Isisulu Somdlavuza Sibuyiselwe Esitimeleni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Umbhalo wezinqubo zanamuhla)

Ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman uthathe lesi sikhundla namuhla ukuze anikeze ubufakazi obengeziwe ecaleni lakhe elibhekene noMonsanto mayelana nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwakhe kwe-Roundup herbicide yenkampani kwamenza waba ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

UHardeman usevele wethule ubufakazi esigabeni sokuqala secala, esakhipha isinqumo senkantolo ngazwilinye esathola ukuthi uRoundup nguye owayesolwa ngomdlavuza wakhe. Ubufakazi bakhe namuhla buphendule umbuzo wesibopho sikaMonsanto nokuthi ngabe inkampani kufanele ikhokhe imali yokulahlekelwa yimpilo yakhe.

Abameli bakaHardman bazama ukukholisa abameli ukuthi uMonsanto wayebazi ubungozi bemikhiqizo yayo kepha wasebenza ngenkuthalo ukucindezela lolo lwazi ngamasu ahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi ukucindezela abalawuli, ukubhala ghostwriting izincwadi zesayensi, nokudukisa abathengi abanjengoHardeman onokumaketha okunzima mayelana nokuphepha ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based.

Esigabeni sokuqala sokuqulwa kwecala, iJaji uVince Chhabria ulinganisele ubufakazi obufushane ngokwelashwa kukaHardeman kanye nokuhlupheka akubekezelele. Kulesi sigaba, ubufakazi obunjalo buvunyelwe.

Amajaji nawo ezwe ngoMary Hardeman, unkosikazi ka-Edwin, ngoLwesihlanu. Esigabeni sokuqala, ebesikhuluma kuphela ngobufakazi obuphathelene nokuthi ngabe uRoundup ubangele umdlavuza kaMnu uHardeman noma cha, ijaji likhuze ummeli kaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff ngokuzama ngisho nokwethula uMary Hardeman kuma-jur nangokuchaza ngokuqomisana kwalezi zithandani nokushada isikhathi eside.

Okunye okwathatha isikhundla kwaba ngummangali ufakazi onguchwepheshe uChadi Nabhan,  isikhulu sezokwelapha seCardinal Health eChicago.

Ufakazi wokuqala ngoLwesihlanu kwakungusosayensi wezobuthi waseMonsanto uDonna Farmer, ubufakazi bakhe obethulwa ngevidiyo. Abameli bakaHardeman baqale ubufakazi bakhe ngoLwesithathu. Ayikho inkantolo ebibanjwe ngoLwesine.

Ngesonto elizayo, abameli bakaHardeman bahlela ukudlala ubufakazi bevidiyo yalowo owayenguSihlalo noMonsanto omkhulu kaMonsanto uHugh Grant.

Imininingwane eminingi kumingcele Imiqulu emikhulu kakhulu yobufakazi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kulabo abafuna imininingwane eyengeziwe mayelana nokucabanga kanye nokuhlelwa kabusha kwesinqumo sejaji lasenkantolo yenhlangano yokukhawulela inani elikhulu lobufakazi obuhlobene nokuxhumana kwangaphakathi kukaMonsanto nokuziphatha kusukela ecaleni lokuqala lombuso, lo mbhalo kokulalelwa kukaJanuwari 4 ngalolu daba kuyafundisa.

Nakhu ukushintshana phakathi kommeli wommangali uBrent Wisner kanye neJaji uVince Chhabria okukhombisa ukukhungatheka nokwesaba abameli bommangali abanomkhawulo wobufakazi babo ekuqondiseni imbangela, ngobufakazi obuningi obuphathelene nokuziphatha kukaMonsanto nokuxhumana kwangaphakathi kuvinjelwe. Ijaji lithe ubufakazi buzongena kuphela esigabeni sesibili secala uma amajaji esigabeni sokuqala ethola ukuthi imikhiqizo kaMonsanto's Roundup ibambe iqhaza elikhulu kakhulu kumdlavuza wommangali.

