Ama-imeyili Adalula Umshicileli Wezesayensi Athole Amaphepha Ngokuphepha Kwe-Herbicide Kufanele Ahoxiswe Ngenxa YeMonsanto Meddling

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ithonya eliyimfihlo likaMonsanto kusethi yamaphepha ashicilelwe kumagazini wesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology bekungafanele neze ukuthi uphenyo olwenziwe ngumshicileli luthole ukuthi okungenani amaphepha amathathu kumele ahoxiswe, ngokusho kochungechunge lwezokuxhumana kwangaphakathi. Umhleli wephephabhuku wenqabile ukuhoxisa amaphepha, athi akunankinga yomdlavuza ngemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani, ethi ukuhoxiswa kungaba nomthelela esivivinyweni sokuqala seRoundup ehlobo eledlule futhi kulimaze idumela lababhali, ama-imeyili akhombisa.

Iphephabhuku ukuxhumana kwezokuxhumana kwatholakala ngokutholwa ngabameli abamele izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zabantu Umangalela uMonsanto ngaphezulu kwezimangalo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula esekwe eglyphosate idala umdlavuza nokuthi iMonsanto ifihle ubufakazi bezingozi.

Ngokungafani nalokho ama-imeyili angaphakathi eMonsanto okuze kwavela manje kwembula ukusetshenziswa kwenkampani yezolimo ngemibhalo yesayensi mayelana nokubulala ukhula kwayo, lawa ma-imeyili abonisa impi yangaphakathi endlini enkulu yokushicilela ngokwesayensi yokuthi kufanele ibhekane kanjani nokugxambukela kukaMonsanto. Batholakala njengengxenye yokufakwa kukaRoger McClellan, umhleli wesikhathi eside oyinhloko yephephabhuku elibukezwe ngontanga iCritical Reviews in Toxicology (CRT.)

Amaphepha okukhulunywa ngawo ashicilelwa yiCRT ngoSepthemba 2016 njengo “Ukubuyekeza Okuzimele ” amandla we-carcinogenic we-ejenti yokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo. Amaphepha amahlanu ashicilelwe njengengxenye yokubuyekezwa aphikisana ngqo nokutholwe yi-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), okuthe ngonyaka ka-2015 kwatholakala ukuthi i-glyphosate ingase ibe yisifo somdlavuza womuntu. Ababhali abali-16 bamaphepha baphethe ngokuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula wayengabeki ubungozi emzimbeni womuntu.

Ekupheleni kwamaphepha abalobi bathi iziphetho zabo zazingenelele ukungenelela kukaMonsanto. Kugcizelelwa ukuzimela komsebenzi, isimemezelo senzalo sathi: “Abekho abasebenzi benkampani yaseMonsanto noma abameli ababuyekeze noma imiphi imibhalo yesandla ye-Expert Panel ngaphambi kokulethwa kulo magazini.”

Leyo nkulumo iboniswe ingamanga ekwindla ka-2017 ngemuva kokuvela kwamarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto kukhombisa ukuzibandakanya okukhulu ngososayensi baseMonsanto ekubhalweni nasekuhlelweni kwamaphepha kanjalo nokubandakanyeka kwenkampani ekukhetheni ababhali. Ngokwengeziwe, amarekhodi angaphakathi akhombisa izinkokhelo eziqondile okungenani kubabili ababizwa ngokuthi ababhali abazimele. UMonsanto wayenenkontileka nombhali uLarry Kier, ngokwesibonelo, ukumkhokhela u- $ 27,400 ukusebenza emaphepheni.

Ukuphendula lezo zambulo nemibuzo evela ezitolo zabezindaba, umshicileli weCRT  UTaylor noFrancis Group  yethule uphenyo ekwindla ka-2017. Ezokuxhumana ezisanda kukhishwa ziveza ukuthi ngemuva kokuchitha izinyanga bebuza ababhali ukuthi amaphepha ahlangana kanjani, iqembu labachwepheshe bezomthetho nokuziphatha elihlanganiswe nguTaylor & Francis baphetha ngokuthi ababhali bakufihlile ukubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto ngqo emaphepheni, futhi ukwenze lokho azi. Ngempela, abanye ababhali abadalulanga ngisho ngokuphelele ukubandakanyeka kweMonsanto ekubuzweni kokuqala nguTaylor noFrancis ngesikhathi sophenyo, ama-imeyili akhombisa.

Umphumela “wokusebenziseka kuphela ukuhoxisa ama-athikili ama-3; ikakhulukazi amaphepha afingqiwe, obhubhane nezifo ze-genotoxicity, ”uCharles Whalley kaTaylor noFrancis ubhalele uMcClellan ngoMeyi 18, 2018. UWhalley wayephethe umhleli wephephabhuku lezokwelapha nezempilo leqembu ngaleso sikhathi.

Ama-imeyili angaphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uMcClellan wenqabile ukwamukela umqondo wokuhoxa, ethi ukholelwa ukuthi amaphepha "ayezwakala ngokwesayensi" futhi akhiqizwa "ngaphandle kwethonya langaphandle" elivela eMonsanto. Uthe ukuhoxa kuzodicilela phansi isithunzi sababhali, iphephabhuku nesithunzi sakhe.

"Angikwazi ukuvumelana nesiphakamiso sokuhoxa osinikeze kumemo yakho kaMeyi 18, UMcClellan wabhala ephendula.  Ochungechungeni lwama-imeyili uMcClellan wabeka izizathu zakhe zokuphinda ahoxiswe, ethi "Ukuhoxiswa kwamaphepha kuzokwenza ukulimala okungenakulungiseka emaqenjini amaningi kubandakanya, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ababhali, iJenali, umshicileli kanye nabasebenzi abaphambili abanjengawe futhi, ngaphezu kwalokho , nami endimeni yami njengoMhleli Wezesayensi we-CRT. ”

Ku-an imeyili yangoJuni 5, 2018, UMcClellan umemezele ukuthi wayazi ukuthi uMonsanto "unentshisekelo yakhe" ekushicilelweni kwamaphepha futhi wayebazi mathupha ubudlelwano bukaMonsanto, kubandakanya nezivumelwano zokunxeshezelwa, nababhali, futhi wayesenelisekile ukuthi amaphepha "ayezwakala ngokwesayensi."

