezemvelo lweMobbs
  • “Isikhungo sesayensi, esihlala singaziphethe kahle ngokwezepolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu inethiwekhi yezombangazwe eyinqaba neyenkolo. " UGeorge Monbiot, The Guardian

Uxhaso Lwamabhizinisi LweScience Media Center

Isabelo esikhulu sezimali se-SMC, cishe ama-30%, sivela ezinkampanini nakumaqembu ezohwebo. Abaxhasi kusukela ngo-Agasti 2016 kufaka phakathi inqwaba yamakhemikhali, i-biotechnology, inuzi, ukudla, ezokwelapha, ezokuxhumana kanye nezimboni zezimonyo. Abaxhasi bezimboni zezolimo bahlanganisa iBayer, iDuPont, iBASF, iCropLife International, iBioIndustry Association kanye neChemical Industries Association. Abaxhasi bangaphambilini zifake iMonsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola neKraft. I-SMC nayo ithola uxhaso oluvela ezinhlakeni eziningi zezindaba, uhulumeni kanye nezifundiswa.

SMC kusho yona inikela ngeminikelo evela kunkampani eyodwa noma isikhungo kuya ku-5% wemali engenayo yonyaka ngemizamo “yokuvikela ethonyeni elingalungile” - kukhishwa imali engaphandle yeminikelo emikhulu evela ku-Wellcome Trust nakuhulumeni wase-UK Umnyango Webhizinisi, Amandla Nezimboni Isu.

Umlando We-SMC: “UMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani”

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990, ubudlelwano phakathi kwesayensi nabezindaba base busezingeni elichachambile, kuchaza iSMC ividiyo yephromoshini. "Ngesikhathi sokutshalwa kweBSE, MMR, GM, kwakukhona umqondo wangempela ngaleli gebe phakathi kososayensi nabezindaba," kusho uFox kule vidiyo. I-SMC yadalelwa “ukusiza ukuvuselela ukwethembana komphakathi kwezesayensi ngokusebenzela ukukhuthaza ukumbozwa okulinganiselayo, okunembile futhi okunengqondo kwezindaba eziyimpikiswano zesayensi,” ngokusho kwayo umbiko wokubonisana.

Imibhalo eyisisekelo ye-SMC ifaka:

  • February 2000 Umbiko wekomidi leNdlu YeNkosi ichaza “inhlekelele yokwethembana” ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi nesayensi, futhi yancoma uhlelo olusha lwesayensi nabezindaba.
  • Septhemba 2000 “Indlela Yokuziphatha / Imihlahlandlela Yezokuxhumana Kwezesayensi Nempilo, ”YiRoyal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) incoma imihlahlandlela yezintatheli nososayensi ukuze kuliwe“ nomthelela omubi walokho okubhekwa 'njengezindaba ezesabisayo' ezingenasisekelo kanye nalezo ezinikeza amathemba angamanga kulabo abagula kakhulu. ”
  • 2002 Umbiko Wokubonisana we-SMC ichaza inqubo yenhlolokhono nababambiqhaza abavela kuhulumeni, izimboni kanye nabezindaba abatshele ukuthi iSMC "izoyithatha kanjani i-gauntlet ephonswe phansi yiNkosi… yokuguqula isayensi ibe yizindaba eziphambili."

Umzamo weSMC waba nempikiswano ngokushesha. Umbhali uTom Wakeford wabikezela ngo-2001 ukuthi iSMC izoba “uMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani lapho ababusi abaqanjiwe bakaGeorge Orwell bazoziqhenya ngabo.” Wabhala uMgcini, "Abantu abaphezulu kuHulumeni, iRoyal Society kanye neRoyal Institution bathathe isinqumo sokuthi ulwazi lwabo lomnotho olubaluleke kakhulu ludinga ukuthi kuncishiswe ukukhuluma ngokukhululeka." Uchaze i-Code of Practice: “Lo Mthetho uncoma ukuthi izintatheli zibonisane nochwepheshe abagunyaziwe, incwadi eyimfihlo okufanele inikezwe 'izintatheli ezibhalisiwe ezinemininingwane eqondile.'”