Mnu. WISNER: Nasi isibonelo esihle: Isazi sezobuthi esikhulu sikaMonsanto,
UDonna Farmer, ubhala nge-imeyili: Asikwazi ukusho ukuthi Roundup
ayibangeli umdlavuza. Asikakwenzi ukuhlolwa okudingekayo
kumkhiqizo owenziwe.
INKANTOLO: Lokho bekungeke kungene - ukusabela kwami ​​esiswini
wukuthi lokho bekungeke kungene esigabeni sokuqala.
Mnu. WISNER: Ngakho-ke lokho empeleni kuyinduna kaMonsanto
i-toxicologist - umuntu onolwazi oluningi nge-Roundup
kunanoma ngubani omunye emhlabeni - ethi -
INKANTOLO: Umbuzo uthi ngabe ubanga umdlavuza,
hhayi ukuthi - hhayi umbono kaMlimi ngalokho uMonsanto angakusho noma
angisho. Imayelana nalokho okukhonjiswa yisayensi empeleni.
Mnu. UMLALEKI: Impela. Ukhuluma ngokoqobo nge
isayensi abangayenzanga.
INKANTOLO: Amathumbu ami ukuthi lokho empeleni kuyi-a
Umbuzo olula impela, nempendulo yalokho kulula
Umbuzo uthi lokho akungeni esigabeni sokuqala. ”

Hlala ubukele….

Kwenziwe Kanjani 'IMonsanto' Ukuthukuthela 'e-IARC ngokwehlukaniswa Komdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
NguCarey Gillam

Eminyakeni emithathu edlule kule nyanga Monsanto abaphathi babona ukuthi banenkinga enkulu ezandleni zabo.

KwakungoSepthemba 2014 futhi ikhemikhali elidayisa kakhulu kule nkampani, elibulala ukhula lathi glyphosate leso yisisekelo sophawu lukaMonsanto Roundup imikhiqizo, yayikhethwe njengenye yezibulala-zinambuzane ezimbalwa ezazizohlolwa yiWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). UMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka evikela ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokukhalaza ucwaningo lwesayensi olubonisa ukuthi ikhemikhali lingadala umdlavuza noma ezinye izifo. Futhi noma ngabe ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC kwakusasele izinyanga, ososayensi uqobo lukaMonsanto babazi ukuthi umphumela ungaba yini-futhi babazi ukuthi ngeke kube kuhle.

Amarekhodi enkampani yangaphakathi awakhombisi nje kuphela izinga lokwesaba uMonsanto ayenalo mayelana nokubuyekezwa okuzayo, kodwa ikakhulukazi ukuthi izikhulu zenkampani zazilindele ngokugcwele ososayensi be-IARC ukuthi bathole okungenani ukuxhumana okuthile komdlavuza ne-glyphosate. Ososayensi benkampani baxoxe "ngobungozi" obuzungeze imizamo yabo yokuvikela i-glyphosate phakathi kokutholakele okungathandeki okuningi kocwaningo kwizifundo zabantu nezilwane ezivezwe kumbulali wokhula. Ngaphezu kwezifundo ze-epidemiology, "futhi sinezinkinga ezingaba khona kwezinye izindawo i-IARC ezocubungula, okuwukuthi, ukuvezwa, i-genetox kanye nendlela yokwenza ..." kubhala usosayensi waseMonsanto ngo-Okthoba 2014. I-imeyili efanayo ixoxe ngesidingo sokuthola ababambisene nabo nokuhlela uxhaso “lokulwa” —izinyanga zonke ngaphambi komhlangano we-IARC ngoMashi 2015.

Futhi iMonsanto yabikezela ngaphakathi ngaphambi kokuthi i-IARC ihlangane nokuthi ukubuyekezwa kobufakazi besayensi kungaholela esinqumweni sokuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka" yayiyi-carcinogenic noma "mhlawumbe" yayikhona. Izikhulu zeMonsanto zazibikezele ngesinqumo se-IARC ku uhlelo lwangaphakathi "lokulungela" lokho kwexwayisa ozakwabo ukuthi “bacabangele futhi balungiselele umphumela…” Lo mbhalo ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayecabanga ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-IARC ikhombe i-glyphosate "njenge-carcinogen yabantu." Ukulinganiswa kwe-carcinogen okungenzeka kube "kungenzeka kodwa kuncane kakhulu," kusho imemo yeMonsanto. IARC ekugcineni yenzile hlela i-glyphosate njenge “mhlawumbe okubanga umdlavuza ebantwini.”

Njengoba umhlangano we-IARC wawususondele, imibhalo yangaphakathi ikhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto ayizange ilinde isinqumo sangempela se-IARC ngaphambi kokuthatha isinyathelo. Ibhalise amaqembu ochwepheshe be-PR kanye nabaceli bokucela usizo, ososayensi nabanye kuhlelo oluhlose ukudala lokho okwenzelwe ukuthi kuvele njengesiphepho "sokukhala" kanye "nentukuthelo" yokulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC. I-IARC ibinomlando "wezinqumo ezingabazekayo nezisolwa kwezepolitiki," kusho imemo yeMonsanto.

Uhlelo bekungukudala impikiswano eyanele yokuhlambalaza ngokuphelele ukuhlolwa kwe-IARC ngoba izikhulu zeMonsanto bezazi ukuthi abalawuli bazothonywa yi-IARC, futhi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwamakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kungaba sengozini.

