Ukuphishekela iqiniso nokwenza izinto obala kwezempilo yomphakathi

IBayer yenza uhlelo olusha lwama- $ 2 billion lokuqeda izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngoLwesithathu ubesazama futhi ukuphatha nokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo, kubekwa eceleni isivumelwano esingu- $ 2 billion neqembu labammeli bommangali uBayer athemba ukuthi bazothola ukuvunywa yijaji likahulumeni ngubani wenqaba uhlelo lwangaphambilini Ihlobo elidlule.

Ngokuphawulekile, lesi sivumelwano sidinga iBayer ukuthi ifune imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukufaka imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela ezifundweni zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate.

Ukwengeza, ngokusho kukaBayer, lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama esizonxephezela "abafaka izicelo ezifanelekile" ohlelweni lweminyaka emine; ukusungula iphaneli lesayensi elelulekayo okutholakele kwalo kungasetshenziswa njengobufakazi kumacala angahle abe khona esikhathini esizayo; kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokucwaninga nokuxilonga zocwaningo lwezokwelapha kanye / noma lwesayensi ekuhloleni nasekwelapheni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Uhlelo kumele luvunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni saseNyakatho saseCalifornia. UChhabria ubengamele ukubekwa kwamacala amaningi eRoundup multidistrict.

UBayer uthe amalungu amakilasi afanelekayo eminyakeni emine ezayo azokwazi ukuthola amazinga wemiklomelo ekhokhelwayo ngokuya ngemikhombandlela ebekwe esivumelwaneni. “Isigaba sokuhlala” sibhekise kubantu ababekade bevezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup kepha bengakafaki icala enkantolo abathi balimalekile ngenxa yalokho kuvezwa.

Amalungu ekilasi lezokuhlala azokwazi ukuthola isinxephezelo phakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000, kusho uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ukusatshalaliswa kwesikhwama sokuhlala kuzokwenzeka kanjena:
* Isikhwama Sesinxephezelo - Okungenani ama- $ 1.325 billion
* Uhlelo Lokuhlinzeka Ngokutholakala Kokuxilonga - $ 210 million
* Uhlelo Lwezimali Zocwaningo - $ 40 million
* Izindleko Zokulawulwa Kwezokuhlala, Izindleko Zokweluleka KwePhaneli Yesayensi, Izindleko Zesigaba Sokuhlala, Izintela,
kanye nezimali nezindleko ze-Ecrow Agent - Kuze kube yizigidi ezingama- $ 55
Uhlelo lokuhlongozwa oluhlongozwayo lwamacala ezenzo zesigaba esizayo luhlukile ku- isivumelwano sokukhokha IBayer yenziwa nabameli bamangali angamashumi ezinkulungwane asebevele baletha izimangalo ezithi ukutholakala kweRoundup nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate kubenze ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.
Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ukufa nokuhlala njengoba iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuqeda amacala we-Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinyangeni eziyisikhombisa ngemuva kweBayer AG umemezele izinhlelo ngokuxazululwa kokushonelwa kwamacala omdlavuza we-US Roundup, umnikazi waseJalimane weMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo ezilethwe abantu abaphethwe umdlavuza abathi zibangelwe yimikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye icala livele lathola ukuvalwa, yize ummangali angiphilelanga ukukubona.

Abameli bakaJaime Alvarez Calderon, bavumelane ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto ngesinqumo esanikezwa yiBayer ngemuva kweJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoMsombuluko inqatshelwe isahlulelo esifingqiwe ngokuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela icala ukuthi lisondele ecaleni.

Isivumelwano sizoya emadodaneni amane ka-Alvarez ngoba ubaba wabo oneminyaka engu-65, osebenza isikhathi eside esebenzela iwayini eNapa County, California, ushone nje esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka esedlule kusuka kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma usola umsebenzi wakhe wokufafaza i-Roundup ezungeze impahla ye-winery iminyaka.

Ekulalelweni kwenkantolo ngoLwesithathu, ummeli womndeni wakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi lesi sinqumo sizolivala leli cala.

Ngemuva kokuqulwa kwecala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze e-winery iminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isifutho sasebhakeni ukufaka isicelo sikaMonsanto kusekelwe ku-glyphosate ukubulala ukhula kuma-acreage asakazekayo eqembu le-Sutter Home lamawayini. Wayevame ukuya ekhaya kusihlwa nezingubo ezimanzi ngomuthi wokubulala ukhula ngenxa yokuvuza kwemishini kanye nombulali wokhula okhukhuleka emoyeni. Watholwa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, elashwa kaningi ngamakhemikhali nezinye izindlela zokwelashwa ngaphambi kokushona ngoDisemba 2019.

UDiamond uthe ujabule ngokuxazulula leli cala kodwa unamacala angama-Roundup "angu-400 plus" amanye angakalungiswa.

Akayedwa. Okungenani uhhafu weshumi namanye amafemu wezomthetho wase-US anabamangali baseRoundup abafuna izilungiselelo zesilingo zango-2021 nangaphezulu.

Kusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto ku-2018, iBayer ibilokhu ilwela ukuthola ukuthi ungayenza kanjani kuqedwe ukuqulwa kwamacala lokho kufaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube yimanje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ngaphezu kwemizamo yokuxazulula izimangalo ezisalindile njengamanje, iBayer inethemba lokuthi izokwakha indlela yokuxazulula izimangalo ezingaba khona ezingabhekana nazo kubasebenzisi beRoundup abathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngokuzayo. Uhlelo lwayo lokuqala lokusingatha amacala esikhathi esizayo yenqatshwa nguJaji Chhabria futhi inkampani ayikamemezeli uhlelo olusha.

Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

Ikhanda likaBayer's Monsanto liyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-migraine eyiMonsanto ibonakala ingahambi nganoma yisiphi isikhathi maduze kuBayer AG.

Imizamo yokuxazulula inqwaba yamacala alethwe e-United States ngamashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu abathi imithi yokubulala ukhula i-Roundup yabanikeza umdlavuza iyaqhubeka nokuqhubekela phambili, kepha ababheki kuwo wonke amacala asele, futhi nabamangali abanikezwanga ngezindawo zokuhlala ezivumelana nabo.

