IBiohazards News Tracker: Izindatshana ezihamba phambili ngemvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2, ama-biolabs kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Nalu uhlu lokufundwayo mayelana nokwaziwayo nokungaziwa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, izingozi nokuvuza kuma laboratories e-biosafety kanye ne-biowarfare, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), oluhlose ukwandisa uhla lokusingathwa, ukuhanjiswa, ukusuleleka noma ukubakhona kwamagciwane okungenzeka kube yizifo ezihlasela ubhubhane. I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ukwenza ucwaningo ngalezi zihloko nokuthumela okutholakele ku- IBiohazards Blog.

Lolu hlu lokufunda ngumsebenzi oqhubekayo. Sizoyibuyekeza. Sicela uthumele ukufundwa okungenzeka ukuthi sikuphuthele eSainath Suryanarayanan ku- sainath@usrtk.org.

Izihloko (izixhumanisi zokwehla)

Izindatshana zakamuva kakhulu

I-Wall Street Journal. Umhlaba Udinga Uphenyo Langempela Kumsuka WeCovid-19.  Januwari 15, 2021.

Imithi Yemvelo. Kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2. U-Angela Rasmussen. Januwari 13, 2021.

Bloomberg. Namanje Asazi Ukuthi I-Covid-19 Ivelaphi. UFaye Flam. Januwari 12, 2021.

New York Magazine. I-lab-leak hypothesis. UNicholson Baker. Januwari 4, 2021.

The Times. Igciwane lezikhali zebhayoloji lavuza i-coronavirus, kusho isikhulu sase-US. UDidi Tang. Januwari 4, 2021.

Associated Press. I-China ibambelela phansi ekuzingeleni okufihliwe ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UDake Kang, uMaria Cheng noSam McNeil. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Izinsuku Ezingama-25 Ezashintsha Umhlaba: Ukuthi iCovid-19 ishelele kanjani iChina. UChris Buckley, uDavid D. Kirkpatrick, u-Amy Qin noJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Intatheli YaseChinese Citizen Igwetshwe Iminyaka Engu-4 Ngokubikwa KweCovid. UVivian Wang. Disemba 28, 2020.

I-BBC. UCovid: Usosayensi waseWuhan 'angakwamukela' ukuvakashela umbono wokuvuza kwelebhu. UJohn Sudworth. Disemba 22, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. I-EcoHealth Alliance kaPeter Daszak Ifihle Cishe ama- $ 40 Million Esikhwameni Sezimali sePentagon NaseMilitarised Pandemic Science. USam Husseini. Disemba 16, 2020.

Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2?

Izinqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Ukunqanda ubhadane olulandelayo, sidinga ukuqaqa umsuka we-COVID-19. UDavid A. Relman. Novemba 3, 2020.

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Ngabe igciwane leSARS-CoV-2 livele ohlelweni locwaningo lwe-bat coronavirus elabhoratri laseChina? Kungenzeka kakhulu. UMilton Leitenberg. Juni 4, 2020.

I-Washington Post. Izintambo zoMnyango Wezwe zixwayise ngezinkinga zokuphepha elabhoratri laseWuhan ezicwaninga nge-bat coronaviruses. UJosh Rogin. Ephreli 14, 2020.

I-Houston Chronicle. Usosayensi we-UTMB uvuma izingozi zokuphepha ebhodini laseChina elenza ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus. UNick Powell. Ephreli 23, 2020. 

The Wall Street Journal. I-NIH icindezela i-US engenzi-nzuzo ukuthola ulwazi nge-Wuhan virology lab. UBetsy McKay. Agasti 19, 2020.  

The Wall Street Journal. Ngakho lavelaphi igciwane? UMat Ridley. Kwangathi 29, 2020. 

Isikhungo Sikazwelonke SaseFrance Socwaningo Lwezesayensi (CNRS). Imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 ibuzwa ngokungathí sina. Yaroslav Pigenet. Novemba 9, 2020.

The Times. Iqale kanjani iCovid-19? Ukuzingela zero isiguli sekubanjwe ukungqubuzana kwamandla amakhulu. UTom Whipple. Disemba 31, 2020.

I-Boston Magazine. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-COVID-19 yeqe ebhodini? URowan Jacobsen. Septhemba 9, 2020. 

Nature. Imfihlakalo enkulu kunazo zonke: ukuthi kuzothathani ukulandelela umthombo we-coronavirus. UDavid Cyranoski. Juni 5, 2020.

I-Newsweek. Ukuhlolwa okuyimpikiswano kanye nelabhu laseWuhan kusolwa ukuqala ubhadane lwe-coronavirus. UFred Guterl, uNaveed Jamali noTom O'Connor. Ephreli 27, 2020.

The Washington Post. UMnyango Wezwe ukhipha ikhebula elethule izimangalo zokuthi i-coronavirus yeqe ebhodini laseChina. UJohn Hudson noNate Jones. Julayi 17, 2020. 

I-Telegraph. Ososayensi bahlole ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi uCovid uputshuke ebhodini njengengxenye yophenyo ngemvelaphi yamagciwane. UPaul Nuki. Septhemba 15, 2020.  

Izindaba ze-NBC. Umbiko uthi imininingwane kamakhalekhukhwini ikhombisa ukuvalwa kwango-Okthoba e-Wuhan lab, kepha ochwepheshe bayangabaza. UKen Dilanian, uRuaridh Arrow, uCourtney Kube, uCarol E. Lee, uLouise Jones noLorand Bodo. Meyi 9, 2020. 

Washington Post. Iqale kanjani i-covid-19? Indaba yayo yokuqala yemvelaphi iyazamazama. UDavid Ignatius. Ephreli 2, 2020.

The Times. Kwembulwa: Umzila weminyaka eyisikhombisa we-coronavirus kusuka ekufeni kwezimayini kuya ebhodini laseWuhan. UGeorge Arbuthnott, uJonathan Calvert noPhilip Sherwell. Julayi 4, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. Abaseshi be-coronavirus be-WHO babheka emakethe yaseWuhan njengezindawo zemephu ezingadaluliwe. UJohn Power noSimone McCarthy. Disemba 15, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. ICoronavirus: Uphenyo lweWuhan lweWorld Health Organisation alubheki amaqembu 'anecala'. I-Agence France-Presse. Disemba 24, 2020.

BBC. I-Wuhan: Idolobha lokuthula; Ifuna izimpendulo endaweni lapho i-coronavirus iqale khona. UJohn Sudworth. Julayi 2020.

I-New York Times, Imibuzo eyi-8 evela kumseshi wesifo onomsuka wobhubhane. UWilliam J. Broad. Julayi 8, 2020.

Isayensi. Umsebenzi oholwa yi-WHO ungaphenya ngemvelaphi yalolu bhubhane. Nayi imibuzo esemqoka ongayibuza. UJon Cohen. Julayi 10, 2020.

I-New York Times. Ekuzingeleni Umthombo Wegciwane, I-WHO Vumela i-China Iphathe. Selam Gebrekidan, UMat Apuzzo, U-Amy Qin futhi . Novemba 2, 2020.

The Washington Post. Umsuka we-coronavirus useyindida. Sidinga uphenyo oluphelele. IBhodi lokuHlela. Novemba 14, 2020.

Independent. ICoronavirus: Lowo owayeyinhloko ye-MI6 ubanga ngokuthi ubhubhane 'lwaqala ngengozi' kwelabhorethri yaseChina. U-Andy Gregory. Juni 4, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Ngokunyakaza okungajwayelekile, izinhlaka zezobunhloli zase-US ziyaqinisekisa ukuthi ziyaphenya ukuthi ngabe i-coronavirus ivele engozini yaselebhu. UWarren P. Strobel noDustin Volz. Ephreli 30, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Isazi selulwane saseChina sithi ilebhu yakhe iWuhan ibingewona umthombo we-coronavirus entsha. UJames T. Areddy. Ephreli 21, 2020.