"Kungenzeka ukuthi isinqumo se-IARC sibe nomthelela ekuthathweni kwezinqumo esikhathini esizayo," kusho uMonsanto encwadini yakhe yangaphakathi.

Isikhathi besibucayi ngoba ngo-2015 bobabili i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) kanye neKhomishini yase-Europe bebehlola ukugunyazwa kabusha kombulali wokhula waseMonsanto. Ukulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-European Union kanye ne-EPA kubambezele izinqumo zokugcina nge-glyphosate phakathi kwempikiswano esaqhubeka mayelana nokuphepha kwamakhemikhali.

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi kwakusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kwakukhona ubufakazi bokuba ne-carcinogenicity," kusho uPeter Infante, udokotela wezifo ezithathelana ngezifo osebenze iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-24 kuhulumeni wase-US efunda izingozi zomdlavuza kubasebenzi ekuvezweni yizinto ezinobuthi. "Kungabonakala kimi ukuthi iMonsanto ayithandi ukuthi umphakathi waziswe ngengozi yomdlavuza."

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi bekusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kunobufakazi bokuthi umzimba ubanga umdlavuza."

Ngemuva kwesinqumo se-IARC, kwaqubuka isiphepho semibhikisho esivela kubantu nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene kanye nokukhala kukaMonsanto ngentukuthelo. Abanye bangabaze ubuhlakani bezimali zaseMelika i-IARC neMonsanto kuqhubekile ukulandisa okungamanga ukuthi usihlalo weqembu elisebenzayo le-IARC wagodla imininingwane ebalulekile eqenjini.

Umzila wedokhumenti, okubandakanya ama-imeyili angaphakathi, ama-memos nokunye ukuxhumana okutholwe eMonsanto ngabameli babamangali ngokusebenzisa amacala asalindwe e-US, kucacisa ukuthi impikiswano, nenselelo yokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC ayizange ihlume ngokoqobo kumazwi ahlukahlukene, kepha eyenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kwesinqumo se-IARC futhi yaqhubeka ngemuva kwalokho. Inhloso bekungukuthi-futhi inguye-ukukholisa abalawuli ukuthi bakuyeke okutholwe yithimba lochwepheshe abazimele besayensi abakha iqembu le-IARC elalihlola i-glyphosate.

Amarekhodi angaphakathi atholwe ngamacala, kuhlanganiswe nemibhalo etholwe nge-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) nezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso futhi kukhombisa ukuthi izenzo ezisetshenziselwe ukudicilela phansi i-IARC beziyingxenye yamaphethini amashumi eminyaka amaqhinga akhohlisayo yiMonsanto ukuncenga abalawuli, abenzi bomthetho namalungu abezindaba nomphakathi ukuthi i-glyphosate ne-Roundup ziphephile. Le nkampani isisebenzise la maqhinga kaningi eminyakeni edlule ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abaningana abacwaningi babo abathole imiphumela eyingozi ehambisana ne-glyphosate.

"Ukukhala Kwe-orchestrate ”

Uhlelo lokuhlaselwa kwe-IARC, olwabekwa kumemo kaFebhuwari 2015, aluzange lubandakanye kuphela abantu baseMonsanto bangaphakathi be-PR, ososayensi kanye nochwepheshe bezokumaketha, kodwa nohlu lwabadlali bezimboni bangaphandle. Abantu abahlukahlukene babelwa imisebenzi. “Amasu namasu” afakiwe:

  • "I-Orchestrate Outry" enesinqumo se-IARC-Imboni iqhuba ukufinyelela okuqinile kwemidiya / imithombo yezokuxhumana ngenqubo nomphumela.
  • "Khomba / ucele ochwepheshe abavela eceleni ukuthi babhulogi, ba-op / bahlele, babhale i-tweet kanye / noma baxhumanise, baphinde babhale, baphinde babhale kabusha, njll." Le mibhalo ikhombisa “uchwepheshe” onjalo, uHenry Miller oyisifundiswa unikeze i-athikili ebhaliwe ukuthumela iForbes ukuthi ishicilelwe ngaphansi kwegama lakhe kungashiwo ukuthi uMonsanto ubandakanyekile. UForbes ufunde ngokukhohlisa ngenyanga edlule futhi baqeda ubudlelwane noMiller.
  • “Inform / Inoculate / Engage Industry Partners” —Ngokucacile abalingani bemboni ababalwe ohlwini babandakanya izinhlangano ezintathu ezithi zizimele ngeMonsanto kodwa sekuyisikhathi eside zibonwa ngabagxeki njengamaqembu aphambili enkampani — iMonsanto iqanjwe Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa futhi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, womabili asuselwe e-US nase Umuzwa Ngezesayensi, esebenze e-United Kingdom nase-US, njengamaqembu ukusiza ngomsebenzi wayo. Eqinisweni, iSense About Science kwakuyiqembu elakhonjwa yiMonsanto ukuhola ukuphendula kwemboni futhi "linikeze inkundla yababukeli be-IARC." La maqembu enza njengoba kuhlelwe iMonsanto, athumela ukuhlaselwa okuthusayo e-IARC kumawebhusayithi awo.
  • Ukuzibandakanya ne-Regulatory Agencies-I-Monsanto ihlelelwe izinhlangano / abatshali bezolimo ukuthi "babhale abalawuli ngesikhalazo sokuthi bahlale begxile kwisayensi, hhayi esinqumweni sezombusazwe esenziwe yi-IARC."
  • "Push umbono womholi incwadi eya ephephandabeni eliyinhloko lansuku zonke ngosuku lwesinqumo se-IARC" ngosizo lwenkampani yezentengiso yasePotomac Group.

Uhlelo lokulungela lolo lubuye lusekele ukuxhasa "ukwakhiwa kwamaphepha amathathu amasha kwi-glyphosate egxile ku-epidemiology kanye ne-toxicology." Njengoba kuhlelwe, ngemuva nje kwesinqumo se-IARC uMonsanto wahlela ukuthi ososayensi abaningana — iningi labo ababengabasebenzi noma abeluleki abakhokhelwayo - babhale futhi bashicilele amaphepha ocwaningo asekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate. Kwembulwa ngemibhalo yokutholwa ukuthi iMonsanto yaxoxa ngokubhalwa kwamaphepha ngesipoki. Ku-imeyili eyodwa, usosayensi wenkampani uWilliam Heydens utshele ozakwabo ukuthi inkampani "ingabhala izipoki" imibiko ethile ezophatha amagama ososayensi abangaphandle - "bazovele bahlele futhi basayine amagama abo ukuze bakhulume," wabhala. Ubalule njengesibonelo isifundo sango-2000 esathathwa njengesinomthelela kubalawuli. Imibhalo ikhombisa Ukubhala nokuhlela okunzima kukaMonsanto ekubuyekezweni okusolakala ukuthi “kuzimele” okuholele kulokho.

IMonsanto iphikile yaliphika ilungelo lokubhala, kepha imemo eyodwa kusukela ngo-Agasti 2015 okuvela emafayilini kasosayensi waseMonsanto uDavid Saltmiras empeleni usebenzisa lelo gama, esho ukuthi “ghostwrote iphepha lokubuyekeza umdlavuza uGreim et al (2015)…” ebhekisa ephepheni elakhombisa ukuqanjwa ngusosayensi waseJalimane uHelmut Greim kanye noSaltmiras. (UMonsanto uvumile ukuthi uGreim wasebenza njengomxhumanisi enkampanini kanti ingxenye yomsebenzi wakhe kwakuwukushicilela imininingwane ebuyekezwa ngontanga ku-glyphosate).

Enye i-imeyili yangaphakathi kukhombisa ukubhalwa ngusosayensi waseMonsanto wephepha locwaningo elinesihloko esithi "Imiphumela Yokuthuthuka Nokuzala… ngemuva Kokuvezwa KweGlyphosate." Usosayensi, uDonna Farmer, wenza umsebenzi omningi, kufaka phakathi lokho akubiza ngokuthi "ukusika nokunamathisela" kolwazi oluthile. Kepha igama lakhe alifakwanga njengombhali ngaphambi kokuba leli phepha linikezwe iphephabhuku. I- okushicilelwe uphethe ngokuthi abukho "ubufakazi obuqinile obuxhuma ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate emiphumeleni emibi yokukhula noma yokuzala."

Umzila wamaphepha futhi ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wesaba ukuthi inkampani yezempilo yase-US ehlela ukubuyekeza i-glyphosate e2015 ingavumelana ne-IARC futhi isebenzisane ne-EPA ukuvimba ngempumelelo leyo ejensi—I-Agency for Toxic Substances & Registry Registry (ATSDR) -kusukela ekwenzeni ukubuyekeza kwayo. "Sizama ukwenza konke okusemandleni ukuvimbela ukuthi i-IARC yasekhaya yenzeke," Isikhulu senkampani sabhala. 