"Ngokombono wami wobungcweti, amaphepha amahlanu eGlyphosate ayizicucu zemisebenzi ebhala ngokusobala inqubo esetshenzisiwe ukugxeka umbiko we-IARC nokuhlinzeka ngenye indlela yokubeka ingozi," kubhala uMcClellan. “Amaphepha amahlanu anengqondo ngokwesayensi. Kungaba ukwephula izimiso zokuziphatha zesayensi kanye nezindinganiso zami zobuqotho besayensi ukuvuma ukuhoxiswa kwanoma imaphi amaphepha eGlyphosate… ”

UWhalley wahlehla, ethi ababhali bamaphepha babenecala "lokungaziphathi kahle nokwephula izimiso zokuziphatha zokushicilela," okunzima kangangoba kufanele kuhoxiswe. “Ukwephulwa kwezimiso zokushicilela esizitholile kuleli cala kungukwephula okusobala kwamazinga ayisisekelo futhi achazwe ngokusobala, futhi akubangelwa ukungaqondi kwemininingwane noma i-nuance,” uWhalley ubhalele uMcClellan. Uthe umshicileli ubuyekeze izinkombandlela ezivela kwiKomidi Lezokuziphatha Komphakathi (COPE) ngaphambi kokuthatha lesi sinqumo. "Ukuhlehlisa kungubufakazi bokuthi izinqubomgomo zokuhlela ziyasebenza, hhayi ukuthi zehlulekile," wabhala.

UWhalley noMcClellan baphikisana ngokuhoxiswa izinyanga, amarekhodi akhombisa. Kokukodwa Julayi 22, 2018 i-imeyili UMcClellan uveze ukuthi Icala lokuqala elibhekene neMonsanto ngenxa yezimangalo zomdlavuza weRoundup zazenzeka ngaleso sikhathi ngakho izingxoxo zephephabhuku zokuhoxiswa "zazizwela impela njengoba icala likaJohnson noMonsanto liqhubeka eSan Francisco." Uphakamise ukuthi esikhundleni sokuhoxisa amaphepha, bavele balungise isigaba esisekugcineni kwamaphepha lapho ababhali beveza khona ukungqubuzana okungaba khona.

"Ngiyaninxusa ukuba nivumelane nesincomo sami sokushicilela izitatimende eziqondisiwe nezandisiwe zeSimemezelo Sentshisekelo futhi niyeke indlela" we gotcha "neRetraction yamaphepha," uMcClellan ubhalele uWhalley nge-imeyili kaJulayi 2018. "Ngeke ngivume ukuthi isithunzi sami engisizuze kahle singcoliswe yizenzo zokucindezela nokwenza izinto ezingenamqondo."

“Kulokhu, sidinga ukuthi sonke ngokuhlanganyela sizame ukufinyelela esivumelwaneni ngomphumela wokulingana okuyi-FAIR kubabhali, umshicileli, abafundi be-CRT, umphakathi kanye nami njengoMhleli Oyinhloko kanye nebhodi labahleli be-CRT. Akumele sithathe indlela enquma abawinile nabangahlulwa emacaleni asemthethweni ngokuya ngokuthi yini evunyelwe ukuvela ezincwadini ezibukeziwe zontanga, ”kubhala uMcClellan.

Akekho uMcClellan noWhalley abaphendulile esicelweni sokuphawula maqondana nale ndatshana.

Uchungechunge lweCRT glyphosate lwaluthathwa njengolubaluleke kakhulu kangangokuba okutholakele kwalo kwabikwa kabanzi ngabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele futhi kwafaka ukungabaza ngobuqiniso bokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC. Amaphepha ashicilelwe ngesikhathi esibucayi njengoba uMonsanto wayebhekene nokungabaza ngabalawuli baseYurophu ngokuvumela i-glyphosate ukuthi ihlale emakethe futhi ikhule ngokungazinzile ezimakethe zase-US. Uchungechunge lwe-2016 "lufinyeleleke kabanzi," kanti elinye lamaphepha kulolu chungechunge lifinyelele "ngaphezu kwesikhathi esingu-13,000," ngokusho kwephephandaba langaphakathi.

Ukubaluleka kwamaphepha eMonsanto kwachazwa embhalweni oyimfihlo wangomhlaka-11 Meyi 2015, lapho ososayensi baseMonsanto bekhuluma ngamasu "okubhala izipoki" azoboleka ukwethembeka emaphepheni "azimele" inkampani efuna ukuwakha bese ukuthi ishicilelwe yiCRT. IMonsanto umemezele ngo-2015 ukuthi kwakuqasha i-Intertek Scientific & Regulatory Consultancy ukuhlanganisa iphaneli lososayensi abazimele abazobuyekeza ukuhlukaniswa kwe-glyphosate kwe-IARC njenge-carcinogen engaba khona. Kepha inkampani ibithembise ukuthi ngeke ibambe iqhaza ekubuyekezweni.

Yize ukubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto kwembulwa ku-2017 Taylor & Francis bengathathanga zinyathelo zomphakathi kwaze kwaba nguSepthemba 2018 njengoba umshicileli nomhleli babambana ngodaba lokuhoxa. UMcClellan wagcina eyinqobile impikiswano futhi akukho ukubuyiselwa emuva okwenziwe. Ama-imeyili angaphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uWhalley wazise abalobi abangu-16 bamaphepha e-glyphosate ngesinqumo sokumane bashicilele ukulungiswa kwezihloko futhi bavuselele izimemezelo zentshisekelo ekugcineni kwamaphepha. Lowo Agasti 31, 2018 i-imeyili ithi:

            “Siyabona ukuthi, ngaphandle kwezicelo zokudalulwa ngokugcwele, izitatimende zokuqala zokuBonga kanye neSimemezelo Sezintshisekelo azimelanga ngokugcwele ukubandakanyeka kweMonsanto noma abasebenzi bayo noma osonkontileka ekubhalweni kwalezi zihloko. Njengoba kushiwo kumamemos wethu wangaphambilini kuwe, lokhu kuqondene ngqo nezitatimende ezithi:

           'Abekho abasebenzi benkampani iMonsanto noma abameli ababuyekeze noma yiliphi i-Expert Panel's imibhalo yesandla ngaphambi kokulethwa kulo magazini. ' nokuthi 'Abachwepheshe bamaPhaneli babebandakanyeka, futhi basebenza njengabaluleki ku, lntertek, futhi abathintwanga ngqo yiNkampani yeMonsanto. ' 

          “Ngokolwazi osinikeze lona, ​​manje sesiyakholelwa ukuthi kulezi zitatimende bekungekho iqiniso ngesikhathi sokulethwa. Lokhu kungqubuzana nezimemezelo ozenzile ekuthumeleni kanye nakwiziqinisekiso ozenze kuzivumelwano ze-Author Publishing Agreements mayelana nokuhambisana kwakho nezinqubomgomo zikaTaylor & Francis. Ukuhlinzeka ngokusobala okudingekayo kubafundi bethu, sizoshicilela ukulungiswa kuma-athikili akho ukuvuselela izitatimende zabo zokubonga kanye nesimemezelo sezintshisekelo njengokuqukethwe okunikezile. ”

NgoSepthemba ka-2018 amaphepha abuyekezwa ukuze aphathe i- “Expression of Concern” kanye nokuvuselelwa kokwamukelwa nokumenyezelwa kwezintshisekelo. Kepha ngaphandle kokutholakala kokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto, amaphepha asabizwa ngegama elithi "ukuzimela."