In incwadi eya kwiJaji Lesifunda laseMelika uVince Chhabria, Ummeli wase-Arizona uDavid Diamond uthe izethulo ezenziwe ngabameli ezihola izingxoxo zokuxazulula iBayer egameni labamangali azikhombisi ngokunembile isimo samakhasimende akhe. Ubalule “ukuntuleka” “kokuhlangenwe nakho okuhlobene nokuhlala” neBayer futhi wacela ukuthi iJaji uChhabria aqhubekele phambili ngamacala amaningi kaDiamond ukuze aqulwe.

“Izethulo zobuholi maqondana nokukhokhwa kwemali azimele izivumelwano zamakhasimende ami
okuhlangenwe nakho okuhlobene, izintshisekelo noma isikhundla, ”kusho uDiamond etshela ijaji.

UDiamond ubhale kule ncwadi ukuthi unamakhasimende angama-423 Roundup, afaka phakathi angama-345 anamacala asalindwe phambi kukaChabria ecaleni lamacala amaningi (MDL) eNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia. Eceleni kwe-MDL kunezinkulungwane zabamangali amacala abo asalindile ezinkantolo zombuso.

Ukufinyelela kukaDiamond kwijaji kulandele ukulalelwa ngasekupheleni kwenyanga edlule lapho amafemu amaningana aholayo enkantolo kanye nabameli bakaBayer batshele uChabria ukuthi sebesondele ekuxazululeni iningi lamacala, uma kungewona wonke, phambi kwejaji.

IBayer ifinyelele ezindaweni ezibalulekile namafemu abameli ahamba phambili abamele ingxenye enkulu yezimangalo ezilethwe iMonsanto. NgoJuni, iBayer yathi izonikeza u- $ 8.8 billion kuya ku- $ 9.6 billion ukuxazulula icala.

Kepha impikiswano nokuphikisana kuye kwacindezela ukunikezwa kokukhokha konke.

Abamangali abaningana abamele amafemu amakhulu nabakhulume ngombandela wokuthi amagama abo angasetshenziswa, bathe abahambisani nemibandela yezindawo zokuhlala, okusho ukuthi amacala abo azobhekiswa ekulamuleni futhi, uma lokho kwehluleka, ukulingwa.

Ngemuva kokuthenga iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo efaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ebibhekene nazo kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. AmaJury kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola ukuthi ama-herbicides aseMonsanto's glyphosate, afana neRoundup, abangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Izinkinga Zilokhu Zanda

IBayer isabise ngokuthi izofaka ukuqothuka uma ingakwazi ukuvala icala leRoundup kanti ngoLwesithathu inkampani ikhiphe isexwayiso senzuzo futhi yamemezela izigidigidi zokuncishiswa kwezindleko, icaphuna “umbono ophansi kunalindelekile emakethe yezolimo” phakathi kwezinye izinto. Lezi zindaba zithumele amasheya enkampanini ewayo.

Ekubikeni izinkinga zikaBayer UBarron uqaphele: “Izinkinga zilokhu zanda njalo kuBayer nakubatshalizimali bayo, okumanje kumele basebenzise njalo izindaba ezingadumisi. Isitokwe manje sehle ngaphezu kuka-50% selokhu isivumelwano seMonsanto savalwa ngoJuni 2018. "Lokhu kubuyekezwa kwakamuva kunezela ecaleni lokuthi isivumelwano seMonsanto sibe ngesinye sezimo ezimbi kakhulu emlandweni wezinkampani."

Izilingo zomdlavuza weRoundup zisasongela iBayer, kepha izingxoxo zokuxazulula ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abameli bomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG kanye nabamangali abamangalela uMonsanto batshele ijaji lombuso ngoLwesine ukuthi bayaqhubeka nokwenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni amacala asezweni lonke alethwe ngabantu abathi iMoonanto's Roundup ibenze baba nomdlavuza.

Ekulalelweni kwevidiyo, ummeli weBayer uWilliam Hoffman utshele iJaji Lesifunda lase-US uVince Chhabria ukuthi inkampani ifinyelele kwizivumelwano - noma isizofinyelela kwizivumelwano - ukuxazulula amacala angaphezu kuka-3,000 XNUMX aqoqelwe enkantolo yamacala amaningi (MDL) afakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda yase-US isifunda esiseNyakatho yeCalifornia.

Le nkampani ngokwehlukana isivele ixazulule izinkulungwane zamacala angaphandle kwe-MDL, amacala abelokhu eqhubeka ezinkantolo zombuso. Kodwa impikiswano nokuphikisana kuye kwaphazamisa ukunikezwa kokukhokhelwa ngokuphelele, ngezinsolo ezivela kumafemu abanye abamangali okuthi iBayer ibuyise izivumelwano ezifinyelelwe ezinyangeni ezedlule, kanti amafemu abanye abamangali angafuni ukuvumelana nalokho abakubheka njengokungeneli okwenziwe yiBayer.

Akukho obekuxoxwa ngakho ngalezo zikhalazo, nokho, ekulalelweni kwangoLwesine, izinhlangothi zombili ziveza imibono ethembayo.

“Inkampani iqhubekele phambili yaphothula izivumelwano eziningana namafemu…. sethemba nokuthi sizophothula ezinye izivumelwano ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”kusho uHoffman etshela ijaji.

“Lapho sikhona njengamanje… lezi zibalo zilinganiselwe ngandlela thile kodwa ngicabanga ukuthi zisondele ngokufanelekile: Kunamacala angaba ngu-1,750 angaphansi kwezivumelwano eziphakathi kwenkampani nezinkampani zabameli namanye amacala abalelwa ku-1,850 kuya ku-1,900 asezigabeni ezahlukahlukene zengxoxo njengamanje, ”kusho uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukwenza uhlelo lokusheshisa izingxoxo futhi ngethemba lokuthi sizoletha izivumelwano nalawo mafemu."

Ummeli wabamangali uBrent Wisner utshele ijaji ukuthi kubalulekile ukuthi wazi ukuthi kusele “amacala ambalwa” ngaphakathi kwe-MDL angakaxazululwa kuze kube manje. Kodwa, uthe - "Silindele ukuthi bazoba khona maduze."

IJaji uChhabria uthe ngokwenqubekela phambili uzoqhubeka nokuhlala kwamacala eRoundup kuze kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uzoqala ukuhambisa amacala enkantolo uma engaxazululwa yilelo phuzu.

