Izibopho zikaPamela Ronald's to Chemical Industry Front Groups

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kubuyekezwe ngoJuni 2019

UPamela Ronald, PhD, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, uDavis nombhali wencwadi yango-2008 ethi “Tomorrow's Table,” ungummeli owaziwayo wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Okungaziwa kakhulu iqhaza likaDkt. Ronald ezinhlanganweni eziziveza njengabantu abazimele ngaphandle kwezimboni, kodwa empeleni basebenzisana nezinhlangano zamakhemikhali ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ezinhlelweni ezingafihli lutho emphakathini. 

Ixhumana neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo

UPamela Ronald unobudlelwano obuningi neqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo, i IGenetic Literacy Project, kanye nomqondisi wayo omkhulu, uJon Entine. Ubasize ngezindlela eziningi. Ngokwesibonelo, imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi ngonyaka wezi-2015, UDkt. Ronald uqoke u-Entine njengomuntu ophakeme futhi ofundisa ezokuxhumana kwezesayensi e-UC Davis, futhi wabambisana ne-Genetic Literacy Project ukusingatha imboni yezolimo exhaswe ngemali umcimbi womlayezo abaqeqeshe abahlanganyeli ukuthi bangayikhangisa kanjani imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ichazwe ku umklomelo Okwezwe uphenyo njenge “website eyaziwayo yenkulumo-ze” eyadlala indima enkulu emkhankasweni weMonsanto wokuhlambalaza umbiko wenhlangano yocwaningo lomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ngeglyphosate. Kwi Idokhumenti ka-2015 PR, IMonsanto ikhombe i-Genetic Literacy Project phakathiabalingani bemboni ” inkampani ihlele ukuzibandakanya "nokuhlela ukukhala" ngombiko womdlavuza. I-GLP kusukela lapho isishicilele izindatshana eziningi ezihlasela ososayensi bomdlavuza njenge- "anti-chemical enviros" eyaqamba amanga futhi yazibandakanya nayo inkohlakalo, ukuhlanekezela, ukufihla nokukhwabanisa.

I-Entine inezibopho zesikhathi eside embonini yamakhemikhali; umsebenzi wakhe uhlanganisa ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane, industrial Amakhemikhali, amapulasitiki, ukukhwabanisa, Kanye imboni kawoyela, imvamisa nge ukuhlaselwa kososayensi, izintatheli futhi izifundiswa.  Faka umkhankaso i-Genetic Literacy Project ngo-2011 lapho UMonsanto wayeyikhasimende yenkampani yakhe yezobudlelwano nomphakathi. I-GLP ekuqaleni ehlotshaniswa ne-STATS, izintatheli zeqembu elingenzi nzuzo zichaze njenge- “umkhankaso we-disinformation”Lokho imbewu ingabaza isayensi futhi “eyaziwa ngokuvikela kwayo imboni yamakhemikhali. " 

Ngo-2015, i-Genetic Literacy Project yathuthela enhlanganweni entsha yabazali, i-Science Literacy Project. Ukufakwa kwentela kwe-IRS ngalowo nyaka kubonisiwe ukuthi uDkt. Ronald wayeyilungu lebhodi eyasungula i-Science Literacy Project, kodwa ama-imeyili kusuka ngo-Agasti 2018 khombisa ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uqinisekise u-Entine ukuthi asuse igama lakhe kwifomu lentela ngemuva kokuthi kwaziwe ukuthi ubhalwe lapho (ifomu elichitshiyelwe lentela selikhona manje kuyatholakala lapha). UDkt. Ronald ubhalele u-Entine, “Angizange ngisebenze kuleli bhodi futhi angizange nginike mvume yokuthi igama lami libhalwe. Ngicela uthathe izinyathelo ngokushesha ukwazisa i-IRS ukuthi igama lami lifakwe ohlwini ngaphandle kwemvume. ” U-Entine ubhale ukuthi unezinkumbulo ezihlukile. “Ngikhumbula kahle ukuthi wavuma ukuba yingxenye yebhodi futhi wahola ibhodi lokuqala… Wawunomdlandla futhi ungisekela empeleni. Akukho kungabaza engqondweni yami ukuthi uvumelane nalokhu. ” Yize kunjalo wavuma ukuzama ukususa igama lakhe embhalweni wentela.

Laba bobabili baphinde baxoxa ngefomu lentela ngoDisemba 2018 ngemuva kokuthi kuthunyelwe leli phepha. Kubhale u-Entine, “Ngikubhalile ku-original 990 ngokususelwa engxoxweni yocingo lapho uvumile ukuba khona ebhodini. Ngesikhathi ungimelela ukuthi awuvumelani nalokhu, ngicishe irekhodi njengoba ubucelile. ” Ku- enye i-imeyili ngalolo suku, ukhumbuze uDkt. Ronald ukuthi “empeleni ubuhlangene nale 'nhlangano: njengoba besisebenza ndawonye, ​​ngaphandle komzamo nangokwakhayo, ekwenzeni ikamu lamabhuzu enyuvesi yakho libe yimpumelelo enkulu.”  