UWhalley ushiye uTaylor noFrancis ngo-Okthoba ka-2018.

Indlela iphephabhuku elisingatha ngayo lolu daba ibakhathaze abanye ososayensi.

"Ukuphawula kukaMcClellan ngokuthi kungani engazange ahoxise leli phepha bekungamukeleki, kuzenzela yena uqobo, futhi kwephula inqubo yokuhlelwa komsindo," kusho uSheldon Krimsky, onguprofesa waseTufts University futhi osebenza eHastings Centre, okuyisikhungo esizimele sokucwaninga nge-bioethics. UKrimsky ubuye abe ngumhleli wephephabhuku likaTaylor noFrancis elibizwa nge- "Accountability in Research."

UNathan Donley, usosayensi omkhulu oqashwe yi-nonprofit Centre for Biological Diversity uthe ukwehluleka kwephephabhuku ukuhoxisa kwaba wukwehluleka ukwenza izinto obala. "Lesi ngesinye sezigameko eziyihlazo kakhulu ekushicilelweni kwesayensi engake ngazibona," kusho uDonley. “Esisele nakho ukukhombisa ukukhathazeka ukuthi akekho umuntu ozofunda kanye nomqondo omubi ocacile wokuthi lokhu ngandlela thile bekuyindlela 'ezimele'. Lokhu kube yimpumelelo kumdlali onamandla kunabo bonke embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane, kodwa kwaba umphumela wokuziphatha kwesayensi. ”

Chofoza lapha ukuze ufunde amakhasi angama-400 wokuhlanganisa ama-imeyili.  

Ubufakazi Obunqunyiwe Njengoba Isivivinyo Somdlavuza WeMonsanto Sivunguza Phansi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Umbhalo wezinqubo zanamuhla) 

Abameli baka-Edwin Hardeman ukunciphisa kakhulu inani lofakazi nobufakazi obuzokwethulwa kumajaji okufanele anqume ukuthi iMonsanto nomnikazi wayo omusha uBayer banesibopho sokukhulisa uHardeman we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngemuva kweminyaka yokusebenzisa i-Roundup kaMonsanto. Basalelwe ngamahora ambalwa ababelwe ijaji, athe lithe ulindele izimpikiswano zokuvala ngoLwesibili.

Ithimba lamajaji elinamalungu ayisithupha linqume ngesonto eledlule ukuthi iRoundup empeleni ibiyinto ebalulekile ekudaleni umdlavuza kaHardeman. Icala manje seligxile ekutheni kufanele kusolwe uMonsanto noma cha, futhi uma kunjalo, malini - uma kukhona - inkampani kufanele ikhokhele uHardeman kumonakalo.

Kodwa ukwenza lelo cala kungaba nzima uma ubheka isikhathi esifushane sabameli bommangali abasishiye “ewashi lesikhathi” seliphelele elibekwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria. Unikeze uhlangothi ngalunye amahora angama-30 ukuthi enze udaba lwabo.

Abameli bakaHardeman basebenzise isikhathi sabo esiningi engxenyeni yokuqala yokuqulwa kwecala futhi manje banamahora ambalwa asele. Ngenxa yalokho, banayo lazise ijaji ukuthi ngeke babize ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kubaphathi beMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein, uSteven Gould, uDavid Heering, noma uDaniel Jenkins. Futhi abazobe bethula ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kuRoger McClellan, umhleli wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT), kanye nabanye ofakazi okungenani abane.

UMcClellan ubengamele i-CRT ngesikhathi iphephabhuku lishicilela uchungechunge lwamaphepha ngoSepthemba 2016 akhuza lokho okutholwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ethola ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. Amaphepha athi abhalwe ngososayensi abazimele abathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula ubengeke abeke ingozi yomdlavuza kubantu. Kepha imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto khombisa ukuthi amaphepha acatshangwe kwasekuqaleni njengecebo likaMonsanto lokudicilela phansi i-IARC. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kepha ube nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni, noma kunjalo lokho akudalulwanga yiCRT.

Abameli bakaHardeman bahlela cishe amahora amathathu obufakazi obuvela kofakazi abahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kanye noMphathi Omkhulu uHugh Grant, owathola imali engango- $ 32 million ngesikhathi iBayer AG ithenga iMonsanto ehlobo eledlule.

Ingxoxo Yomonakalo

Zombili izinhlangothi sezivumile ukuthi uHardeman ulahlekelwe yimali elinganiselwa ku- $ 200,000 kumonakalo wezomnotho, kepha abameli bakaHardeman kulindeleke ukuthi bacele amashumi ezigidi zamadola, futhi mhlawumbe namakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi ngomonakalo ophelele, kufaka phakathi ukujeziswa.

Abameli beMonsanto baphikise noma yikuphi ukuxoxwa ngengcebo kaMonsanto kanye neBayer engamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-63 akhokhele iMonsanto, kodwa ijaji livumele imininingwane ethile yezezimali ukuthi yabelwe namajaji.

AmaJurors kungenzeka angatshelwa ncamashi ukuthi yimalini iMonsanto ayenzile eminyakeni edlule ekuthengiseni ama-herbicides ayo e-glyphosate, kepha ukubheka unyaka owodwa kuphela wezezimali - 2012, unyaka uHardeman ayeke ukusebenzisa iRoundup - kukhombisa ukuthi inkampani yenze cishe $ 2 billion ngenzuzo ephelele lowo nyaka.

IJaji uChhabria kuphawulwe ezingxoxweni nabameli ngaphandle kobukhona bejaji ukuthi abameli bakaHardeman bangafuna ukuphikisa ukuthi uMonsanto usebenzise imali eningi ekukhangiseni nasekukhokheleni abaphathi kunokuba benze izifundo zokuphepha zesikhathi eside emikhiqizweni yayo. Izinkinga zemali kungenzeka zihambisane nokucatshangelwa kwamajaji mayelana nomonakalo ongaba khona wokujeziswa, kusho uChabria.

"Kungabhekanwa nekhono likaMonsanto lokukhokha, kepha kubukeka kuhambisana kakhulu nodaba lokuthi yini eyayingaziwa - ukulimala kanye nokujeziswa, noma ngabe isenzo sikaMonsanto sasisibi kakhulu futhi sinolaka," kusho iJaji uChhabria. "Kungani bengenakuphikisana, bheka yonke imali uMonsanto abezimisele ukuyisebenzisa ekukhangiseni futhi akazimisele ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lokuphenya ngenhloso yokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo."

"Akukhulunywa kakhulu ngekhono lenkampani kodwa kumayelana nokuziphatha kwenkampani maqondana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo," kusho uChabria. “Bheka zonke lezi zinto inkampani esebenzisa imali eningi ngokweqile, futhi ayizimisele ukuphakamisa umunwe ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lophenyo olunenhloso mayelana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo. Ngicabanga ukuthi leyo yingxabano yabo. ”

UChhabria uthe ubufakazi bezezimali zikaMonsanto bungaba “ngamacala” “okuthukuthelisa ukuziphatha kwenkampani.”