Ukusebenza Okubi kweBayer Kusolwa Ngokuthi

Ithoni yokubambisana evezwe ekulalelweni kwangoLwesine ibikude kakhulu nokulalelwa okwenziwe ngenyanga edlule lapho ummeli wabamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokuhlala okwenziwe okwesikhashana ezenziwe ngoMashi futhi bezihlose ukuphothulwa ngoJulayi.

IBayer yamemezela ngoJuni ukuthi ifinyelele esivumelwaneni samaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi namafemu abameli baseMelika ukuxazulula iningi lezicelo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezingaphezu kuka-10. Kodwa ngaleso sikhathi amafemu abameli abaphambili kuphela ababehola amacala ayenezivumelwano zokugcina ezazisayinwe neBayer kwakunguMiller Firm neWeitz & Luxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifike ku- $ 849 wezigidi ukumboza izimangalo zamakhasimende angaphezu kuka-5,000 XNUMX Roundup, ngokusho kwemibhalo yezokukhokha.

Ezinze eCalifornia Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman Inkampani yezomthetho; i Andrus Wagstaff iqinile evela eColorado; kanye ne- Moore Law Group YaseKentucky yayinezivumelwano zokuzama kodwa hhayi izivumelwano zokugcina.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe enkantolo, uBayer ucele ukwelulwa kaninginingi kuze kube yilapho isivumelwano nenkampani yakhe sihluleka maphakathi no-Agasti. Ngemuva kokubika izindaba kuJaji Chhabria, izingxoxo zokuxazulula izinkinga zaqala futhi zaba ekugcineni ixazululwe ngamafemu amathathu kulenyanga.

Imininingwane ethile lokuthi izindawo zokuhlala izophathwa zifakwe ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto enkantolo eMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., eyenza ibhizinisi njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, izosebenza njenge-
"Umlawuli Wokuxazululwa Kwamanga, ” ngokwesibonelo, kumakhasimende ka-Andrus Wagstaff amadola akhe okuzokhokha azodinga ukuthi asetshenziswe ngokwengxenye noma ephelele ukubuyisa izindleko zokwelashwa komdlavuza ezikhokhwe yi-Medicare.

UBayer uthenge iMonsanto e2018 ngesikhathi kuqala ukuhlolwa komdlavuza we-Roundup. Selokhu lalahlekelwa zontathu lezi zivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi selilahlekelwe imizamo yokuqala yokudlulisa amacala efuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola ukuthi ama-herbicides kaMonsanto enza umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

IBayer ibisabise ngokuthi izofaka izicelo zokuqothuka uma kungatholakali indawo yokuhlala yonke, ngokusho kwezokuxhumana kusukela kumafemu wabamangali kuya kumakhasimende abo.

I-Bayer inks isebenza nezinkampani ezintathu zomthetho womdlavuza weRoundup njengoba ukuhlala kuqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IBayer AG ifinyelele emigomeni yokugcina nezinkampani ezintathu zabameli ezimele izinkulungwane zabamangali abathi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto i-glyphosate kubangele ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amadili amasha enziwe nge-California Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman Inkampani yezomthetho; i Andrus Wagstaff iqinile evela eColorado; kanye ne- Moore Law Group waseKentucky. Amafemu ngalinye lafaka isaziso ngezibambiso neNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US yesiFunda esiseNyakatho neCalifornia ngoMsombuluko.

Amadili eza ngemuva kwezinsolo zezinkampani ezintathu zabameli zokuthi iBayer ibiphikisana nezivumelwano esezenziwe ezinyangeni ezedlule. Amafemu atshele inkantolo ngoMsombuluko ukuthi manje ngamunye wabo "banesivumelwano esisebenza ngokuphelele futhi esibophayo neMonsanto."

Ngokuphawulekile, amadili abonisa isinyathelo esibucayi ekuletheni ukuvalwa kwecala lokuhlukunyezwa kwabantu abaningi elineminyaka emihlanu manje elinamacala angaphezu kuka-100,000 alethwe ngabantu abavela e-United States abasebenzisa i-Roundup namanye ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate enziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kokuba waba nomdlavuza.

UBayer uthenge iMonsanto e2018 ngesikhathi kuqala ukuhlolwa komdlavuza we-Roundup. Selokhu lalahlekelwa zontathu lezi zivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi selilahlekelwe imizamo yokuqala yokudlulisa amacala efuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola ukuthi ama-herbicides kaMonsanto enza umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

IBayer ibisabise ngokuthi izofaka izicelo zokuqothuka uma kungatholakali isixazululo ezweni lonke, ngokusho kwezokuxhumana okuvela ezinkampanini zabamangali kumakhasimende abo.

IBayer yamemezela ngoJuni ukuthi ifinyelele esivumelwaneni samaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi namafemu abameli baseMelika ukuxazulula iningi lezicelo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezingaphezu kuka-10. Kodwa ngaleso sikhathi yizinhlaka ezimbili kuphela ezinkampanini zabameli ezazithweswe amacala amakhulu ezazinezivumelwano zokugcina ezazisayinwe neBayer - The Miller Firm neWeitz & Luxenburg, ngokusho kwemithombo esondelene nezingxoxo. Inkampani iBaum, i-Andrus Wagstaff kanye ne-Moore babe nezivumelwano zokuvumelana kepha hhayi izivumelwano zokugcina, kusho imithombo.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani. UBayer uzame ukuthola imvume yenkantolo ngohlelo obekuzobambezela ukufakwa kwamacala amasha omdlavuza weRoundup iminyaka emine, futhi bekuzosungula "iphaneli lesayensi" elinamalungu amahlanu ukunquma ukuthi ngabe iRoundup ingadala i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, futhi uma kunjalo , kumazinga aphansi okuvezwa. Uma ngabe iphaneli linqume ukuthi akukho ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kwe-Roundup ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma lapho-ke amalungu ekilasi azovinjelwa ekufuneni okuzayo esikhathini esizayo.

Ijaji lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria wenqaba uhlelo,  ukuthumela iBayer emuva ebhodini lokudweba.

UBayer wayenakho kusho ngoLwesine ukuthi ibisenza inqubekela phambili ekusetshenzisweni kohlelo “olubukeziwe” lokuxazulula amacala angaba khona we-Roundup angakusasa. Imininingwane yohlelo lwesigaba esibuyekeziwe izophothulwa emasontweni azayo, ngokusho kweBayer.