Irekhodi likhombisa ukuthi ngaphambi kwe-IARC, iMonsanto amanethiwekhi aqashiwe ososayensi bezemfundo e-US nase-Europe abavikele imikhiqizo kaMonsanto, kufaka phakathi umbulali wayo wokhula, ngaphandle kokumemezela ukusebenzisana kwabo neMonsanto. Futhi ukuthi la masosha athule asize iMonsanto idicilele phansi ososayensi ababike ucwaningo olubonisa ukulimala okuhambisana ne-glyphosate ne-Roundup, kufaka phakathi ukusebenza ngokubhideka kukaMonsanto ukuthola ucwaningo olulodwa oluyingozi ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini ehoxisiwe kumagazini wesayensi lapho yashicilelwa khona ngoSepthemba 2012. Le nkampani yaze yakwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngomunye wabaluleki bayo abakhokhelwayo owathola ubufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate's genotoxicity yanqaba ukwenza ezinye izivivinyo watusa.

Uma okushiwo yiMonsanto kuyiqiniso, leyo glyphosate iphephe kakhulu, nokuthi abukho ubufakazi bokuthi idala umdlavuza noma ezinye izinkinga zempilo, pho kungani yonke intuthu nezibuko? Kungani inkampani izodinga ukubhala amaphepha okucwaninga ukuze iwanikeze abalawuli? Kungani iMonsanto ingadinga ukusungula amanethiwekhi ososayensi ukukhuthaza ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokudiliza ososayensi abacwaningo lwabo oluphakamisa ukukhathazeka? Kungani iMonsanto izama ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate yi-US ATSDR?

Amakomidi amabili ePhalamende laseYurophu ahlele ukulalelwa komhlaka-11 Okthoba eBrussels ukuze acubungule le mibuzo neminye njengoba iKhomishini yaseYurophu ibhekene nesikhathi esinqunyiwe sokuthatha isinqumo ngokugunyazwa kabusha kwe-glyphosate ngaphambi kokuphela kuka-2017.

Abenzi bomthetho kufanele babunake ubufakazi bokuthi i-ejensi yabo yokuphepha kokudla ibonakala ilahle ibhola ekuhloleni okuzimele kocwaningo lwe-glyphosate. Amarekhodi akhombisa ukuthi i-European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) uxoshe isifundo ukuxhumanisa umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto nomdlavuza ngokululekwa isikhulu se-EPA esathi uMonsanto wabona “silusizo” futhi oyingxenye cwaninga manje ngokuhlangana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-EPA neMonsanto.

Kufanele futhi banake izindaba zokuthi i-EFSA isusele isincomo sayo ku-glyphosate embikweni okopishe futhi wanamathisela ukuhlaziywa okuvela ocwaningweni lweMonsanto.

Usihlalo weMonsanto uHugh Grant wamenywa ukuba azothula inkulumo yakhe emhlanganweni wePhalamende ngo-Okthoba, kodwa wenqaba ukuvela noma ukuthumela omunye umuntu ovela eMonsanto. UDkt Roland Solecki, inhloko yezokuphepha kwamakhemikhali eGerman Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), naye unqabile, ngokusho kwabahleli. Ngihlela ukubamba iqhaza, njengoba nommeleli ovela e-IARC nabanye abaningi.

Kuyo yonke le mpikiswano, kufanelekile ukukhumbula ukuthi ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate kunezimpande ezijulile ezisukela emuva okungenani ngonyaka we-1985 lapho i-EPA toxicologists ibheka idatha ekhombisa izicubu ezingavamile amagundane akhishwe nge-glyphosate futhi wanquma ukuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka ukuthi ibanga umdlavuza kubantu."

Imibhikisho yeMonsanto ekugcineni yaguqula lokho kuhlukaniswa kodwa ngenxa yawo wonke amaqhinga akhohlisayo asanda kuvezwa emibhalweni, amazwi kasosayensi we-EPA eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-30 eyedlule kufanele abhekwe namuhla: “IGlyphosate iyasola… Impikiswano kaMonsanto ayamukeleki. "

Usosayensi we-EPA ku leso memo sango-1985 ubhale nokuthi: “Umbono wethu ungowokuvikela impilo yomphakathi lapho sibona imininingwane esolisayo. Akuwona umsebenzi wethu ukuvikela ababhalisile… ”

Izishayamthetho zaseYurophu zingaba nokuhlakanipha ukuwakhumbula lawo mazwi.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku I-EcoWatch.

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli engumakadebona nombhali we I-Whitewash - Indaba Yombulali Wokhula, Umdlavuza Nenkohlakalo Yesayensi. Ungumqondisi ocwaningayo we-US Right to Know, iqembu elingena nzuzo labathengi elibhekele iqiniso nokusebenzela obala ohlelweni lwethu lokudla.