Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ilungelo Lethu Lokwazi e-US ngicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, nobungozi bamalabhoratri okuphepha kanye nokucwaninga ngomsebenzi, okuhlose ukwandisa ukwanda kokutheleleka noma ukubulala kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane. Sithumela izibuyekezo nokutholwa okusha ku- iBiohazards Blog yethu.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ososayensi baxoxa ngokufihla ukubandakanyeka kwabo encwadini ebalulekile yamaphephabhuku ngemvelaphi yeCovid

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UMengameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak, inhloko yenhlangano ebambe iqhaza ocwaningweni olusebenzisa ufuzo ngama-coronavirus, uxoxe ngokufihla iqhaza lakhe isitatimende esishicilelwe ngonyaka owedlule ngo I-Lancet egxeka “imibono yetulo” ikhathaza ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi igciwane le-COVID-19 livele endaweni yokucwaninga, ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know show.

Isitatimende seLancet, esisayinwe ososayensi abaqavile abangama-27, sibe nomthelela omkhulu ekuqedeni izinsolo zososayensi abathile zokuthi iCOVID-19 ingaba nobudlelwano neWuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina, enocwaningo ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

UDaszak wabhala lesi sitatimende wasisabalalisa nakwabanye ososayensi ukuze basayine. Kepha i Ama-imeyili kwembula ukuthi uDaszak nabanye ososayensi abasebenzisana ne-EcoHealth babecabanga ukuthi akufanele basayine isitatimende ukuze bafihle ukuzibandakanya kwabo kuso. Ukushiya amagama abo esitatimendeni kungayinika "ibanga elithile kude nathi ngakho-ke ayisebenzi ngendlela ephikisayo," kubhala uDaszak.

UDaszak uqaphele ukuthi "angayithumela nxazonke" kwabanye ososayensi ukuze basayine. “Sizobe sesikubeka ngendlela engayixhumanisi nokubambisana kwethu ukuze sikhulise izwi elizimele,” wabhala.

Ososayensi ababili uDaszak ababhalela ngesidingo sokwenza leli phepha libonakale lizimele nge-EcoHealth, bangongoti be-coronavirus uRalph Baric noLinfa Wang.

Kuma-imeyili, uBaric uvumelane nesiphakamiso sikaDaszak sokuthi angasayini I-Lancet isitatimende, sibhala ukuthi "Ngaphandle kwalokho kubukeka kuzenzela wena, futhi silahlekelwa umthelela."

UDaszak ekugcineni wasisayina ngokwakhe lesi sitatimende, kepha akazange akhonjwe njengombhali noma umxhumanisi womzamo.

Ama-imeyili ayingxenye yemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ekhombisa ukuthi uDaszak ubesebenza okungenani ekuqaleni konyaka odlule ukubukela phansi umbono ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka iputshukile kusuka ku- Isikhungo seWuhan.

Ukuqubuka kokuqala kwe-COVID-19 okubikiwe bekuse-Wuhan.

I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngaphambili ubike ukuthi uDaszak ubhale lesi sitatimende ukuze I-Lancet, futhi uyihlelele i- "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”.

I-EcoHealth Alliance iyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo eseNew York esethole izigidi zamadola oxhaso lwabakhokhi bentela baseMelika ukuze basebenzise izakhi zofuzo, kubandakanya nososayensi baseWuhan Institute.

Ngokuphawulekile, uDaszak uvele njengomuntu ophakathi nophenyo olusemthethweni ngemvelaphi kaSARS-CoV-2. Uyilungu le- i-World Health OrganizationIthimba lochwepheshe elicwaninga ngemvelaphi yenoveli ye-coronavirus, futhi I-Lancet COVID 19 Ikhomishini.

Bona ukubika kwethu kwangaphambilini ngalesi sihloko: 

Bhalisela i-newsletter yethu yamahhala ukuthola izibuyekezo ezijwayelekile kuphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. 

Imibhalo yaseColorado State University ocwaningweni lwe-bat pathogen

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kuchaza imibhalo yoSolwazi baseColorado State University (CSU) uRebekah Kading noTony Schountz, i-US Right to Know eyithole esicelweni samarekhodi omphakathi. UKading noSchountz bangama-virologists abacwaninga amagciwane ahlobene nelulwane ezindaweni ezishisayo emhlabeni jikelele. Basebenzisana ne-EcoHealth Alliance, uMnyango Wezokuvikela wase-US (DoD) kanye ne-Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), uphiko lwezocwaningo nentuthuko yamasosha aseMelika.