Abamangali abaningana bebengajabule ngalesi sikhalazo, bethi ngeke bathole imali eningi yize beneminyaka yokwelashwa okubizayo komdlavuza kanye nobuhlungu nokuhlupheka okuqhubekayo. Ngempela, abamangali abaningi bashonile besalinde isinqumo.

NgoSepthemba 9, abameli bakaMarie Bernice Dinner nomyeni wakhe uBruce Dinner bafaka isicelo enkantolo sokuthi uMarie oneminyaka engu-73 ubudala washona ngoJuni 2 evela ku-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yena nomyeni wakhe abasolwa ukuthi babangelwa ukuvezwa kwakhe ngababulali bokhula baseMonsanto .

Abameli bakaBruce Dinner bacele inkantolo ukuthi ibavumele ukuthi bachithe isikhalazo ngeMonsanto ukufaka isimangalo sokufa ngokungekho emthethweni. Lezi zithandani bezishade iminyaka engama-53 futhi zinezingane ezimbili nabazukulu abane.

“UMarie Bernice wayengumuntu ongajwayelekile. Ukufa kwakhe bekufanele kuvinjelwe, ”kusho ummeli uBeth Klein, omele umndeni.

Abanye abamangali base-US Roundup bakwenqaba ukusayina amadili okuhlala eBayer; $ 160,000 ukukhokha okujwayelekile kubhekwe

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abamangali ecaleni laseMelika le-Roundup baqala ukufunda imininingwane yalokho okushiwo yiBayer AG's $ 10 billion ukukhokhelwa kwezimangalo zomdlavuza empeleni kusho kubo ngamunye, futhi abanye abakuthandi abakubonayo.

Bayer kusho ngasekupheleni kukaJuni bekuxoxiswane ngezindawo zokuhlala nezinkampani zabammeli abakhulu abambalwa esivumelwaneni esizovala ngempumelelo iningi lezimangalo ezingaphezulu kuka-100,000 ezisalinde iMonsanto, eyathengwa yiBayer ngonyaka ka-2018. Abamangali abasenkantolo bathi bathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ukuvezwa kwe-Roundup kaMonsanto namanye amakhemikhali okubulala ukhula enziwe ngekhemikhali elibizwa ngokuthi i-glyphosate, nokuthi iMonsanto yahlanganisa ubungozi.

Ngenkathi isivumelwano ekuqaleni sasibonakala njengezindaba ezinhle kubamangali - abanye asebenenkinga yeminyaka yokwelashwa komdlavuza nabanye abamangalela abashade nabo abangasekho - abaningi bathola ukuthi bangagcina bengenamali encane, kuya ngohlobo lwe izici. Amafemu abameli, noma kunjalo, ayengafaka ephaketheni amakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi.

“Kuyimpumelelo ezinkampanini zabameli nokushaywa ngempama ebusweni balabo abalimele” kusho omunye ummangali, ongathandanga negama lakhe.

Abamangali batshelwa ukuthi kumele banqume emasontweni ambalwa ezayo ukuthi bazokwamukela yini ukukhokhelwa, yize bengeke bazi ukuthi bazokhokhwa malini uqobo kuze kube kamuva. Zonke izivumelwano zokukhokhelwa ziyalela abamangali ukuthi bangakhulumi esidlangalaleni ngemininingwane, babasongele ngokujeziswa uma bexoxa ngezindawo zokuhlala nanoma ngubani omunye ngaphandle "kwamalungu omndeni asondele" noma umeluleki wezezimali.

Lokhu kuthukuthelise abanye abathi bacabanga ukwenqaba lezi zindawo ngenhloso yokufuna ezinye izinkampani zabameli ukuze ziphathe izicelo zabo. Le ntatheli ibuyekeze imibhalo ethunyelwe kubamangali abaningi.

Kulabo abavumayo, izinkokhelo zingenziwa ngaphambi kukaFebhuwari, noma inqubo yokukhokha bonke abamangali kulindeleke ukuthi yelule unyaka noma ngaphezulu. Ukuxhumana okuthunyelwe kusuka kumafemu abameli kuya kumakhasimende abo e-Roundup kudweba zombili inqubo umuntu ngamunye ohlaselwe ngumdlavuza azodinga ukuyenza ukuze athole ukukhokhelwa kwezezimali nokuthi lokho kukhokhelwa kungabiza ini. Imibandela yamadili iyahluka kusuka enkampanini yabameli kuya enkampanini yabameli, okusho ukuthi abamangali abakhona ngokufanayo bangagcina ngokuhlala ezindaweni ezihluke kakhulu.

Esinye sezivumelwano ezinamandla kubonakala sengathi esinye okuxoxiswene ngaso IMiller Firm, futhi nalokho kuyadumaza kwamanye amaklayenti wefemu. Kwezokuxhumana namakhasimende, inkampani ithi ikwazile ukuxoxisana cishe ngama- $ 849 wezigidi ezivela eBayer ukumboza izimangalo zamakhasimende angaphezu kuka-5,000 160,000 Roundup. Ifemu ilinganisela inani lemali ekhokhwayo ekhokhwayo kummangali ngamunye cishe kuma- $ XNUMX. Leyo mali iyonke izophinde yehliswe ngokudonswa kwemali yabameli nezindleko.

Yize izimali zabameli zingahluka ngokuqina nangommangali, abaningi ecaleni leRoundup bakhokhisa amaphesenti angama-30-40 ngemali ekhokhwayo.

Ukuze bakufanele ukukhokhelwa, abamangali kumele babe namarekhodi ezokwelapha asekela ukuxilongwa kwezinhlobo ezithile ze-non-Hodgkin lymphoma futhi bakwazi ukukhombisa ukuthi badalulwa okungenani unyaka ngaphambi kokutholakala kwabo.