Iphrojekthi yokuqala ye-SMC - umzamo wokudicilela phansi ifilimu eqanjiwe le-BBC eliveza izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngendlela engathandeki - liphakamise uchungechunge lwezihloko ezibucayi kwi-Guardian (umhleli we-Guardian wabhala nayo le filimu). Lezi zihloko zichaze iSMC njenge- “iqembu lokwamukela izivakashi zesayensi exhaswa izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi namakhemikhali ”ebisebenza “Uhlobo lweyunithi yokuphika esheshayo yaseMandelsoni”Futhi ngisebenzisa“ ezinye amasu we-clumsiest spin weNew Labor ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi (ifilimu) kusengaphambili. ”

UDick Taverne noSense Mayelana neSayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi - umzamo wokucela ukwakhiwa kabusha kwemibono yesayensi - eyethulwa e-UK ngonyaka we-2002 kanye ne-SMC ngaphansi kobuholi buka-Lord Dick Taverne nabanye abanobudlelwano ne-SMC. U-Lord Taverne wayeyi-SMC Ilungu leBhodi Elilulekayo futhi yena kudalwe ngokubambisana ikhodi yokusebenza ye-SIRC.

Indaba ka-2016 ku-The Intercept nguLiza Gross uchaze i-Sense About Science nabaholi bayo “njengabaqaphi abazimele 'besayensi yomsindo'” abathi “balinganise izikali embonini.” UGross uchaze izibopho zomkhakha kagwayi zikaTaverne kanye nemizamo ye-PR yenkampani:

Ngokwamaphepha angaphakathi akhishwe ngamacala ngabakhiqizi bakagwayi, inkampani yababonisi bakaTaverne, iPRIMA Europe, isize iBritish American Tobacco ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwane nabatshalizimali bayo futhi shaya imithetho yaseYurophu ngogwayi ngawo-1990. UTaverne uqobo usebenze kuphrojekthi yabatshalizimali: Ku- imemo engenalo usuku, U-PRIMA uqinisekise inkampani kagwayi ukuthi "umsebenzi uzokwenziwa mathupha nguDick Taverne," ngoba ubekwazi ukubuza abaholi bezimboni futhi "uzofuna ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izidingo zomkhakha zibaluleke kakhulu ezingqondweni zabantu." Phakathi neminyaka eyishumi efanayo, uTaverne wayehleli ebhodini legatsha laseBrithani lenkampani yezokuxhumana yomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller, eyabiza uPhilip Morris njengekhasimende. Umqondo weqembu “lesayensi elizwakalayo”, elenziwe ngoxhaxha lososayensi ababezokhuluma bephikisana nemithethonqubo abantu bezimboni ababengenakho ukwethembeka ukuyiphikisa, kwakuyinkulumo uBurson-Marsteller ayenza kuPhilip Morris ku Imemorandamu yonyaka we-1994.

Phakathi kwamaphrojekthi ayo okuqala, iSense About Science ihlele incwadi evela ku- 114 ososayensi ukunxenxa uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuba "aphikisane nezimangalo ezingamanga" mayelana nama-GMO, futhi wenza inhlolovo ukugqamisa inkinga yokucekelwa phansi kwesivuno seGMO.

I-Sense About Science USA ivulwe ngo-2014 ngaphansi kobuholi besikhathi eside umlingani wemboni yamakhemikhali uTrevor Butterworth, kanye nabalingani be-Gates exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science, a Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO.

Imisuka YamaKhomanisi Yezinguquko

Abaqondisi abasungula nabamanje beScience Media Center kanye neSense About Science - Umqondisi weSMC UFiona Fox kanye noMqondisi we-SAS UTracey Brown - nabanye ababandakanyeka nalawo maqembu, kubikwa ukuthi baxhunywe ngeRevolutionary Communist Party, iqembu leTrotskyist splinter elalihlelwe ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1970 ngaphansi kobuholi besazi sezenhlalo UFrank Ferudi, ngokusho kwababhali UGeorge Monbiot, UJonathan Matthews, UZac Goldsmith futhi UDon Maisch.