Imibhalo inikeza amazwibela kufayela le- inkimbinkimbi yezempi-yezifundo zososayensi abafunda ukuthi bangavimbela kanjani ukugeleza kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane avela kumalulwane. Imibhalo iphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nezingozi ezithathelanayo, ngokwesibonelo, zokuthunyelwa kwamalulwane namagundane atheleleke ngamagciwane ayingozi. Futhi aqukethe ezinye izinto eziphawuleka, kufaka phakathi:

  1. NgoFebhuwari 2017, abaxhumanisi beDoD boHlelo Lokusebenzisana Lokuzibandakanya Kwezinto Ezisongela Ezokuvikela kumemezela umfelandawonye omusha wamalulwane omhlaba wonke “ukwakha nokusimamisa amakhono ezwe nawesifunda ukukhiqiza ukuqonda okuthuthukile kwamalulwane nemvelo yawo ngaphansi kwesimo sezinto ezibangela ukuphepha.” Okuhambisana nalokhu, ama-imeyili show ukusebenzisana phakathi kwe-CSU, i-EcoHealth Alliance kanye ne-National Institutes of Health's Rocky Mountain Laboratories ukwakha indawo yokucwaninga amalulwane e-CSU ukukhulisa izifundo zokutheleleka ngamalulwane.
  2. Umfelandawonye wamalulwane womhlaba wonke waba yiqembu elibizwa ngeBat One Health Research Network (I-BOHRN). Ngo-2018, ososayensi abakhulu be-BOHRN babesebenza ne-DARPA kuphrojekthi ebizwa nge-PREEMPT. Amarekhodi e-CSU ku-PREEMPT kukhombisa ukuthi iRocky Mountain Laboratories, i-CSU kanye neMontana State University bakha imishanguzo "ehlukanisiwe" yokugoma ukusabalalisa kubantu bamalulwane "ukuvimbela ukuvela nokugeleza" kwamagciwane angaba ubhadane avela kumalulwane aye kubantu babantu. Inhloso yabo ukuthuthukisa “imishanguzo yokuzisabalalisa ” - okusakazeka ngokutheleleka phakathi kwamalulwane - ngethemba lokuqeda ama-pathogen ezinqolobaneni zabo zezilwane ngaphambi kokuphonswa kwabantu. Lolu cwaningo luyaphakama ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela engahlosiwe yokukhiphela obala izinhlangano ezizisakazele zofuzo, kanye nezingozi zemvelo zokuvela kwazo okungaziwa, ubudlova nokusabalala.
  3. Ukuthumela amalulwane namagundane atheleleke ngamagciwane ayingozi kudala amandla e-spillover engahlosiwe kubantu. UTony Schountz wabhala ku-EcoHealth Alliance VP uJonathan Epstein ngoMashi 30, 2020: “I-RML [Rocky Mountain Labs] ingenise inqolobane yegciwane le-Lassa ngokuthi izalelwe ekuthunjweni e-Afrika, bese kuthi inzalo ingeniswe ngqo ku-RML. Angazi noma amalulwane amahhashi angazalelwa yini ekuthunjweni, kodwa lokho kungaba yindlela yokunciphisa ukukhathazeka kwe-CDC. ” Igciwane le-Lassa isakazwa ngamagundane atholakala entshonalanga ye-Afrika. Kubanga ukugula okunamandla okubizwa nge-Lassa fever ebantwini, okuholela ekufeni okulinganiselwa ku-5,000 1 njalo ngonyaka (izinga lokufa elingu-XNUMX%).
  4. NgoFebhuwari 10, 2020, uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak uthumele i-imeyili ukucela abasayinela uhlaka lwe- The I-Lancet isitatimende "Ukugxeka kakhulu imibono yetulo ethi i-2019-nCoV ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo." Kule imeyili, uDaszak wabhala: “UDkt. ULinda Saif, uJim Hughes, uRita Colwell, uWilliam Karesh noHume Field babhale isitatimende esilula sokweseka ososayensi, ezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabasebenzi bezokwelapha baseChina abalwa nalokhu kuqubuka (okunamathiselwe), futhi siyakumema ukuba uhlanganyele nathi njengabasayini bokuqala. ” Akazange akhulume ngokubandakanyeka kwakhe ekubhaleni isitatimende.  Ukubika kwethu kwangaphambili wabonisa lokho I-Daszak wabhala isitatimende esashicilelwa ku- I-Lancet.
  5. UTony Schountz ushintshisane ngama-imeyili nososayensi abalulekile beWuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) uPeng Zhou, uZhengli Shi noBen Hu. Ku- i-imeyili yango-Okthoba 30, 2018, USchountz uphakamise uZhengli Shi ukuthi abe “yinhlangano engahambisani nhlobo” phakathi kwe-CSU's Arthropod-borne and Infectious Disease Laboratory ne-WIV, okubandakanya “ukusebenzisana kumaphrojekthi afanele (isib. Ama-arboviruses namagciwane athwalwa ngamalulwane) nokuqeqeshwa kwabafundi.” UZhengli Shi waphendula kahle kusiphakamiso sikaSchountz. Amarekhodi awasikiseli ukuthi noma yikuphi ukusebenzisana okunjalo kwaqalwa.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lemibhalo yaseColorado State University singatholakala lapha: Amarekhodi e-CSU