Amafomu entela eSayensi Literacy Project manje abala amalungu amathathu ebhodi: Entine; UDrew Kershen, owayenguprofesa wezomthetho futhi owayesebhodini le- “Academics Review,” iqembu elalithi lizimele ngenkathi ithola izimali zayo ezinkampanini zezolimo; futhi UGeoffrey Kabat, ingcweti yezifo ezisebenza ku ibhodi labeluleki besayensi Okwe Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu lelo uthole imali evela kuMonsanto ngomsebenzi wayo wokuvikela ama-pesticides kanye nama-GMO.

Isungulwe, yahola iqembu le-UC Davis eliphakamisa imizamo ye-PR yomkhakha

UDkt Ronald wayengumqondisi osungula iWorld Food Center's Isikhungo Sokufunda Nokufunda Kwezolimo (IFAL), iqembu elasungulwa e-2014 e-UC Davis lokuqeqesha ubuhlakani kanye nabafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Leli qembu alizivezi ngokugcwele izimali zalo.

Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald unikele UJon Entine neqembu lakhe eliphambili embonini I-Genetic Literacy Project yesikhulumi e-UC Davis, ukuqoka i-Entine njengomuntu omkhulu ongakhokhiwe we-IFAL kanye nomfundisi nomeluleki ohlelweni lokuthweswa iziqu kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi. U-Entine akaseyena umngani e-UC Davis. Bona incwadi yethu yango-2016 eya kwiWorld Food Center ebuza ngezimali ze-Entine ne-IFAL kanye nabo incazelo engacacile mayelana nokuthi uxhaso lwabo luvelaphi.

NgoJulayi 2014, uDkt. Ronald waveza ku-imeyili asebenza naye ukuthi u-Entine wayeyi- umhlanganyeli obalulekile ongabanika iziphakamiso ezinhle zokuthi bangaxhumana nobani ukuze bathole imali eyengeziwe ngomcimbi wokuqala we-IFAL. NgoJuni 2015, i-IFAL yabamba iqhaza "Ikamu lokuqala le-Biotech Literacy Project”Nge-Genetic Literacy Project kanye ne- Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu leMonsanto. Abahleli bathi lo mcimbi uxhaswe yimithombo yezemfundo, kahulumeni neyezimboni, kepha imithombo engeyona eyezimboni iyenqabile ukuxhasa le micimbi kanye ne kuphela umthombo wokuthola imali ongalandeleka uvela embonini, ngokusho kokubikwa kukaPaul Thacker ku-The Progressive.

Amarekhodi entela akhombisa lokho kubuyekezwa kwezifundo, okwakuthola okwayo imali evela embonini yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba, lisebenzise u- $ 162,000 engqungqutheleni yezinsuku ezintathu e-UC Davis. Inhloso yekamu ebhuthini, ngokwe-ajenda, bekuzoqeqesha nokuxhasa ososayensi, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezemfundo ukuze banxenxe umphakathi kanye nabenzi benqubomgomo ngezinzuzo zama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Izikhulumi enkanjini yebhuthi i-UC Davis zifakiwe UJay Byrne, Owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana ezinkampanini kaMonsanto; Hank campbell yezimali ezixhaswa yiMonsanto Umkhandlu waseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo; osolwazi abanezibopho zomkhakha ezingadalulwanga ezifana USolwazi Emeritus Bruce Chassy wase-University of Illinois futhi USolwazi Kevin Folta waseYunivesithi yaseFlorida; UCami Ryan, manje osebenzela iMonsanto; UDavid Ropeik, umxhumanisi wokuqonda ngobungozi onenkampani ye-PR amaklayenti afaka iDow neBayer; kanye nabanye ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo.

Izikhulumi eziyinhloko kwakunguDkt. Ronald, UYvette d'Entremont uSci Babe, "umxhumanisi wezesayensi" ovikela izibulala-zinambuzane neziswidi zokufakelwa ngenkathi ethatha imali ezinkampanini ezidayisa leyo mikhiqizo, noTed Nordhaus we-Breakthrough Institute. (UNordhaus naye wabalwa njengelungu lebhodi leSayensi Literacy Project kwifomu lokuqala lentela lika-2015/2016, kodwa igama lakhe lasuswa kanye noDkt. Ronald's kwifomu echitshiyelwe i-Entine efakwe ngo-2018; uNordhaus uthe akakaze asebenze ebhodini.)

Ukupheka ukuduba kukaChipotle

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald noJon Entine babambisene ekuthumeleni imiyalezo ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kwesinye isikhathi, uDkt. Ronald uphakamise ukuthi ahlele ukuduba ngokumelene nechungechunge lokudlela laseChipotle ngenxa yesinqumo salo sokunikela nokuphromotha ukudla okungewona okwe-GMO.