Iqembu likaFerudi elihlukanise i-RCP lahlangana Ukuphila kweMarxism, Umagazini we-LM, I-Spiked Magazine futhi Isikhungo Semibono, owamukela ubungxiwankulu, ukuzimela futhi wakhuthaza umbono wezobuchwepheshe nokudelela abezemvelo, ngokusho kukaMonbiot. (UFerudi kuphendula kule ngcezu.) A Isihloko se-Guardian mayelana nomcimbi we-LM ngo-1999 uchaze inethiwekhi "njengempendulo ebhekiswe Kwesobunxele" (ngamazwi kaFuredi) enombono womhlaba wokuthi ukucabanga kwesokunxele "akuyona into yezepolitiki" futhi "ayikho enye indlela emakethe."

"Enye yezinto ezixakile kwezepolitiki yanamuhla wukubusa kwababengamaphiko kwesobunxele asebephendukele kwesokudla," kubhala uMonbiot ku Isihloko se-2003 Kuchazwa ubudlelwano phakathi kweSense About Science kanye neScience Media Center, abantu ababambe iqhaza kuleyo mizamo kanye nezixhumanisi zenethiwekhi ye-LM:

“Ngabe konke lokhu kwenzeke ngengozi? Angicabangi kanjalo. Kepha akulula ukuqonda ukuthi kungani kwenzeka. Ngabe sibheke iqembu elifuna amandla ngenxa yalo, noma elilandela ukwakheka kwezepolitiki, okuyisinyathelo esiphakathi kwalo? Engingakusho ukuthi isikhungo sezesayensi, esihlala singenapolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu oxhumano lwezepolitiki oluyinqaba nolwehlukile. Esikhundleni sokwakha kabusha ukuthembela komphakathi kwezesayensi nakwezokwelapha, ifilosofi yaleli qembu enyanyekayo ekugcineni ingayiqeda. ”

amaqhinga

I-SMC e-UK ithi inakho i-database enezingcweti ezingama-2700 kanye nezikhulu ezingaphezu kwezingu-1200 zabezindaba, kanye nohlu lwamakheli olunezintatheli ezingaphezu kwezingama-300 ezimele yonke imibhalo emikhulu yase-UK. I-SMC isebenzisa amaqhinga amathathu amakhulu ukuthonya ukusabalala kwesayensi, ngokusho kwayo ividiyo yephromoshini:

  1. Impendulo esheshayo ezindabeni eziqhamuka nezingcaphuno zemibono: Lapho kuvela indaba yesayensi, “kungakapheli nemizuzu emingaki kukhona ama-imeyili e-SMC emabhokisini okungenayo awo wonke intatheli kazwelonke enikeza ochwepheshe,” kusho uFox.
  2. Ukuthola izintatheli kuqala ngocwaningo olusha. I-SMC "inelungelo lokufinyelela kumajenali esayensi angaba ngu-10-15 ngaphambi kokuphakanyiswa kwama-embargo" ukuze bakwazi ukulungiselela ukuphawula kusengaphambili kochwepheshe bezinkampani zangaphandle okukhombisa ukuthi izifundo ezintsha ziyakudinga ukunakekelwa nokuthi kufanele zihlelwe kanjani.
  3. Ukuhlela cishe i-100 press ngamafuphi unyaka "owabeka i-ajenda" ngokusobala ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene zesayensi ezinempikiswano ezifana nodoti wenuzi, i-biotechnology kanye nezifo ezisafufusa.

Izibonelo zethonya nokuchema

Abaphenyi abaningana kanye nezifundiswa babike ukuthi bathi ukwenzelela kwe-SMC okuxhasa izimboni ngezihloko ezinempikiswano, kanye nokuthi izintatheli zithembele kangakanani emibonweni yochwepheshe be-SMC ukuhlela izindaba zesayensi.

Ukungabi nemibono ehlukahlukene

Uprofesa wobuntatheli uConnie St. Louis waseCity University, eLondon, uhlole umthelela weSMC ekubikeni kwesayensi emaphephandabeni kazwelonke ayi-12 ngo-2011 nango-2012, futhi wathola:

  • Ama-60% ama-athikili abika izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
  • Ama-54% okuphendula "kochwepheshe" anikezwe yi-SMC ekuqhamukeni kwezindaba ngalesi sikhathi esihlanganisiwe bekusezindabeni
    • Kulezi zindaba, ama-23% awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
    • Kulabo abakwenzile, kuphela ama-32% wemithombo yangaphandle enikeze umbono ophikisayo kulokho okunikezwa ngungoti ekuphenduleni kwe-SMC.