Ukuqala Kwesilingo sePilliod 

Icala lesithathu lomdlavuza weRoundup liyaqhubeka kuleli sonto e-Alameda County Superior Court e-Oakland, eCalifornia. I-Alva ne-Alberta Pilliod,  umyeni nenkosikazi, bathathe uMonsanto noBayer ngezimangalo ukuthi bobabili baphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngenxa yokuvezwa kwemikhiqizo kaMonsanto's Roundup. IVoir dire yokukhethwa kwamajaji iqala namuhla e-Oakland kanti izitatimende zokuvula kulindeleke ukuthi ziqale ngoLwesine. Bona imibhalo ehlobene nalelo cala kulesi sixhumanisi. 

Ijaji ecaleni likaPilliod lisichithile isicelo sikaMonsanto sokuqulwa kwecala. Ithimba lezomthetho elethula icala lePilliod lifaka ummeli waseLos Angeles uBrent Wisner, owazakhela udumo uwine ngummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson ngaphezulu kweMonsanto esivivinyweni sokuqala somdlavuza weRoundup ehlobo eledlule.

Ubufakazi Obunqunyiwe Njengoba Isivivinyo Somdlavuza WeMonsanto Sivunguza Phansi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Thola izibuyekezo eziningi nemibhalo kusuka ezivivinyweni ku- I-Monsanto Trial Tracker.

Abameli baka-Edwin Hardeman ukunciphisa kakhulu inani lofakazi nobufakazi obuzokwethulwa kumajaji okufanele anqume ukuthi iMonsanto nomnikazi wayo omusha uBayer banesibopho sokukhulisa uHardeman we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngemuva kweminyaka yokusebenzisa i-Roundup kaMonsanto. Basalelwe ngamahora ambalwa ababelwe ijaji, athe lithe ulindele izimpikiswano zokuvala ngoLwesibili.

Ithimba lamajaji elinamalungu ayisithupha linqume ngesonto eledlule ukuthi iRoundup empeleni ibiyinto ebalulekile ekudaleni umdlavuza kaHardeman. Icala manje seligxile ekutheni kufanele kusolwe uMonsanto noma cha, futhi uma kunjalo, malini - uma kukhona - inkampani kufanele ikhokhele uHardeman kumonakalo.

Kodwa ukwenza lelo cala kungaba nzima uma ubheka isikhathi esifushane sabameli bommangali abasishiye “ewashi lesikhathi” seliphelele elibekwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria. Unikeze uhlangothi ngalunye amahora angama-30 ukuthi enze udaba lwabo.

Abameli bakaHardeman basebenzise isikhathi sabo esiningi engxenyeni yokuqala yokuqulwa kwecala futhi manje banamahora ambalwa asele. Ngenxa yalokho, banayo lazise ijaji ukuthi ngeke babize ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kubaphathi beMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein, uSteven Gould, uDavid Heering, noma uDaniel Jenkins. Futhi abazobe bethula ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kuRoger McClellan, umhleli wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT), kanye nabanye ofakazi okungenani abane.

UMcClellan ubengamele i-CRT ngesikhathi iphephabhuku lishicilela uchungechunge lwamaphepha ngoSepthemba 2016 akhuza lokho okutholwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ethola ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. Amaphepha athi abhalwe ngososayensi abazimele abathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula ubengeke abeke ingozi yomdlavuza kubantu. Kepha imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto khombisa ukuthi amaphepha acatshangwe kwasekuqaleni njengecebo likaMonsanto lokudicilela phansi i-IARC. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kepha ube nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni, noma kunjalo lokho akudalulwanga yiCRT.

Abameli bakaHardeman bahlela cishe amahora amathathu obufakazi obuvela kofakazi abahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kanye noMphathi Omkhulu uHugh Grant, owathola imali engango- $ 32 million ngesikhathi iBayer AG ithenga iMonsanto ehlobo eledlule.

Ingxoxo Yomonakalo

Zombili izinhlangothi sezivumile ukuthi uHardeman ulahlekelwe yimali elinganiselwa ku- $ 200,000 kumonakalo wezomnotho, kepha abameli bakaHardeman kulindeleke ukuthi bacele amashumi ezigidi zamadola, futhi mhlawumbe namakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi ngomonakalo ophelele, kufaka phakathi ukujeziswa.

Abameli beMonsanto baphikise noma yikuphi ukuxoxwa ngengcebo kaMonsanto kanye neBayer engamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-63 akhokhele iMonsanto, kodwa ijaji livumele imininingwane ethile yezezimali ukuthi yabelwe namajaji.

AmaJurors kungenzeka angatshelwa ncamashi ukuthi yimalini iMonsanto ayenzile eminyakeni edlule ekuthengiseni ama-herbicides ayo e-glyphosate, kepha ukubheka unyaka owodwa kuphela wezezimali - 2012, unyaka uHardeman ayeke ukusebenzisa iRoundup - kukhombisa ukuthi inkampani yenze cishe $ 2 billion ngenzuzo ephelele lowo nyaka.

IJaji uChhabria kuphawulwe ezingxoxweni nabameli ngaphandle kobukhona bejaji ukuthi abameli bakaHardeman bangafuna ukuphikisa ukuthi uMonsanto usebenzise imali eningi ekukhangiseni nasekukhokheleni abaphathi kunokuba benze izifundo zokuphepha zesikhathi eside emikhiqizweni yayo. Izinkinga zemali kungenzeka zihambisane nokucatshangelwa kwamajaji mayelana nomonakalo ongaba khona wokujeziswa, kusho uChabria.

“Kungaba nekhono lokukwazi ukukhokha kukaMonsanto, kodwa kubukeka kufaneleke nakakhulu
udaba lokuthi yini eyayingaziwa - kokubili isikweletu kanye nomonakalo wokujeziswa, noma ngabe ukuziphatha kukaMonsanto kwakweqile futhi kunolaka, ”kusho iJaji uChhabria. "Kungani bengenakuphikisana, bheka yonke imali uMonsanto abezimisele ukuyisebenzisa ekukhangiseni futhi akazimisele ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lokuphenya ngenhloso yokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo."

"Akukhulunywa kakhulu ngekhono lenkampani kodwa kumayelana nokuziphatha kwenkampani maqondana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo," kusho uChabria. “Bheka zonke lezi zinto inkampani esebenzisa imali eningi ngokweqile, futhi ayizimisele ukuphakamisa umunwe ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lophenyo olunenhloso mayelana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo. Ngicabanga ukuthi lokho kungukuphikisana kwabo. ”

UChhabria uthe ubufakazi bezezimali zikaMonsanto bungaba “ngamacala” “okuthukuthelisa ukuziphatha kwenkampani.”

