Ama-imeyili Adalula Umshicileli Wezesayensi Athole Amaphepha Ngokuphepha Kwe-Herbicide Kufanele Ahoxiswe Ngenxa YeMonsanto Meddling

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ithonya eliyimfihlo likaMonsanto kusethi yamaphepha ashicilelwe kumagazini wesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology bekungafanele neze ukuthi uphenyo olwenziwe ngumshicileli luthole ukuthi okungenani amaphepha amathathu kumele ahoxiswe, ngokusho kochungechunge lwezokuxhumana kwangaphakathi. Umhleli wephephabhuku wenqabile ukuhoxisa amaphepha, athi akunankinga yomdlavuza ngemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani, ethi ukuhoxiswa kungaba nomthelela esivivinyweni sokuqala seRoundup ehlobo eledlule futhi kulimaze idumela lababhali, ama-imeyili akhombisa.

Iphephabhuku ukuxhumana kwezokuxhumana kwatholakala ngokutholwa ngabameli abamele izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zabantu Umangalela uMonsanto ngaphezulu kwezimangalo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula esekwe eglyphosate idala umdlavuza nokuthi iMonsanto ifihle ubufakazi bezingozi.

Ngokungafani nalokho ama-imeyili angaphakathi eMonsanto okuze kwavela manje kwembula ukusetshenziswa kwenkampani yezolimo ngemibhalo yesayensi mayelana nokubulala ukhula kwayo, lawa ma-imeyili abonisa impi yangaphakathi endlini enkulu yokushicilela ngokwesayensi yokuthi kufanele ibhekane kanjani nokugxambukela kukaMonsanto. Batholakala njengengxenye yokufakwa kukaRoger McClellan, umhleli wesikhathi eside oyinhloko yephephabhuku elibukezwe ngontanga iCritical Reviews in Toxicology (CRT.)

Amaphepha okukhulunywa ngawo ashicilelwa yiCRT ngoSepthemba 2016 njengo “Ukubuyekeza Okuzimele ” amandla we-carcinogenic we-ejenti yokubulala ukhula i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo. Amaphepha amahlanu ashicilelwe njengengxenye yokubuyekezwa aphikisana ngqo nokutholwe yi-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), okuthe ngonyaka ka-2015 kwatholakala ukuthi i-glyphosate ingase ibe yisifo somdlavuza womuntu. Ababhali abali-16 bamaphepha baphethe ngokuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula wayengabeki ubungozi emzimbeni womuntu.

Ekupheleni kwamaphepha abalobi bathi iziphetho zabo zazingenelele ukungenelela kukaMonsanto. Kugcizelelwa ukuzimela komsebenzi, isimemezelo senzalo sathi: “Abekho abasebenzi benkampani yaseMonsanto noma abameli ababuyekeze noma imiphi imibhalo yesandla ye-Expert Panel ngaphambi kokulethwa kulo magazini.”

Leyo nkulumo iboniswe ingamanga ekwindla ka-2017 ngemuva kokuvela kwamarekhodi angaphakathi eMonsanto kukhombisa ukuzibandakanya okukhulu ngososayensi baseMonsanto ekubhalweni nasekuhlelweni kwamaphepha kanjalo nokubandakanyeka kwenkampani ekukhetheni ababhali. Ngokwengeziwe, amarekhodi angaphakathi akhombisa izinkokhelo eziqondile okungenani kubabili ababizwa ngokuthi ababhali abazimele. UMonsanto wayenenkontileka nombhali uLarry Kier, ngokwesibonelo, ukumkhokhela u- $ 27,400 ukusebenza emaphepheni.

Ukuphendula lezo zambulo nemibuzo evela ezitolo zabezindaba, umshicileli weCRT  UTaylor noFrancis Group  yethule uphenyo ekwindla ka-2017. Ezokuxhumana ezisanda kukhishwa ziveza ukuthi ngemuva kokuchitha izinyanga bebuza ababhali ukuthi amaphepha ahlangana kanjani, iqembu labachwepheshe bezomthetho nokuziphatha elihlanganiswe nguTaylor & Francis baphetha ngokuthi ababhali bakufihlile ukubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto ngqo emaphepheni, futhi ukwenze lokho azi. Ngempela, abanye ababhali abadalulanga ngisho ngokuphelele ukubandakanyeka kweMonsanto ekubuzweni kokuqala nguTaylor noFrancis ngesikhathi sophenyo, ama-imeyili akhombisa.

Umphumela “wokusebenziseka kuphela ukuhoxisa ama-athikili ama-3; ikakhulukazi amaphepha afingqiwe, obhubhane nezifo ze-genotoxicity, ”uCharles Whalley kaTaylor noFrancis ubhalele uMcClellan ngoMeyi 18, 2018. UWhalley wayephethe umhleli wephephabhuku lezokwelapha nezempilo leqembu ngaleso sikhathi.

Ama-imeyili angaphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uMcClellan wenqabile ukwamukela umqondo wokuhoxa, ethi ukholelwa ukuthi amaphepha "ayezwakala ngokwesayensi" futhi akhiqizwa "ngaphandle kwethonya langaphandle" elivela eMonsanto. Uthe ukuhoxa kuzodicilela phansi isithunzi sababhali, iphephabhuku nesithunzi sakhe.