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, uDkt Ronald wathumela i-imeyili i-Entine futhi U-Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, owayeyisisebenzi sangaphambilini seMonsanto nochwepheshe wezokweluleka ngokubambisana e-UC Davis, ukusikisela ukuthi bathole umfundi ozobhala ngabalimi abasebenzisa izibulala-zinambuzane ezinobuthi kakhulu ukutshala ummbila ongewona owe-GMO. "Ngiphakamisa ukuthi silazise leli qiniso (uma nje sesithole imininingwane) bese sihlela ukuduba kwe-chipotle, ”Kubhala uDkt Ronald. U-Entine wayalela umlingani wakhe ukuthi abhale i-athikili ye-Genetic Literacy Project ngesihloko esithi "ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kuvame ukukhuphuka" lapho abalimi beshintshela kwimodeli engeyona eye-GMO ukuhlinzeka izindawo zokudlela ezinjengeChipotle. I- esihlokweni, obhaliswe ngokuhlanganyela ngu-Entine futhi etusa ubulungu bakhe be-UC Davis, wehluleka ukufakazela leso simangalo ngedatha.

Iqembu le-biotech spin elenziwe ngokubambisana iBioFortified

UDkt. Ronald wasungula futhi wakhonza njengelungu lebhodi (2012-2015) le I-Biology Fortified, Inc. (i-Biofortified), iqembu elithuthukisa ama-GMO kanye ineqembu lesishoshovu sozakwethu lokho kuyahlela imibhikisho yokubhekana nabagxeki baseMonsanto. Abanye babaholi beBiofortified kufaka phakathi ilungu lebhodi lokusungula uDavid Tribe, isazi sezofuzo e-University of Melbourne owasungula Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo, iqembu elalizimele ngenkathi ethola izimali zezimboni, futhi esebenzisana ne-IFAL ukusingatha iBiotech Literacy Project “camp boot” e-UC Davis.

Owayelilungu lebhodi uKevin Folta (2015-2018), usosayensi wezitshalo eNyuvesi yaseFlorida isihloko sendaba yeNew York Times ebika ukuthi udukise umphakathi ngokusebenzisana kwemboni okungadalulwanga. Ama-blogger ase-Biofortified afaka uSteve Savage, owake waba khona Isisebenzi saseDuPont saphenduka umxhumanisi wemboni; UJoe Ballanger, a umxhumanisi weMonsanto; no-Andrew Kniss, one uthole imali evela kuMonsanto. Imibhalo iphakamisa ukuthi amalungu eBiofortified axhumene nge imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane emkhankasweni wokunxenxa ukuphikisa imikhawulo yezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii.

Udlale indima ehamba phambili kumabhayisikobho e-propaganda axhaswa ngezimboni

UDkt. Ronald uveze ngokugqamile kwiFood Evolution, ifilimu eliwumbhalo mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuxhaswa yiqembu lezokuhweba i-Institute for Food Technologists. Inqwaba yezifundiswa zinayo wabiza inkulumo-ze yefilimu, nabantu abambalwa okwaxoxwa nabo ngefilimu ichaze inqubo ekhohlisayo yokuqopha ifilimu futhi wathi imibono yabo ikhishwe kumongo.

https://www.foodpolitics.com/2017/06/gmo-industry-propaganda-film-food-evolution/

Umeluleki womkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi obususelwa eCornell

UDkt Ronald usebhodini lokweluleka leCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso we-PR ozinze eCornell University okhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane usebenzisa imiyalezo yezimboni zezolimo. Ixhaswe ngokuyinhloko yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, iCornell Alliance for Science inayo waphikisana nokusetshenziswa koMthetho Wenkululeko Yolwazi ukuphenya izikhungo zikahulumeni, udukise umphakathi ngolwazi olungaqondile nezithunywa eziphakeme ezingathembekile; bheka imibhalo ekhasini lethu lamaqiniso.

Uthola imali evela embonini yezolimo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi uDkt Ronald uthola isinxephezelo ezinkampanini zezolimo ukuze akhulume emicimbini lapho ekhuthaza khona ama-GMO kubabukeli abakhulu izinkampani ezifuna ukubathonya, njengodokotela bezokudla. Ama-imeyili asuka kuNovemba 2012 ahlinzeka ngesibonelo sendlela uDkt Ronald asebenza ngayo nezinkampani.

Umsebenzi waseMonsanto uWendy Reinhardt Kapsak, udokotela wezokudla owake wasebenzela imboni yokudla spin iqembu IFIC, wamema uRonald ukuba azokhuluma ezingqungqutheleni ezimbili ngo-2013, iFood 3000 kanye ne-Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Food and Nutrition Conference ne-Expo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi laba ababili kuxoxiswane ngezimali nokuthengwa kwezincwadi futhi wavuma ukuthi uDkt. Ronald uzokhuluma eFood 3000, ingqungquthela eyayihlelwe yinkampani ye-PR uPorter Novelli uKapsak athi izofinyelela "kwabezindaba abaphezulu abangama-90 ababa nomthelela wokudla kanye nabadlondlobele." (UDkt. Ronald ukhokhe u- $ 3,000 kulo mcimbi). UKapsak ucele buyekeza amaslayidi kaDkt. Ronald bese usetha ucingo lokuxoxa ngemiyalezo. Futhi kuphaneli bekukhona umongameli uMary Chin (udokotela wezokudla okwathi ubonisana neMonsanto), kanye nabamele iBill & Melinda Gates Foundation neMonsanto, noKapsak enikeza izinkulumo zokuvula. UKapsak ubike kamuva ukuthi iphaneli lithole ukubuyekezwa okukhulu ngabahlanganyeli bethi bazokwabelana ngombono wokuthi, "Kufanele sibe ne-biotech yokusiza ukondla umhlaba. "