"Kunezintatheli eziningi kunokuba kufanele ngabe zisebenzisa kuphela ochwepheshe be-SMC hhayi ukuxhumana nemithombo ezimele," kuphetha uSt.

Ochwepheshe akubona njalo ososayensi

UDavid Miller, uprofesa wesayensi yezenhlalo evela e-University of Bath, e-UK, uhlaziye okuqukethwe kwe-SMC kuwebhusayithi kanye nezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act, futhi wabika:

  • Abanye ochwepheshe be-SMC abangama-20 kwabangu-100 abacashunwe kakhulu kwakungebona ososayensi, njengoba kuchazwa ngokuba ne-PhD nokusebenza esikhungweni sokucwaninga noma emphakathini ophakeme kakhulu, kepha babengama-lobbyists kanye nama-CEO amaqembu amaqembu embonini.
  • Imithombo yezimali ibingadalulwa njalo ngokuphelele ngesikhathi esifanele ku-inthanethi.
  • Kwakungekho bufakazi bokuthi iSMC yayivuna umxhasi othile, kodwa yayithanda imikhakha ethile yezinkampani nezihloko ezazikhuluma ngazo “kukhombisa izinto eziza kuqala zabaxhasi bazo.”

“Uma uthi ucaphuna ososayensi bese ugcina usebenzisa ama-lobbyists kanye nama-NGO, umbuzo uthi: ngabe ukhetha kanjani ukuthi yiliphi ama-lobbyists noma ama-NGO okumele abe nawo? Kungani ungenawo ama-lobbyist aphikisana nokuhlolwa kofuzo noma amalungu e-Greenpeace aveza umbono wawo kunesikhundla se-bioindustry? Lokho kuveza ngempela uhlobo lokuchema olusebenzayo, ”kusho uMiller.

Strategic spin triumph emibungwini yabantu / yezilwane e-hybrid

Ngo-2006, lapho uhulumeni wase-UK ecabanga ukuvimbela ososayensi ekwakheni imibungu ehlanganiswa nabantu-yezilwane, iSMC yahlanganisa imizamo yokususa ukugxila ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kude nezinkinga zokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwemibungu ehlanganisiwe njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho ku-Nature.

Umkhankaso we-SMC "wawunqobe amasu ebudlelwaneni bezindaba" futhi "ububhekele kakhulu ukuguqula isimo sokutholakala kwemibungu eyizilwane ezingabantu," ngokusho kuka-Andy Williams, umcwaningi wezindaba e-University of Cardiff, e-UK, owenza ukuhlaziywa egameni le-SMC kanye nabasizi bomkhankaso.

UWilliams uthole:

  • Imithombo engaphezulu kwama-60% ezindabeni ezibhalwe yizintatheli zesayensi nezempilo - leyo okubhekiswe kuyo yi-SMC - isekele ucwaningo, futhi yingxenye eyodwa kuphela yekota yemithombo ephikisana nalokhu.
  • Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli ebezingakahlosiwe yi-SMC zikhulume nososayensi abambalwa abasekelayo kanye nabaphikisi abaningi.

"UWilliams manje ukhathazekile ngokuthi imizamo ye-SMC iholele izintatheli ukuthi zinikeze isithunzi ososayensi ngokweqile, nokuthi zavimbela impikiswano," Indatshana Yemvelo ibikile. Ingxoxo noWilliams in SciDevNet kubika:

"Ulimi oluningi olusetshenzisiwe ukuchaza [izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC] kugcizelela ukuthi babeyithuba lokuthi ososayensi bachaze isayensi ngamagama abo, kodwa - okubaluleke kakhulu - ngendlela engathathi hlangothi futhi engenaxabiso," esho. Kepha lokhu akulinaki iqiniso lokuthi le micimbi ibiphethwe ngokuqinile icindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo, engeza, nokuthi isethelwe ukuvikela umthelela omkhulu kwabezindaba kososayensi ababandakanyekayo. Izintatheli ezingongoti bezesayensi zondliwe "yimixhaso yolwazi" yi-SMC futhi zinamathuba amaningi kakhulu kunezinye izintatheli ukucaphuna imithombo yokuvikela ukuxubana, kusho uWilliams.