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ama-imeyili amasha akhombisa izingxoxo zososayensi zokuxoxa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ama-imeyili asanda kuthola anikela amazwibela okuthi ukulandisa kokuqiniseka kuthuthuke kanjani ngemvelaphi yemvelo yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ngenkathi kusala imibuzo ebalulekile yesayensi. Izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi yososayensi zikhombisa ochwepheshe bexoxa ngezikhala zolwazi nemibuzo engaphenduliwe ngemvelaphi yelabhu, njengoba abanye bebefuna ukucindezela imibono “engemuva” yokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Ososayensi abanethonya nezindawo eziningi zezindaba bachaze ubufakazi ngokuthi “nzima”Ukuthi leli gciwane lavela ezilwaneni zasendle, hhayi ebhodini. Kodwa-ke, ngemuva konyaka amacala okuqala abikiwe we-SARS-CoV-2 edolobheni laseChina iWuhan, kuncane okwaziwayo kanjani noma kuphi kwavela igciwane. Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2, obangela isifo i-COVID-19, kungabaluleka ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo.

Ama-imeyili ochwepheshe be-coronavirus USolwazi Ralph Baric - etholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi omphakathi yi-US Right to Know - khombisa izingxoxo phakathi kwabamele iNational Academy of Sciences (NAS), kanye nochwepheshe bokungavikeleki kwezifo ezithathelwanayo emanyuvesi ase-US nase Umanyano we-EcoHealth.

NgoFebhuwari 3, i-White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) kubuziwe iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) ukuze “ibize umhlangano wochwepheshe… ukuze kuhlolwe ukuthi iyiphi idatha, ulwazi namasampula adingekayo ukubhekana nokungaziwa, ukuze kuqondwe imvelaphi yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ye-2019-nCoV, futhi iphendule ngempumelelo kokubili ukugqashuka kwanoma yikuphi ukwaziswa okungaqondile okuba umphumela. ”

I-Baric nezinye izazi zezifo ezithathelwanayo zazibandakanyeka ekubhaleni impendulo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi zochwepheshe kanye ne okusalungiswa kusenesikhathi yangomhla kaFebhuwari 4.

Umbhalo wokuqala wachaza "imibono yokuqala yochwepheshe" ukuthi "imininingwane etholakalayo ye-genomic iyahambisana nokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokuthi okwamanje abukho ubufakazi bokuthi igciwane lenzelwe ukusabalala ngokushesha okukhulu phakathi kwabantu." Lo musho osalungiswa waphakamisa umbuzo, kubakaki: “[cela ochwepheshe ukuthi bangeze imininingwane ethile yamasayithi okubopha?]” Iphinde yafaka umbhalo waphansi kubakaki: ukuvela kwama-coronaviruses ahlobene]. ”

In i-imeyili eyodwa, yangomhla kaFebruwari 4, uchwepheshe wezifo ezithathelwanayo uTrevor Bedford waphawula: “Ngeke ngikhulume ngezindawo zokubopha lapha. Uma uqala ukukala ubufakazi kuningi okufanele ucabange ngakho kuzo zombili lezi zimo. ” Ngazo “zombili lezi zimo,” kubonakala sengathi iBedford ibhekisa kuzimo zelebhu kanye nemvelaphi yemvelo.

Umbuzo wezindawo ezibophezelayo ubalulekile engxoxweni mayelana nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. Izindawo ezihlukanisayo ezibophayo ku-SARS-CoV-2's spike protein confer “Okuseduze” ukubopha nokungena kwegciwane emangqamuzaneni omuntu, nokwenza i-SARS-CoV-2 itheleleke kakhulu kune-SARS-CoV. Ososayensi baphikise ngokuthi izingosi ezihlukile zokubopha zeSARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka ukuthi zivele ngenxa ye- zemvelo spillover endle noma ngamabomu I-laboratory ukulungisa kabusha kokhokho wemvelo ongakadalulwa okwamanje we-SARS-CoV-2.

The incwadi yokugcina eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 6 ayizange isho izingosi ezibophezelayo noma ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ivela kulabhorethri. Kuyacaca ukuthi kuneminye imininingwane edingekayo yokuthola umsuka weSARS-CoV-2. Incwadi ithi, “Ochwepheshe basazise ukuthi imininingwane eyengeziwe yokulandelana kwe-genomic evela kumasampula egciwane ngokwendawo - nangokwesikhashana - ayadingeka ukunquma umsuka nokuvela kwegciwane. Amasampula aqoqwe kusenesikhathi ekuqhamukeni kweWuhan namasampula avela ezilwaneni zasendle abaluleke kakhulu. ”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa abanye ochwepheshe bexoxa ngesidingo solimi olucacile ukuphikisana nalokho okuchazwe ngokuthi yi "crackpot theories" yemvelaphi yelabhu. UKristian Andersen, umbhali oholayo we iphepha elinomthelela leMvelo Medicine egomela imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2, uthe okusalungiswa kwasekuqaleni “kwakukukhulu, kodwa ngiyazibuza ukuthi ngabe sidinga yini ukuqina kakhulu embuzweni wobunjiniyela.” Uqhube wathi, “Uma enye yezinhloso zalo mbhalo kungukuphikisana nalezi zinkolelo-mbono, ngicabanga ukuthi kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi sikwenze lokho ngokuqinile nangolimi olucacile…”