Ezinye izingxoxo zokuxhaswa kwezimboni zikaDkt Ronald zifake owe-2014 inkulumo eMonsanto ngoba $ 3,500 kanye namakhophi wencwadi yakhe ayi-100 yena unqabile ukuthumela ku-tweet mayelana; nokubandakanyeka kokukhuluma ngo-2013 akubhalisele IBayer AG nge $ 10,000.

Amaphepha ahoxisiwe

I-Watch Retraction ibike ukuthi, “u-2013 ubungunyaka onzima kusazi sezinto eziphilayo uPamela Ronald. Ngemuva kokuthola iprotheni ebonakala ivusa amasosha omzimba elayisi ukuvikela isifo esivamile sebhaktheriya - esikisela indlela entsha yokwakha izitshalo ezingamelana nezifo - yena nethimba lakhe kwadingeka bahoxise amaphepha amabili ngo-2013 ngemuva kokuthi bengakwazanga ukuphindaphinda abakutholile. Amacala: uhlobo lwebhaktheriya olubhalwe kabi kanye ne-assay eguquguqukayo kakhulu. Kodwa-ke, ukunakekela nokusebenza obala akubonisile kwamzuzela 'ukwenza okulungile'wavuma kithi ngaleso sikhathi. "

Bona ukumbozwa:

"Wenzani ngokuhlehlisa okubuhlungu? I-Q & A enoPamela Ronald noBenjamin Swessinger, " I-Watch Retraction (7.24.2015)

"Ngabe isithunzi sesayensi sikaPamela Ronald, ubuso bomphakathi bamaGMOs, singasindiswa?”NguJonathan Latham, Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi (11.12.2013)

"UPamela Ronald wenza okulungile futhi, ehoxisa iphepha leSayensi, " I-Watch Retraction (10.10.2013)

"Ukwenza okulungile: Abaphenyi bahoxisa iphepha lokuzwa ikhoramu ngemuva kwenqubo yomphakathi, " I-Watch Retraction (9.11.2013)

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nomgqugquzeli wezimboni zezolimo kanye ne-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, i-PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelisana ngokubambisana ku-genomics yezilwane kanye ne-biotechnology e-University of California, e-Davis, ungumgqugquzeli oholayo wezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezihamba nazo, kanye nommeli wokwehliswa kwemithetho.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uthi izilwane ze-GE akumele zibe ngaphansi kokubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe noma amalebula.

UDkt Van Eenennaam uyi- owayekade esebenza eMonsanto ophikisana nodinga izifundo zokuphepha ezilwaneni ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela futhi aziphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi okubandakanya ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ukuhlolwa kwakhe kwelebhu kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa i-CRISPR, inqubo yobunjiniyela, ukuze susa izimpondo zezinkomo zobisi futhi zizale “zonke izinkomo zokuphela kwamadoda”Ukuba ngubaba wezingane zesilisa kuphela - iphrojekthi ayibiza ngokuthi“ Abafana Kuphela. ” Isiphakamiso se-US Food and Drug Administration sokudinga izifundo zokuphepha nokusebenza ngempumelelo kwezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo uyahlanya, ngokusho kukaDkt Van Eenennaam.

Bheka futhi: I-Wall Street Journal (12.14.2018),            Izilimi ezinkulu kanye ne-Vertebrae eyengeziwe: Imiphumela Engalindelekile Yokuhlelwa Kofuzo Lwezilwane 

Yize evame ukwethulwa kwabezindaba njengososayensi ozimele, uDkt. Van Eenennaam uxhumana nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo e-PR ekuthumeleni imiyalezo, ukunxenxa nokwenza imisebenzi ye-PR, ngokusho kwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi manje athunyelwe ku Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF. Izibonelo zokubambisana zifaka:

UMonsanto uhlele ukuphawula kwakhe ngenkulumo mpikiswano ye-Intelligence Squared 

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uLee Quarles, umholi wezokuxhumana emhlabeni wonke kaMonsanto, kanye noTony Zagora, iphini likamongameli ophakeme kanye nomlingani wenkampani yeFleishmanHillard PR, kuhlelwe ukuphawula kukaDkt. Van Eenennaam kwe-December 2014 Intelligence Squared (IQ2) mpikiswano lapho aphikisana nokwamukelwa komphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye noRobb Fraley waseMonsanto.