IMiller Firm ibilokhu ihamba phambili ecaleni leRoundup kusukela ekuqaleni, ithola imibhalo eminingi yangaphakathi yeMonsanto esize ukunqoba zonke izilingo ezintathu zeRoundup ezigcinwe kuze kube manje. IMiller Firm isingathe ezimbili zalezo ziqulwa, yaletha abameli abasuka enkampanini yaseLos Angeles yaseBaum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman abazosiza ecaleni lika  UDewayne “Lee” Johnson ngemuva kokuba umsunguli weMiller Firm uMike Miller elimale kanzima engozini ngaphambi nje kokuthethwa kwecala. Amafemu womabili futhi asebenze ndawonye ekunqobeni icala labamangali bendoda nenkosikazi, U-Alva no-Alberta Pilliod. UJohnson uklonyeliswe ngama- $ 289 million kwathi amaPilliod aklonyeliswa ngaphezulu kwama- $ 2 billion yize abahluleli becala ecaleni ngalinye behlisa le miklomelo.

Ngasekuqaleni kwale nyanga, inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia wenqaba umzamo kaMonsanto ukuguqula isinqumo sikaJohnson, wakhipha isinqumo sokuthi kunobufakazi “obuningi” bokuthi imikhiqizo yakwaRoundup idale umdlavuza kaJohnson kodwa yehlisa umklomelo kaJohnson waba ngu- $ 20.5 million. Ukudluliswa kwamacala kusalindwe kwezinye izinqumo ezimbili ezibhekene neMonsanto.

Amagoli Abamangali

Ukunquma ukuthi ummangali ngamunye uthola malini ekuxazululeni iBayer, umphathi wesithathu uzokora umuntu ngamunye esebenzisa izinto ezibandakanya uhlobo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ummangali ngamunye athuthukile; ubudala bommangali lapho exilongwa; ubunzima besifo somdlavuza womuntu kanye nokwelashwa abakukhuthazelele; ezinye izinto eziyingozi; kanye nenani lokuchayeka ababenalo emithini yokubulala ukhula yeMonsanto.

Isici esisodwa sokuxazululwa okwabamba abamangali abaningi benganakile bekufunda ukuthi labo ekugcineni abathola imali kuBayer kuzofanele basebenzise izimali zabo ukubuyisa ingxenye yezindleko zemithi yabo yokwelapha umdlavuza ebikhokhelwa yiMedicare noma umshuwalense wangasese. Ngokunye ukwelashwa komdlavuza kufinyelela emakhulwini ezinkulungwane ngisho nasezigidini zamaRandi, lokho kungasula masinyane inkokhelo yommangali. Amafemu abameli aqoqa osonkontileka abavela eceleni abazoxoxisana nabanikezeli bemishwalense ukuthi bafune ukubuyiselwa imali enesaphulelo, abamangali batshelwe. Ngokuvamile kulolu hlobo lwamacala okuhlukumeza abantu abaningi, lezo zibopho zezokwelapha zingancishiswa kakhulu, kusho amafemu ezomthetho.

Kwesinye isici sesivumelwano esamukelwa ngabamangali, izindawo zokuhlala zizokwakhiwa ukugwema isikweletu sentela, ngokusho kwemininingwane enikezwe abamangali.

Izingozi Zokungahlali

Amafemu abameli kumele athole iningi labamangali babo ukuthi bavumelane nemibandela yezindawo zokuhlala ukuze baqhubeke. Ngokwolwazi olunikezwe abamangali, izindawo zokuhlala ziyafunwa manje ngenxa yobungozi obuningi obuhambisana nokuqhubeka nokwenza ezinye izilingo. Phakathi kwezingozi ezikhonjiwe:

  • IBayer isabise ngokufaka isicelo sokuqothuka, futhi uma inkampani ithathe leyo ndlela, ukulungisa izimangalo zeRoundup kungathatha isikhathi eside kakhulu futhi ekugcineni kungaholela emalini encane kakhulu yabamangali.
  • Inhlangano Yokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo (EPA) wakhipha incwadi ngo-Agasti odlule etshela uMonsanto ukuthi i-ejensi ngeke ivumele isexwayiso somdlavuza ku-Roundup. Lokho kusiza amathuba esikhathi esizayo kaMonsanto okunqoba enkantolo.
  • Ukubambezeleka kwenkantolo okuhlobene ne-Covid kusho ukuthi izivivinyo ezengeziwe ze-Roundup akunakwenzeka unyaka noma ngaphezulu.

Akuyona into engavamile ngabamangali abasenkantolo enkulu yokuhamba ngamacala amakhulu ukuba bahambe bedumele ngisho nezindawo ezibonakala zinkulu okuxoxiswene ngazo ngamacala abo. Incwadi ka-2019 “Iziphesheli zeMass Tort: Ukuxoxisana ngegumbi langemuva kumacala amaningi eMultidistrict”Ngu-Elizabeth Chamblee Burch, uSihlalo Wezomthetho we-Fuller E. Callaway e-University of Georgia, ubeka icala lokuthi ukuntuleka kwamasheke namabhalansi ezinkantolo zamacala amakhulu kuhlomulisa cishe wonke umuntu othintekayo ngaphandle kwabamangali.

UBurch ubeka njengesibonelo icala mayelana nomuthi we-acid-reflux Propulsid, futhi wathi uthole ukuthi kwabamangali abangu-6,012 abangena ohlelweni lokukhokha, bangu-37 kuphela abagcina bathole imali. Bonke abanye abakatholi zinkokhelo kodwa bese bevele bevumile ukuchitha amacala abo njengesimo sokungena ohlelweni lokukhokha. Labo bamangali abangama-37 bebonke bathola okungaphansi kancane kuka- $ 6.5 million (cishe ama- $ 175,000 umuntu ngamunye ngokwesilinganiso), ngenkathi amafemu abameli abahola phambili athola ama- $ 27 million, ngokusho kukaBurch,

Ukubeka eceleni lokho abamangali abangakwenza noma abangakwazi ukuhamba nabo, abanye ababukeli bezomthetho abasondele ecaleni le-Roundup litigation bathi kube nokuhle okukhulu okutholakele ngokudalulwa kokwenza okubi kwenkampani nguMonsanto.

Phakathi kobufakazi obuye bavela ngaleli cala kukhona nemibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ekhombisa ukuthi le nkampani yakhelwe ukushicilelwa kwamaphepha esayensi abonakala ngamanga ukuthi enziwa ososayensi abazimele kuphela; ukuxhaswa, nokusebenzisana, namaqembu angaphambili asetshenziselwe ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi ababika ingozi ngemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto; nokusebenzisana nezikhulu ezithile ngaphakathi kwe-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuvikela nokuphakamisa isikhundla sikaMonsanto sokuthi imikhiqizo yayo ayibanga umdlavuza.