Ikhuthaza ukubukwa kwemboni ku-fracking

Ngokombiko othile Februwari 2015 ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba olwenziwe nguPaul Mobbs we-Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, i-SMC yanikela ngamazwibela amaningi ochwepheshe mayelana ne-fracking phakathi kowezi-2012-2015, kepha idlanzana lososayensi ababephethe ukuphawula kwakusuka ezikhungweni ezinobudlelwano bezezimali nemboni kaphethiloli noma amaphrojekthi ocwaningo axhaswe imboni.

“Iqhaza le-SMC libukeka lifaka umbono omncane emibonweni emincane yezimvo zokuphepha kwe-fracking. Le mibono isuselwa esikhundleni sobungcweti salabo abathintekayo, futhi ayisekelwa ngezikhombo zobufakazi ukuqinisekisa ubuqiniso bayo. Ngenxa yalokho, le mibono iye yacashunwa kwabezindaba ngaphandle kokungabaza. ”

“Mayelana negesi ephuma emanzini, i-SMC ayinikezi umbono olinganiselayo ngobufakazi obutholakalayo, kanye nokungaqiniseki, ngemithelela kawoyela negesi engajwayelekile. Inikeza izingcaphuno ezivela ezifundweni ezimele kakhulu umbono 'wase-UK', ongabunaki bonke ubufakazi obutholakala kulolu daba obuvela e-USA, Australia naseCanada. ”

Ukwehlisa isineke ukukhathala okungamahlalakhona 

A Iphepha le-2013 nguMalcolm Hooper, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-Emeritus, e-University of Sunderland, e-UK, usole iSMC ngokuthuthukisa imibono yabanye abasebenza kwezokwelapha, ngokwehluleka ukubika ngesayensi yezinto eziphilayo kanye nokuphokophela "imibono kanye nenkulumo-ze yamaqembu anentshisekelo enamandla" emithonjeni yayo yezindaba sebenza ku-chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Iphepha likaHooper libika ngezixhumanisi eziphakathi kwe-SMC nabadlali abalulekile empikiswaneni yeCFS / ME nezixhumanisi zemboni yomshuwalense, futhi linikeza ubufakazi balokho uHooper akuchaze njengomkhankaso weSMC wokudicilela phansi abantu ngeCFS / ME, kanye nemizamo yayo yokudicilela phansi iPACE imiphumela yesivivinyo kwabezindaba. Uyaphetha, "Inhlangano eziphatha ngendlela engqubuzana nesayensi ngale ndlela ayinakuba nesicelo esisemthethweni sokumela isayensi."

Ukubukwa kwe-SMC, bheka Ishidi lamaqiniso lango-2018 ku-CFS / ME “ukugula nokuphikisana.”

Ukuphepha kwamaselula nabaxhasi bezingcingo

A Iphepha le-2006 nguDon Maisch, PhD, "kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokungakhethi kwemodeli yeSMC kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi lapho kunikezwa izeluleko zochwepheshe ezindabeni ezinengxabano lapho izintshisekelo ziyingxenye yohlaka lweSMC." Iphepha leMaisch lihlola ukuxhumana kwamaSMC ezindabeni ezibandakanya imisebe kagesi kagesi kanye nokuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, futhi linikeza lokho akubiza ngokuthi "umlando ongacwaningwa wemodeli yeSMC yokuxhumana kwesayensi."

“Kusobala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezisebenzisanayo ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK yokuqhakambisa ubuchwepheshe be-Biotec nobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana. Lokhu kungachaza ukuthi kungani abantu abangenazo iziqu zangempela kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi bekwazile ukufinyelela ezikhundleni ezaba ubuso bomphakathi bezikhungo zesayensi zaseBrithani. Ibuye ichaze ukuthi kungani isikhungo sezesayensi nezokwelapha sase-UK, sazi ukuthi ingxenye enkulu yemali yesayensi ivela emithonjeni yezimboni, ingabalingani abazimisele ukuvumela izinhlangano ze-PR ezine-ajenda enqunywe kusengaphambili ukuthi zibakhulumele futhi zisekele inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni kunentshisekelo yomphakathi . ”