ABC News. Uxolo, izazi zetulo. Ucwaningo luphetha ukuthi i-COVID-19 'akuyona eyokwakhiwa kwelebhu'. UKate Holland. Mashi 27, 2020. 

The Economist. Izingcezu zepuzzle zemvelaphi kaCovid-19 zizovela. Meyi 2, 2020. 

The Wall Street Journal. Umbono welebhu yeWuhan. IBhodi lokuHlela. Meyi 6, 2020. 

The Guardian. Ziba imibono yetulo: Ososayensi bayazi ukuthi iCovid-19 ayidalwanga elebhu. UPeter Daszak. Juni 9, 2020. 

I-Daily Telegraph. Ososayensi bathi kungenzeka ukuthi i-COVID-19 iphekwe ebhodini. USharri Markson. Juni 1, 2020.

Isayensi. UTrump 'usikweleta ukuxolisa.' Usosayensi waseChina enkabeni yemibono yemvelaphi ye-COVID-19 uyakhuluma. UJon Cohen. Julayi 24, 2020.

Isayensi. Phendula kuSayensi Magazine: I-Q & A yeShi Zhengli. Shi Zhengli. Julayi 15, 2020.

Minerva. Izitatimende eziphikisanayo zenza ukungabaza ngemininingwane eluhlaza yaseChina. Aksel Fridstrøm. Septhemba 10, 2020. 

Minerva. Incazelo enengqondo kunazo zonke ukuthi ivela elabhoratri. U-Aksel Fridstrøm noNils August Andresen. Julayi 2, 2020. 

Newsweek. UDkt Fauci usekele i-Wuhan lab enempikiswano ngamadola wase-US ocwaningweni oluyingozi lwe-coronavirus. UFred Guterl. Ephreli 28, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Icala lakha ukuthi i-COVID-19 ibinomsuka webhu. UJonathan Latham no-Allison Wilson. Juni 5, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Umsuka ohlongozwayo we-SARS-CoV-2 nobhadane lwe-COVID-19. UJonathan Latham no-Allison Wilson. Julayi 15, 2020.

I-Federalist. Isazi seVirologist sichaza ukufuna kwaso ukulandelela umsuka we-COVID-19. UJulian Vigo. Septhemba 2, 2020. 

I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukubuza i-CDC: Ingabe kwenzeka ngengozi ephelele ukuthi i-BSL4 yaseChina kuphela iseWuhan? Umsindo nevidiyo. USam Husseini. Ephreli 17, 2020.

GMWatch. Ososayensi baseWuhan nabaseMelika basebenzise izindlela ezingatholakali zobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo kuma-bat coronaviruses. UJonathan Matthews noClaire Robinson. Meyi 20, 2020. 

Intatheli Yobulelesi Benkampani. Andrew Kimbrell ngomsuka we-COVID-19. URussell Mokhiber. Agasti 11, 2020.

GMWatch. Ngabe igciwane le-COVID-19 lenzelwe izakhi zofuzo? UJonathan Matthews. Ephreli 22, 2020.

GMWatch. Kungani ababaleki bebalekela ukuphika bekhuluma amanga anjalo? UJonathan Matthews. Juni 17, 2020. 

Izindaba ze-NBC. Ngaphakathi kwelebhu yaseChina emaphakathi ekusesheni umsuka we-coronavirus. UJanis Mackey Frayer noDenise Chow. Agasti 10, 2020.

I-Intercept. Ekushisekeleni Kwayo Ukusola iChina ngeCoronavirus, uHulumeni WeTrump Uvimbela Uphenyo Ngomsuka Wobhubhane. UMara Hvistendahl. Meyi 19, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. I-WHO iqamba uhlu lweqembu lomhlaba wonke elibheke kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus. USimone McCarthy. Novemba 25, 2020.

U-Edizioni Cantagalli. Cina Covid 19. La chimera che ha cambiato il mondo (I-China COVID-19: IChimera Eyashintsha Umhlaba). UJoseph Tritto. Agasti 2020. 

Ukwehluleka kokubonisa ngale kanye nokucindezelwa kobufakazi maqondana ne-COVID-19

The Wall Street Journal. Emhlabathini eWuhan, izimpawu zeChina eziqinisa uphenyo lwemvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UJeremy Page noNatasha Khan. Meyi 12, 2020.

I-New York Times. Izinsuku Ezingama-25 Ezashintsha Umhlaba: Ukuthi iCovid-19 ishelele kanjani iChina. UChris Buckley, uDavid D. Kirkpatrick, u-Amy Qin noJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Intatheli YaseChinese Citizen Igwetshwe Iminyaka Engu-4 Ngokubikwa KweCovid. UVivian Wang. Disemba 28, 2020.

I-ProPublica. Imibhalo evuzayo ikhombisa ukuthi amasosha ase-China akhokhelwa i-Intanethi amaTolls asize kanjani ukuhlola iCoronavirus. URaymond Zhong, uPaul Mozur, u-Aaron Krolik noJeff Kao. Disemba 19, 2020.

I-New York Times. I-China ihambisa amanga ukuze icindezele umbono wokuthi leli gciwane livele kwenye indawo. UJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 6, 2020.

Bloomberg. I-China Yenza Kwanzima Ukuxazulula Imfihlakalo Yokuthi I-Covid Yaqala Kanjani. Disemba 30, 2020.

Financial Times. Imithombo yezindaba yaseChina inyusa umkhankaso wokuhlola udaka ngemvelaphi yeCovid. Umalusi ongumKristu. Novemba 26, 2020.

ISky News Australia. Ama-imeyili akhishwe aveza ukuthi 'alikho iqiniso noma okusobala' encwadini ephathelene nemvelaphi ye-COVID-19. USharri Markson. Novemba 22, 2020.

Izingozi, ukuvuza, ukwehluleka kokuqukethwe, ukwehluleka ukwenza izinto obala ezindaweni zokuvikela ukuphepha

I-New Yorker. Ubungozi bokwakha ama-bio labs amaningi kakhulu. Elisabeth Eaves Mashi 18, 2020. 

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Iphutha lomuntu kumalebhu aphezulu e-biocontainment: usongo olungaba yinkinga. ULynn Klotz. Februwari 25, 2019. 

Isikhungo saseJames Martin sokungavikeleki Izifundo. Umhlahlandlela Wokuphenya Imvelaphi Yokuqubuka: Imvelo kuqhathaniswa neLaboratory. URichard Pilch, uMiles Pomper, uJill Luster noFilippa Lentzos. Okthoba 2020.

I-ProPublica. Nazi izingozi eziyisithupha abacwaningi be-UNC ababa nazo ngama-coronaviruses enziwe elebhu. U-Alison Young noJessica Blake. Agasti 17, 2020. 

CBC. Usosayensi waseCanada wathumela amagciwane abulalayo eWuhan lab izinyanga ngaphambi kokuba i-RCMP icele ukuphenya. Juni 16, 2020.

I-Frederick News-Post. Ukutholwa kokuhlolwa kwe-CDC kuveza okuningi mayelana nokumiswa kocwaningo lwe-USAMRIID. UHeather Mongilio. Novemba 23, 2019. 

Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo (CDC) noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US. I-US Army Medical Research Institute yezifo ezithathelwanayo (i-USAMRIID): incazelo yezincazelo zokutholwa kokuhlolwa. Agasti 2019.

IHhovisi Lokuziphendulela kuHulumeni wase-US. Amalabhorethri athwala kakhulu: Izinqubomgomo eziphelele nezisesikhathini nezindlela ezinamandla zokubheka ezidingekayo ukwenza ngcono ukuphepha. Ephreli 19, 2016. I-GAO-16-305. 

USA Namuhla. Izehlakalo eziyi-10 ezitholwe kuma-biolabs esizwe. U-Alison Young noNick Penzenstadler. Meyi 29, 2015. 

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Ubhadane olusongelwayo nelebhu kuyaphunyuka: iziprofetho ezizigcwalisa. UMartin Furmanski. Mashi 31, 2014.

Isikhungo Sokulawulwa Kwezikhali Nokungasebenzi. Ukuphunyuka Kwelabhorethri Nomqedazwe “Wokuzifeza”. UMartin Furmanski. Februwari 17, 2014.

UMkhandlu Kazwelonke Wokucwaninga. Izinselelo zokuphepha kokuvikela ukwanda komhlaba wonke kwama-laboratories e-biology ephezulu: isifinyezo somhlangano wokusebenzela. 2012. IWashington, DC: I-National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13315 

Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ngamagciwane, amagciwane, nezimfihlo: ukwanda buthule kwama-bio-laboratories e-United States, 110th Congress. Okthoba 4, 2007.

Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ku-Federal Oversight of High-Containment Biolaboratories, Ikhulu Elilodwa Eleventh Congress. Septemba 22, 2009.

BMJ. Ukwephulwa kwemithetho yokuphepha kuyimbangela yokuqhamuka kwamuva kweSARS, kusho i-WHO. UJane Parry. Meyi 22, 2004. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.328.7450.1222-b

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Umlando omude wokukhishwa ngephutha kwelabhoratri kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane awunakwa ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kwe-COVID-19. USam Husseini. Meyi 5, 2020.

GMWatch. I-COVID-19: Ucingo lokuvusa i-biosafety. UJonathan Matthews. Ephreli 24, 2020. 

USA Today. I-CDC yehlulekile ukudalula izehlakalo zelebhu ezinamagciwane e-bioterror kwiCongress. U-Alison Young. Juni 24, 2016.

I-Global Times. Umhlahlandlela we-biosafety okhishwe ukulungisa izikhala zokuphatha okungapheli kumalebhu wamagciwane. Liu Caiyu no Leng Shumei. Februwari 16, 2020.

Izindaba ze-CBS. Ukuphenya: Inkampani yase-US ibungled impendulo ye-Ebola. I-Associated Press. Mashi 7, 2016. 

GMWatch. Ithiyori yokucwaninga imithombo yolwazi yamajenali yakwaSARS-CoV-2. UClaire Robinson. Julayi 16, 2020. 

Amanethiwekhi we-biodefense ne-biowarfare 

Indawo yokwenza izinwele. Ngabe leli gciwane livele lab? Mhlawumbe hhayi - kepha kuveza usongo lomjaho wezikhali ze-biowarfare. USam Husseini. Ephreli 24, 2020.

 I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukunqanda ukubuka kwethu kusuka ku-biowarfare: ubhadane lwezifo neziphrofetho ezizigcwalisayo. USam Husseini. Meyi 2020. 

IBoston Globe. Ukuheha kwezikhali ze-bio. UBernard Lown noPrasannan Parthasarathi. Februwari 23, 2005. 

IMonterey Institute of International Study. I-Beijing kuma-biohazard: Ongoti baseChina ezindabeni ze-bioweapons nonproliferation. U-Amy E. Smithson, uMhleli. Agasti 2007. Isikhungo SikaJames Martin Sezifundo Ezingahambisani Nokukhiqiza.

Amasiko Abulalayo: Izikhali zebhayoloji kusukela ngo-1945. UMark Wheelis, uLajos Rózsa, noMalcolm Dando (Abahleli). IHarvard University Press, 2006.

I-Biowarfare kanye nobuphekula. UFrancis Boyle. 2005. I-Clarity Press, Inc.

Ukuvimbela umjaho wezikhali zebhayoloji. USusan Wright (Umhleli). I-MIT Press, 1990. 

I-Biohazard. UKen Alibek noStephen Handelman. Indlu engahleliwe: ENew York, 1999. 

Izinkulumompikiswano zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi

Abezindaba Kazwelonke. Izingozi ezingaba khona nezinzuzo zokwenza ucwaningo ngomsebenzi: isifinyezo somhlangano wokusebenzela. 2015. 

Forbes. Kufanele sivumele ososayensi ukuthi bakhe ama-super-virus ayingozi? USteven Salzberg. Okthoba 20, 2014. 

ICambridge Working Group. Isitatimende sokuvumelana seCambridge Working Group ngokwakhiwa kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane (PPPs). Julayi 14, 2014. 

mBio. Ngabe inani elilinganiselwe lesayensi lokuhlolwa okungahle kube khona kobhubhane lwezifo lingazithethelela izingozi? UMarc Lipsitch. Okthoba 14, 2014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02008-14 

mBio. Ucwaningo nge-Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus: The Way Forward. U-Anthony S. Fauci. Septhemba-Okthoba 2012, 3 (5): e00359-12. i-doi: 10.1128 / mBio.00359-12

mBio. Ukuwa phansi komgodi wonogwaja: i-aTRIP ibheke ekunembeni kwesichazamazwi empikiswaneni "yokuthola umsebenzi". W. Paul Duprex no-Arturo Casadevall. vol. 5,6 e02421-14. 12 Dis. 2014, doi: 10.1128 / mBio.02421-14

Umuthi we-PLoS. Ezinye izindlela zokuziphatha ekuhlolweni ngamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane enoveli. UMarc Lipsitch no-Alison Galvani. 2014. 11 (5): e1001646. i-doi: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001646  

Amaphepha wesayensi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2

I-Lancet. Izici zemitholampilo yeziguli ezinegciwane le-coronavirus yango-2019 eWuhan, China. UChaolin Huang et al. Janawari 30, 2020. Umqulu 395: 497-506. 

Imvelo. Ukuqhamuka kwe-pneumonia okuhambisana ne-coronavirus entsha yemvelaphi yelulwane. UPeng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… noZheng-Li Shi. Februwari 3, 2020. 579 (7798): 270-273. i-doi: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2012-7

Imvelo. I-Addendum: Ukuqhamuka kwesifo se-pneumonia okuhambisana ne-coronavirus entsha yemvelaphi yelulwane. UPeng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… noZheng-Li Shi. Novemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2951-z

Umuthi Wemvelo. Umsuka oyinhloko we-SARS-CoV-2. UKristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, u-Edward C. Holmes, uRobert F. Garry. Ephreli 2020. Umqulu 26, amakhasi 450-455. 