"Angikwazi ukuvumelana nesiphakamiso sokuhoxa osinikeze kumemo yakho kaMeyi 18, UMcClellan wabhala ephendula.  Ochungechungeni lwama-imeyili uMcClellan wabeka izizathu zakhe zokuphinda ahoxiswe, ethi "Ukuhoxiswa kwamaphepha kuzokwenza ukulimala okungenakulungiseka emaqenjini amaningi kubandakanya, ngaphezu kwakho konke, ababhali, iJenali, umshicileli kanye nabasebenzi abaphambili abanjengawe futhi, ngaphezu kwalokho , nami endimeni yami njengoMhleli Wezesayensi we-CRT. ”

Ku-an imeyili yangoJuni 5, 2018, UMcClellan umemezele ukuthi wayazi ukuthi uMonsanto "unentshisekelo yakhe" ekushicilelweni kwamaphepha futhi wayebazi mathupha ubudlelwano bukaMonsanto, kubandakanya nezivumelwano zokunxeshezelwa, nababhali, futhi wayesenelisekile ukuthi amaphepha "ayezwakala ngokwesayensi."

"Ngokombono wami wobungcweti, amaphepha amahlanu eGlyphosate ayizicucu zemisebenzi ebhala ngokusobala inqubo esetshenzisiwe ukugxeka umbiko we-IARC nokuhlinzeka ngenye indlela yokubeka ingozi," kubhala uMcClellan. “Amaphepha amahlanu anengqondo ngokwesayensi. Kungaba ukwephula izimiso zokuziphatha zesayensi kanye nezindinganiso zami zobuqotho besayensi ukuvuma ukuhoxiswa kwanoma imaphi amaphepha eGlyphosate… ”

UWhalley wahlehla, ethi ababhali bamaphepha babenecala "lokungaziphathi kahle nokwephula izimiso zokuziphatha zokushicilela," okunzima kangangoba kufanele kuhoxiswe. “Ukwephulwa kwezimiso zokushicilela esizitholile kuleli cala kungukwephula okusobala kwamazinga ayisisekelo futhi achazwe ngokusobala, futhi akubangelwa ukungaqondi kwemininingwane noma i-nuance,” uWhalley ubhalele uMcClellan. Uthe umshicileli ubuyekeze izinkombandlela ezivela kwiKomidi Lezokuziphatha Komphakathi (COPE) ngaphambi kokuthatha lesi sinqumo. "Ukuhlehlisa kungubufakazi bokuthi izinqubomgomo zokuhlela ziyasebenza, hhayi ukuthi zehlulekile," wabhala.

UWhalley noMcClellan baphikisana ngokuhoxiswa izinyanga, amarekhodi akhombisa. Kokukodwa Julayi 22, 2018 i-imeyili UMcClellan uveze ukuthi Icala lokuqala elibhekene neMonsanto ngenxa yezimangalo zomdlavuza weRoundup zazenzeka ngaleso sikhathi ngakho izingxoxo zephephabhuku zokuhoxiswa "zazizwela impela njengoba icala likaJohnson noMonsanto liqhubeka eSan Francisco." Uphakamise ukuthi esikhundleni sokuhoxisa amaphepha, bavele balungise isigaba esisekugcineni kwamaphepha lapho ababhali beveza khona ukungqubuzana okungaba khona.

"Ngiyaninxusa ukuba nivumelane nesincomo sami sokushicilela izitatimende eziqondisiwe nezandisiwe zeSimemezelo Sentshisekelo futhi niyeke indlela" we gotcha "neRetraction yamaphepha," uMcClellan ubhalele uWhalley nge-imeyili kaJulayi 2018. "Ngeke ngivume ukuthi isithunzi sami engisizuze kahle singcoliswe yizenzo zokucindezela nokwenza izinto ezingenamqondo."

“Kulokhu, sidinga ukuthi sonke ngokuhlanganyela sizame ukufinyelela esivumelwaneni ngomphumela wokulingana okuyi-FAIR kubabhali, umshicileli, abafundi be-CRT, umphakathi kanye nami njengoMhleli Oyinhloko kanye nebhodi labahleli be-CRT. Akumele sithathe indlela enquma abawinile nabangahlulwa emacaleni asemthethweni ngokuya ngokuthi yini evunyelwe ukuvela ezincwadini ezibukeziwe zontanga, ”kubhala uMcClellan.

Akekho uMcClellan noWhalley abaphendulile esicelweni sokuphawula maqondana nale ndatshana.

Uchungechunge lweCRT glyphosate lwaluthathwa njengolubaluleke kakhulu kangangokuba okutholakele kwalo kwabikwa kabanzi ngabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele futhi kwafaka ukungabaza ngobuqiniso bokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC. Amaphepha ashicilelwe ngesikhathi esibucayi njengoba uMonsanto wayebhekene nokungabaza ngabalawuli baseYurophu ngokuvumela i-glyphosate ukuthi ihlale emakethe futhi ikhule ngokungazinzile ezimakethe zase-US. Uchungechunge lwe-2016 "lufinyeleleke kabanzi," kanti elinye lamaphepha kulolu chungechunge lifinyelele "ngaphezu kwesikhathi esingu-13,000," ngokusho kwephephandaba langaphakathi.