In impendulo yakhe, IBaric ihlose ukudlulisa isisekelo sesayensi ngemvelaphi yemvelo yakwaSARS-CoV-2. “Ngicabanga ukuthi sidinga ukusho ukuthi isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu naleli gciwane (96%) satholwa kumalulwane azungeza emhumeni waseYunnan, eChina. Lokhu kwenza isitatimende esiqinile ngemvelaphi yezilwane. ”

Okokugcina Incwadi kusuka kubongameli be-NASEM abathathi hlangothi ngemvelaphi yegciwane. Ithi, “Ucwaningo lwezocwaningo ukuqonda kangcono imvelaphi ye-2019-nCoV nokuthi ihlobana kanjani namagciwane atholakala kumalulwane nakwezinye izinhlobo zezinto eseziqalile. Isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-2019-nCoV sibonakala njenge-coronavirus ekhonjwe kumasampula athathwe ngamalulwane aqoqwe eChina. ” Incwadi ibhekisiwe ezimbili izifundo lokho kwenziwa yi-EcoHealth Alliance neWuhan Institute of Virology. Zombili ziveza imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Emasontweni ambalwa kamuva, incwadi kaMongameli yeNASEM yavela njengomthombo onegunya lomuntu onethonya Isitatimende sabososayensi esishicilelwe ku I-Lancet lokho kudlulise isiqiniseko esithe xaxa ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. I-USRTK ibike ngaphambilini ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala la mazwi, aqinisekisa ukuthi "ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi… baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle." Lesi sikhundla, kusho isitatimende, "sisekelwa futhi yincwadi evela kubongameli be-US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine."

Ukuqokwa okwalandela kukaPeter Daszak nabanye ababambisene ne-EcoHealth Alliance ukuze Ikhomishini yeLancet COVID19 noDaszak kuye Uphenyo lweWorld Health Organisation Imvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2 kusho ukuthi ukwethembeka kwale mizamo kucekelwa phansi ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, nangokubukeka sengathi sebevele behlulele ngaphambi kwalolu daba.

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“Izingqinamba okufanele sizigweme”

Ama-imeyili eBaric akhombisa nomele i-NAS ukuphakamisa kososayensi base-US kufanele “mhlawumbe bagweme” imibuzo emayelana nemvelaphi yakwa-SARS-CoV-2 emihlanganweni yamazwe womabili ababeyihlela nochwepheshe be-Chinese COVID-19. Ama-imeyili ngoMeyi nangoJuni 2020 axoxa ngezinhlelo zemihlangano. Ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseMelika, iningi labo elingamalungu e-NAS Ikomidi Elimi Ngezifo Ezithathelwanayo Eziqhamukayo Nezinsongo Zempilo Zekhulu Lama-21, kubalwa uRalph Baric, Peter Daszak, David Franz, James Le Duc, Stanley Perlman, David Relman, Linda Saif, noPeiyong Shi.

The ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseChina kufaka phakathi uGeorge Gao, uZhengli Shi, noZhiming Yuan. UGeorge Gao unguMqondisi we-China CDC. UZhengli Shi uhola ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan Institute of Virology, kanti uZhiming Yuan unguMqondisi weWIV.

In i-imeyili kubahlanganyeli baseMelika mayelana neseshini yokuhlela, Isikhulu Sezinhlelo Eziphezulu se-NAS uBenjamin Rusek uchaze inhloso yomhlangano: “ukukugcwalisa ngemvelaphi yengxoxo, xoxa ngezihloko / imibuzo (uhlu kuhlu lwesimemo sakho nokunamathiselwe) nezinkinga okufanele gwema (imibuzo yemvelaphi, ipolitiki)…

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Xhumanisa nama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric wase-University of North Carolina angatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (Amakhasi we-83,416)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo evela kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi ze uphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili kaRalph Baric we-coronavirus 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Leli khasi libala imibhalo kuma-imeyili kaProfessor Ralph Baric, atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. UDkt Baric isazi se-coronavirus e-University of North Carolina, eChapel Hill (UNC). Unakho kuthuthukiswe izindlela zofuzo kuya ukuthuthukisa amandla obhadane lwama-bat coronaviruses akhona in ukusebenzisana noDkt Zhengli Shi eWuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi ebalulekile yososayensi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-coronavirus, futhi sakhanyisela ubudlelwano phakathi kongoti baseMelika nabaseChina kwizifo ezithathelwanayo nezifo ezithathelwanayo, kanye nezindima zezinhlangano ezifana ne-EcoHealth Alliance neNational Academy of Sciences (NAS).