I-Journal of Medical Virology. Imibuzo emayelana nomsuka oyisisekelo we-SARS-CoV-2. UMurat Seyran, uDamiano Pizzol, uParis Adadi… no-Adam M. Brufsky. Septhemba 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

BioEssays. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi abakwa-SARS ‐ CoV-2 bavele ngendlela eyindilinga enqwabelana ngezilwane noma amasiko eseli? UKarl Sirotkin noDan Sirotkin. Agasti 12, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Imingcele Kwezempilo Yomphakathi. Amacala e-Lethal pneumonia ezimayini zaseMojiang (2012) kanye ne-mineshaft anganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Septhemba 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

BioEssays. Isakhiwo sofuzo seSARS ‐ CoV-2 asisho ukuthi imvelaphi yelabhoratri. URossana Segreto futhi Yuri Deigin. Novemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRxiv. I-SARS-CoV-2 isetshenziswe kahle kubantu. Kusho ukuthini lokhu ukuphinda kuvele? UShing Hei Zhan, uBenjamin E. Deverman, uYujia Alina Chan. Meyi 2, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

UZenodo. Uqalephi Ubhubhane Lwe-Coronavirus 2019 futhi Lwasakazeka Kanjani? Isibhedlela Sabantu Sokukhululeka EsiseWuhan China kanye Nomugqa 2 Wuhan Metro System Ziyizimpendulo Eziphoqayo. USteven Carl Quay. Okthoba 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

Minerva. Ubufakazi obukhombisa ukuthi leli akulona igciwane eliguquke ngokwemvelo: I-aetiology yomlando eyakhiwe kabusha ye-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2. UBirger Sørensen, u-Angus Dalgleish no-Andres Susrud. Julayi 1, 2020.

ResearchGate. Ngabe ukubheka imvelaphi yokukhohliswa kofuzo kukaSARS-CoV-2 kuyimbono yetulo okumele ihlolwe? URossana Segreto noYuri Deigin. Ephreli 2020. DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

Iziqalo. Ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokuhlonza uhlobo lwe-bat coronavirus strain i-RaTG13 nekhwalithi yephepha elihlobene ne-Nature. UXiaoxu Lin, uShizhong Chen. Juni 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

Iziqalo. Isimo esingajwayelekile sesampula ye-fecal swab esetshenziselwe ukuhlaziywa kwe-NGS yokulandelana kwe-RaTG13 genome ibeka umbuzo ngokunemba kokulandelana kwe-RaTG13. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Agasti 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Amaphrinta we-OSF. I-COVID-19, i-SARS namalulwane ama-coronaviruses genomes ukulandelana okungalindelekile kwe-RNA okungalindelekile. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Ephreli 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

UZenodo. Izindlela zokuziphendukela kwemvelo ze-HIV ezilawulwa ngumuntu. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Agasti 2, 2020. 

Ama-Microbes Asakhulayo Nezifo. I-HIV-1 ayizange ibambe iqhaza ku-2019-nCoV genome. UXiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang noGao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. i-doi: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

i-arXiv. Ekuqhathaniseni i-silico kwamafinyela abophayo we-spike protein-ACE2 kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo; Ukubaluleka kwemvelaphi engaba khona yegciwane le-SARS-CoV-2. USakshi Piplani, uPuneet Kumar Singh, uDavid A. Winkler, uNikolai Petrovsky. Meyi 13, 2020. 

Nature. Ukukhomba ama-coronavirus ahlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. UTommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- UFang Sun, Si Qin, Ji-Cheng Huang, uGabriel M. Leung, u-Edward C. Holmes, uYan-Ling Hu, u-Yi Guan no-Wu-Chun Cao. Mashi 26, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Amagciwane e-PLoS. Ngabe ama-pangolin angumsingathi ophakathi nendawo we-2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? UPing Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Meyi 14, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

Nature. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-coronavirus ehlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kusuka kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi Yena. Meyi 7, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Biology yamanje. Umsuka wePangolin ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 Okuhambisana nokuqubuka kwe-COVID-19. UTao Zhang, uQunfu Wu, uZhigang Zhang. Mashi 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Umthombo owodwa wama-pangolin CoV ane-Spike RBD eseduze ne-SARS-CoV-2. U-Yujia Alina Chan noShing Hei Zhan. Okthoba 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

Ukutheleleka, i-Genetics kanye ne-Evolution. I-COVID-19: Isikhathi sokukhipha i-pangolin ekudlulisweni kwe-SARS-CoV-2 iye kubantu. URoger Frutos, uJordi Serra-Cobo, uTianmu Chen noChristian A. Devaux. Umqulu 84, Okthoba 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRxiv. Abukho ubufakazi bama-coronaviruses noma amanye amagciwane angaba yi-zoonotic kuma-Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) angena ekuhwebeni kwezilwane zasendle ngeMalaysia. Jimmy Lee, Tom Hughes, Mei-Ho Lee, Hume Field, Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Symphorosa Sipangkui, Senthilvel KSS Nathan, Diana Ramirez, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Helen Lasimbang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Peter Daszak. Juni 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

Izingobo zomlando zeVirology. A umabhebhana Ukulandelana kwe-RNA njengomnikeli ojwayelekile wokuqhekeka kokukopisha ukukhethwa kokukhetha ku-SARS-CoV-2. UWilliam R. Gallaher. Julayi 31, 2020.

Iseli. Umbono we-genomic ngemvelaphi nokuvela kwe-SARS-CoV-2. UYong-Zhen Zhang, u-Edward C. Holmes. Ephreli 2020 181 (2): 223-227. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.03.035.

Izinqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Uhlamvu lwe-Superantigenic lokufaka okuhlukile ku-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2 esekelwa yi-repertoire ye-TCR eboshiwe ezigulini ezine-hyperinfigueation. UMary Hongying Cheng, She Zhang, Rebecca A. Porritt, Magali Noval Rivas, Lisa Paschold, Edith Willscher, Mascha Binder, Moshe Arditi, no-Ivet Bahar. Septhemba 28, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010722117

I-Biology yamanje. I-bat coronavirus yenoveli ehlobene eduze ne-SARS-CoV-2 iqukethe okufakiwe okungokwemvelo endaweni yokuhlanza ye-S1 / S2 ye-protein spike. Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, noWeifeng Shi. Juni 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

aRxiv. I-bat coronavirus RmYN02 ibonakala ngokususwa okungu-6-nucleotide lapho kuhlangana khona i-S1 / S2, futhi ukufakwa kwayo okufunwayo kwe-PAA akungabazeki. UYuri Deigin noRossana Segreto. Disemba 1, 2020.

bioRxiv. Isiza sokuhlanza i-Furin siyisihluthulelo se-SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. UBryan A. Johnson,… uKari Debbink, uPei Yong Shi, u-Alexander Freiberg noVineet Menachery. Agasti 26, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.26.268854 

bioRxiv. Isiza se-furin cleavage se-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein siyisici esibalulekile sokudluliswa ngenxa yokuphindaphindeka okuthuthukile kumaseli womoya. UThomas Peacock, uDaniel H. Goldhill, uJie Zhou,… noWendy S. Barclay. Septhemba 30, 2020. doi. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.30.318311 

UZenodo. Izici ezingajwayelekile ze-SARS-CoV-2 genome ephakamisa ukuguqulwa okuyinkimbinkimbi kwelabhorethri kunokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokucaciswa kwendlela yayo yokwenziwa okungenzeka. Li-Meng Yan, Shu Kang, Jie Guan, futhi Shanchang Hu. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

Johns Hopkins Isikhungo Sokuphepha Kwezempilo. Ukuphendula: Yan et al Preprint Examinations of the Origin of SARS-CoV-2. UKelsey Lane Warmbrod, uRachel M. West, uNancy D. Connell noGigi Kwik Gronvall. Septhemba 21, 2020.

UZenodo. Isiphakamiso seSARS-CoV-2 Spillover Ngesikhathi Sokubukeza Kwamasampula sango-2019 esivela eMineshaft eMojiang, esifundazweni saseYunnan, eChina. Ongaziwa. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Izindatshana zebhulogi eziphenyayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2

Medium. Kwenziwe ilebhu? I-SARS-CoV-2 yohlu lozalo ngokusebenzisa i-lens yocwaningo lomsebenzi. Yuri Deigin. Ephreli 22, 2020.