Ukubaluleka kwamaphepha eMonsanto kwachazwa embhalweni oyimfihlo wangomhlaka-11 Meyi 2015, lapho ososayensi baseMonsanto bekhuluma ngamasu "okubhala izipoki" azoboleka ukwethembeka emaphepheni "azimele" inkampani efuna ukuwakha bese ukuthi ishicilelwe yiCRT. IMonsanto umemezele ngo-2015 ukuthi kwakuqasha i-Intertek Scientific & Regulatory Consultancy ukuhlanganisa iphaneli lososayensi abazimele abazobuyekeza ukuhlukaniswa kwe-glyphosate kwe-IARC njenge-carcinogen engaba khona. Kepha inkampani ibithembise ukuthi ngeke ibambe iqhaza ekubuyekezweni.

Yize ukubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto kwembulwa ku-2017 Taylor & Francis bengathathanga zinyathelo zomphakathi kwaze kwaba nguSepthemba 2018 njengoba umshicileli nomhleli babambana ngodaba lokuhoxa. UMcClellan wagcina eyinqobile impikiswano futhi akukho ukubuyiselwa emuva okwenziwe. Ama-imeyili angaphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uWhalley wazise abalobi abangu-16 bamaphepha e-glyphosate ngesinqumo sokumane bashicilele ukulungiswa kwezihloko futhi bavuselele izimemezelo zentshisekelo ekugcineni kwamaphepha. Lowo Agasti 31, 2018 i-imeyili ithi:

            “Siyabona ukuthi, ngaphandle kwezicelo zokudalulwa ngokugcwele, izitatimende zokuqala zokuBonga kanye neSimemezelo Sezintshisekelo azimelanga ngokugcwele ukubandakanyeka kweMonsanto noma abasebenzi bayo noma osonkontileka ekubhalweni kwalezi zihloko. Njengoba kushiwo kumamemos wethu wangaphambilini kuwe, lokhu kuqondene ngqo nezitatimende ezithi:

           'Abekho abasebenzi benkampani iMonsanto noma abameli ababuyekeze noma yiliphi i-Expert Panel's imibhalo yesandla ngaphambi kokulethwa kulo magazini. ' nokuthi 'Abachwepheshe bamaPhaneli babebandakanyeka, futhi basebenza njengabaluleki ku, lntertek, futhi abathintwanga ngqo yiNkampani yeMonsanto. ' 

          “Ngokolwazi osinikeze lona, ​​manje sesiyakholelwa ukuthi kulezi zitatimende bekungekho iqiniso ngesikhathi sokulethwa. Lokhu kungqubuzana nezimemezelo ozenzile ekuthumeleni kanye nakwiziqinisekiso ozenze kuzivumelwano ze-Author Publishing Agreements mayelana nokuhambisana kwakho nezinqubomgomo zikaTaylor & Francis. Ukuhlinzeka ngokusobala okudingekayo kubafundi bethu, sizoshicilela ukulungiswa kuma-athikili akho ukuvuselela izitatimende zabo zokubonga kanye nesimemezelo sezintshisekelo njengokuqukethwe okunikezile. ”

NgoSepthemba ka-2018 amaphepha abuyekezwa ukuze aphathe i- “Expression of Concern” kanye nokuvuselelwa kokwamukelwa nokumenyezelwa kwezintshisekelo. Kepha ngaphandle kokutholakala kokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto, amaphepha asabizwa ngegama elithi "ukuzimela."

UWhalley ushiye uTaylor noFrancis ngo-Okthoba ka-2018.

Indlela iphephabhuku elisingatha ngayo lolu daba ibakhathaze abanye ososayensi.

"Ukuphawula kukaMcClellan ngokuthi kungani engazange ahoxise leli phepha bekungamukeleki, kuzenzela yena uqobo, futhi kwephula inqubo yokuhlelwa komsindo," kusho uSheldon Krimsky, onguprofesa waseTufts University futhi osebenza eHastings Centre, okuyisikhungo esizimele sokucwaninga nge-bioethics. UKrimsky ubuye abe ngumhleli wephephabhuku likaTaylor noFrancis elibizwa nge- "Accountability in Research."

UNathan Donley, usosayensi omkhulu oqashwe yi-nonprofit Centre for Biological Diversity uthe ukwehluleka kwephephabhuku ukuhoxisa kwaba wukwehluleka ukwenza izinto obala. "Lesi ngesinye sezigameko eziyihlazo kakhulu ekushicilelweni kwesayensi engake ngazibona," kusho uDonley. “Esisele nakho ukukhombisa ukukhathazeka ukuthi akekho umuntu ozofunda kanye nomqondo omubi ocacile wokuthi lokhu ngandlela thile bekuyindlela 'ezimele'. Lokhu kube yimpumelelo kumdlali onamandla kunabo bonke embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane, kodwa kwaba umphumela wokuziphatha kwesayensi. ”

Chofoza lapha ukuze ufunde amakhasi angama-400 wokuhlanganisa ama-imeyili.  

Icala le-SF Roundup likhombisa ukubaluleka kokuzimela ebufakazini besayensi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lesi sihloko sashicilelwa ekuqaleniSanFranciscoChronicle.