Ama-Quarles abuye axhuma uDkt Van Eenennaam nabaphezulu eMonsanto naseFleishmanHillard ukuxoxa ngezikhundla eziyinhloko yena noFraley okufanele bahambisane nazo, futhi wahlela ukuthi uZagora ne-ejensi ye-PR bamnikeze umhlahlandlela mayelana "nendlela, iphimbo, ukulethwa kanye nokwethulwa komuntu siqu. Lokhu kuzokusiza uqonde kangcono ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibalulekile iqembu lethu okufanele lizibheke njengoba sisebenzela ukunqoba abantu abasegumbini, kanye nabo bonke labo abathengi ekusakazweni kabusha kwe-NPR komcimbi. ”

Okunye ukuhlela kukaMonsanto kumazwi kaProfesa Van Eenennaam kuboniswa ekushintsheni kwethrekhi:

 

Imibhalo yomthombo exhunywe lapha

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne kanye nemboni yezimboni ze-PR uKetchum banikeze ukuqeqesha izingxoxo zabezindaba 

Ngo-2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wasiza umkhakha oxhaswe ngemali nguNo kwiProposition 37 eCalifornia ukuze phikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abasebenzi bomkhankaso we “No on 37” wahlela ukuthi uDkt Van Eenennaam avele kuDkt Oz Show ukukhuluma ngokungahambisani nokufakwa amalebuli, waphinde wahlela ukuthi athole ukuqeqeshwa kwezokuxhumana kanye nokuthumela imiyalezo evela kuJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana ezinkampanini. (Ama-imeyili abuye aveze ukuthi uJay Byrne usebenze neMonsanto ukusungula iqembu langaphambili ukuhlasela abagxeki be-GMO kanye nomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo ngenkathi “ukugcina iMonsanto ngemuva“.)

Ngo-2014, imboni yezolimo ehola phambili kwezobudlelwano nomphakathi, uKetchum, yafaka uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo futhi yamsiza lungiselela ingxoxo yomsakazo ukwenza ucwaningo oluxhumanise okuphakelayo kwezilwane okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuvuvukala kwesisu. UKetchum unikeze uDkt. Van Eenennaam amaphuzu okukhuluma avela kubambisene naye embonini echaza isifundo sesisu ngokuthi "isayensi engenamsoco."

Kuvele isithangami saseHill esihlelwe yiqembu lesayensi yezulu 

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wavela ku- Umncintiswano wenhlangano ye-Competitive Enterprise Institute ukuphikisana nokwehliswa kwemithetho yezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo. ICompetitive Enterprise Institute iyiqembu elixhaswa ngezimboni lelo kuthuthukisa ukungabaza kwesayensi yezulu futhi uyaphikisana imithethonqubo yomkhakha wamakhemikhali. Ngo 2013, abaxhasi ku-Competitive Enterprises Institute ngonyaka wokuqoqa imali kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iSyngenta, i-FMC Corporation, iBiotechnology Industry Organisation kanye neGoogle, kanye nezinkampani zikawoyela nogwayi nezisekelo ezihlobene neKoch Industries. Ngo-2016, uMqondisi Wezamandla Nezemvelo we-CEI u-Myron Ebell, isazi esivelele sesayensi yezulu esithe icala lokufudumala kwembulunga "liwubuwula," wakhethwa yiTrump Administration's to hola iqembu lenguquko ye-Environmental Protection Agency.

Imizamo yokubambisana yokunxenxa; ivikela ama-pesticides 

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uqondise ukunxenxwa kokuqedwa kwezitshalo nezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nokuzigcina zingenamagama. Ngo-2012, wabhala i- incwadi eya ku-Obama Administration egameni lekomidi lenqubomgomo yomphakathi ye-American Society of Animal Science ephikisana nokuvunywa kwe-salmon yezakhi zofuzo i-Aqua Bounty ngaphandle kokuhlolwa noma ukuphawulwa okunzima. Ngo-2015, yena kwaqashwa oprofesa abazosekela ukwehliswa kwemithetho amazambane amazambane afakelwe u-Simplot Innate 2.0. "USimplot ufuna ukuphawula mayelana nokuqedwa komthetho wabo ... ama-antis azama ukuthi isikhathi sokuphawula sandiswe njengenjwayelo," ubhalele oprofesa.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uphinde avikele i-glyphosate, i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kanye ne-carcinogen yabantu ngokusho kwe-World Health Organisation yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Okwe thumela kuwebhusayithi yakhe, wasebenzisa imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane imithombo futhi i-infographics ukuqagela ngemiphumela yemakethe yokuvimbela i-glyphosate, kanye nabantu ababonakala beveza ukukhathazeka ngokuthi "banothile abakhathazekile." Iwebhusayithi yeMonsanto (manje eyiBayer) ithuthukisa uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza isifundo esixhumene glyphosate kuya kwesifo sesibindi ngamanani aphansi.

Abanye baka-Alison Van Eenennaam's oukusebenzisana komkhakha we-ther 

  • Ingabe a ilungu le- "AgBioChatter," Uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo lusebenzela ukuthi izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, abasebenzi abaphezulu bezinkampani zezolimo kanye nabaluleki bezobudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa.

Ifilimu ye-Food Evolution GMO Ikhonza I-Ajenda Yezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kubuyekezwe ngezibuyekezo ze-Food Evolution: 

NguStacy Malkan, 6/19/2017 

Eminye imizamo yokuthumela imiyalezo embonini inzima kakhulu bagcina beqhakambisa amaqhinga abo we-PR ukwedlula umyalezo abazama ukuwudlulisa. Leyo yinkinga nge Ukuvela Kokudla, idokhumentari entsha yomqondisi oqokwe yi-Academy Award uScott Hamilton Kennedy futhi ilandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson.

Le filimu, evulwa emashashalazini ngoJuni 23, ithi inombono oqondile ngempikiswano mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kepha ngesethulo sayo esinefilosofi yesayensi nedatha, iphuma ibukeka njengecala lezincwadi lenkulumo-ze yenkampani embonini yezolimo kanye izitshalo zayo ze-GMO.

Ukuthi inhloso yefilimu okuhloswe ngayo ukuthi isebenze njengemoto ethuthela imiyalezo embonini akuyona imfihlo. Ukudla Evolution kwaba kuhlelwe ngo-2014 futhi ixhaswe yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu labahwebi, ukuqeda umzamo wokuthumela imiyalezo iminyaka eminingi.

I-IFT ixhaswe ngokwengxenye ngu izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla, kanye neqembu umongameli ngaleso sikhathi kwakunguJanet Collins, owayengumphathi weDuPont noMonsanto ngubani manje kuyasebenzela ICropLife America, inhlangano yokuhweba ngezibulala-zinambuzane. UMongameli Okhethiwe we-IFT USindi Stewart usebenzela iDuPont.

I-IFT ikhethe uKennedy ukuthi aqondise ifilimu, kodwa yena nomkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan bathi babenakho ukulawula ngokuphelele ifilimu abayichaza njengophenyo oluzimele ngokuphelele ngesihloko sama-GMO kubandakanya yonke imibono.

Ukwethembeka kwefilimu kunenkinga yokuzikhethela kwabo ukwamukela kuphela isayensi nososayensi abahambisana nabadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abazuza kuma-GMO kanye namakhemikhali asetshenziswa kuwo, kuyilapho benganaki isayensi nedatha engahambelani naleyo ajenda.

Ukwelashwa kweMonsanto Science

Isibonelo esisobala sokungathembeki kwesayensi kuFood Evolution yindlela ifilimu esebenza ngayo ne-glyphosate. Ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula isenhliziyweni yendaba ye-GMO, kusukela Ama-80-90% wezitshalo ze-GMO zenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-glyphosate.

IFood Evolution ibika ukuthi ukwanda kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate ngenxa yama-GMO akuyona inkinga, ngoba i-glyphosate iphephile. Imithombo emibili isungula lesi simangalo kwifilimu: umlimi uthi i-glyphosate "inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti, ”noRobb Fraley kaMonsanto - ephendula owesifazane ezilalelini ombuza ngesayensi exhumanisa i-glyphosate nezinkinga zokuzalwa nomdlavuza - umtshela ukuthi konke lokho kuyisayensi embi," yi-pseudoscience. "

Yonke isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-glyphosate "yi-pseudoscience," kusho uMonsanto.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngokukhathazeka kwe-carcinogenicity okugubuzele iMonsanto ku International isayensi ukukhwabanisa, noma abalimi abaningi Bamangalela iMonsanto esola ukuthi bathole umdlavuza ovela enkomishini ye-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngombiko wango-2015 wenhlangano yomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ebeka i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu, noma Isinqumo saseCalifornia ukufaka i-glyphosate ohlwini lweProp 65 lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza, noma izifundo ezibuyekezwa kontanga ezixhumene imiphumela engemihle yezempilo ukuze glyphosate futhi Roundup.

Esikhundleni sokubuka ubufakazi, i-Food Evolution inikeza ababukeli ukwelashwa okuphelele kwesayensi yeMonsanto: noma yisiphi isayensi esiphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo yezolimo kufanele zinganakwa, kuyilapho izifundo ezibeka leyo mikhiqizo ekukhanyeni okuwukuphela kwesayensi kufanele kuxoxwe ngakho.

Amazinga aphindwe kabili kuSayensi kanye nasekubonakaliseni izinto obala

Ukuphathwa ngokulinganayo kwezihloko zokuxoxwa ngemibono ehlukene bekuzosiza ukwethembeka kweFood Evolution. Esikhundleni salokho, ifilimu ipenda abagxeki be-GMO ebabonisa ngokungathembeki noma ukuzenzela inzuzo ngomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo, ngenkathi ishiya imininingwane ebalulekile ngemithombo yayo yezimboni.