Amazwe amaningana emhlabeni jikelele, kanye nohulumeni basekhaya kanye nezifunda zesikole, bathuthele ekunqandeni i-glyphosate herbicides, kanye / noma eminye imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane ngenxa yezambulo zecala leRoundup.

(Indaba iqale yavela ku- Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.)

Inselelo ebhekiswe kuhlelo lokwenziwa kwezigaba zokuhlala kweBayer Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Uhlelo lokubambezela noma yiziphi izimangalo ezintsha zomdlavuza weRoundup iminyaka eminingi bese susa umbuzo obalulekile wokuthi ngabe umbulali wokhula uwubangela noma cha umdlavuza kusuka kumajaji kuya kuphaneli elikhethwe ngesandla lososayensi babhekene nokuphikiswa okungenzeka kwabanye babameli babamangali abaqala futhi bahola isimangalo esenziwa ngobuningi sibhekiswe kumenzi weRoundup uMonsanto, kusho imithombo esondelene necala.

Amalungu amaningana amafemu omthetho ahola izindondo ezintathu kwezintathu ezihlasela iziguli ezinomdlavuza elwa neMonsanto acabanga ukuphonsela inselelo imigomo yesiphakamiso "sezenzo zesigaba" esixoxiswene phakathi komnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG kanye neqembu elincane labameli abebengakaze okuhamba phambili ecaleni le-Roundup, kusho imithombo.

Isiphakamiso sokuxazulula isenzo sesigaba siyinto ye-skukhala ama- $ 10 billion Ukuxazululwa kwamacala eRoundup uBayer umemezele ngoJuni 24.

Esivivinyweni ngasinye esabanjwa kuze kube manje, amajaji athola ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi besayensi sifakazele ukuthi ukuvezwa kweRoundup kubangele ukuthi abamangali bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) nokuthi iMonsanto ihlanganise izingozi. Kepha ngaphansi kwesiphakamiso lowo mbuzo uzoya "ezinhlakeni zesayensi" ezinamalungu amahlanu, hhayi ijaji.

"Ngokuyisisekelo kunciphisa ummangali ilungelo labo lomthethosisekelo lokuqulwa kwecala," kusho omunye umthombo osondelene nale nkantolo.

Kukukhokhelwa kwesigaba okuvinjelwe izosebenza kunoma ngubani odalulwe ku-Roundup owayengazange afake isimangalo noma agcine ummeli kusukela ngoJuni 24, 2020, noma ngabe loyo muntu utholakale enomdlavuza noma ukholelwa ukuthi kungenxa yokuchayeka kweRoundup.

Uhlelo lwahlanganiswa yiBayer nezinkampani zabameli zikaLieff Cabraser Heimann & Bernstein; Ukucwaningwa kwamabhuku & nozakwethu; I-Dugan Law Firm; nommeli uSamuel Issacharoff, uReiss Professor wezomthetho-sisekelo eNew York University School of Law.

Lesi sivumelwano kufinyelelwe kuso ngemuva konyaka cishe owodwa "wemizamo engapheli" yezingxoxo, ummeli u-Elizabeth Cabraser Kusho isimemezelo enkantolo esekela ukuhlinzekwa kwesigaba okuhlongozwayo.

Kungabeka “isikhathi sokuma” lapho abamangali ekilasini abakwazi ukufaka amacala amasha ahlobene neRoundup. Futhi ifuna amalungu ekilasi ukuthi akhiphe "noma yiziphi izimangalo ezibhekiswe eMonsanto ngokulimala kokujeziswa kanye nokuqashwa kwezokwelapha okuhlobene nokuchayeka kwe-Roundup ne-NHL."

Okuphawuleka kakhulu ukuthi uhlelo luthi kunokuba kuqhutshekwe phambili nokuqulwa kwecala elinye lamajaji, kuzosungulwa iphaneli lososayensi ukunquma "impendulo eyiyo" "embuzweni osemkhawulweni" wokuthi ngabe kukhona ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kweRoundup neNHL .

Uhlelo kubiza iBayer ukukhokha kuze kufike ku- $ 150 million ngezimali nezindleko zabameli abathintekayo kanye “nemiklomelo yesevisi yabamele isigaba” efinyelela ku- $ 25,000 kumuntu ngamunye noma isamba esingu- $ 100,000.

Sekukonke, iBayer ithe izobeka eceleni imali engu- $ 1.25 billion ngaleli lungiselelo. Le mali ibizosetshenziselwa ukunxephezela amalungu ekilasi atholakale ene-NHL "ngemiphumela yokulibaziseka" kwamacala, nokuxhasa ucwaningo ngokutholakala nokwelashwa kwe-NHL, phakathi kokunye.

Isicelo sokufuna imvume yokuqala yalolu daba sifakwe ngoLwesithathu eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US sokuba isiFunda esiseNyakatho yeCalifornia siphathwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria. I-Chhabria ibibheke amacala amaningi we-Roundup ahlanganiswe ndawonye njengezikhalazo eziningi. Ekweluseni inqwaba yamacala asefakiwe, uChhabria wengamele olunye lwezilingo zeRoundup, kanye nalokho okwaziwa ngokuthi ukulalelwa kwe- "Daubert", lapho ezwa khona izinsuku zobufakazi besayensi ezinhlangothini zombili wabe esenquma ukuthi kunokwanele kwesayensi ubufakazi bokubangela ukuqhubeka kwamacala.

Isiphakamiso sokuhlala ngokuhlanganyela saxoxisana ngokuhlukile kunesivumelwano esikhulu esenziwe namafemu abameli abahola phambili.

In the ukuhlala okuyinhloko, I-Bayer ivumile ukuhlinzeka ngama- $ 8.8 billion kuya ku- $ 9.6 billion ukuxazulula cishe amaphesenti angama-75 wezicelo ezingaba ngu-125,000 ezifakiwe nezingagcwalisiwe ezilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukutholakala kweM Roundanto kaMonsanto ngokuthuthukisa kwabo i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abameli abamele ngaphezulu kwabamangaleli abangaphezulu kuka-20,000 XNUMX bathi abavumanga ukuvumelana neBayer futhi lawo macala kulindeleke ukuthi aqhubeke nokusebenza ngendlela yohlelo lwenkantolo.