NguNathan Donley noCarey Gillam

Sekuphele amasonto amathathu kusukela ijaji laseSan Francisco okutholiwe Ukuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto i-Roundup kwaba nomthelela kulowo owayengumgcini wesifo somdlavuza waseDewayne “Lee” Johnson futhi wakhipha isamba semali esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 289 kumonakalo owabekwa ubaba oneminyaka engu-46. Futhi phakathi naleso sikhathi, sibone iziqinisekiso eziphindaphindwayo ezivela ku-giant pesticides kanye nabalingani bayo ukuthi, empeleni, ijaji lalingalungile futhi umbulali okhetha ukhula wezigidi zabantu baseMelika uphephe ngokuphelele.

Iphini Likamongameli weMonsanto uScott Partridge ephindaphindiwe imantra ejwayelekile: Amakhulu ezifundo zesayensi, kanye nokubuyekezwa kwezinhlangano ezilawulayo emhlabeni wonke, kufaka phakathi ne-US Environmental Protection Agency, bathole ukuthi i-glyphosate - isithako esisebenzayo eRoundup - ayibangeli umdlavuza. Umnikazi omusha weMonsanto, uBayer AG, waqhubekela phambili. Isikhulu esiphezulu seBayer uWerner Baumann utshele abatshalizimali ukuthi amajaji avele nje "akulungile" nokuthi iBayer izosebenza ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ukuthengiswa kwemikhiqizo ebulala ukhula akuphazamiseki. "Izifundo ezingaphezu kuka-800 zesayensi nokubuyekezwa" kusekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate, utshele abatshalizimali.

Ngaphandle kokuphikiswa, amaphuzu okukhuluma acijwe ngokucophelela azwakala ehlaba umxhwele futhi enesiphetho - njengoba nje kuhlosiwe.

Kepha ngemuva kokuklonyeliswa kwabasizi bejaji, abantu abaningi kulo lonke elase-United States abebefafaza umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane otshanini nasemasimini abo iminyaka bayangabaza lawo mazwi aqinisekisayo. Futhi ngesizathu esihle.

Ukuqinisekiswa kokuphepha kwebhizinisi kushiya igama elilodwa elibalulekile - igama elibaluleke kakhulu kunoma ngubani ofuna ukuthatha isinqumo esinolwazi mayelana nobungozi bomdlavuza obuhambisana neRoundup kanye namakhulu amanye ama-herbicides asuselwa eglyphosate emakethe.

Lelo gama “lizimele,” njengokuthi “izifundo ezizimele zesayensi nezibuyekezo.”

Njengoba kubekiwe ecaleni, kunobufakazi obuningi, obuningi babo buvela ngaphakathi kwemibhalo yangaphakathi kaMonsanto, echaza ukuthi ucwaningo oluningi oluphakamisa ukuthi i-Roundup iphephile luhlelwe kanjani futhi / noma luthonywe yiMonsanto kanye nababambisene nayo embonini yamakhemikhali .

Kepha ucwaningo oluzimele ngempela lukhombisile ukuthi kunesizathu sokukhathazeka. Njengokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup emapulazini ase-US, utshani bokuhlala nezingadi ukukhuphuka kusuka kumaphawundi acishe abe yizigidi ezingama-40 ngonyaka kuma-1990s kuye cishe kumaphawundi ayizigidi ezingama-300 eminyakeni yamuva nje, ubungozi bekhemikhali buye babhalwa ezifundweni eziningi ezibuyekezwa kontanga.

Kwakuyileyo misebenzi ezimele nebuyekezwa kontanga eyaqinisekisa ingalo yocwaningo lomdlavuza ye- World Health Organization ukunquma ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu. Ngemuva kokutholwa yi-WHO, ICalifornia yengeze i-glyphosate ohlwini lukahulumeni lwamakhemikhali abangela umdlavuza.

Impendulo kaMonsanto kulokho kuhlukaniswa kwe-2015 kwaba isayensi esetshenzisiwe kakhulu. An "Isibuyekezo esizimele" Ye-glyphosate ikhonjiswe kumagazini wesayensi obuyekezwa ontanga echaza ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC. Ukubuyekezwa akugcini nje ngokubizwa ngokuthi kuzimele, kepha kumenyezelwe ukuthi akekho umsebenzi waseMonsanto obeneqhaza ekubhalweni kwalo. Kodwa-ke ama-imeyili angaphakathi enkampani, aphendulwa ekutholakaleni okuhambisana namacala, aveza ukuthi usosayensi waseMonsanto empeleni wayenolaka ukuhlelwa futhi ibuyekeze ukuhlaziywa ngaphambi kokushicilelwa kwayo.

Lesi esinye sezibonelo eziningi eziningiliziwe emibhalweni engavaliwe yemizamo efanayo, ebizwa ngabasebenzi bakaMonsanto ngokuthi “ukubhala. "

I-EPA ihlanganyele neMonsanto phezu kososayensi abazimele, ukumemezela ukuthi i-pesticide kungenzeka ukuthi ingabangeli umdlavuza. Ngokwenza lokhu, le nhlangano ilishaye indiva iqiniso elivezwe yiHhovisi Lezokucwaninga Nentuthuko ungazi ngokuphathwa kwe-EPA kokuhlolwa kwe-glyphosate, njengoba kwenza i iphaneli yokweluleka ngokwesayensi ebizwe yi-ejensi ukubuyekeza ukubuyekeza ukuhlolwa.