Kwesinye isigcawu, umlingiswa ophambili wefilimu, uprofesa we-UC Davis u-Alison van Eenennaam, ukhulula ukuthi ukubonakala kwesiteji nomphathi weMonsanto empikiswaneni kungangcolisa igama lakhe lokuzimela. Ababukeli abakaze bafunde ukuthi wayejwayele sebenzela iMonsanto, noma ukuthi uphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi we-GE eziphakamisa intshisekelo yezezimali esihlokweni esiseduze.

Usosayensi we-Pro-industry Pamela Ronald, omunye umthombo oyinhloko wesayensi, uthola ukwelashwa kweqhawe ngaphandle kokusho lokho ezimbili zezifundo zakhe zihoxisiwe. Yize kunjalo ababukeli bashaywa ngesando ngezindaba zokuthi ucwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini - oluthola izinkinga zezinso nezicubu kumagundane afunzwa ummbila weGMO - "luhoxisiwe, lwahoxiswa, lwahoxiswa!"

Ifilimu ishiya iqiniso lokuthi isifundo bekuyi yaphinde yashicilelwa, futhi wahoxiswa endaweni yokuqala ngemuva kwesisebenzi sangaphambili seMonsanto uthathe isikhundla sokuhlela nephephabhuku lapho lashicilelwa khona ekuqaleni.

Ukulandisa kwe- “Africa Needs GMOs”

Kokunye ukulandisa okuphindwe kahle, iFood Evolution ithatha ababukeli ohambweni lomzwelo oluya ezweni elisathuthuka, nakwenye ithrekhi yemiyalezo yomkhakha oyintandokazi: kunokugxila ekutheni ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo busetshenziswa kanjani ohlelweni lwethu lokudla manje - ikakhulukazi ukudlulisa ukubekezelelana kwe-herbicide - kufanele gxila ekutheni ingasetshenziswa kanjani ngokuzayo.

Njengoba kunesikhathi esiningi se-air and tension eshubile, le filimu ihlola inkinga ye-banana wilt, isifo esibulala izitshalo eziyisisekelo e-Afrika, futhi iholela ababukeli ukuthi bakholelwe ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo buzosindisa isivuno, abalimi kanye nomphakathi.

Kungenzeka. Kepha ifilimu ayikunaki ukusho ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bomsindisi we-GE abukatholakali futhi kungenzeka bungasebenzi. Ngokusho kwephepha ku- Isitshalo se-Biotechnology Journal, ukumelana okuboniswa kulebhu kunamandla kepha kungahle kungahlali isikhathi eside ezindaweni ezivulekile.

Le filimu “iwukungathembeki okuyisisekelo.”

Okwamanje, isixazululo se-low-tech sisebenza kahle futhi kubukeka sengathi singasebenzisa imali ethile. Ngokusho kwephepha lika-2012 kwi Ijenali Yezentuthuko Nezomnotho Wezolimo, izikole zabalimi, ezisiza abalimi ukuthola ulwazi lwezandla ngamasu okuvimbela ukubola kwebhanana, kwaholela ekwehliseni amazinga okutheleleka nokubuyiswa kwezitshalo okuphezulu e-Uganda. Imiphumela yezikole zabalimi “iye yaphawuleka,” ngokwe-UN.

Isixazululo asidingi ukuthi kukhulunywe ngakho ku-Food Evolution.

"Ngokuyisisekelo ukungathembeki kwefilimu ukuthola isisombululo se-GE esingahle singasebenzi, njengoba ososayensi uqobo bevuma," kusho uMichael Hansen, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, "ngenkathi ehluleka ukukhomba enye indlela yokulawula inkinga esebenza kakhulu kahle, kepha akubandakanyi ukuthengisa umkhiqizo ukuze wenze imali. ”

Ngabe iMonsanto yayihlangene ne-Food Evolution?

IMonsanto nabalingani bayo bebekhuluma ngezinhlelo zedokhumentari ngasekupheleni kuka-2013, ngokusho kuka ama-imeyili atholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ama-imeyili awanabo ubufakazi obuxhumanisa lezo zingxoxo ne-Food Evolution, kepha basungula isifiso sikaMonsanto ngefilimu esizwakala sifana kakhulu naleso esidalwe nguKennedy.

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto yabhala ngoDisemba 2013 eqenjini labeluleki be-PR, “kusobala ukuthi intshisekelo enkulu yokulandela ifilimu eliyi-documentary. Okubaluleke kakhulu, ukuvumelana ngukuthi ukubamba iqhaza kukaMonsanto kwamukelekile, ikakhulukazi esigabeni sokuhlela. ”

Wancoma ukubizwa kocingo lokuhlela lukaJanuwari 2014. UJon Entine we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project wakhuphuka wahola, futhi wathi "uthole isibambiso sakhe esingu- $ 100,000 kumuntu ongusomabhizinisi ozimele uma singathola" (wonke umugqa unqanyuliwe). I-Entine futhi inokuxhumana ne-Institute for Food Technologists; ukhulume ngo “ubushoshovu bokulwa nokudla”Emhlanganweni wonyaka we-IFT wango-2012.