Yize iMonsanto ilahlekelwe yisilingo ngasinye kulezi ezintathu ezigcinwe kuze kube manje, iBayer igcina izinqumo zamajaji zinamaphutha futhi zisekelwe kumzwelo hhayi kwisayensi ezwakalayo.

Ukukhethwa Kwephaneli Yesayensi

UBayer nabameli besigaba esihlongozwayo bazosebenzisana ukuze kukhethwe ososayensi abahlanu abazohlala kulokho okuzoba yiphaneli "elingathathi hlangothi, elizimele", ngokohlelo. Uma bengavumelani ngokwakhiwa kwephaneli uhlangothi ngalunye luzokhetha amalungu amabili bese kuthi lawo malungu amane akhethe okwesihlanu.

Akekho usosayensi osebenze njengongoti kumacala we-federal multidistrict Roundup litigation ozovunyelwa ukuba abe sephaneli. Ngokuphawulekile, akekho noyedwa umuntu "oxhumane nanoma yimuphi uchwepheshe" ecaleni elibhekene nodaba.

Iphaneli lizoba neminyaka emine lokubuyekeza ubufakazi besayensi kepha lingacela ukuthi kwelulwe isikhathi uma kunesidingo. Ukuzimisela bekuzobopha nhlangothi zombili, kusho uhlelo. Uma iphaneli linquma ukuthi kukhona ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kwe-Roundup ne-NHL, abamangali bangaqhubekela phambili ukufuna izivivinyo zezimangalo zabo ngazinye.

"Ulwazi lunamandla futhi lokhu kuhlala kunika amalungu ekilasi ukuthi abambe iMonsanto ngokuziphendulela ngokulimala kwabo uma iSayensi Iphaneli ithola ukuthi le nkinga yenelisekile," kusho uhlelo.

Ukugcwaliswa kwenkantolo yenhlangano kucela ukulalelwa kokuqala kokuvunywa kungakapheli izinsuku ezingama-30.

Ummeli we-Roundup womdlavuza ulivuma icala lokuzama ukuqola

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ummeli waseVirginia owasiza ukumela ummangali wokuqala womdlavuza weRoundup ukuthatha uMonsanto ayokumangalela ecaleni wavuma icala ngoLwesihlanu ngokuzama ukudlulisa imali engamaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-200 kumthengisi wezinkampani zamakhemikhali aye eMonsanto.

UTimothy Litzenburg, 38, wavuma uhlelo lapho yena nomunye ummeli babesabisa khona ngokuthi bazolimaza kakhulu umphakeli ngaphandle kokuthi leyo nkampani ikhokhele abameli ababili imali efinyelela ezigidini ezingama-200 ezifihliwe "njengesivumelwano sokubonisana."

Ngokusho eMnyangweni Wezobulungiswa wase-US, ILitzenburg kusolakala ukuthi itshele inkampani ukuthi uma beyikhokha le mali, ubezimisele "ukudilika" ngesikhathi efaka imali, ehlose ngamabomu amathuba okuba abamangali besikhathi esizayo bazame ukumangalela.

ILitzenburg ibekwe icala elilodwa lokuzama ukukhwabanisa, ukwakha itulo nokudlulisa ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi ngenhloso yokuqola. Yena wavuma unecala kwesinye isibalo sokudlulisa ukuxhumana kwangaphakathi ngenhloso yokuqola.

Ummeli uDaniel Kincheloe, 41, wavuma unecala ukukhokhiswa okufanayo ngokuhlanganyela kulolu hlelo. La madoda kuhlelwe ukuthi agwetshwe ngomhlaka-18 Septhemba eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US esifundeni saseWestern Virginia.

"Lesi yisimo lapho abameli ababili beshaye khona badlula umugqa wommeli onolaka futhi bawela bangena endaweni yokuqola okungekho emthethweni, emzamweni wobudlabha wokuzicebisa ngokukhipha izigidi zamadola enkampanini yezizwe ngezizwe," Umsizi Wommeli Jikelele uBrian A. UBenczkowski esitatimendeni. Uthe isicelo sikhombisa ukuthi "uma kwenziwa ubugebengu, amalungu ebhawa, njengawo wonke amalungu omphakathi, azobhekana nezenzo zawo."

ILitzenburg ibingomunye wabameli bakaDewayne “Lee” Johnson okwaholela ecaleni likaJohnson lika-2018 lokulwa neMonsanto, okwaholela ekutheni $ 289 million amajaji kuvuna uJohnson. (Ijaji kuleli cala lehlisa isinqumo futhi icala selidlulisiwe.)

Ukuqulwa kwecala bekungelokuqala kwezintathu ezenzekile ngokumelene neMonsanto ngezinsolo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani efana ne-Roundup ibanga i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. IMonsanto, kanye nomnikazi wayo waseJalimane uBayer AG, balahlekelwe yizo zontathu lezi zilingo kuze kube manje kodwa badlulisa izinqumo.

Yize uLitzenburg ayesizile ukulungiselela uJohnson ukuqulwa kwecala, wayengavunyelwe ukubamba iqhaza ngesikhathi somcimbi ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokuziphatha kwakhe okwakuphethwe yiMiller Firm, okwakungumqashi wakhe ngaleso sikhathi.

Inkampani yaseMiller ngabuye ngaxoshwa ILitzenburg futhi wafaka icala ekuqaleni kuka-2019 esola iLitzenburg ukuthi ibizenzela izinto zayo, kanye "nokuziphatha okungathembekile nokungahambi kahle." ILitzenburg iphendule ngo ukuphikisa isimangalo. Amaqembu axoxisana ngesivumelwano esiyimfihlo.

Isikhalazo sobugebengu esasibhekene neLitzenburg asizange sisho ukuthi inkampani iLezzenburg yazama ukuqola, kodwa yathi yaxhumana nale nkampani ngoSepthemba ka-2019 ngonyaka ithi yayilungiselela icala elalizosola ukuthi inkampani yahlinzeka ngamakhemikhali asetshenziswa iMonsanto ukudala iRoundup nokuthi inkampani beyazi ukuthi izithako ziyi-carcinogenic kodwa yehlulekile ukuxwayisa umphakathi.