Medium. Ama-virus ayesabekayo nokuthi ungawathola kuphi. UMoreno Colaiacovo. Novemba 15, 2020.

Okuphakathi. Ukuqoqwa kwemininingwane esheshayo yamacala asolwa ekuqaleni kukaCovid-19 eWuhan. UGilles Demaneuf. Okthoba 15, 2020.

Kungani sicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, amalebhu ezokuvikela kanye nocwaningo lwe-GOF

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bheka IBiohazards Blog ukuthola izibuyekezo kuphenyo lwethu, futhi siyathumela imibhalo evela kuphenyo lwethu lapha. Bhalisela lapha ukuthola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke. 

NgoJulayi 2020, i-US Right to Know yaqala ukuletha izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngenhloso yokuthola imininingwane evela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-Covid-19. Selokhu kuqale ukubheduka eWuhan, abakwaSARS-CoV-2 babulale abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi, ngenkathi begulisa ezinye izigidi ngobhadane lomhlaba oluqhubeka nokuvela.

Siphenya nezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye ukwenzeka emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe izifo ezinamandla eziwubhadane, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zomphakathi zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), olubandakanya ucwaningo lokuthuthukisa izici zokusebenza kwamagciwane abulalayo , njengomthamo wegciwane, ukusuleleka kanye nokusabalalisa.

Umphakathi wesayensi womphakathi nowomhlaba wonke unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi idatha ekhona ngalezi zindaba. Sizobika lapha noma yikuphi ukutholakala okuwusizo okungavela ocwaningweni lwethu.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi.

Kungani senza lolu cwaningo?

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi izinsizakusebenza zokuphepha zikazwelonke e-United States, China nakwezinye izindawo, kanye neyunivesithi, izimboni kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni abasebenzisana nazo, kungenzeka zinganikeli isithombe esiphelele nesithembekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 nobungozi yocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi.

Ngocwaningo lwethu, sifuna ukuphendula imibuzo emithathu:

  • Yini eyaziwayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2?
  • Ngabe zikhona izingozi noma iziphithiphithi ezenzekile ezikhungweni zokucwaninga nge-biosafety noma ze-GOF ezingakabikwa?
  • Ngabe kukhona ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zokuphepha eziqhubekayo zamalabhorethri okuphepha noma ucwaningo lwe-GOF olungakabikwa?

Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2?

Ngasekupheleni kukaDisemba 2019, edolobheni laseWuhan, eChina, kwavela izindaba zesifo esibulalayo esithathelwanayo esibizwa nge-COVID-19, esidalwe yiSARS-CoV-2, i-coronavirus yenoveli eyayingaziwa ukuthi ibikhona phambilini. Imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 ayaziwa. Kunemicabango emibili eyinhloko.

Abaphenyi kumanethiwekhi ochwepheshe ahlobene ne Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology (WIV) futhi Umanyano we-EcoHealth, i-US non-profitthat ine kutholwe izigidi zamadola kwizibonelelo ezikhokhelwa ngabakhokhi bentela kuya sebenzisana no I-WIV ocwaningweni lwe-coronavirus, babe ezibhaliwe ukuthi igciwane lenoveli kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ngokukhethwa kwemvelo ezindaweni zezilwane, nge inqolobane yayo kumalulwane. Lokhu "Zoonotic" umsuka i-hypothesis yaphinde yaqiniswa ngu izimangalo ukuthi ukuqubuka okusha kwe-coronavirus kuqale kufayela le- “Izilwane zasendle” emakethe eWuhan, the Imakethe yokudla kwasolwandle yaseHuanan, lapho kungenzeka khona ukuthi kuthengiswe izilwane ezingase zitheleleke. (Noma kunjalo, okungenani ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yeqoqo lokuqala leziguli ezinegciwane, kufaka phakathi icala lokuqala elaziwa kakhulu lokutheleleka kusuka ngoDisemba 1, 2019, lalingaxhumananga ngqo noma ngokungaqondile nababekhona emakethe yezilwane zasolwandle yabantu nezilwane.)

I-zoonosis hypothesis njengamanje iyi-hypothesis yemvelaphi ekhona. Kodwa-ke, imvelaphi ye-zoonotic ye-SARS-CoV-2 inayo kepha isazomiswa ngokuqinisekile, futhi abanye abacwaningi baveze ukuthi kusekelwe eziphikisanayo kokuma ukuthi zidinga ukuqhubeka kophenyo.

Ngokuqhubeka nokufunda ngalezi zihloko, bheka uhlu lwethu lokufunda: Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2? Ziyini izingcuphe zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi?

Abanye ososayensi baye basikisela umbono ohlukile wemvelaphi; bacabanga ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingumphumela we ngengozi ukukhishwa kohlobo lwasendle noma i-lab-modified uhlobo lokuhlobene eduze Igciwane elifana ne-SARS ebigcinwe ezikhungweni zokuvikela ukuphepha ezenza ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan, njenge-WIV noma iZikhungo ze-Wuhan zokuLawulwa nokuVinjelwa kwezifo.

Okubaluleke kakhulu, isimo esivela kumalabha asisho ukuthi asiyifaki i-zoonosis hypothesis ngoba i-SARS-CoV-2 ingaba umphumela wokulungiswa kwelebhu okwenziwe ngezinhlobo ezingabikwanga ze-bat coronaviruses ezingabiki ze-SARS igcinwe ku-WIV, noma ukuqoqwa nje kanye nokugcinwa kwama-coronaviruses anjalo. Abagxeki ye-lab-origin hypotheses iyichithile le mibono njenge ukuqagela okungenabufakazi futhi izinkolelo zendlovu.

Kuze kube manje, kukhona hhayi kwanele ubufakazi ukwenqaba ngokuphelele imvelaphi ye-zoonotic noma i-lab-Origin hypotheses. Siyazi, ngokususelwa kuzindatshana zocwaningo ezishicilelwe futhi Izibonelelo zikahulumeni wase-US ku-EcoHealth Alliance yokuxhasa ucwaningo lwe-WIV coronavirus, leyo WIV igcinwe amakhulukhulu wama-coronaviruses angaba yingozi akwa-SARS, futhi enziwe Ukuhlolwa kwe-GOF kuma-coronaviruses ngokubambisana namanyuvesi ase-US, futhi kwakukhona ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha nge I-WIV's BSL-4 laboratory.

Kepha kuze kube manje, akukabi khona ukucwaningwa okuzimele kwamarekhodi kanye nemininingwane yolwazi lweWIV, futhi kunolwazi oluncane mayelana nokusebenza kwangaphakathi kweWIV. I-WIV isusile kwimininingwane yayo yewebhusayithi njenge ukuvakashelwa konozakuzaku besayensi baseMelika ngonyaka wezi-2018, Futhi ivale ukufinyelela kwi-database yayo yamagciwane futhi amarekhodi elabhorethri izivivinyo ze-coronavirus ezenziwa ososayensi be-WIV.

Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2 kunemithelela ebalulekile yenqubomgomo yezinhlelo zomphakathi zezempilo nezokudla. Imvelaphi engaba khona ye-zoonotic yakwaSARS-CoV-2 iyaphakama imibuzo mayelana nezinqubomgomo ezithuthukisa ukunwetshwa kokusebenza kwezolimo ezimbonini kanye nemfuyo, okungaba yizimbangela ezinkulu ze ukuvela kwamagciwane enoveli kanye ne-pathogenic kakhulu, ukugawulwa kwamahlathi, ukulahleka kwezinhlobonhlobo zemvelo kanye nokuhlaselwa kwemvelo. I- kungenzeka ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingahle ivele kulabhorethri ye-biodefense imibuzo mayelana ukuthi kufanele yini unalezi zinsiza, lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe okwenziwe ngama-microbial pathogen akhiqizwa endle.