Omunye umuntu okukhulunywe ngaye kuma-imeyili eMonsanto, UKarl Haro von Mogel - ngubani owayexoxile nge-Sachs "Ukwehla kwefilimu exhaswe yi-'Big 6 '” futhi kwaphakanyiswa ukuthi "okungabaluleke ngaphezu kwemali yabo ukubamba iqhaza kwabo" - kwaxoxwa nabo kuFood Evolution, futhi wabandakanyeka nasekuqopheni isigcawu esisodwa, esikisela abanye ekusithekeni ukuxhumana nabenzi bamafilimu.

Ephendula ama-imeyili, uKennedy ubhale on Twitter: “@Foodevomovie has had ZERO $ or INPUT from #Imonsanto. Sisobala ngokuphelele futhi sijabule 2 sinengxoxo esekelwe eqinisweni. ”

Uthe enkulumweni yakhe, "lokho kushintshaniswa kwama-imeyili bekungahlangene nakancane nephrojekthi yethu ...

Abantu ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili bebengabandakanyeki ekuqopheni nasekululekeni, usho kanjalo, kanti uKarl Haro von Mogel “ubeyisihloko kule filimu futhi ebengenaqhaza noma ithonya kunoma yiziphi izinqumo zokudala / zokuhlela ngale filimu nganoma yisiphi isikhathi embonisweni . Futhi kungasiza ukuveza ukuthi ingxoxo ye-imeyili obhekise kuyo yenzeka kudala singakaze sazi uKarl noma omunye walaba bantu. ”

Sneak Peek Behind the Scene

Okunye ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili okutholwe yi-US Right to Know inikeza ukubonwa ngemuva kwezigcawu ekuthuthukisweni kokulandisa ku-Food Evolution. Ukushintshisana kubonisa ukufuna kukaKennedy izibonelo azofaka “thina / izwe elisathuthuka sidinga i-GMO.”

“Noma yimuphi omunye umhlaba 'wethu / osathuthuka udinga i-GMO' unganginika amagama eceleni kwamawolintshi? Ulethisi weShintakus? ” Kubuza uKennedy. Umkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan uphendule ngohlu lwemikhiqizo ye-GMO kubandakanya irayisi elibekezelela isomiso, amakinati angenalo igciwane, amazambane angenayo i-carcinogen… “bese ufaka inkinobho yeGolden Rice.”

Ngenkathi uKennedy efuna "izitshalo eziphezulu ze-GMO ezisetshenziswayo njengamanje, nokuthi imaphi amazwe," uMark Lynas we ICornell Alliance yeSayensi ubhale wathi, "Ngempela iBt brinjal eBangladesh iyona kuphela eyi-GMO futhi esebenza kabanzi."

Ukubikwa kwefilimu okuqhutshwa ifreyimu kuyishaya indiva leyo mininingwane ngokungabi bikho kwezixazululo ze-GMO ezisebenzayo, futhi akusho ukuthi isibonelo esisondelene kakhulu, i-Vitamin-A ethuthukisiwe yeGold Rice, namanje ayitholakali ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu neminyaka yokulingwa, ngoba akusebenzi kahle ensimini njengama-rice akhona manje.

Yini inkulumo-ze?

Esigcawini okufanele sidlulise ukwethembeka kwesayensi, iFood Evolution ikhanyisa uphawu lwe-American Council on Science and Health okwamanje uNeil deGrasse Tyson uthi kukhona ukuvumelana komhlaba wonke mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO. Isiliphu esifanelekayo. ASCH kuyinto iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi kuhambelana eduze neMonsanto.

Indawo ye-logo ye-ACSH nayo iyavela ngemuva kulokhu Isiqeshana semizuzu engu-2 kusuka enkulumweni yakamuva yeClimate One, njengoba uKennedy ephikisana nesiphakamiso sokuthi ifilimu yakhe iyinkulumo-ze.

“Sinquma kanjani ukuthi yini inkulumo-ze?” Kubuza uKennedy. “Ngithi enye yezindlela esikwenza ngayo (ukubuza), ingabe imiphumela iyacelwa, noma imiphumela ithenjisiwe? Angibuzwanga ngemiphumela futhi angithembisanga imiphumela. Uma unenkinga ngefilimu, inkinga ikimi. ”

Lokhu kubuyekezwa kwavela ekuqaleni Huffington Post futhi bekulokhu liphinde lanyatheliswa ku-Alternet. 

Bona futhi: I-athikili yokulandelela kaStacy Malkan, Abalandeli bakaNeil deGrasse Tyson Owes Ingxoxo Ethembekile Ngama-GMO kune-Food Evolution. "Ukuxoxisana nabanye abahlaziyi beGMO abambalwa abavela kule filimu, noma bacelwa ukuba babe kuyo, kufakazela isithombe senqubo engajwayelekile ebandakanya ukuqoshwa ngokunyenya, ukuhlelwa kokukhetha, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo nokungadalulwa mayelana nokuxhaswa kwefilimu."