Ukuqala Kwesilingo sePilliod 

Icala lesithathu lomdlavuza weRoundup liyaqhubeka kuleli sonto e-Alameda County Superior Court e-Oakland, eCalifornia. I-Alva ne-Alberta Pilliod,  umyeni nenkosikazi, bathathe uMonsanto noBayer ngezimangalo ukuthi bobabili baphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngenxa yokuvezwa kwemikhiqizo kaMonsanto's Roundup.

IVoir dire yokukhethwa kwamajaji iqala namuhla e-Oakland kanti izitatimende zokuvula kulindeleke ukuthi ziqale ngoLwesine. Bona imibhalo ehlobene nalelo cala kulesi sixhumanisi. 

Ijaji ecaleni likaPilliod lisichithile isicelo sikaMonsanto sokuqulwa kwecala. Ithimba lezomthetho elethula icala lePilliod lifaka ummeli waseLos Angeles uBrent Wisner, owazakhela udumo uwine ngummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson ngaphezulu kweMonsanto esivivinyweni sokuqala somdlavuza weRoundup ehlobo eledlule.

IHepatitis C no… Hugh Grant?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Bona isibuyekezo sevidiyo lapha)

(Umbhalo osuka ekuqhubekeni kwanamuhlas)

Ithimba labameli bakaMonsanto ngoMsombuluko lethule ubufakazi obuqhamuka kuDkt. Alexandra Levine, isazi se-hematologist / i-oncologist esikhungweni seCity of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, efuna ukukholisa abezomthetho ukuthi ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula eseglyphosate kwakungeyona imbangela yomdlavuza kaHardeman, nokuthi Isici i-hepatitis C Hardeman ebinayo iminyaka eminingi. U-Levine ufakazele ukuthi ubone “iziguli eziningi kakhulu, eziningi, ezine-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” futhi empeleni uthathwa njengongoti kuleso sifo esithile.

IJaji uChhabria uthe ngesonto eledlule angathanda ukubona lesi sigaba sokuqala secala sisongwa ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto, okusho ukuthi leli cala kumele libe nejaji kungekudala. Isinqumo sidinga ukuthi wonke amajaji ayisithupha ahlangane ngokuvumelana ekutholeni kwabo maqondana nokuthi ukuvezwa kukaHardeman kuRoundup “bekuyinto ebalulekile” ekudaleni umdlavuza wakhe. Ijaji lizochazela amajaji ukuthi kusho ukuthini lokho. (Bheka ukungena kwangoLwesihlanu ukuthola eminye imininingwane.)

Uma ijaji lingavumi ngazwilinye ukunquma uHardeman noma uMonsanto lelo cala lizoba yi-mistrial. UChabria uphinde wathi uma lokho kwenzeka ucabanga ukukuzama ngoMeyi.

Uma ijaji lithola uHardeman nge-causation, ukuqulwa kwecala kungashesha kungene eSigabeni II kusetshenziswa ijaji elifanayo. Futhi kulapho izinto zizoqala ukuheha ngempela. Abameli bakaHardeman hlela ukufona abaphathi abaningana beMonsanto ngobufakazi, kufaka phakathi owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kanye ne-CEO uHugh Grant. UGrant uchithe iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-35 kule nkampani waqokwa njenge-CEO ngo-2003. Wayehola le nkampani yaze yatholwa yiBayer AG ehlobo eledlule.

Ngokwengeziwe, abameli bakaHardeman bahlela ukubiza uRoger McClellan, umhleli wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT), eyashicilela uchungechunge lwamaphepha ngoSepthemba 2016 akhuza lokho okutholwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ethola ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu. Amaphepha athi abhalwe ngososayensi abazimele abathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula ubengeke abeke ingozi yomdlavuza kubantu.

Nokho, imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto khombisa ukuthi amaphepha acatshangwe kwasekuqaleni njengecebo likaMonsanto lokudicilela phansi i-IARC. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kepha ube nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni, yize lokho kungadalulwanga yiCRT.

Abameli bakaHardeman ngokwengeziwe bathe bahlela ukushaya ucingo UDoreen Manchester, weCropLife America, inhlangano yezimboni yezolimo ephembelelayo. Indima kaManchester kuCropLife ibisiza "ukuhola amacala kahulumeni nawombuso ukuxhasa izindaba zokulawulwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane."

Indaba Elandele Isilingo Somdlavuza WeMonsanto - Izindatshana Zokubhala Kuhlehliswa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Kusho ukuthini ukuthi “ghostwriting” nguMonsanto, ukuthi kuthinte kanjani, futhi kusenethonya kanjani, izinto ezitholakala kumajenali esayensi abuyekezwa ngontanga

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

NguCarey Gillam noNathan Donley

Abathengi nezintatheli emhlabeni wonke bamangala ekuqaleni kwenyanga lapho uMonsanto, ngemuva kokuphoqelelwa enkantolo yezomthetho okokuqala ukuvikela ukuphepha kombulali wakhe odumile wokhula uRoundup, utholwe enecala ngomdlavuza wokuphela komgcini wezindawo waseCalifornia uDewayne Johnson.

Ijaji elivumelanayo lamalungu ayi-12 okutholiwe Ukuchayeka kukaMnu. Johnson kumuthi we-weedkiller kaMonsanto kwaba "yinto enkulu" ebambe iqhaza kulesi sifo sakhe nokuthi kunobufakazi "obucacile nobukholisayo" bokuthi iMonsanto yayisebenza "ngobubi noma ingcindezelo" ngoba ubungozi babusobala futhi iMonsanto yehluleka ukuxwayisa ngalabo abaziwayo izingozi.

Ngaphandle kobufakazi bobuchwepheshe obubambekayo ezinhlangothini zombili, ijaji linikezwe ama-imeyili enkampani yangaphakathi nezinhlelo zomsebenzi ezibonisa ukuthi uMonsanto ubelokhu onakalisa irekhodi lesayensi ngokubhala ngemibhalo eqinisekisa ukuphepha.

Njengoba kungena isinqumo sejaji, nezinkulungwane zabamangali abafake amasudi afanayo balinda usuku lwabo enkantolo, kubalulekile ukuthatha isikhathi ukuqonda kahle ukuthi kusho ukuthini “ukubhala ghostwrit” okwenziwe nguMonsanto, ukuthi kube nomthelela muni, futhi kusenethonya kanjani, okokusebenza okutholakala emaphephandabeni esayensi abuyekezwa ontanga.

Sinikeza lesi sibonelo:

Lapho umagazini wesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT) ushicilele uchungechunge lwamaphepha abukeza amandla we-carcinogenic we-ejenti yokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate, isithako esikhulu seMonsanto's Roundup, ngoSepthemba 2016, lokho okutholakele kwakubaluleke kakhulu kangangokuba kwabikwa kabanzi ngabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele.

Amaphepha, eyanyatheliswa kumagazini okhethekile we I-CRT enesihloko esithi "Ukubuyekezwa Okuzimele Kwamandla Okuba Nomdlavuza WeGlyphosate," kuphambene ngqo nokutholwe yi-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), okuthi ngo-2015 okutholiwe I-glyphosate ibe yi-carcinogen yabantu. Ababhali bokubuyekezwa kwango-2016 bathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula kungenzeka angabeki ubungozi be-carcinogenic kubantu.

Lokhu okutholakele bekubaluleke kakhulu kuMonsanto - inkampani ibibhekene nokungabaza ngabalawuli baseYurophu ngokuvumela i-glyphosate ukuthi ihlale emakethe. Futhi, iMonsanto ibibhekene ne- ukukhula kwenqwaba yamacala ukufuna ukuthi umbulali wayo wokhula kubangele ukuthi abantu bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Ososayensi abayishumi nesithupha abavela “kumaphaneli amane azimele” basayine amagama abo ku- umsebenzi oshicilelwe, bememezela abafundi ukuthi iziphetho zabo bezingenakho ukungenelela kukaMonsanto. Kugcizelela ukuzimela komsebenzi, i isimemezelo sentshisekelo isigaba sathi: “Akekho noyedwa kubasebenzi benkampani yeMonsanto noma abameli ababuyekeze noma yimiphi imibhalo yesandla ye-Expert Panel ngaphambi kokulethwa kulo magazini. ”

Sekuvele-ke ukuthi la maphepha ayengazimele lutho. Imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto baphoqeleka ekukhanyeni komphakathi ngokukhombisa ukuthi amaphepha akhishwa kwasekuqaleni njengecebo elikhohlisayo leMonsanto. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kodwa waba nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni. Amaphepha aqediwe abhekiswe ngqo ekudicileleni phansi ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC.

Ngesinye i-imeyili yangaphakathi, Isikhulu sezokuphathwa kwezomthetho eMonsanto, uWilliam Heydens, utshele umgqugquzeli waleso sigungu: “Ngiwubheke wonke lo mbhalo futhi ngakhombisa ukuthi yini engicabanga ukuthi kufanele ihlale, ukuthi yini engahamba, futhi ezindaweni ezimbalwa ngenze ukuhlela okuncane.”

Imibhalo yangaphakathi ikhombisa ukuthi uHeydens kwaze kwaxabana ngaphezulu kwezitatimende ayezifuna zifakiwe kepha lowo mbhali uJohn Acquavella uthethe ukugxekwa kwe-IARC "okuvuthayo" futhi "okungadingekile. Imibhalo esalungiswa ikhombisa ukuthi ukuhlelwa kukaHeydens bekuphikisana nokuhlelwa kwe-Acquavella yize uHeydens bekungafanele abuyekeze amaphepha. UHeydens waze wathi: “Ngingakushaya indiva ukuphawula kukaJohn” futhi “Angisiboni isizathu sokususa umbhalo owenziwe uJohn ngezansi.”

Okunye ukuhlelwa kukhombisa uHeydens ezama ukulawula ithoni yombhalo wesandla, esishoyo: "Isitatimende esisuswe ngezansi asihlangene nokugxekwa kwe-IARC futhi kufanele sibuyiselwe emuva, uJohn weqe imingcele lapha" nokuthi "Ngingaphila ngokususa umbhalo ongezansi, ngicabanga ukuthi umbhalo ovezwe ngenhla… ungezwe futhi ku. ” Uphinde waphikisana nokubuyisela ibinzana elisusiwe ngoba linikeza "ukucaciseleka ngendlela i-IARC esebenza ngayo." "Lokhu akukhona ukuvuvukala, kuyachaza," wabhala.

Ukubaluleka kwamaphepha eMonsanto njengethuluzi lokuphikisana nokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen okungenzeka kwabekwa ku idokhumenti eyimfihlo yangomhlaka-11 Meyi 2015, eqamba ososayensi abaningana abangasetshenziswa njengababhali ukunika amaphepha ukuthembeka. I- imibhalo yangaphakathi khuluma ngamasu "okubhala okuyizipoki" okuhloswe ngawo ukusebenzisa ososayensi okungezona izinkampani njengababhali ukunikeza ukwethembeka kokutholakele.

Lapho ufungiswa phansi kwesifungo, UHeydens wavuma ukuthi imibhalo yesandla yathunyelwa kuye futhi wafunda “izingxenye ezithile zazo,” ngaphambi kokulethwa kwabo kulo magazini. Uthe "akakhumbuli" ukuthi wenza noma cha ukuhlelwa okungama-28 abameli babamangali ababala kumarekhodi angaphakathi.

Konke lokhu bekuphakathi kobufakazi obethulwe kumajaji eNkantolo Ephakeme yaseSan Francisco njengoba babecubungula izimangalo zikaJohnson. Kepha ubufakazi bokubhala ghost nokungaziphathi kahle kunemiphumela ebanzi kakhulu kunecala elilodwa.

Mangaki amaphepha abhalwe ghost amemezela ukuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane angcolisa izincwadi zesayensi? Futhi uma unikezwe ubufakazi bokungaziphathi kahle kulokhu, kungani la maphepha esashicilelwa? Kungani kungazange kube khona ukuhlehla, akukho ukucaciswa, akukho ukulungiswa kokudalulwa okusobala ngokusobala?

Ngo-Agasti odlule, ngemuva kokuthi imibhalo ithole ukunakwa ngabezindaba I-CRT umhleli Kusho uRoger McClellan “izinsolo ezibucayi” kwakufanele “ziphenywe ngokucophelela,” futhi yena no I-CRT Umshicileli uTaylor noFrancis bazothatha "izinyathelo ezifanele."

Ngokushesha ngemuva kwalokho Isikhungo Sokuhlukahluka Kwezinto Eziphilayo kanye nezinye izinhlangano ezintathu zikazwelonke zemvelo nezempilo wathumela incwadi kuya I-CRT kanye noTaylor noFrancis abachaza kabanzi ngokungaziphathi kahle kwezokuziphatha bese becela ukuhoxiswa. Sekuphele isikhathi esingaphezu konyaka lolu phenyo luqalisiwe futhi, yize kunezicelo eziningi zokulandelwa yilezi zinhlangano, akukho zinyathelo ezithathiwe.

NoTaylor noFrancis uqobo inqubomgomo ukukhipha ukuhoxiswa kokungaziphathi kahle "lapho kube khona ukwephulwa kokuziphatha kokushicilela," icala lokuhoxa alikwazanga ukucaca bha.

Izigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto zikuso sonke lesi sibuyekezo "esizimele", njengoba kubhalwe kwimibhalo yangaphakathi kaMonsanto.

UTaylor noFrancis kumele banqume amazinga abazimisele ngawo ukubamba ososayensi abashicilela kumajenali abo - uma kungenjalo ngenxa yedumela lawo, ngakho-ke ngenxa yobuqotho besayensi uqobo kanye nelungelo lomphakathi leqiniso.

Imihlangano ezayo ye-EPA Yezokuphepha KweMonsanto Weed Killer Drawing scrutiny

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

IBayer kungcono ukunake lokhu.

Inkampani yaseJalimane kuhloswe ukuthola ama- $ 66 billion weMonsanto Co. iza phakathi nokukhathazeka okukhulayo ngekusasa lombulali wokhula othengisa kakhulu wenkampani, ikhemikhali elibizwa nge-glyphosate elenziwa uMonsanto emhlabeni eminyakeni engama-40 eyedlule njengesithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup herbicide. IMonsanto ivuna izigidigidi zamaRandi minyaka yonke, cishe ingxenye yesithathu yokuthengisa kwayo, kuleyo mikhiqizo.

Ngakho-ke akuyona into encane ukuthi maphakathi no-Okthoba i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ihlela ukuchitha izinsuku ezine ukubamba imihlangano yomphakathi nephaneli yokweluleka yesayensi ngesihloko sokuthi i-glyphosate ingawudala umdlavuza noma cha. Umqondo wokukhanyisa obala emphakathini ngalokhu kukhathazeka okwandayo mayelana ne-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni awuzange ume kahle ngeMonsanto nayo yonke imboni ezuza emikhiqizweni ye-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup. Izintshisekelo zezolimo sezihambe zaze zafika lapho ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi imihlangano akufanele ibanjwe nhlobo, futhi bathe uma ikhona, ososayensi abaningi abaphezulu emhlabeni kufanele bakhishwe ekubandakanyeni.

Imboni ngokusobala ayikwamukeli ukuhlolisiswa umphakathi okulethwa yile mihlangano, kodwa kufanele yaneliseke ukuthi i-EPA ikubeke kwacaca ukuthi ayinanhloso yokuphikisana nezimangalo zikaMonsanto zokuphepha kwe-glyphosate. Ngemuva kwakho konke, embikweni kaSepthemba 12 onikezwe umphakathi, i-EPA yanikela nge Ukuhlolwa kwamakhasi angama-227 yamandla okubangela umdlavuza we-glyphosate agcine ngokuphetha ngokuthi "okuhlongozwayo" ukuthi i-glyphosate '"kungenzeka ukuthi ingabi yi-carcinogenic kubantu' ngemithamo efanelekile ekuhlolweni kwengozi yabantu." Konke lokhu ngaphambi kokuba kubanjwe imihlangano.

Kuyisikweletu sayo, i-EPA ikhiphe ama-caveats amaningi kulowo mbiko, yavuma ukuthi olunye ucwaningo luxhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha yanikeza izincazelo ezahlukahlukene zokuthi kungani i-ejensi ingakholelwa ukuthi leyo miphumela yocwaningo ibalulekile, futhi / noma idlulwa ngenye izifundo. Le nhlangano ibuye yengeza inqwaba yeziqu, yathi ngokuphathelene nezifundo ze-epidemiological, imininingwane inciphile futhi iphelelwe yisikhathi. Ngenxa yokuthi kube "nokusetshenziswa okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kulandela ukwethulwa kwezitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate ngo-1996, kunesidingo sezifundo zakamuva kakhulu njengoba inani elikhulu lezifundo zenziwa ngaphambi konyaka we-1996," kusho i-EPA. Le nhlangano iphinde yathi ucwaningo ludinga ukwenziwa ekwakhiweni kwe-glyphosate, hhayi i-glyphosate kuphela.

Futhi i-ejensi ifake i-caveat ethize maqondana nocwaningo olubopha i-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), ithi: “Kunemibono engqubuzanayo yokuthi ungayichaza kanjani imiphumela isiyonke yeNHL. Abanye bakholelwa ukuthi imininingwane ikhombisa ukuhlangana okukhona phakathi kokuvezwa yi-glyphosate kanye nobungozi be-NHL. ” Le nhlangano yanezela: "Ngenxa yemikhawulo yokufunda kanye nemiphumela ephikisanayo ezifundweni zonke ... isiphetho maqondana nokuhlangana phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kanye nobungozi be-NHL ngeke sinqunywe ngokuya ngemininingwane etholakalayo."

Kusobala ukuthi kuningi okusengcupheni - Njengamanje iMonsanto imangalelwa ngabantu abaningi abathi i-Roundup herbicide yenkampani yabanika yona noma amalungu omndeni wabo i-NHL, futhi inkampani ilwa impi yasenkantolo nezwe laseCalifornia ngemizamo yokulawula yokwengeza i-glyphosate ohlwini lwama-carcinogens aziwayo noma okungenzeka abe khona. Futhi kusele udaba lokuhlolwa kwesikhathi eside kwe-EPA kokuhlolwa kwezinhlekelele kwezemvelo nakwezempilo kwe-glyphosate, lapho i-EPA ingeza khona imikhawulo ekusetshenzisweni kwe-glyphosate uma i-ejensi ibona kufanele lokho. Lokho kuhlolwa kobungozi bekufanele kuphume ngo-2015. I-ejensi yathi izokhishwa ngo-2016. Manje i-ejensi ithi ingaqedwa ngentwasahlobo ka-2017.

Ngokutholwa kweBayer, amacala amacala kanye nokuhlolwa kobungozi sekusondele, uMonsanto ubelokhu ekhipha zonke izitobha zokuvikela i-glyphosate. Ingcindezi ye-EPA yokuvikela i-glyphosate yaqala ngokushesha ngemuva kokuthi i-World Health Organisation International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) imemezele ngoMashi 2015 ukuthi ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate "Mhlawumbe" i-carcinogenic kubantu. Isinqumo se-IARC samenyezelwa ngoLwesihlanu, Mashi 20, 2015 kwathi ngoMsombuluko olandelayo ekuseni, uDan Jenkins waseMonsanto, umholi wezokulawulwa kwenkampani, wayesevele ukubiza nokuthumela nge-imeyili izikhulu ze-EPA befuna ukuthi "balungise" irekhodi ku-glyphosate. Ama-imeyili atholwe ngesicelo se-Freedom of Information abonisa ukuthi ama-Jenkins ahanjisiwe "Amaphuzu okukhuluma" ku-EPA ukuzama ukuphikisa i-IARC. Futhi kusukela lapho iMonsanto iye yaqinisa kuphela imizamo yayo yokwenza ize imiphumela yokutholwa kweqembu le-IARC, ihlasela ososayensi abangomakadebona njenge “engakhethwanga, engabuswa ngentando yeningi, engaziwa futhi engaphandle. ”

IMonsanto iphinde yafaka ama-imeyili namanye amarekhodi avela kusihlalo walelo komiti le-IARC, U-Aaron Blair, usosayensi ophumile eNational Cancer Institute, owayengusihlalo wethimba le-IARC. UBlair unomsebenzi omude wokunconywa nokuqokwa okuvuma ubungcweti bakhe, futhi useke wasebenza emaqenjini amaningi okubuyekezwa kwesayensi kuzwelonke nakwamanye amazwe, kubandakanya ne-EPA. Kepha iMonsanto ithathe njengomsolwa womsebenzi kaBlair.

Futhi kubonakala sengathi uMonsanto wenze ukujija ingalo eCongress. NgoMsombuluko, usihlalo weNdlu yeKomidi Lezokuqapha kanye Nezinguquko kuHulumeni ubhalele i- Izikhungo zezempilo zikazwelonke, Efunda izikhalazo eziningi uMonsanto nababambisene nayo abazenzile nge-IARC nangezinselelo zesibonelelo i-NIH esenze ku-IARC.

Ukubukeka kwe-EPA kokuqondanisa neMonsanto kubathukuthelisa abaningi emphakathini wesayensi abathi i-EPA iyaphambuka ezimisweni zesayensi ezimisiwe futhi ingabunaki ubufakazi obubalulekile ukuze igcine izintshisekelo zenkampani ezizuza kuma-herbicides e-glyphosate zijabule.

“Leli khemikhali lingaba yisifo somzimba womuntu nganoma iyiphi incazelo enengqondo. Kungamampunge ukusho okunye, ”kusho UChristopher Portier, owayengumqondisi weNational Center for Environmental Health and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry e-US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Ngaphambi kwaleyo ndima, uPortier wachitha iminyaka engama-32 kwiNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), lapho asebenza khona njengomqondisi we-NIEHS, umqondisi we-Environmental Toxicology Programme, kanye nomqondisi ohlangene weNational Toxicology Program. Esethathe umhlalaphansi, uPortier, "owayengungcweti omenyiwe" ekubuyekezweni kwe-IARC nge-glyphosate, ubambe amatoho esikhwameni se-Environmental Defense Fund.

U-Portier kanye nabanye ososayensi bamazwe angaphezulu kwama-90 bakhiphe i- umbiko onemininingwane kubeka ucwaningo oluthile oluhlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza kokubili ezifundweni zezilwane nasekubonweni kwabantu. Ososayensi bathe okuwukuphela kwendlela abalawuli abakwazi ukwehlisa ngayo ubufakazi ukugoba imithetho esungulwe kahle yokuhlolwa kwesayensi. Bathi ubufakazi obukhona bomuntu buyakhombisa ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, kuyilapho imiphumela ebalulekile ye-carcinogenic ibonakala ezilwaneni zaselebhu zezinso ezingavamile nezinye izinhlobo zamathumba. Kukhona futhi "nobufakazi obuqinile be-genotoxicity kanye nengcindezi ye-oxidative," kufaka phakathi ukutholakala kokulimala kwe-DNA egazini lomzimba labantu abadalulwe i-glyphosate, kusho ososayensi.

"Ukuhlolwa okufanele kakhulu nokwenziwe ngokwesayensi komdlavuza okubikwe kubantu nasezilwaneni zaselabhorethri kanye nemininingwane esekelayo yemishini ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu," kusho umbiko. "Ngenxa yalesi siphetho futhi bungekho ubufakazi obuphikisana nalokhu, kunengqondo ukuphetha ngokuthi ukwakheka kwe-glyphosate kufanele kubhekwe nokuthi kungenzeka kube ngumdlavuza wabantu."

“I-EPA isendaweni embi ngalokhu. Ukubuyiselwa emuva impela kuphume kulo mkhakha kususelwa ezintweni ezingezwakali kahle ngokwesayensi, ”kusho uMaarten Bosland, ongomunye wababhali balo mbiko ngocwaningo lwe-glyphosate. UBosland ungumqondisi weCentre for Global Health Outreach Department of Pathology e-University of Illinois eChicago, futhi uneziqu ze-Ph.D. ku-pathology yokuhlola. “Isamba semali esithintekayo kulesi sakhi sikhulu kakhulu. Kuyinhlanganisela yomhlaba wonke yezintshisakalo zezezimali ezithintwa yilokhu. ”

Kubukeka kungaphezu kokuqondana nje ukuthi umqondo we-EPA wokuchitha izifundo zesayensi i-IARC uthe ukhombisa ukuxhumana komdlavuza ngokusondelana nokutholwe yiphaneli elixhaswe ngemali yi-Monsanto elinamalungu ayi-16. Lelo qembu lososayensi abayi-16, bonke ngaphandle kwabane babo wayekade esebenza ngaphambilini kungaba njengabasebenzi noma ababonisi beMonsanto, wakhipha umbiko ngoDisemba esekela impikiswano kaMonsanto yokuthi abukho ubufakazi bangempela bokuthi i-glyphosate ingadala umdlavuza. Ukuhola umsebenzi kwaba UGary M. Williams, umqondisi wezifo zemvelo kanye ne-toxicology eNew York Medical College, kanye nomxhumanisi eMonsanto. UWilliams unomlando wokushicilela okutholakele okuhle nge-glyphosate; wayengumbhali wenye yeMonsanto izifundo ezenziwe kakhulu, umbiko wocwaningo lowezi-2000 owaphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate akuyona nje kuphela i-carcinogen, kodwa “kubhekwa ukuthi ayinabo ubuthi.”

Lelo phaneli lilungiselela ukukhipha ama-athikili amahlanu asekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate kumagazini Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile Kwe-Toxicology maduzane, ngokusho kwe-Intertek Scientific & Regulatory Consultancy, ekhokhelwe yiMonsanto ukuhlela iphaneli.

Embikweni we-EPA, indawo eyodwa ekhanyayo yabagxeki be-glyphosate ukuthi i-EPA ifuna ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe. Ngokuqondile, i-ejensi iyasivuma isidingo sokuhlola ukwesaba ukuthi ukwakheka kwe-glyphosate kungaba nobuthi ngaphezu kwe-glyphosate kuphela. I-EPA ithuthukisa "uhlelo lokucwaninga" neNational Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ukuze "kuhlolwe iqhaza le-glyphosate ekwakhiweni kwemikhiqizo nomehluko ekwakhiweni kobuthi," kusho i-EPA.

Izimpendulo ezintsha azikwazi ukuza maduze ngokwanele kubathengi abakhathazeka ngamazinga aqhubekayo e-glyphosate ekudleni abakudlayo. I-FDA kulo nyaka itholakele amazinga aphezulu e-glyphosate kuzinyosi zase-US, amanye amazinga angaphezu kokuphindwe kabili kwalokho okubhekwa njengokuphephile e-European Union.

Imihlangano eseWashington iqala ngo-Okthoba 18-21, kanti kulindeleke ukuthi idonse abantu abehlukene - abameli, izishoshovu, abalimi, abezemvelo kanye nababambisene nabo ezinkampanini bonke benza izinhlelo zabo zokuhamba.

Kufanele kube mnandi.

(I-Article ivele okokuqala ku- I-Huffington Post)