Noma ngabe i-SARS-CoV-2 iguqulwe ilebhu noma cha, uphenyo lwelab-origin-theorists luphakamisa imibuzo ebalulekile mayelana nokushoda obala maqondana nocwaningo ngamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane, kanye nezinto ezibalulekile kanye nabadlali abakha izindawo zokuvikela ukuphepha ezanda kakhulu lapho amagciwane ayingozi ekhona igcinwe futhi yaguqulwa ukuze ibenze babulale kakhulu.

Ingabe ucwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi lufanele ingozi?

Kukhona okuphawulekayo ubufakazi ukuthi amalabhorethri okuphepha okuvikela ukuphepha kokuphila abe nokuningi izingozi, ukwephulwa, Futhi ukwehluleka kokuqukethwe, nokuthi izinzuzo ezingaba khona zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi may akufanelekile the izingozi kokubangela izifo ezingaba khona.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka lushintsha futhi luhlole amagciwane ayingozi njenge-Ebola, igciwane lesifo somkhuhlane i-H1N1, kanye nama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS ngaphansi kwerubrikhi yokwenziwa kwezinyathelo zokulwa nezokwelapha (njengemithi yokugoma). Ngenxa yalokho, inesithakazelo hhayi kuphela ku- umkhakha we-biotechnology kanye nowokwenza imithi kepha futhi ukuze umkhakha we-biodefense, ephathelene nokusetshenziswa okungenzeka kocwaningo lwe-GOF ngezenzo ze-biowarfare.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF ngamagciwane abulalayo yi- Staff umphakathi impilo. Imibiko kokuvuza ngengozi nokwephulwa kokungavikeleki ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-GOF akuvamile. Ngemuva kokuthi iqembu elivelele lama-virologists lishicilele okuphuthumayo isitatimende sokuvumelana ngoJulayi 14, 2014 ecela ukuthi kumiswe ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka, uhulumeni wase-US ngaphansi kokuphatha kukaMongameli uBarack Obama wabeka umthetho  "Ikhefu lezezimali" ekuhlolweni kwe-GOF okubandakanya amagciwane ayingozi, kufaka phakathi ama-coronaviruses namagciwane omkhuhlane.

Ukuphumula kwemali kahulumeni ocwaningweni lokukhathazeka nge-GOF kwasuswa ngo-2017 ngemuva kwesikhathi lapho uhulumeni wase-US enza khona uchungechunge lwezingxoxo ukuhlola i- izinzuzo nezingozi kuhlotshaniswa nezifundo ezibandakanya ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka.

Ifuna ukwenza izinto obala

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi imininingwane ebaluleke kakhulu kunqubomgomo yezempilo yomphakathi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nezingozi zamalabhorethri okuphepha kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi, kungafihlwa kumanethiwekhi e-biodefense wezinsiza zokuphepha zikazwelonke ze-United Amazwe, iChina, nakwezinye izindawo.

Sizozama ukukhanyisa ngalezi zindaba ngokusebenzisa izicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi. Mhlawumbe sizophumelela. Singahluleka kalula. Sizobika noma yini ewusizo esingayithola.

USainath Suryanarayanan, PhD, ungusosayensi wabasebenzi e-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali ngokubambisana wale ncwadi, “Izinyosi Ezinyamalalayo: Isayensi, Ezombusazwe kanye ne-Honeybee Health”(Rutgers University Press, 2017).

Ukukhushulwa okungalungile, okukhohlisayo kukaMark Lynas kwe-ajenda yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UMark Lynas uyintatheli wangaphambilini waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane owenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngaleyo mikhiqizo esakhiweni sakhe IGates Foundation exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science. Izindlu eCornell University kusukela ngonyaka we-2014, ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso wobudlelwano nomphakathi eqeqesha abakhulumayo futhi yakhe amanethiwekhi wethonya, ikakhulukazi emazweni ase-Afrika, ukukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ososayensi, ongoti bezokudla bathi uLynas akalungile kwisayensi

Ososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza izitatimende ezinganembile nezingahambisani nesayensi emizamweni yakhe yokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, izifundiswa zangena ngoJulayi 2020 esihlokweni ULynas ubhalele iCornell Alliance for Science ethi i-agroecology "inobungozi bokulimaza abampofu." Abagxeki bachaza udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi”Kanye ne-“ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela”Ukuthi“ngephutha uhlanganisa ukongiwa kwe-agroecology bese enza iziphetho zasendle. "

Isazi sezolimo nomhlaba uMarc Corbeels, iphepha lakhe uLynas okwakuthiwa uzolichaza kule ndatshana, uthe uLynas wenza “ukwenziwa okwandile. ” UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezepolitiki eQueen's University, ucele ukuthi kuhoxiswe; “Into efanele ukuyenza kungaba khipha ucezu lwakho olunamaphutha kakhulu lokho kudida izinto eziyisisekelo ngamasu ezolimo, ”kusho uTaylor kuTwitter. Uchaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “Imibono emsulwa” kanye “nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza 'ngokwesayensi'. ”  

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo ngomsebenzi kaLynas (kugcizelela okwethu):

  • “Ngingasho ngokusobala ukuthi akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO nokuthi iningi lezitatimende (zikaLynas) zingamanga, ” ubhale uDavid Schubert, PhD, Head, Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory & Professor e-The Salk Institute, encwadini ayibhalele ISan Diego Union Tribune.
  • “Nayi eminye imikhakha ye- amaphuzu angalungile noma alahlekisayo uLynas akwenzayo mayelana nesayensi noma ukuthuthukiswa kwe-GE, ”kubhala uDoug Gurian-Sherman, PhD, owayengusosayensi omkhulu, Inyunyana Yososayensi Abakhathazekile. “Esikhundleni sokuphikisana noma ukuxoxa ngesayensi yangempela, uLynas uphonsa iziphakamiso futhi usebenzise ukuthembela egunyeni kunedatha noma ucwaningo. " 
  • Izimangalo zikaLynas mayelana nokuqiniseka kokuphepha kwe-GMO “akunasayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo, ” ngokusho kukaBelinda Martineau, PhD, unjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo owasiza ekwakheni ukudla kokuqala kwe-GMO (bheka incwadi eya ku-NYT futhi I-Biotech Salon).
  • Ekubuyekezweni Incwadi kaLynas Imbewu Yesayensi, isazi semvelaphi yabantu uGlenn Davis Stone uchaze le ncwadi njenge “ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwamaphuzu okuxoxa embonini evamile. ” 
  • "The Uhlu lokuhlanjwa kwezimpahla lwalokho uMark Lynas okungahambanga kahle ngakho kokubili ama-GMO nesayensi lubanzi, futhi iphikisiwe ngephuzu ngabathile abahola phambili emhlabeni izazi ngezolimo futhi izazi zezinto eziphilayo,”Kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, PhD, owayengumqondisi weFood First, ku I-Huffington Post.
  • UMark Lynas une “wenza umsebenzi ophume…" kubhale uThimothewu A. Wise, owayengumqondisi wocwaningo eGlobal Development and Environment Institute eTufts University.
  • "Ukulandisa kukaLynas kungamanga,”Ngokusho kuka- Ukukhishwa kwe-2018 kusuka e-African Centre for Biodiversity, iqembu elizinze eNingizimu Afrika. 
  • “Maka Izimangalo zikaLynas zibonisa ukungazi okujulile kwezesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. Kufanele ungamnaki, ” uthumele uPete Myers, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Environmental Health Sciences, umshicileli we-EHN.org.

Amaqhinga 'okukhohlisayo, adukisayo futhi angenasimiso' 

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika athi uLynas usemelele kabi amaqiniso amaningi ukuthuthukisa uhlelo lwezombusazwe. Ngokombiko wangoDisemba 2018 yi-African Centre for Biodiversity, Lynas kanye neCornell Alliance for Science basebenzise izithombe zabalimi base-Afrika ngaphandle kolwazi nemvume yabo, bexhaphaza izithombe ngezindlela ezidukisayo zokuthi abalimi badinga ama-GMO.

ULynas usebenzise lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle komongo futhi ngaphandle kwemvume yakhe.

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uLynas wabhala lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle kwemvume nangaphandle komongo, esikisela ukuthi uyisisulu “sokungabi nabulungisa emhlabeni wonke.” UNkk. R empeleni ungumlimi ophumelelayo futhi olwela izindlela zokulima kanye nokuziphilisa kahle, ngokusho kombiko we-ACBio. Ucele uLynas ukuthi asuse isithombe sakhe, kodwa uhlala kwi-feed yakhe ye-twitter. I-ACBio ithe embikweni wayo ukuthi amaqhinga kaLynas “eqe umugqa obomvu wokuziphatha futhi kumele ayeke.”  

Iqembu elibusa ukudla nalo kusho ekukhululweni kwezindaba ukuthi uLynas "unomlando wokwenza ububi eTanzania" ngomkhakha wezokuvikela imboni ye-biotech. “Ukuhambela kwakhe kuleli kuhlelwe kahle yindawo yokwamukela izivakashi, esebenzisa izinkundla ezifana nemihlangano ejwayelekile ye-Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa (OFAB), lapho abezindaba bekhona khona bezobika ngezinkulumo zakhe. Ukuhlasela kwakhe bekuqondiswe kakhulu emithethweni yezwe yokuvikela ukuphepha, ikakhulukazi indlela yayo yokuvikela kanye nemibandela eqinile yezikweletu. ”

I-Alliance for Food Ubukhosi (i-AFSA), umfelandawonye omele amaqembu abalimi angama-35 nabathengi e-Afrika yonkana, nayo isole uLynas ngokugqugquzela “izethembiso ezingamanga, ukumelwa kabi, namanye amaqiniso. ” Kundatshana ka-2018, bachaze uLynas "njengongqondongqondo" ongahloniphi abantu base-Afrika, amasiko namasiko abo. "

Imiyalezo yokubulala izinambuzane isuselwa kumaphoyinti okukhuluma embonini, hhayi isayensi

Esinye isibonelo sokubika okunganembile kukaLynas ngesakhe Isihloko se-2017 i-Cornell Alliance for Science ehlasela i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-World Health Organisation ngokubika i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. U-Lynas wathi lo mbiko wophiko lochwepheshe "kwakuwukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" kanye "nokuhlanekezelwa okusobala kwezesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo," okwakuhlelwe abantu abanqotshwe "ukuthukuthela nemizwelo." Uthe i-glyphosate "iyikhemikhali elibi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni." 

A hlola iqiniso yi-US Right to Know uthole ukuthi uLynas wenza izimpikiswano ezifanayo ezidukisayo nezinamaphutha futhi wathembela emithonjeni efanayo emibili enamaphutha njengebhulogi eyathunyelwa ngenyanga edlule yi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu iMonsanto lalikhokha ukusiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate neminye imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ekuphakamiseni icala lakhe ukuthi "amaqembu ezishoshovu ahlukumeza isayensi futhi abeka eceleni inqubomgomo esuselwa ebufakazini ku-glyphosate saga," u-Lynas akagcinanga ngokuthembela ezimpikiswaneni nasezimbonini, kodwa futhi wabushaya indiva ubufakazi obuningi, obabikwa kabanzi kwabezindaba, ukuthi iMonsanto ilawula ukubuyekezwa kwesayensi nokulawula ku-glyphosate amashumi eminyaka usebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha kufaka phakathi izifundo zokubhala ghost futhi izihloko, izifundo zokubulala, ukucindezela isayensi engabazisayo, ukuhlasela ososayensi futhi izinhlangano zokulawula ezinamandla ngenhloso yokuvikela inzuzo yayo kumikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate. 

Kukhuthazwe, kuxhumene nenethiwekhi yezimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane

Izinkampani zezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yazo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi zivame ukukhuthaza uMark Lynas nomsebenzi wakhe. Bona isibonelo Iwebhusayithi kaMonsanto, ama-tweets amaningi wokuphromotha ngomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu okuhweba, amaqembu okubungaza, pro-umkhakha izifundiswa futhi abalobi, Futhi various Monsanto abasebenzi, kanye nenqwaba yama-athikili kaLynas kukhuthazwe ngu Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo, a iqembu le-propaganda ababambisana neMonsanto.

ILynas neCornell Alliance for Science nabo bayasebenzisana nabanye ababambe iqhaza kwinethiwekhi yezokuphepha kanye nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha wezolimo.

Iluleka iqembu labalingani beMonsanto i-Sense About Science

Imfihlo Uhlelo lweMonsanto PR yangomhla kaFebhuwari 2015 yaphakamisa Umuzwa Ngezesayensi njengeqembu elingasiza ekuholeni impendulo yomkhakha kwabezindaba ukudicilela phansi umbiko womdlavuza we-WHO nge-glyphosate. ULynas ukhonza ku- umkhandlu wokweluleka ye-Sense Mayelana neSayensi. I-Intercept ibikile ngo-2016 lokho "I-Sense About Science ayivezi ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho imithombo yayo yezindaba eziyimpikiswano ingososayensi abanobudlelwano nezimboni ezihlolwayo," futhi "kwaziwa ukuthi bathatha izikhundla ezingavumelani nesayensi noma ezichithe ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala." Umuzwa Ngezesayensi abambisene neCornell Alliance for Science ukunikeza "ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli" ngomqondisi weqembu UTrevor Butterworth, ochazwe yizintatheli njengo “imboni yamakhemikhali umbhali wobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Related: IMonsanto ithembele kulaba "abalingani" ukuhlasela ososayensi abaphezulu bomdlavuza

Kuhlanganiswe nesayensi yezulu ukugxeka ukuqalisa i-pro-fracking, pro-nuke, GMO “movement”

U-Lynas uzibiza ngomunye wabasunguli “bokunyakaza” “kwe-ecomodernism,” uhlobo oluhambisanayo lwenkampani “lwezemvelo” umlobi waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot aluchaza ngokuthi “aluthathi zinyathelo zepolitiki ukuvikela umhlaba wemvelo.” Abakwa-eco-modernists bakhuthaza ukuthosiwe, amandla enuzi nemikhiqizo yezolimo njengezixazululo zemvelo. Ngokusho kwabaholi be-eco-modernist UTed Nordhaus noMichael Shellenberger we-Breakthrough Institute, ubuchwepheshe bamandla obuthandwa ngabazalwane besigidigidi samafutha uKoch “benza okungaphezulu kakhulu ekunciphiseni ukukhishwa kwegesi ebamba ukushisa kunalabo abathandwa yiLeft-apocalyptic Left.” 