Sicela uthumele i-imeyili noma yini oyithandayo okungenzeka ukuthi siyiphuthele sainath@usrtk.org, ukuze sikwazi ukuwafaka ngezansi.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili e-Baric

  1. UTracy McNamara, uSolwazi wePathology eWestern University of Health Sciences ePomona, eCalifornia wabhala ngoMashi 25, 2020: “I-Federal govt isebenzise imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ukuxhasa i-Global Health Security Agenda ukusiza amazwe asathuthuka ukuthi akhe amandla okuthola / okubika / okuphendula ezinsongweni eziwubhadane. Kusetshenziswe enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 1 kwiphrojekthi ye-PREDICT nge-USAID ifuna amagciwane aqhamukayo kumalulwane, amagundane nezinkawu phesheya kwezilwandle. Futhi manje iGlobal Virome Project ifuna amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 200 ukugijima emhlabeni wonke izingela lonke igciwane ebusweni bomhlaba. Cishe bazoluthola uxhaso. Kodwa azikho kulezi zinhlelo ezenze abakhokhi bentela baphephe kakhudlwana khona lapha ekhaya. ” (kugcizelelwa koqobo)
  2. UDkt. Jonathan Epstein, Iphini Likamongameli Wezesayensi Nokufinyelela ku-EcoHealth Alliance, wafuna umhlahlandlela wesicelo esivela ku-US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (i-DARPA) mayelana nokuxhumana "ngemininingwane yokusebenzisa i-dual-use" (Mashi 2018).
  3. Umanyano we-EcoHealth zikhokhwe UDkt Baric isamba esingadalulwanga njenge-honarium (Januwari 2018).
  4. Isimemo kuya e-US National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) kanye ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) I-US China Dialogue kanye neWorkshop mayelana Nezinselelo Zokutheleleka Okuqhamukayo, Ukuphepha Kwelebhu, Ukuphepha Kwezempilo Emhlabeni Wonke Nokuziphatha Okufanelekile Ekusetshenzisweni Kokuhlelwa Kofuzo Ekucwaningweni Kwezifo Ezithathelwanayo, Harbin, China, Jan 8-10, 2019 (Novemba 2018-Januwari 2019). Ukulungiselela Ama-imeyili futhi imemorandamu yezokuvakasha khombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika.
  5. Isimemo se-NAS emhlanganweni wochwepheshe baseMelika nabaseChina abasebenza ukulwa nezifo ezithathelwanayo nokwenza ngcono impilo yomhlaba (Novemba 2017). Umhlangano ububizwe yi-NAS kanye neGalveston National Laboratory. Kwenzeka ngoJanuwari 16-18, 2018, eGalveston, eTexas. A imemorandamu yezokuvakasha ikhombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika. Okulandelayo Ama-imeyili khombisa ukuthi uDkt Zhengli Shi we-WIV ukhona emhlanganweni.
  6. NgoFebhuwari 27, 2020, iBaric wabhala, "Njengamanje imvelaphi enkulu ngamalulwane, futhi ngiyabona ukuthi kuyiphutha ukucabanga ukuthi kudingeka umuntu ongumninikhaya ophakathi nendawo."
  7. NgoMashi 5, 2020, iBaric wabhala, “Abukho ubufakazi bokuthi leli gciwane lenzelwe izinto eziphilayo.”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Isixhumanisi sama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (~ Ama-83,416 amakhasi)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka ku- uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Usosayensi onokushayisana kwezintshisekelo ezihola iLancet COVID-19 i-task force emsukeni wegciwane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Evikini eledlule, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi isitatimende esinomthelela ku-The Lancet esisayinwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 sihlelwe ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo elithole izigidi zamadola oxhaso lwabakhokhi bentela base-US lokusebenzisa ama-coronaviruses ngokwezakhi zofuzo nososayensi e-Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV). 

The Isitatimende sikaFebhuwari 18 wagxeka "imibono yetulo" ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ebhodini, futhi wathi ososayensi "baphetha ngokumangazayo" leli gciwane livela ezilwaneni zasendle. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-USRTK uveze ukuthi uMengameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wayibhala le ncwadi wayihlelela ukuthi "kugwemeke ukuvela kwesitatimende sezombusazwe." 

ILancet yehlulekile ukudalula ukuthi abanye abasayine lesi sitatimende banezikhundla ne-EcoHealth Alliance, enesandla kwezezimali ekuphambukiseni imibuzo kude nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Manje, iLancet ihambisa ithonya elingaphezulu eqenjini elinokushayisana kwezintshisakalo embuzweni obalulekile wezempilo yomphakathi ngemvelaphi yobhadane. NgoNovemba 23, iThe Lancet yaqamba igama elithi a iphaneli entsha yamalungu ayi-12 kuKhomishini yeLancet COVID 19. Usihlalo wethimba elisha lokuphenya i- “Origins, Early Spread of the Pandemic, kanye ne-One Health Solutions to Future Pandemic Usongo” akekho omunye ngaphandle kukaPeter Daszak we-EcoHealth Alliance. 

Ingxenye yamalungu eqembu - kubalwa iDaszak, Hume Field, Gerald Keusch, Sai Kit Lam, Stanley Perlman noLinda Saif - nabo bangabasayina esitatimendeni sikaFebhuwari 18 abathi bazi umsuka waleli gciwane cishe ngemuva kwesonto ngemuva kweWorld Health. Inhlangano imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-coronavirus yenoveli sizobizwa nge-COVID-19. 

Ngamanye amagama, okungenani isigamu seKhomishini ye-Lancet ye-COVID Commission ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 kubonakala sengathi seyihlulele lo mphumela ngaphambi kokuthi kuqale uphenyo. Lokhu kwehlisa ukwethembeka negunya leqembu.

Imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 yile kuseyimfihlakalo futhi uphenyo olunzulu noluthembekile kungenzeka lubaluleke kakhulu ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo. Umphakathi ufanele uphenyo olungangcoliswanga yizingxabano zentshisekelo ezinjalo.

Ukuvuselelwa (Novemba 25, 2020): UPeter Daszak naye uqokelwe esikhundleni se- Ithimba labantu abayishumi le-World Health Organisation ngicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

I-EcoHealth Alliance yahlela isitatimende sososayensi abalulekile "ngemvelaphi yemvelo" ye-SARS-CoV-2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Vuselela i-2.15.21 - I-imeyili entsha ye-Daszak: “Akunasidingo sokuthi usayine 'iSitatimende' uRalph !!

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi a isitatimende ku I-Lancet ebhalwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 begxeka "imibono yetulo ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi yemvelo" yahlelwa ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo ithole izigidi zamaRandi of Umkhokhi wentela wase-US uxhaso ukuze ukuguqula izakhi zofuzo Ama-coronavirus nososayensi e Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala lo mbhalo I-Lancet isitatimende, nokuthi wayehlose ukukwenza "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”. UDaszak ubhale ukuthi ufuna "ukugwema ukuvela kwesitatimende sezepolitiki".

Incwadi yososayensi yavela ku I-Lancet ngoFebhuwari 18, kusasele isonto elilodwa nje ukuthi i-World Health Organisation imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-novel coronavirus sizobizwa nge-COVID-19.

Ababhali abangama-27 “bayigxeka ngokuqinile imibono yetulo yokuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo,” futhi babika ukuthi ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi “baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.” Le ncwadi ibingafaki izinkomba zesayensi zokuphikisa imfundiso-mbumbulu yegciwane. Usosayensi oyedwa, uLinda Saif, ubuze nge-imeyili ukuthi kungasiza yini “Ukufaka isitatimende esisodwa noma ezi-2 ukuxhasa ukuthi kungani i-nCOV kungelona igciwane elenziwa elebhu futhi kuvele ngokwemvelo? Kubonakala kubalulekile ekuphikiseni lokho kushiwo! ” UDaszak uphendule wathi, “Ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele sinamathele esitatimendeni esibanzi. "

Izingcingo ezikhulayo ukuphenya iWuhan Institute of Virology njengomthombo ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 kuholele kulokhu ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe we-EcoHealth Alliance. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi amalungu e-EcoHealth Alliance adlale kanjani indima yokuqala ekubunjweni kwemibuzo mayelana nokuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingavela kanjani njengemibono “edabukisayo edinga ukulungiswa,” njenge UDaszak utshele The Guardian.

Yize ibinzana elithi "EcoHealth Alliance" livele kanye kuphela I-Lancet isitatimende, ngokuhlangana nombhali-mbhali uDaszak, abanye ababhali ababambisene nabo banobudlelwano ngqo neqembu elingadalulwanga njengokushayisana kwezintshisekelo. URita Colwell noJames Hughes banjalo amalungu weBhodi labaQondisi be-EcoHealth Alliance, UWilliam Karesh uyiPhini Likamongameli Ophethe weqembu lezeMpilo neNqubomgomo, futhi Inkambu yeHume ungumeluleki weSayensi neNqubomgomo.

Ababhali besitatimende baphinde bathi "ukwabiwa okusheshayo, okuvulelekile, nokusobala kwemininingwane ngalokhu kuqubuka manje sekusongelwa amahemuhemu nolwazi olungelona iqiniso ngemvelaphi yalo." Namuhla, noma kunjalo, kuncane okwaziwayo mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nophenyo ngemvelaphi yayo ngo- i-World Health Organization futhi I-Lancet Ikhomishini ye-COVID-19 ziye zaba kusitshekelwe ekusithekeni futhi ngicindezelwe ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo.

UPeter Daszak, uRita Colwell, no I-Lancet Umhleli uRichard Horton akazange anikeze imibono ephendula izicelo zethu zale ndaba.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance: University of Maryland (Amakhasi we-466)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Okuthunyelwe okuhlobene

Kungani sicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, amalebhu ezokuvikela kanye nocwaningo lwe-GOF

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bheka IBiohazards Blog ukuthola izibuyekezo kuphenyo lwethu, futhi siyathumela imibhalo evela kuphenyo lwethu lapha. Bhalisela lapha ukuthola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke. 

NgoJulayi 2020, i-US Right to Know yaqala ukuletha izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngenhloso yokuthola imininingwane evela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-Covid-19. Selokhu kuqale ukubheduka eWuhan, abakwaSARS-CoV-2 babulale abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi, ngenkathi begulisa ezinye izigidi ngobhadane lomhlaba oluqhubeka nokuvela.

Siphenya nezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye ukwenzeka emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe izifo ezinamandla eziwubhadane, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zomphakathi zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), olubandakanya ucwaningo lokuthuthukisa izici zokusebenza kwamagciwane abulalayo , njengomthamo wegciwane, ukusuleleka kanye nokusabalalisa.

Umphakathi wesayensi womphakathi nowomhlaba wonke unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi idatha ekhona ngalezi zindaba. Sizobika lapha noma yikuphi ukutholakala okuwusizo okungavela ocwaningweni lwethu.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi.

Kungani senza lolu cwaningo?

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi izinsizakusebenza zokuphepha zikazwelonke e-United States, China nakwezinye izindawo, kanye neyunivesithi, izimboni kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni abasebenzisana nazo, kungenzeka zinganikeli isithombe esiphelele nesithembekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 nobungozi yocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi.

Ngocwaningo lwethu, sifuna ukuphendula imibuzo emithathu:

  • Yini eyaziwayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2?
  • Ngabe zikhona izingozi noma iziphithiphithi ezenzekile ezikhungweni zokucwaninga nge-biosafety noma ze-GOF ezingakabikwa?
  • Ngabe kukhona ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zokuphepha eziqhubekayo zamalabhorethri okuphepha noma ucwaningo lwe-GOF olungakabikwa?

Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2?

Ngasekupheleni kukaDisemba 2019, edolobheni laseWuhan, eChina, kwavela izindaba zesifo esibulalayo esithathelwanayo esibizwa nge-COVID-19, esidalwe yiSARS-CoV-2, i-coronavirus yenoveli eyayingaziwa ukuthi ibikhona phambilini. Imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 ayaziwa. Kunemicabango emibili eyinhloko.

Abaphenyi kumanethiwekhi ochwepheshe ahlobene ne Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology (WIV) futhi Umanyano we-EcoHealth, i-US non-profitthat ine kutholwe izigidi zamadola kwizibonelelo ezikhokhelwa ngabakhokhi bentela kuya sebenzisana no I-WIV ocwaningweni lwe-coronavirus, babe ezibhaliwe ukuthi igciwane lenoveli kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ngokukhethwa kwemvelo ezindaweni zezilwane, nge inqolobane yayo kumalulwane. Lokhu "Zoonotic" umsuka i-hypothesis yaphinde yaqiniswa ngu izimangalo ukuthi ukuqubuka okusha kwe-coronavirus kuqale kufayela le- “Izilwane zasendle” emakethe eWuhan, the Imakethe yokudla kwasolwandle yaseHuanan, lapho kungenzeka khona ukuthi kuthengiswe izilwane ezingase zitheleleke. (Noma kunjalo, okungenani ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yeqoqo lokuqala leziguli ezinegciwane, kufaka phakathi icala lokuqala elaziwa kakhulu lokutheleleka kusuka ngoDisemba 1, 2019, lalingaxhumananga ngqo noma ngokungaqondile nababekhona emakethe yezilwane zasolwandle yabantu nezilwane.)

I-zoonosis hypothesis njengamanje iyi-hypothesis yemvelaphi ekhona. Kodwa-ke, imvelaphi ye-zoonotic ye-SARS-CoV-2 inayo kepha isazomiswa ngokuqinisekile, futhi abanye abacwaningi baveze ukuthi kusekelwe eziphikisanayo kokuma ukuthi zidinga ukuqhubeka kophenyo.

Ngokuqhubeka nokufunda ngalezi zihloko, bheka uhlu lwethu lokufunda: Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2? Ziyini izingcuphe zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi?

Abanye ososayensi baye basikisela umbono ohlukile wemvelaphi; bacabanga ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingumphumela we ngengozi ukukhishwa kohlobo lwasendle noma i-lab-modified uhlobo lokuhlobene eduze Igciwane elifana ne-SARS ebigcinwe ezikhungweni zokuvikela ukuphepha ezenza ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan, njenge-WIV noma iZikhungo ze-Wuhan zokuLawulwa nokuVinjelwa kwezifo.

Okubaluleke kakhulu, isimo esivela kumalabha asisho ukuthi asiyifaki i-zoonosis hypothesis ngoba i-SARS-CoV-2 ingaba umphumela wokulungiswa kwelebhu okwenziwe ngezinhlobo ezingabikwanga ze-bat coronaviruses ezingabiki ze-SARS igcinwe ku-WIV, noma ukuqoqwa nje kanye nokugcinwa kwama-coronaviruses anjalo. Abagxeki ye-lab-origin hypotheses iyichithile le mibono njenge ukuqagela okungenabufakazi futhi izinkolelo zendlovu.

Kuze kube manje, kukhona hhayi kwanele ubufakazi ukwenqaba ngokuphelele imvelaphi ye-zoonotic noma i-lab-Origin hypotheses. Siyazi, ngokususelwa kuzindatshana zocwaningo ezishicilelwe futhi Izibonelelo zikahulumeni wase-US ku-EcoHealth Alliance yokuxhasa ucwaningo lwe-WIV coronavirus, leyo WIV igcinwe amakhulukhulu wama-coronaviruses angaba yingozi akwa-SARS, futhi enziwe Ukuhlolwa kwe-GOF kuma-coronaviruses ngokubambisana namanyuvesi ase-US, futhi kwakukhona ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha nge I-WIV's BSL-4 laboratory.

Kepha kuze kube manje, akukabi khona ukucwaningwa okuzimele kwamarekhodi kanye nemininingwane yolwazi lweWIV, futhi kunolwazi oluncane mayelana nokusebenza kwangaphakathi kweWIV. I-WIV isusile kwimininingwane yayo yewebhusayithi njenge ukuvakashelwa konozakuzaku besayensi baseMelika ngonyaka wezi-2018, Futhi ivale ukufinyelela kwi-database yayo yamagciwane futhi amarekhodi elabhorethri izivivinyo ze-coronavirus ezenziwa ososayensi be-WIV.

Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2 kunemithelela ebalulekile yenqubomgomo yezinhlelo zomphakathi zezempilo nezokudla. Imvelaphi engaba khona ye-zoonotic yakwaSARS-CoV-2 iyaphakama imibuzo mayelana nezinqubomgomo ezithuthukisa ukunwetshwa kokusebenza kwezolimo ezimbonini kanye nemfuyo, okungaba yizimbangela ezinkulu ze ukuvela kwamagciwane enoveli kanye ne-pathogenic kakhulu, ukugawulwa kwamahlathi, ukulahleka kwezinhlobonhlobo zemvelo kanye nokuhlaselwa kwemvelo. I- kungenzeka ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingahle ivele kulabhorethri ye-biodefense imibuzo mayelana ukuthi kufanele yini unalezi zinsiza, lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe okwenziwe ngama-microbial pathogen akhiqizwa endle.

Uphenyo lwemvelaphi lakwaSARS-CoV-2 luphakamisa imibuzo ebalulekile mayelana nokushoda obala maqondana nocwaningo ngamagciwane angaba ubhadane, kanye nezinto ezibalulekile kanye nabadlali abakha izindawo zokuvikela ukuphepha ezivikelekile lapho kugcinwa khona amagciwane ayingozi futhi aguqulwe ukuze abulale kakhulu.

Ingabe ucwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi lufanele ingozi?

Kukhona okuphawulekayo ubufakazi ukuthi amalabhorethri okuphepha okuvikela ukuphepha kokuphila abe nokuningi izingozi, ukwephulwa, Futhi ukwehluleka kokuqukethwe, nokuthi izinzuzo ezingaba khona zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi may akufanelekile the izingozi kokubangela izifo ezingaba khona.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka lushintsha futhi luhlole amagciwane ayingozi njenge-Ebola, igciwane lesifo somkhuhlane i-H1N1, kanye nama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS ngaphansi kwerubrikhi yokwenziwa kwezinyathelo zokulwa nezokwelapha (njengemithi yokugoma). Ngenxa yalokho, inesithakazelo hhayi kuphela ku- umkhakha we-biotechnology kanye nowokwenza imithi kepha futhi ukuze umkhakha we-biodefense, ephathelene nokusetshenziswa okungenzeka kocwaningo lwe-GOF ngezenzo ze-biowarfare.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF ngamagciwane abulalayo yi- Staff umphakathi impilo. Imibiko kokuvuza ngengozi nokwephulwa kokungavikeleki ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-GOF akuvamile. Ngemuva kokuthi iqembu elivelele lama-virologists lishicilele okuphuthumayo isitatimende sokuvumelana ngoJulayi 14, 2014 ecela ukuthi kumiswe ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka, uhulumeni wase-US ngaphansi kokuphatha kukaMongameli uBarack Obama wabeka umthetho  "Ikhefu lezezimali" ekuhlolweni kwe-GOF okubandakanya amagciwane ayingozi, kufaka phakathi ama-coronaviruses namagciwane omkhuhlane.

Ukuphumula kwemali kahulumeni ocwaningweni lokukhathazeka nge-GOF kwasuswa ngo-2017 ngemuva kwesikhathi lapho uhulumeni wase-US enza khona uchungechunge lwezingxoxo ukuhlola i- izinzuzo nezingozi kuhlotshaniswa nezifundo ezibandakanya ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka.

Ifuna ukwenza izinto obala

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi imininingwane ebaluleke kakhulu kunqubomgomo yezempilo yomphakathi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nezingozi zamalabhorethri okuphepha kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi, kungafihlwa kumanethiwekhi e-biodefense wezinsiza zokuphepha zikazwelonke ze-United Amazwe, iChina, nakwezinye izindawo.

Sizozama ukukhanyisa ngalezi zindaba ngokusebenzisa izicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi. Mhlawumbe sizophumelela. Singahluleka kalula. Sizobika noma yini ewusizo esingayithola.

USainath Suryanarayanan, PhD, ungusosayensi wabasebenzi e-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali ngokubambisana wale ncwadi, “Izinyosi Ezinyamalalayo: Isayensi, Ezombusazwe kanye ne-Honeybee Health”(Rutgers University Press, 2017).