Mhlawumbe akumangalisi ukuthi nobufakazi becala bufakiwe ukuxhumana echaza okungachazwa njengokusebenzisana okuthokomele phakathi kweMonsanto nezikhulu ezithile ze-EPA.

AbaseMelika bafanelwe okungcono kubalawuli babo, okufanele bakubeke phambili ukubeka impilo yomphakathi kude kunenzuzo yezinkampani.

Esikhundleni salokho, kudinge indoda enesibindi ebulawa ngumdlavuza kanye nejaji lezakhamizi ezijwayelekile eziyi-12 ukuthi isukume ibhekane nenselelo yokubhekisisa amaqiniso esayensi nokubiza ubulungiswa.

UDrew Kershen: I-Agrichemical Industry Front Group Ringleader

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UDrew Kershen, uprofesa osaziwayo e-University of Oklahoma College of Law, ungumngane osondelene nomkhakha wezolimo. Uyaphikisana ukuhlukunyezwa zezitshalo nezilwane ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela kanye ngokumelene nokusobala. UKershen ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile emizamweni yokukhangisa exhaswa ngezimali embonini kanye namaqembu angaphambili alwela izintshisekelo zemboni. UKershen akayivezi imithombo yezimali.

Isibopho semboni yezolimo nobuholi beqembu langaphambili

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project / Science Literacy Project

UKershen uyi ilungu lebhodi yeGenetic Literacy Project, iqembu eliphambili elibambisana neMonsanto ukwenza ubudlelwano bomphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, futhi hhayi ukudalula ngokunembile ukuxhaswa kwayo. Imibhalo iveze ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project:

UKershen futhi uyilungu lebhodi le- Iphrojekthi Yezesayensi Yokufunda, i-501 (c) (3) inhlangano yabazali ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Zombili ziqondiswa ngu UJon Entine, umlingani wesikhathi eside we-PR wemboni yamakhemikhali.

Ngokuvumelana ne Amarekhodi wentela ka-2015, UJon Entine kanye ne-Science Literacy Project bathathe izintambo zokulawula iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS), iqembu ebelikade lisebenzisana neCentre for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA) kanye Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ukusebenza kwe-STATS kufakwe ku-Sense About Science USA, okuyi wabelana ngekheli elifanayo lerekhodi ngeProjekthi YeSayensi Yokufunda Nokubhala.

Abasunguli be-STATS, i-CMPA kanye ne-Sense About Science benze ubudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzela imboni kagwayi futhi la maqembu awawona amajaji azimele wesayensi, ngokusho kwe-2016 uphenyo kuThe Intercept.

Ngeminye imininingwane, bheka ama-USRTK emashidi eqiniso UJon Entine kanye neProjekthi Yokufunda Ngofuzo futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi / IZITATIMENDE.

UNobhala Wezifundo Zokubuyekeza Iqembu Langaphambili

UKershen wayengunobhala webhodi labaqondisi be-Academics Review, ngokusho kwalo Amarekhodi wentela ka-2016. Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo bathi kwakuyiqembu elizimele, kodwa imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know wembule ukuthi kwakuyiqembu langaphambili kusethwe ngosizo lweMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo ngenkathi bebonakala bezimele.

UKershen wayengu- umbuyekezi ngombiko wango-2014 we-Academics Review owazama ukudicilela phansi imboni yezinto eziphilayo; i isitatimende sephephandaba ngombiko wathi kwakuwumsebenzi wezifundiswa ezizimele ngaphandle kokuphikisana kwezintshisekelo.

Amarekhodi entela akhombisa ukuthi umxhasi oyinhloko we-Academics Review kwakuyi-Council for Biotechnology Information, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa futhi ephethwe yi-BASF, Bayer, DowDuPont, Monsanto neSyngenta. I-CBI inikeze isamba esingu- $ 600,000 ku-Academics Review ku 2014 futhi 2015-2016.

Kungani iForbes Isuse Ezinye Izindatshana ZaseKershen

IKershen babhala ngokuhlanganyela izindatshana eziningana ezisuswe yiForbes neProjusa Syndicate ngemuva kombhali wakhe, UHenry Miller, wabanjwa usebenzisa ikholomu ebhalwe ghost ngu-Monsanto njengomsebenzi wakhe eForbes. I- New York Times wembula ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki ngo-2017.

UKershen noMiller nabo babhalele ndawonye izindatshana ze- Slate, Buyekeza National, lo Isikhungo seHoover futhi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo (imboni exhaswa ngemali iqembu langaphambili) bephikisana nokufakwa amalebula nokulawulwa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni, nokubanga ukuthi "abampofu emhlabeni bahlupheka futhi bafa ngokungadingekile" ngenxa "yomthetho ongenazidingo ofunwa yizishoshovu."

Izimpendulo ze-GMO

UKershen uyi “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a ukumaketha kanye newebhusayithi ye-PR ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuyi uxhaswe yizinkampani ezinkulu zezolimo nge-Council for Biotechnology Information, futhi ephethwe yi inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi uKetchum.