Ku-a wehlulekile umcimbi wokuqalisa kwe-ecomodernism ngoSepthemba 2015, uLynas wazihlanganisa no-Owen Paterson, ovelele ophika isayensi yezulu e-UK ngubani kunciphise imali ngemizamo yokulungiselela izwe ukufudumala komhlaba ngesikhathi esengunobhala wezemvelo. Ngenyanga efanayo, uPaterson ukhulume eCornell Alliance for Science, lapho ephakamisa khona ama-GMO nge-hyperbolic inkulumo igcwaliswe nge izimangalo ezingasekelwa, futhi wasola abezemvelo ngokuvumela izingane ukuba zife e-Afrika. "Imikhankaso eluhlaza eyizigidigidi ibulala izingane ezihlwempu," kusho u-a isihloko ukubika ngenkulumo kaPaterson's Cornell evela eMkhandlwini WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto lalikhokha ukuvikela imikhiqizo yayo. 

Isendlalelo sikaMark Lynas

ULynas wabhala izincwadi eziningana ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu (enye yazo yamukelwa yiRoyal Society) ngaphambi kokuba akhange umhlaba wonke "Ukuguqulwa" kusuka kwisishoshovu se-anti-GMO kumgqugquzeli wobuchwepheshe ngenkulumo ekhuthazwa kabanzi yango-2013 e-Oxford ethi abagxekayo babe kuchazwe njengo ukudukisa. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngalowo nyaka uLynas waba ngumuntu eCornell University Office of International Programs eKolishi Lezolimo neLife Sciences, waqala usebenzela iCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso wezokuxhumana owenziwe ngonyaka we-2014 wokukhuthaza ama-GMO nge imali evela eGates Foundation.

Bheka: Kungani iCornell University ibamba umkhankaso we-GMO propaganda?

ULynas wazibiza ngokuthi "ungumqondisi wezepolitiki" weCornell Alliance for Science kwiNew York Times yango-2015 i-op-ed. ICornell Alliance for Science ayichazi ukuthi luyini uhlelo lwayo lwezepolitiki, kepha imiyalezo kanye nezinhloso zeqembu zilandelela eduze uhlelo lwezohwebo lomkhakha wezolimo: ukukhulisa ukwamukelwa kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emhlabeni jikelele, ikakhulukazi e-Afrika.

I-Mysterious Lynas PR push, futhi yavuza imemo ye-EuropaBio

Ukusatshalaliswa okukhulu kwabezindaba ngokuguqulwa kukaLynas 'pro-GMO ngo-2013 kwaphakamisa izinsolo zokuthi umkhankaso we-PR wemboni wawusiza ukumphakamisa ekusithekeni. A idalulwe imemo ka-2011 okuvela enkampanini yePR yomkhakha - echaza ngezinhlelo zokuqasha “amanxusa” asezingeni eliphakeme ukunxenxa ukwamukelwa kweGMO - kwandisa izinsolo zokusekelwa kwezimboni ngoba lo mbhalo uqambe igama elithi Lynas. Uthe iqembu akakaze asondele kuye.

Ngokombiko othile Umbiko Guardian, I-EuropaBio, iqembu lezokuhweba elinamalungu alo afaka phakathi iMonsanto neBayer, lihlele ukuqasha amanxusa e-PR ukusiza abenzi bezinqumo "ukucabanga kabusha ngesimo seYurophu ngezitshalo zeGM." Amanxusa abengeke akhokhelwe ngqo kodwa azothola izindleko zokuhamba kanye "nokuxhaswa kokuxhumana okuzinikele" okuvela embonini yezimali. Isikhulu senkampani i-PR sathi "sinentshisekelo" kuLynas, phakathi kwabanye, endimeni yenxusa. ULynas uphikile ukuthi unokuxhumana nabo. "Angikaze ngicelwe ukuthi ngibe yinxusa, futhi angizokwamukela isicelo esinjalo uma ngicelwa," etshela iGuardian.

IGates Foundation, ama-GMO neMonsanto

IBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, umxhasi oyinhloko weCornell Alliance for Science no $ 12 wezigidi kwizibonelelo, igxekiwe ngamasu ayo oxhaso lokuthuthukisa ezolimo axhasa ama-ajenda ebhizinisi lezolimo. A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 okuvela eqenjini locwaningo IGRAIN ithole ukuthi iGates Foundation ichithe iningi lezimali zayo zokuthuthukisa ezolimo “ukondla abampofu e-Afrika” - cishe ama- $ 3 billion asetshenziswe ngaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi - fundisa ososayensi nabaphenyi emazweni acebile. Le mali isiza nasekuthengeni ithonya lezepolitiki kulo lonke elase-Afrika, kubika i-GRAIN. A Umbiko we-2016 weqembu lokukhuthaza i-Global Justice Now uphethe ngokuthi amasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo eGates Foundation “abhebhethekisa ukungalingani komhlaba wonke futhi agxilisa amandla ezinkampani emhlabeni jikelele.”

IGates Foundation inwebe kakhulu imali yayo yamaphrojekthi wezolimo eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule lapho uRob Horsch, Inhloko yangaphambili kaMonsanto yentuthuko yamazwe omhlaba ijoyine ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kwesisekelo ithimba lobuholi. Incwadi entsha kaLynas ethi “Seeds of Science” ichitha isahluko (“The True History of Monsanto”) izama ukuchaza ezinye zezono zenkampani edlule nokudumisa uRob Horsch isikhathi eside. Sichitha esinye isahluko (“i-Afrika: Bayeke Badle Ummbila Wezingane Oyingqayizivele”) siphikisa ngokuthi abantu base-Afrika badinga imikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo ukuze bazondle.

Ukugxekwa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yekoloniyalizim e-Afrika

  • Imbewu Ye-Neo-Colonialism: Kungani Abagqugquzeli be-GMO Bakuthola Kubi Kangaka Nge-Afrika, isitatimende ngu Umbutho Wobumbano Lokudla e-Afrika, 5/7/2018
  • Ngabe amaGates noRockefeller basebenzisa ithonya labo ukusetha i-ajenda emazweni ampofu?"Ucwaningo lukhomba izisekelo zikaBill noMelinda Gates kanye neRockefeller phakathi kwabanikeli abacebile abasondelene nohulumeni futhi okungenzeka ukuthi bathanda izinto eziseqhulwini," nguJohn Vidal, Tyena Guardian, 1/15/2016
  • Amandla Wentuthuko Nokuthuthuka. Ngubani owenza i-ajenda? nguJens Martens noKarolin Seitz, Umbiko ka-2015 (ikhasi 48).
  • I-Philanthrocapitalism: Izinhlelo ze-Gates Foundation zase-Afrika aziwona usizo, nguPhilip L Bereano, uSolwazi Emeritus e-University of Washington, Ukuvuselelwa Komhlaba Kwesithathu, 2017
  • IBill Gates Isiza KFC Ukuthatha i-Afrika, ngu-Alex Park, Umama Jones, 1/10/2014
  • IGates Foundation's Agenda Agenda e-Afrika 'Olunye Uhlobo Lobukoloniyali,' Kuxwayisa Ababhikishi, nguLauren McCauley, Amaphupho ajwayelekile, 3/23/2015
  • IGates Foundation ihola phambili ekuphangweni kwezolimo e-Afrika, nguColin Todhunter, Isazi Semvelo, 1/21/2016
  • Ngabe iGates Foundation iyisebenzisa kanjani imali yayo ukondla umhlaba?Umbiko wokusanhlamvu, 2014
  • UBill Gates usemkhankasweni wokuthengisa ama-GMO e-Afrika, kepha akalikhulumi lonke iqiniso, nguStacy Malkan, Okunye, 3/24/2016