Ngokwamacala ombuso, uLitzenburg utshele ummeli wale nkampani ukuthi uzama ukuqola ukuthi inkampani kumele ingene “ezinhlelweni zokubonisana” naye ukuze kudaleke ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okuzomvimba ekutheni afake icala elisabekayo.

U-Litzenburg ubhale ku-imeyili ukuthi isivumelwano sokubonisana naye kanye nozakwabo esingu- $ 200 million “siyinani elifanele kakhulu,” ngokusho kwesikhalazo sobugebengu.

Abaphenyi bakahulumeni babhala ucingo neLetzenburg bexoxa ngezigidi ezingama- $ 200 ayezifuna, kusho isikhalazo. ILitzenburg kusolakala ukuthi yaqoshwa yathi: “Indlela engicabanga ukuthi niyacabanga ngayo futhi nicabange ngayo wukulondolozela uhlangothi lwenu. Angicabangi ukuthi lokhu kufakwa bese kuguqulwa kube yi-mass tort, noma ngabe nina niwina amacala bese nishayela inani eliphansi… Angicabangi ukuthi ikhona indlela yokuphuma kukho ngemali engaphansi kwezigidigidi zamaRandi. Ngakho-ke, niyazi, kimi, hawu, lena yintengo yokuthengisa umlilo okufanele niyicabangele… ”

ILitzenburg ithi imele cishe amakhasimende ayi-1,000 XNUMX amangalela iMonsanto ngezinsolo zomdlavuza weRoundup ngesikhathi eboshwa ngonyaka odlule.

Amaphepha eDicamba: Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-United States imangalela iMonsanto Co yangaphambili, eyathengwa ngo-2018 yiBayer AG, kanye ne-congresserate BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa okungekho emthethweni okusetshenzisiwe i ukhula lubulala i-dicamba yamakhemikhali, ukusetshenziswa okukhuthazwa yizinkampani.

Icala lokuqala ukuthethwa kwecala laxabanisa izinkampani zaseMissouri eziphathelene nezinkampani kwaholela ekutheni kukhishwe isinqumo esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 265 ezinkampanini. I- amajaji aklonyelisiwe $ 15 million kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye nezigidi ezingama- $ 250 kumonakalo wokujezisa.

Icala lifakwe enkantolo ye- Inkantolo Yesifunda Sase-US Yesifunda SaseMpumalanga yeMissouri, Southeastern Division, Idokodo Lombuso # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanikazi beBader Farms basola ukuthi izinkampani zakha uzungu lokudala "inhlekelele yezemvelo" ezokwengeza abalimi ukuthi bathenge imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba. Imibhalo esemqoka evela kulelo cala ingatholakala ngezansi.

Ihhovisi le-EPA loMhloli Jikelele (i-OIG) uhlela ukuphenya ukugunyazwa kwe-ejensi yemithi emisha yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ukuthola ukuthi ngabe i-EPA iyayilandela yini imigomo yenhlangano kanye "nezimiso ezizwakalayo ngokwesayensi" ngenkathi ibhalisa ama-dicamba herbicides amasha.

ISENZO SENKULULEKO

Ngokwehlukana, ngoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokuvumela ukubulawa kwe-dicamba okwenziwe yiBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences kanye kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Izinhlangano eziningi zamapulazi zijoyine iCorteva, iBayer neBASF ekuceleni inkantolo ukuthi ingaphoqeleli ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa. Imibhalo itholakala ngezansi.

ISENDLALELO: I-Dicamba isetshenziswe ngabalimi kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1960s kepha ngemikhawulo ebibhekele amandla amakhemikhali ukukhukhumala nokuhamba ngamandla- ukusuka kude lapho efafazwe khona. Ngenkathi imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edumile kaMonsanto, njenge-Roundup, iqala ukuphelelwa amandla ngenxa yokuphikiswa kokhula okusakazekile, uMonsanto wanquma ukwethula uhlelo lokutshala i-dicamba olufana nohlelo lwalo oludumile lweRoundup Ready, olwalubhanqa imbewu ebekezelela i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba bangaphatha kalula ukhula olunenkani ngokufafaza amasimu wonke nge-dicamba, noma ngabe izinyanga zikhula ngokufudumele, ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo. IMonsanto umemezele ukusebenzisana ne-BASF ngo-2011. Lezi zinkampani zithe imishanguzo yabo emisha ye-dicamba izobe incipha kakhulu futhi ingathambeki kangako kunezindlela ezindala ze-dicamba.

I-Environmental Protection Agency yavuma ukusetshenziswa kwe-Monsanto's dicamba herbicide “XtendiMax” ngo-2016. I-BASF yathuthukisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza nge-Engenia. Kokubili i-XtendiMax ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala e-United States ngo-2017.

IMonsanto iqale ukuthengisa imbewu yayo ebekezelela i-dicamba ngonyaka we-2016, futhi isimangalo esibalulekile sabamangali ukuthi ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunyelwa kokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula entsha ye-dicamba kukhuthaze abalimi ukuthi bafafaze amasimu ngezinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba. Icala leBader lithi: “Imbangela yokucekelwa phansi kwezitshalo zikaMmangali Bader Farms ukukhishwa kwamabomu kommangalelwa uMonsanto ngamabomu nangobudedengu kohlelo lwesitshalo olungasebenzi kahle - okuyi-soya yalo eguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo i-Roundup Ready 2 Xtend kanye nembewu kakotini iBollgard II Xtend (“ izilimo ze-Xtend ” ) - ngaphandle kwesihlanganisi esivunyelwe i-EPA esivunyelwe i-dicamba herbicide. ”

Abalimi bathi izinkampani ziyazi futhi zilindele ukuthi imbewu entsha izokhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukukhukhuleka kuzolimaza amasimu abalimi abangayithenganga imbewu ekwazi ukubekezelela i-dicamba. Abalimi basola ukuthi lokhu bekuyingxenye yohlelo lokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba. Abaningi basola ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba okuthengiswa yizinkampani nakho kuyakhukhula futhi kudale ukulimala kwezitshalo njengoba nje izinhlobo ezindala zenzile.

Ngeminye imininingwane mayelana ne-dicamba, sicela ubone eyethu ishidi lamaqiniso le-dicamba.

Bhalisela incwadi yethu yezindaba. Thola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke ebhokisini lakho lokungenayo.