Ungenele Ekubambeni Ngokusobala Icala Lokuvimbela Ukudalulwa Komphakathi

Imibhalo eminingana ebikwe kuleli qiniso, eveze obudlelwano obungadalulwanga phakathi kwezinhlangano namaqembu angaphambili, yaqala ukutholwa ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information ngu I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. UKershen ungenelele ezinkantolo ezama ukumisa ukudalulwa okuqhubekayo, njengeFreedom of the Press Foundation kubika ngoFebhuwari 2018.

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngamaqembu angaphambili embonini yezokudla, bheka i- Ikhasi lokuphenya le-USRTK.

UHenry Miller Ulahlwe nguForbes weMonsanto Ghostwriting Scandal

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukuvuselelwa: Ngo-Agasti ka-2018, uMiller washiya indawo yakhe engamashumi amabili njengomuntu eHoover Institution ngezizathu ezingaziwa. Manje ungumuntu ophakeme nePacific Research Institute, ithangi lokucabanga ixhaswe izisekelo zamaphiko angakwesokudla ezihlobene ne-Koch Brothers ukuthi kuthuthukisa ukungabaza kwesayensi yezulu futhi ifuna ukuqeda imithethonqubo yezemvelo.

UHenry I. Miller, MD, owayengumphathi we-FDA futhi esengumqondisi we-FDA Office of Biotechnology; unomlando omude wokuphikisana nokuvikelwa kwempilo yomphakathi nokuthatha izikhundla ngaphandle kokujwayelekile kwesayensi. UDkt. Miller uthe inicotine “ayiyimbi kangako kuwe,” kusho amazinga aphansi emisebe engaba wusizo empilweni, futhi efuna ukwethulwa kabusha kwe-DDT yokubulala izinambuzane. Mhlawumbe ungumgqugquzeli owaziwa kakhulu futhi owaziwa kakhulu ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ebhalela iWall Street Journal, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Forbes nezinye izitolo.

Ngo-Agasti 2017, iForbes yasusa wonke amakholomu abhalwe noma abhalwa ngokubambisana nguMiller ngemuva kwezambulo zokuthi uMonsanto ubhale umoya ikholomu uMiller ayishicilela ngaphansi kwegama lakhe eForbes.

Ukubhalwa kwesipoki kweMonsanto / kwehliswe ngabakwaForbes

Ngo-Agasti 1, 2017, the INew York Times ibike:

“Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uHenry I. Miller wacela uMonsanto ukuba amenzele udaba olwalusibonisa ikakhulu olwavela ngaphansi kwegama lakhe kuwebhusayithi yeForbes ngo-2015. IForbes yalususa lolu daba kwi-website yalo ngoLwesithathu yathi lwaphela ubuhlobo bayo noMnu. Miller phakathi kwezambulo. ”

The ama-imeyili phakathi kuka-Eric Sachs kaMiller noMonsanto khombisa ukuthi izinkampani nababhali kwesinye isikhathi basebenza kanjani ndawonye ukukhuthaza amaphuzu okukhuluma ezinkampani ngezindlela ezingadalulwanga kubahleli noma emphakathini.

Kuma-imeyili, uSachs wacela uMiller ukuthi abhale nge-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) engcupheni yomdlavuza we-glyphosate. UMiller uphendule wathi, "Ngingaba njalo uma ngingaqala ngokusukela ebhalweni eliphezulu." USachs wanikeza lokho akubiza ngokuthi "kusalukhuni", wakuchaza kuMiller "njengesiqalo esihle somlingo wakho." Okusalungiswa kwavela ezinsukwini ezimbalwa kamuva, kungashintshiwe, ku le kholomu yeForbes lokho kwavela ngaphansi kwegama likaMiller.

Ngokuvumelana ne I-Watch Retraction, AbakwaForbes basuse umsebenzi kaMiller ngoba wephula imithetho yeFobes.com ethi abanikeli bamemezele noma yikuphi ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okungaba khona futhi bashicilele umbhalo wabo wokuqala. "Kuthe lapho sinakwa ukuthi uMnu. Miller wephule le migomo, sakususa konke abengakuthumele kuForbes.com futhi saqeda ubudlelwano bethu naye," kusho uMia Carbonell, oyi-VP ephezulu yezokuxhumana emhlabeni wonke eForbes.

I-Forbes iphinde yasusa izindatshana ezihlanganiswe nguMiller nezinye izimboni zamakhemikhali, ezibandakanya UJulie Kelly, UKavin Senapathy futhi UBruce Chassy.

IProject Syndicate ingeze inothi yalo mhleli phezulu kuma-athikili ebhalwe nguMiller (futhi kamuva wasusa amakholomu ngokuphelele):

Kuphakanyiswe ukuphikisana ngokusemthethweni mayelana nokuzimela nobuqotho bezincazelo uHenry Miller azibhalele iProject Syndicate nezinye izitolo; ikakhulukazi ukuthi iMonsanto, esikhundleni sikaMiller, yabhala ezinye zazo. Abafundi kufanele bazi ngalokhu kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okungaba khona, okwakuthi, uma kwaziwa ngaleso sikhathi lapho kwamukelwa khona ukuphawula kukaMiller, ngabe bekuyizizathu zokuba benqabe.

Ibizwa njengokulethwa kumbhalo weMonsanto PR

Idokhumenti yeMonsanto PR ichaza izinhlelo zenkampani “zokuvikela ukubuyiswa kanye ne-FTO yeRoundup” ngokudicilela phansi umbiko wenhlangano yomdlavuza ngengozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. Ikhasi 2 lecebo lichaza okwethulwa kwangaphandle kokuqala: "Xoxa noHenry Miller." Imibhalo ebikwe yi New York Times khombisa ukuthi umphathi we-Monsanto ucele uMiller ukuthi abhale ngombiko womdlavuza futhi wamnikeza uhlaka uMiller akubhalile olungashintshi ngaphansi kwegama lakhe eForbes.

Funda okuningi ngohlelo lweMonsanto PR lokwehlisa isithunzi i-IARC lapha.

Ukuxhaswa nokufaka izinsizakalo zakhe ze-PR

IHoover Institution, lapho uMiller ahlala khona njengomuntu, ithole uxhaso lwezimali ku izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni, kufaka phakathi i-Exxon Mobil kanye neAmerican Chemistry Council, kanye nezisekelo ezinamaphiko okudla - iSarah Scaife Foundation, iSearle Freedom Trust, iLynde neHarry Bradley Foundation, iCharles Koch Foundation, iDonors Trust - nezinye abaxhasi abahola phambili bokuphika isayensi yezulu nokuthi phusha ukwehliswa komthetho kuwo wonke umnotho.

Miller wabeka izinkonzo zakhe ze-PR ngo-1998 “Uhlelo Lokusebenza Lokukhuthaza Isayensi Yemisindo Kwezempilo, Kwinqubomgomo Yezemvelo kanye ne-Biotechnology.” Lo mbhalo, othunyelwe ku-UCSF Tobacco Industry Documents Library, uchaza imali ekhokhwayo kaMiller yokubhala izindatshana, u- $ 5,000- $ 15,000, futhi waphakamisa nohlelo olwandisiwe lwe- “science and risk communication” lokubandakanya ukuhlela izinkulumo, ukuthuthukisa ubukhona bewebhu nokushicilela incwadi. (Umthombo: «Amaphepha eMonsanto »: la bataille de l'information, nguStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel eLe Monde, ngoJuni 2, 2017.)

Umngani nomphathi weqembu eliphambili lenkampani i-ACSH

UMiller “umngane futhi longtimumphathiswa”WoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, futhi uchazwe futhi njengo“Umqondisi”Walelo qembu. I-ACSH iyi- iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi lokho kufaka izinsizakalo zayo ezinkampanini ngokuvikela umkhiqizo, ngokusho kowezi-2012 uhlelo lwezimali oluputshukile.

Ukuvikela imboni kagwayi

Ku-1994 Imemo yecebo le-APCO Associates PR ukusiza uPhillip Morris ukuhlela umkhankaso womhlaba wonke wokulwa nemithetho kagwayi, uHenry Miller kwathiwa "ungumsekeli ophambili" wale mizamo yomkhakha kagwayi.

Ngo-2012, uMiller wabhala ukuthi “i-nicotine… akukubi kangako kuwe ngamanani ahanjiswa ngogwayi noma imikhiqizo engenantuthu. ”

Ukwenqaba ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu

UMiller uyi ilungu "lebhodi lokweluleka ngesayensi" weGeorge C. Marshall Institute, edume ngoyela negesi imboni yenqatshelwa ngemali lokushintsha kwesimo sezulu.

Ukufuna ukuvezwa kwemisebe yenuzi kungaba "kuhle kuwe"

Ngo-2011, ngemuva kokuthi i-tsunami yaseJapane kanye nokuvuza kwemisebe kufekthri yamandla enuzi eFukushima, uMiller waphikisana eForbes ngokuthi “labo… abachayeke emazingeni aphansi emisebe kungenzeka wazuza kukho. ” Ubuze ku-Project Syndicate, “Can radiation? kube kuhle kuwe?"

Ukuvikela imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane 

UMiller uvikele ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ze-neonicotinoid futhi wagxeka kuWall Street Journal ukuthi “iqiniso ukuthi abantu bezinyosi azinciphi. "

UMiller unayo ngokuphindaphindiwe waphikisana ukwethulwa kabusha kwe-DDT, isibulala-zinambuzane esinobuthi esivinjelwe e-United States kusukela ngo-1972, esixhunyaniswe nokukhulelwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi sokubeletha kanye nokukhubazeka kokuzala kwabesifazane.

Ukuhlasela imboni ephilayo

IMiller's ibhale ukuhlaselwa okuningi embonini yezinto eziphilayo, kufaka phakathi i- "The Colossal Hoax of Organic Agriculture" (Forbes), "Ukulima Ngokwemvelo Akusimeme" (Wall Street Journal) kanye ne "Iqiniso elingcolile Mayelana Nemikhiqizo Engokwemvelo" (Newsweek). INewsweek yenqabile ukudalula ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo zikaMiller; indatshana ye-2018 Newsweek kaMiller ehlasela imboni yemvelo kwaba ezungezwe izikhangiso zeBayer.

Izinkulumo zikaMiller mayelana nomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo, njengezimangalo eziningi zesayensi, zikude kakhulu nesayensi nokuqonda okuvamile. NgoMeyi 2017, Kusho uMiller, "Ukulima ngokwemvelo kuyimvelo lokho ukubhema ugwayi kuyimpilo yabantu."

Ukuvikela imboni yamaplastiki

Miller ivikelekile i-endocrine ephazamisa i-bisphenol A (BPA), evinjelwe eYurophu naseCanada ukuthi isetshenziswe emabhodleleni ezingane.

Imibhalo kaMiller ekhiqiza kakhulu imboni ifaka phakathi

UJayson Lusk noHenry I. Miller, "Sidinga i-GMO Wheat. " New York Times, NgoFebhuwari 2, 2014. UHenry I. Miller noGregory Conko, “I-General Mills Inombono Wama-Soggy wama-Cheerios. " Wall Street Journal, Januwari 20, 2014. UHenry I. Miller, “Ubuzenzisi Bokudla Kwe-GM eNdiya. " Wall Street Journal, Novemba 28, 2012. UHenry I. Miller, “Ukulima Ngokwemvelo Akusimeme. " Wall Street Journal, Meyi 15, 2014. UHenry I. Miller, “Izitshalo Ezengeziwe Zokwehla. " Iphrojekthi Syndicate, Agasti 7, 2014. UHenry Miller, “I-Anti-GMO Hysteria yaseCalifornia. " Buyekeza National, Mashi 31, 2014. UHenry I. Miller, “Ubunjiniyela Bofuzo kanye nokulwa ne-Ebola. " Wall Street Journal, Agasti 25, 2014. UHenry I. Miller, “Umthethosivivinywa Welebula LeSalmon Kufanele Uphonswe Emuva. " I-Orange County Register, Ephreli 4, 2011. UHenry I. Miller, “Amalebula we-GE asho izindleko eziphakeme. " San Francisco Chronicle, Septhemba 7, 2012. UGregory Conko noHenry Miller, “Ukufakwa kophawu kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kuyisiphakamiso esilahlekayo. " Forbes, Septhemba 12, 2012. UGregory Conko noHenry I. Miller, “Isiphakamiso Esilahlekile Selebuli Yokudla. " I-Orange County Register, Okthoba 11, 2012. UHenry I. Miller noBruce Chassy, ​​“Ososayensi Banuka Igundane Esifundweni Sokukhohlisa Sobunjiniyela Bofuzo. " Forbes, Septhemba 25, 2012. UJay Byrne noHenry I. Miller, “Imisuka Yenhlangano Yobunjiniyela Bokulwa Nofuzo? Landela Imali!" Forbes, Okthoba 22, 2012.

Izindatshana zikaMiller ezisuswe kuForbes zifaka phakathi: UHenry I. Miller noJulie Kelly, “How Organic Agriculture Evolve from from Marketing Tool to Evil Empire,” Forbes, Ngomhlaka 2, 2015; UHenry I. Miller noJulie Kelly, "Ukuxhaswa Kwesifundazwe Kwezolimo Zemvelo Kufanele Kulinywe Ngaphansi Kwakho," Forbes, Julayi 12, 2017; UHenry I. Miller noJulie Kelly, "Ukuthandwa Nguhulumeni Nokuxhaswa Kwezolimo Zemvelo: Landela Imali," Forbes, Septhemba 23, 2015.

Imibhalo Mayelana noMiller 

"Abanye be-GMO Cheerleaders Baphika Nokuguquka Kwesimo Sezulu" - umama Jones

"I-Pro-Science GMO kanye ne-Chemical Boosters Ixhaswe Abaphikisi Besimo Sezulu" - Isazi sezinto eziphilayo

"I-DDT neMalaria: Ukulungisa irekhodi liqonde" - Inethiwekhi ye-Pesticide Action

"Isikhangiso se-TV Against Food Labing Initiative Siyadonswa" - Los Angeles Times

"Isikhangiso saseStanford Sifuna Isikhangiso Esiphikisana Nesivumelwano Sokushintshwa 37" - Izindaba zePalo Alto

Amakhemikhali Emboni Yezamakhemikhali

I-USRTK ihlanganise uchungechunge lwamaphepha amaqiniso ngabalobi namaqembu e-PR imboni yezolimo ithembele ekwenziweni kokungabaza ngesayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka ngemikhiqizo eyingozi futhi ephikisana nokuvikelwa kwempilo yezemvelo.
Kungani Ungethembi UHenry I. Miller
- Kungani iForbes Isuse Ezinye Izindatshana ZaseKavin Senapathy
- UJulie Kelly Upheka Inkulumo-ze Yezimboni Zamakhemikhali
I-American Council on Science and Health iyiCorporate Front Group
UJon Entine weProjekthi Yezifundo Zokufunda Nokubhala: I-Master Industry's Master Messenger
UTrevor Butterworth / Sense Mayelana neSayensi Isebenzisa Isayensi Yezimboni
- Ngabe Isayensi Yezindaba Yesikhungo Ishintsha Ukubukwa Kwebhizinisi Lwesayensi?

Landela uphenyo lwe-USRTK Lokudla Okukhulu namaqembu alo angaphambili: https://usrtk.org/our-investigations/