Ukuvikela i-GMO

Njengokwehliswa ngenhla, bobabili iScience Media Center neqembu lodadewabo iSense About Science bethule ngamaphrojekthi avikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. I-SMC ivame ukunikeza ochwepheshe abagxeka izifundo eziveza ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ngo-2016, ososayensi baphindisela emuva ekuphenduleni kochwepheshe be-SMC abathi babekhuluma kabi ngomsebenzi wabo kuma-GMO. Ucwaningo oluholwa nguMichael Antoniou, PhD, iNhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group, eKing's College London School of Medicine, futhi lwashicilelwa ku Imibiko yeSayensi, wasebenzisa ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana ukuze aqhathanise ummbila we-GMO nozakwabo ongeyona i-GM futhi wabika ukuthi ummbila we-GM nowe-GM "awalingani kakhulu." I-SMC ikhiphe i- ukusabela kochwepheshe ukuhlambalaza isifundo, futhi bekungavumeli ababhali ukuthi baphendule noma balungise imininingwane enganembile ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, ngokusho kwabalobi bezocwaningo.

“Lawa mazwana [acashunwe ekukhishweni kweSMC] awanembile ngakho-ke asabalalisa ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngephepha lethu. Sazisiwe ukuthi akusiyo inqubomgomo yeScience Media Centre ukuthumela izimpendulo, ezifana nezethu, kumazwana okuphawula abawathumelayo / abawabeka kwiwebhusayithi yabo, ”kusho u-Antoniou. Ababhali bokufunda bathumele impendulo yabo lapha.

Intatheli uRebekah Wilce ibike kanjalo ku-PR Watch ngo-2014 ngezibonelo eziningana zokuchema kwe-pro-GMO kwezokuxhumana ze-SMC. Wabhala:

I-SMC izibiza ngesikhungo esizimele sokuxoxisana nabezindaba ngezindaba zesayensi. Abagxeki, nokho, bayakungabaza ukuzimela kwayo kusuka embonini ye-GMO - yize isitatimende seqembu ukuthi inkampani ngayinye noma omunye umxhasi anganikela kuphela ngamaphesenti amahlanu emholweni weqembu wonyaka - futhi axwayise ukuthi le nhlangano ibheke ngaphesheya kwechibi iye e-United States ukuhlinzeka nge-GMO spin lapha.

I-SMC kwahola impendulo ocwaningweni luka-2012 olubika ukuthi ukuthola izicubu ezilwaneni zaselebhu zondla ama-GMO esifundweni sesondlo sesikhathi eside. Ucwaningo luye lwahlazeka kakhulu emaphephandabeni, lwahoxiswa yilo magazini wokuqala futhi lwaphinde lwashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Imidiya

Uchungechunge lweColumbia Journalism Review olunezigaba ezintathu, ngoJuni 2013, “Science Media Centers and the Press”

Nature, ngu-Ewen Callaway, Julayi 2013, “Abezindaba zesayensi: Isikhungo sokunakwa; UFiona Fox neScience Media Center yakhe bazimisele ukuthuthukisa ezokunyathelisa zaseBrithani. Manje imodeli isakazeka emhlabeni wonke ”

Nature, nguColin Macilwain, “Izizwe ezimbili zihlukaniswe inhloso eyodwa: Izinhlelo zokuphindaphinda iScience Media Center yaseBrithani e-United States zigcwele ingozi”

I-FAIR, ngu-Stacy Malkan, ngoJulayi 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zenkampani Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwezesayensi?"

SciDevNet, nguMićo Tatalović, ngoMeyi 2014, “Isikhungo Sezindaba Sezindaba sase-UK sibhebhezela ukuphusha isayensi yezinkampani” Isikhungo semvu

Ukubuka kwe-PR, nguRebekah Wilke, ngo-Ephreli 2014, "IScience Media Center Spins Pro-GMO Line"

Kwiqembu elihlobene i-Sense About Science:

I-Intercept, ebhalwe nguLiza Gross, ngoNovemba 2016, “Seeding Doubt: Yeka indlela abazibeke ngayo abaqaphi 'besayensi ezwakalayo' befaka esikalini embonini.”

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: I-Sense About Science-USA Director uTrevor Butterworth Spins Science for Industry

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba 'Ozakwethu' Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza