UKeith Kloor: Indlela intatheli yesayensi esebenza ngayo ekusithekeni nabalingani bemboni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UKeith Kloor uyintatheli ezisebenza ngokuzimela futhi uyilungu le-adjunct journalism faculty e University of New York obhalele i- Imvelo, Isayensi Ngaphakathi, Isilayidi kanye nezindatshana eziningi ze- Thola Umagazini ukugqugquzela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuhlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo, kuyilapho kusizwa nabalingani bemboni ekusithekeni.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, athunyelwe ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF, iveze izimo lapho uKloor aqeqesha futhi ahlela khona imithombo yakhe, afihla izimboni zomthombo womthombo, futhi abike ngokukhethekile ngolwazi ngezindlela eziqinisa ukulandisa kwemboni. UKloor unqabile ukuphendula imibuzo yalesi sihloko.

Ukukhululwa kokukhetha, okukhethiwe kwama-imeyili we-FOIA

Kusukela ngo-2015 kuya ku-2017, iKloor ibike ukuthi Nature, Isayensi Insider, Discover, Izinkinga Kwezesayensi Nobuchwepheshe, Futhi Slate on a uphenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi yi-US Right to Know eveze ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga phakathi kwemboni yezolimo kanye nezifundiswa ezixhaswe esidlangalaleni ezithuthukisa imikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi USolwazi Kevin Folta wase-University of Florida. Kuzozonke izingcezu ezishicilelwe, uKloor wafaka izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi njengomthwalo ongadingekile kwizifundiswa.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso aveza ukuthi uKloor uqobo wayeyingxenye yendaba ayebika ngayo; ubekade ehambele izingqungquthela zokuqeqesha imiyalezo ezixhaswe umkhakha wezolimo noDkt. Folta futhi wasiza uDkt Folta ngokuthumela imiyalezo. Ukuxhumana kukhombisa ukuthi uDkt Folta welule isandla kuKloor ukuze asikisele ukuthi akhululwe ama-imeyili akhe “ngaphambi kokulungiselela” ukusiza ukunciphisa umonakalo wamadokhumende - uKloor akwenzayo, kumagazini Nature. Ngesikhathi esifanayo lapho uKloor ebekhuluma ngendaba yezincwadi eziphambili zesayensi, amadokhumende akhombisa ukuthi wabamba iqhaza ezingxoxweni nabangaphakathi embonini mayelana nezinselelo ezibangelwa izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi.

Umugqa wesikhathi wokubika nokusebenzisana:

Ukuqeqesha, ukuhlela imithombo; kufihla ubuhlobo bemboni

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor usebenze nemithombo yakhe ekusithekeni ukucija imiyalezo yabo ukusekela imbangela yezimboni yezolimo: ukukholisa abathengi abaqaphile ukwamukela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Enye yale mithombo kwakungu UDkt Kevin Folta, iNyuvesi yaseFlorida uprofesa owayengumuntu osemqoka uKloor evezwe ezindabeni azibhalela ezincwadini zesayensi ngokusebenza obala kwezemfundo.

Umkhankaso wokuguqula uBill Nye

NgoNovemba 2014, uKloor wasebenzisa eyakhe Discover blog ukufaka inselelo Ukugxeka kukaBill Nye mayelana nama-GMO nge "Incwadi evulekile eya kuBill Nye evela kuSosayensi Wezitshalo" esayinwe nguDkt. Folta. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor ubuzile UDkt Folta ukuphonsela inselelo uNye, weza nomqondo wencwadi evulekile futhi uqeqeshe uDkt Folta ukuthi abhalwa kanjani. Wabe-ke kuhlelwe i-biography kaDkt Folta ukugwema ukubalula imali yezimboni, ngokusho kwama-imeyili.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uKloor wabhalela uDkt. Folta uhlu lwezinto eziphilayo olufaka phakathi umugqa othi, “Alukho ucwaningo oluxhaswe yiMonsanto.” UDkt. Folta umcele ukuthi alungise leso sigwebo, ebona ukuthi iMonsanto ngokungaqondile ixhase eminye yemizamo yakhe yokufinyelela kubantu nge-biotech nokuthi uthole imali yocwaningo enkampanini encane ye-biotech. UKloor uthathe isinqumo ngomlando ongagwegwesi ukubalula ngezimali zemboni kaDkt Folta ngokuphelele: “Ucwaningo lwakhe luxhaswe yizinhlangano zombuso nezikahulumeni.”

Ku-imeyili engezansi, uKloor unikeze uDkt Folta umhlahlandlela wokuthi uyibhalela kanjani uNye incwadi:

Cishe ngaleso sikhathi, iMonsanto nayo yayinxenxa uNye ukuthi ashintshe isikhundla sakhe kuma-GMO, ekugcineni waphumelela ukwenza. Mashi 2015 Washington Post indaba mayelana nokuguquka kukaNye kwasho ukuthi ukugxeka kukaNye amaGMO “kwacasula ososayensi abaningi,” kodwa kwaxhunyaniswa kuphela nencwadi kaDkt Folta kubhulogi likaKloor.

Thola: "Akuyona inqubomgomo yethu yokwazisa imithombo"

Ama-imeyili avela ngo-Agasti 2014 akhombisa uKloor enikeza iseluleko semiyalezo kuDkt Folta kanye nomunye umthombo, uDkt Karl Haro von Mogel, umqondisi wezindaba Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO iBiofortified. UKloor ubacele ukuba bahlaziye udaba lukaCarole Bartolotto, udokotela wezokudla obebhale ngokugxeka ngama-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa lokho UKloor ukuhlelile ukuphawula nezindlela eziphakanyisiwe zokuqinisa imiyalezo: “Iseluleko sami: gcina ulimi lungathathi hlangothi futhi lungahluleli ngangokunokwenzeka. Ubheke abantu abahlala kocingo, abangahle bavinjwe ulimi olukhulunywa kabi. ”

UKloor uthumele ukugxekwa kweBartolotto kweyakhe Discover blog futhi wachaza uDkt. Folta no-von Mogel "njengososayensi ababili abangalutholi uxhaso embonini ye-biotech." Ama-imeyili kamuva aveze ukuthi, emasontweni ambalwa ngaphambili, iMonsanto yayinayo uvumile ukuxhasa ezikaDkt. Folta imizamo yokukhangisa yama-GMO; futhi, ehlobo eledlule, uDkt Folta wahlela ukuvakashela eHawaii eyonxenxa imingcele yokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane ohambweni ihlelwe futhi ikhokhelwa yiqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane (UDkt von Mogel naye wayefakiwe kulawo ma-imeyili). I-athikili kaKloor isavela ku- Discover iwebhusayithi ngaphandle kokuvuselelwa noma ukulungiswa.

Okwe-2017 Isihloko sokubhalwa kukaHuffington, kubuza intatheli uPaul Thacker Discover umhleli wephephabhuku u-Becky Lang ukuze aphawule ngama-imeyili eBartolotto. ULang unqabile ukuphawula ngokuningiliziwe, kodwa wathi: “Impela, akusiyo inqubomgomo yethu manje, futhi akukaze kube njalo, ukugqugquzela imithombo ukuthi ibhale ukugxeka, ukuhlela ukugxeka, bese ikwenza njengokuzimela. Futhi akuyona inqubomgomo yethu ukuthi imithombo yosizo izame ukufihla ubudlelwane bayo bemboni. ” (EzikaKloor Discover I-blog yaphela ngo- yaphela ngo-Ephreli 2015.)

UJon Entine, uxhumano lweProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project  

Imibhalo emikhulu kaKloor evikela imboni yezolimo ingabukwa kuwebhusayithi ye I-Genetic Literacy Project, iwebhusayithi yokwazisa yomkhakha wezolimo lokho izindatshana eziningi ebhalwe nguKloor noma ecaphuna umsebenzi wakhe. IGenetic Literacy Project ilawulwa nguJon Entine, osebenza isikhathi eside PR okhuthaza futhi avikele izintshisekelo zemboni yamakhemikhali. U-Entine unguthishanhloko we-PR firm ESG MediaMetrics, amaklayenti akhe afaka iMonsanto. AbakwaKloor no-Entine basebenzisa imiyalezo efanayo futhi babeke izingqinamba ngezindlela ezifanayo, futhi babonakala benobudlelwano obusondelene, ngokusho kwama-imeyili.

Nge-imeyili kaJulayi 2013 eya eqenjini lokwamukela izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane, u-Entine uchaze uKloor njenge “umngani wami omuhle kakhulu”Ngubani ongasiza ekuthengiseni umhlangano nomunye Discover blogger ukubhala ngemisebenzi yezimboni yezolimo eHawaii. Enye i-imeyili ikhombisa i-Entine exhuma iKloor noRebecca Goldin eGeorge Mason University ukuxoxa "ngokuhlukunyezwa kwe-FOIA." UGoldin usebenza nowayengumqashi we-Entine i-STATS, iqembu lezintatheli elizichaze njengeumkhankaso we-disinformation”Lokho isebenzisa amaqhinga kagwayi kuya kwakha ukungabaza ngengozi yamakhemikhali.

Kwenye i-imeyili evela ngo-Okthoba 2014, uKloor wayeyintatheli kuphela owayefakwe kwi-imeyili exwayisa inkampani yakwaKetchum yezobudlelwano bomphakathi mayelana ukusebenza okungenzeka kube nokugenca kumawebhusayithi ezinkampani yiqembu elingaziwa. I-imeyili ithunyelwe ngu- U-Adrianne Massey, umphathi omkhulu weBiotechnology Industry Association (BIO), eqenjini lababambisene nabo embonini, kufaka phakathi i-Entine.

“Angazi nakancane ukuthi hlobo luni lokuhlaselwa. Izinhlangano ezizimele kungenzeka kube yizo kuphela ezihlose ukuzenza, kepha angifuni ukuthi kulimale noma ngubani kini onibona njengabalingani bezimboni, ”kubhala uMassey.

U-Kloor ungenile ku-imeyili ngu UDkt. Channapatna Prakash, ummeli nomphathi weGMO eTuskegee University. Okunye okufakwe ku-imeyili kwakunguJay Byrne (owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto), I-Val Giddings (owayeyisekela likamongameli wenhlangano yezohwebo ye-biotech), UKarl Haro von Mogel (umqondisi wezindaba we Kwenziwe kabusha), UBruce Chassy noDavid Tribe (ababambisene nabo Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu eliphambili leMonsanto), kanye nabanye ababambisene nomkhakha abalulekile abakhuthaza ama-GMO baphinde bagqugquzele ukwehliswa kwemithetho UKevin Folta, Henry Miller, UDrew Kershen, UKlaus AmmannUPiet van der Meer futhi UMartina Newell-McGloughlin.

Abasizi bemboni bavame ukuthuthukisa umsebenzi kaKloor; bona ama-tweets ngo URobb Fraley waseMonsantoUJon Entine, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project kanye nemboni yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba i-CBI.

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nomgqugquzeli wezimboni zezolimo kanye ne-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, i-PhD, uchwepheshe wezokwelisana ngokubambisana ku-genomics yezilwane kanye ne-biotechnology e-University of California, e-Davis, ungumgqugquzeli oholayo wezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezihamba nazo, kanye nommeli wokwehliswa kwemithetho.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uthi izilwane ze-GE akumele zibe ngaphansi kokubuyekezwa kokuphepha kwangaphambi kwemakethe noma amalebula.

UDkt Van Eenennaam uyi- owayekade esebenza eMonsanto ophikisana nodinga izifundo zokuphepha ezilwaneni ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela futhi aziphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi okubandakanya ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ukuhlolwa kwakhe kwelebhu kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa i-CRISPR, inqubo yobunjiniyela, ukuze susa izimpondo zezinkomo zobisi futhi zizale “zonke izinkomo zokuphela kwamadoda”Ukuba ngubaba wezingane zesilisa kuphela - iphrojekthi ayibiza ngokuthi“ Abafana Kuphela. ” Isiphakamiso se-US Food and Drug Administration sokudinga izifundo zokuphepha nokusebenza ngempumelelo kwezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo uyahlanya, ngokusho kukaDkt Van Eenennaam.

Bheka futhi: I-Wall Street Journal (12.14.2018),            Izilimi ezinkulu kanye ne-Vertebrae eyengeziwe: Imiphumela Engalindelekile Yokuhlelwa Kofuzo Lwezilwane 

Yize evame ukwethulwa kwabezindaba njengososayensi ozimele, uDkt. Van Eenennaam uxhumana nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo e-PR ekuthumeleni imiyalezo, ukunxenxa nokwenza imisebenzi ye-PR, ngokusho kwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know futhi manje athunyelwe ku Umtapo Wezincwadi Wemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF. Izibonelo zokubambisana zifaka:

UMonsanto uhlele ukuphawula kwakhe ngenkulumo mpikiswano ye-Intelligence Squared 

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uLee Quarles, umholi wezokuxhumana emhlabeni wonke kaMonsanto, kanye noTony Zagora, iphini likamongameli ophakeme kanye nomlingani wenkampani yeFleishmanHillard PR, kuhlelwe ukuphawula kukaDkt. Van Eenennaam kwe-December 2014 Intelligence Squared (IQ2) mpikiswano lapho aphikisana nokwamukelwa komphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye noRobb Fraley waseMonsanto.

Ama-Quarles abuye axhuma uDkt Van Eenennaam nabaphezulu eMonsanto naseFleishmanHillard ukuxoxa ngezikhundla eziyinhloko yena noFraley okufanele bahambisane nazo, futhi wahlela ukuthi uZagora ne-ejensi ye-PR bamnikeze umhlahlandlela mayelana "nendlela, iphimbo, ukulethwa kanye nokwethulwa komuntu siqu. Lokhu kuzokusiza uqonde kangcono ukuthi yiziphi izinto ezibalulekile iqembu lethu okufanele lizibheke njengoba sisebenzela ukunqoba abantu abasegumbini, kanye nabo bonke labo abathengi ekusakazweni kabusha kwe-NPR komcimbi. ”

Okunye ukuhlela kukaMonsanto kumazwi kaProfesa Van Eenennaam kuboniswa ekushintsheni kwethrekhi:

 

Imibhalo yomthombo exhunywe lapha

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne kanye nemboni yezimboni ze-PR uKetchum banikeze ukuqeqesha izingxoxo zabezindaba 

Ngo-2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wasiza umkhakha oxhaswe ngemali nguNo kwiProposition 37 eCalifornia ukuze phikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abasebenzi bomkhankaso we “No on 37” wahlela ukuthi uDkt Van Eenennaam avele kuDkt Oz Show ukukhuluma ngokungahambisani nokufakwa amalebuli, waphinde wahlela ukuthi athole ukuqeqeshwa kwezokuxhumana kanye nokuthumela imiyalezo evela kuJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana ezinkampanini. (Ama-imeyili abuye aveze ukuthi uJay Byrne usebenze neMonsanto ukusungula iqembu langaphambili ukuhlasela abagxeki be-GMO kanye nomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo ngenkathi “ukugcina iMonsanto ngemuva“.)

Ngo-2014, imboni yezolimo ehola phambili kwezobudlelwano nomphakathi, uKetchum, yafaka uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo futhi yamsiza lungiselela ingxoxo yomsakazo ukwenza ucwaningo oluxhumanise okuphakelayo kwezilwane okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo nokuvuvukala kwesisu. UKetchum unikeze uDkt. Van Eenennaam amaphuzu okukhuluma avela kubambisene naye embonini echaza isifundo sesisu ngokuthi "isayensi engenamsoco."

Kuvele isithangami saseHill esihlelwe yiqembu lesayensi yezulu 

NgoSepthemba 2012, uDkt. Van Eenennaam wavela ku- Umncintiswano wenhlangano ye-Competitive Enterprise Institute ukuphikisana nokwehliswa kwemithetho yezilwane ezenziwe ngofuzo. ICompetitive Enterprise Institute iyiqembu elixhaswa ngezimboni lelo kuthuthukisa ukungabaza kwesayensi yezulu futhi uyaphikisana imithethonqubo yomkhakha wamakhemikhali. Ngo 2013, abaxhasi ku-Competitive Enterprises Institute ngonyaka wokuqoqa imali kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, iSyngenta, i-FMC Corporation, iBiotechnology Industry Organisation kanye neGoogle, kanye nezinkampani zikawoyela nogwayi nezisekelo ezihlobene neKoch Industries. Ngo-2016, uMqondisi Wezamandla Nezemvelo we-CEI u-Myron Ebell, isazi esivelele sesayensi yezulu esithe icala lokufudumala kwembulunga "liwubuwula," wakhethwa yiTrump Administration's to hola iqembu lenguquko ye-Environmental Protection Agency.

Imizamo yokubambisana yokunxenxa; ivikela ama-pesticides 

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uqondise ukunxenxwa kokuqedwa kwezitshalo nezilwane ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, nokuzigcina zingenamagama. Ngo-2012, wabhala i- incwadi eya ku-Obama Administration egameni lekomidi lenqubomgomo yomphakathi ye-American Society of Animal Science ephikisana nokuvunywa kwe-salmon yezakhi zofuzo i-Aqua Bounty ngaphandle kokuhlolwa noma ukuphawulwa okunzima. Ngo-2015, yena kwaqashwa oprofesa abazosekela ukwehliswa kwemithetho amazambane amazambane afakelwe u-Simplot Innate 2.0. "USimplot ufuna ukuphawula mayelana nokuqedwa komthetho wabo ... ama-antis azama ukuthi isikhathi sokuphawula sandiswe njengenjwayelo," ubhalele oprofesa.

UDkt. Van Eenennaam uphinde avikele i-glyphosate, i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kanye ne-carcinogen yabantu ngokusho kwe-World Health Organisation yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Okwe thumela kuwebhusayithi yakhe, wasebenzisa imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane imithombo futhi i-infographics ukuqagela ngemiphumela yemakethe yokuvimbela i-glyphosate, kanye nabantu ababonakala beveza ukukhathazeka ngokuthi "banothile abakhathazekile." Iwebhusayithi yeMonsanto (manje eyiBayer) ithuthukisa uDkt Van Eenennaam njengomthombo wokuhlambalaza isifundo esixhumene glyphosate kuya kwesifo sesibindi ngamanani aphansi.

Abanye baka-Alison Van Eenennaam's oukusebenzisana komkhakha we-ther 

  • Ingabe a ilungu le- "AgBioChatter," Uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo lusebenzela ukuthi izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, abasebenzi abaphezulu bezinkampani zezolimo kanye nabaluleki bezobudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa.

Izindlela ezilahlekisayo nezikhohlisayo zikaDkt Kevin Folta

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UKevin Folta, Ph.D., uprofesa kanye nosihlalo woMnyango Wezesayensi Yezolimo eNyuvesi yaseFlorida, unikeze imininingwane enganembile futhi wenza imisebenzi edukisayo emizamweni yakhe yokukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Icala lakhe lakamuva elibhekene neThe New York Times yilona lakamuva kulayini omude wezibonelo zokuxhumana kukaDkt Folta okudukisayo nokukhohlisayo.

Wamangalela i-NYT ngokubika izibopho zakhe eMonsanto; icala lichithiwe 

NgoSepthemba 1, 2017, uDkt. Folta wafaka icala elibhekene neThe New York Times no-Eric Lipton, intatheli eyanqoba kathathu ngomklomelo wePulitzer Prize, bethi bayamhlambalaza Indatshana yekhasi langaphambili lika-2015 lokho kuchaze ukuthi iMonsanto ibhalise kanjani izifundiswa eziphikisana nokubhalwa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Icala likaDkt Folta lachithwa ngoFebhuwari 27, 2019. Ijaji likahulumeni lavumela ukuthi abamangalelwa bafake isicelo isahlulelo sokugcina sokufingqa.

Imibhalo yecala:
Isikhalazo esichitshiyelwe (10 / 5 / 2017)
NYT ukunyakaza (10 / 19 / 2017)
Ijaji likahulumeni waphika iziphakamiso zikaDkt Folta zokuphoqelela ukutholakala, ukubiza ezinye zalezi zicelo ngokuthi "ziwubuphukuphuku impela" futhi "ziyahlekisa" (5/11/2018)
NYT futhi Eric Lipton isiphakamiso sesifinyezo sokugcina (7 / 25 / 18)
Kuchitshiyelwe uDkt Folta ukuphikisana nesiphakamiso sokwahlulela okufingqiwe (8 / 16 / 18)
I-oda lokunikezwa kwesicelo sabamangalelwa sokuthi isahlulelo sokugcina sokufingqa (2 / 27 / 19)
UDkt Folta wathuthela ku lichithe icala futhi lachithwa (4 / 9 / 2019)

Icala likaDkt. Folta lathi abamangalelwa “babemchaza kabi njengomuntu okhokhelwa ngokufihliwe njengenye yezinkampani ezinkulu nezinempikiswano enkulu eMelika, iMonsanto,” nokuthi bakwenza lokho ukuze “baqhubekisele phambili uhlelo lwabo 'lwe-GMO'." Ngokusho kwecala likaDkt. Folta, uLipton “ucishe wazithulisa yedwa umphakathi wesayensi ekufundiseni ososayensi indlela yokukhulumisana.”

Icala lathi uDkt Folta “akakaze asithole” “isibonelelo esingavinjelwe” esivela eMonsanto nokuthi “akakaze athole noma yiluphi uhlobo lwesibonelelo, futhi akakaze athole ukwesekwa kokuthi 'ahambele izwe lonke futhi avikele ukudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo.'” Nokho , imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto inikeze uDkt Folta, emazwini abo, "Isibonelelo esingavinjelwe esilinganiselwa ku- $ 25,000 esingasetshenziswa ngokubona kwakho ukusekela ucwaningo lwakho namaphrojekthi wokufinyelela."

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto unikele ngemali ephendula a Isiphakamiso samakhasi ayi-9 kuDkt. Folta, lapho acela khona uMonsanto amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-25,000 ukuze axhase “isixazululo sakhe esinezitezi ezintathu” 'enkingeni yokuxhumana nge-biotech.' Imisebenzi ehlongozwayo ibandakanya ukuhamba inyanga nenyanga iye eyunivesithi enkulu yasekhaya ukuyokwazisa ngama-GMO. Le mali yanikelwa ebhange lokudla ngemuva kokuthi amadokhumende esewonke emphakathini.

Isibonelo sikaFolta exoxa / evikela umkhiqizo womkhakha (iMonsanto's Roundup)

Icala likaDkt Folta libuye lathi (iphuzu 67), “UDkt. UFolta akakhulumi nganoma iyiphi imikhiqizo yomkhakha, ufundisa kabanzi ngobuchwepheshe. ” Kodwa-ke ufakazele ukuphepha okucatshangwa ukuthi yi-Monsanto's RoundUp, waze wafika ekuphuzeni lo mkhiqizo "ukukhombisa ukungabi nabungozi." Unakho uthe futhi "uzophinda futhi."

Phakathi ku Septhemba 29, 2015 imeyili, UJanine Sikes, Iphini Likamongameli Womsizi Wezindaba Zomphakathi e-University of Florida, ubhalele uzakwabo ngendaba kaLipton ye-NYT: “ngerekhodi ebengicabanga ukuthi le ndaba ilungile.”

Izingcaphuno ezivela empendulweni ye-NYT no-Eric Lipton ecaleni likaFolta, kusuka ngoJulayi 2018 isiphakamiso sesifinyezo sokugcina:

UMnu Lipton uthembele ekuxhumaneni noMmangali nge-imeyili, okunikezwe yena yi-UF ukuphendula isicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. Yize kungenzeka ukuthi uMmangali, usosayensi ozichazayo “osesidlangalaleni”, angavele angafuni ukuthi izinhlangano zakhe nezimboni ezinkulu njengeMonsanto zihlolwe, ukubika okunembile ngamarekhodi abhala lezo zinhlangano ngeke kube yisisekelo secala lokwehliswa isithunzi. (Ikhasi 1)

Phakathi kokunye, amarekhodi e-UF (kaFolta) abhalwe: imikhiqizo yezimboni; (1) Ukufakaza kommangali phambi kwezinhlangano zikahulumeni ngokuvumelana nezinqubomgomo ezisekela i-GMO; (25,000) Ukusebenzisana kommangali nezimboni, kufaka phakathi ukuxhumana okuningi kwe-imeyili nabamele imboni behlinzeka ngemicabango yakhe mayelana neqhinga lokunxenxa nokuchaza imizamo yakhe yokuxhumana nesayensi ye-GMO emphakathini; (2) okuthunyelwe kwakhe kweGMOAnswers, iwebhusayithi exhaswa yimboni; kanye (3) nezindleko zokuhamba ezikhokhelwa imboni, kufaka phakathi izindleko ezihlobene nohambo lwakhe lokuya endlunkulu yeMonsanto. (Ikhasi 4)

Akumangalelwanga ukuhlangana neMonsanto ngenkathi isebenzisana neMonsanto  

UDkt Folta washo kaninginingi ukuthi wayengaxhumananga neMonsanto. Nokho ama-imeyili abikiwe yiThe New York Times yasungula ukuthi wayexhumana njalo noMonsanto kanye nobudlelwano babo nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukusebenzisana emisebenzini yokukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto nababambisene nabo basungule amathuba emidiya kanye nemisebenzi yokunxenxa uDkt Folta futhi basebenza naye ekuthumeleni imiyalezo. Ngo-Agasti 2014, uMonsanto wazisa uDkt Folta ukuthi uzothola ama- $ 25,000 ukuqhuba imisebenzi yakhe yokukhangisa. Ukuhwebelana kwe-imeyili kusikisela ukusebenzisana okusondele:

  • NgoJulayi 2014, Isikhulu seMonsanto sancoma isiphakamiso sikaDkt Folta sesibonelelo futhi sacela abanye abaphathi abane beMonsanto ukuthi banikeze impendulo ukuze bayithuthukise. Ubhale wathi, “Lokhu kuhle kakhulu 3rd-party ndlela yokwakha ukumela esibheke ukukuthuthukisa. ”
  • Ngo-Agasti 2014, UDkt. Folta uphendule incwadi yokwamukelwa kwesibonelelo sakhe, "Ngiyabonga ngaleli thuba futhi ngithembisa ukubuya okuqinile kutshalomali."
  • Ngo-Okthoba 2014, UDkt. Folta wabhalela isikhulu seMonsanto, “Ngiyajabula ukusayina noma yini oyithandayo, noma ukubhala noma yini oyithandayo.”

Ngemuva nje kwamasonto kwenziwe imininingwane yesibonelelo, ngo-Agasti 2014, uDkt Folta wagomela ukuthiakukho ukuxhumana okusemthethweni siye eMonsanto. ” Ubuye wathi yena akazange athole “ucwaningo noma uxhaso lomuntu siqu”Kusuka ku-“ Big Ag, ”yayine-“azikho izibopho zezezimali kunoma yiziphi izinkampani ze-Big Ag ezenza izitshalo ezishintshayo, kufaka phakathi iMonsanto, "futhi"lutho ukwenza INYANGA. ”

Uxhaso lweBayer

Ukuvuselelwa kwe-9/18: UDkt Folta inkontileka nenkampani yabameli iClifford Chance emele iBayer AG ukukhonza umxhumanisi ekulalelweni kokulamula ngesilinganiso sama- $ 600 ngehora kuze kufinyelele emahoreni ayi-120. Leyo mibhalo zenziwe zaziwa ngu IBiofortified, Inc., iqembu lokwenyusa le-GMO lelo ithe inqamule ubudlelwano noDkt Folta ngokwehluleka kwakhe ukudalula ngokugcwele ukungqubuzana okungaba khona kwenzalo.

Ukuvuselelwa kwe-11/17: UDkt Folta wathola futhi kudalulwe ukwamukelwa izimali zocwaningo ezivela kwaBayer AG (okusemkhankasweni wokuthola iMonsanto). Ngokuya nge- idokhumende itholakele yi-US Right to Know nge-FOIA, uBayer wathumela incwadi yomklomelo kuDkt Folta ngoMeyi 23, 2017 ngomxhaso wama-Euro angama-50,000 58,000 (cishe amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-XNUMX), ngesiphakamiso sakhe mayelana ne “New Herbicide Chemistries Discovered in Functional Randomness.”

Okuhlongozwayo ukufihla imali yeMonsanto ekuhlolweni komphakathi

"Imali engiyisebenzisayo isobala," kusho uDkt. Folta wabhala kubhulogi yakhe, kepha eyakhe isiphakamiso seMonsanto ukuxhasa imisebenzi yakhe yokuphromotha ye-GMO ephethwe ngesigaba eseluleka iMonsanto ukuthi inganikela kanjani ngemali ukugwema ukudalulwa komphakathi:

“Uma ixhaswe ngqo kulolu hlelo njengomnikelo we-SHARE (okuyimali eyisisekelo engavinjelwe) ayikho ngaphansi kwe-IDC futhi ayikho kwi-akhawunti 'yezinxushunxushu'. Ngamanye amagama, iminikelo yokwabelana ayaziwa emphakathini. Lokhu kuqeda ukukhathazeka okungenzeka kwenhlangano exhasayo ethonya umyalezo. ”

IMonsanto ithumele umnikelo wama- $ 25,000 njenge- imali engavinjelwe kaDkt Folta.

Wavumela inkampani ye-PR yemboni ukuthi imbhalele i-ghost, wayiphika

Indaba ka-Agasti 2015 ku Ngaphakathi ne-Higher Ed uchaze izinsolo zokuthi inkampani ye-PR yezimboni zezolimo, uKetchum, unikeze uDkt Folta "izimpendulo ezisemathinini emibuzweni mayelana nama-GMO" ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi wemboni yezolimo iwebhusayithi, Izimpendulo ze-GMO.

UDkt Folta uphikile ukuthi usebenzisa umbhalo obhaliwe, ngokusho kwendaba:

"Mayelana nezimpendulo ezisemathinini, uthe 'wacasuka' ngesikhathi ezithola futhi akazange azisebenzise.”

UDkt Folta kamuva wavuma ukuthi usebenzisa umbhalo obhaliwe. I- I-New York Times ibike ngo-Septhemba 2015:

“Kodwa uKetchum wenze okungaphezulu kokunikeza imibuzo (yezimpendulo zeGMO). Izikhathi eziningana, yanikeza noDkt. Folta izimpendulo ezibhaliwe, wabe esesebenzisa amazwi nezwi, okuyisinyathelo manje athi kwaba yiphutha. ”

Ngo-Okthoba 2015 Indaba yeBuzzFeed, UDkt. Folta usithethelele isinqumo sakhe sokusebenzisa umbhalo kaKetchum obhalwe njengesipoki:

"Banginikeza izimpendulo ezinhle ngokwedlulele ezazibonakala," kusho uFolta kimi. “Ngigcwele umsebenzi. Mhlawumbe beyivila, kepha angazi ukuthi ibivila. Uma othile ethi, 'Sikucabangile ngalokhu futhi nakhu esinakho' - kunabantu abasebenza ezifundweni ezinababhali bezinkulumo abathatha amagama abanye abantu bawaveze njengawabo. Kulungile."

Kuthunyelwe imininingwane engamanga mayelana nokuxhaswa kwemali embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane e-University of Florida

Ngo-Okthoba 2014, uDkt Folta wabhala imininingwane enganembile ngemali yakhe eyunivesithi ngezimpendulo ze-GMO. Lapho bebuzwa, “Izinkampani ze-biotech zinikele malini eMnyangweni Wezesayensi Yezolimo, eNyuvesi yaseFlorida?” UDkt Folta uphendule wathi:

“Kuneminikelo engu-zero. ' Okungenani phakathi neminyaka emihlanu edlule (konke engikubhekile), azikho ngisho izibonelelo noma izivumelwano zocwaningo phakathi koMnyango Wezesayensi Yezolimo eUF kanye nanoma iyiphi inkampani ethengisa imbewu ye-biotech…

Eminyakeni emihlanu edlule, e iyunivesithi yonke, kwakukhona inani lama- $ 21,000 kwizibonelelo zikaMonsanto kwilungu elilodwa le-faculty ku-panhandle elifunda ukhula. Yilokho eyunivesithi yonke. Amarekhodi ethu asesidlangalaleni, ngakho-ke noma ngubani ubengaluthola lolu lwazi. ”

Eqinisweni, izinkampani ze-biotech zinikele ngaphezu kwe- $ 12 million ku-University of Florida ngonyaka wezimali u-2013/2014 kuphela, ngokusho kwemibhalo ye-University of Florida Foundation ithunyelwe ngu-NYT. IMonsanto yafakwa ohlwini njengomnikeli we "Gold" ngalowo nyaka, okusho ukuthi inkampani yanikela okungenani ama- $ 1 million. USyngenta ubengumnikeli “weDayimane” nge- “Cumulative Giving of $ 10 Million +” kanti iBASF inikele okungenani ngama- $ 1 million kwathi iPioneer Hi-Bred yanikela okungenani ama- $ 100,000.

IYunivesithi yaseFlorida 'inesimo' kuma-GMO 'esivumelana' neMonsanto, kanti uDkt Folta uphethe ukuyikhuthaza  

Abaholi baseNyuvesi yaseFlorida bakholelwa ukuthi kuyindima eyunivesithi ukufundisa uquqaba ngama-GMO futhi babelana “ngokuma” noMonsanto, ngokusho kwe-imeyili etholwe uphenyo lwe-US Right to Know.

UDavid Clark, uprofesa we-horticultural biotechnology & genetics kanye nomqondisi we-University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Plant Innovation Program (UF / IFAS), wabhalela isikhulu seMonsanto uRobb Fraley ngoJulayi 21, 2014:

“Bengicabanga ukuthi inkulumo yakho ibihle kakhulu futhi ifike ngesikhathi kakhulu emphakathini wethu, futhi iyahambisana nesimo esisithatha kumaGMO eNyuvesi yaseFlorida. Futhi, ngiyabonga ngokuthatha imizuzu embalwa ukuxoxa nami ngemuva kwalokho mayelana nokuthi kufanele ngabe sifundisa kanjani ama-80% wabathengi abazi kancane kakhulu ngobuchwepheshe.

Ngemva kokubuyela eGainesville, ngaxhumana noDkt. UKevin Folta noJack Payne mayelana nengxoxo yethu. UKevin ungumkhulumeli wethu oholayo e-UF esihlokweni se-GMO futhi uthathe icala lokwenza lokho esikhulume ngakho - ukufundisa uquqaba. UJack uyi-VP yethu enkulu ye-IFAS, futhi ngesonto eledlule ukhiphe ividiyo ekhombisa ukuthi iUF / IFAS imi kuphi ngodaba lwe-GMO: http://www.floridatrend.com/article/17361/jack-payne-of-uf-on-gmos-and-climate-change Bobabili bazimisele kakhulu ngalolu daba, futhi ngokubambisana baqinisa imizamo yabo yokusabalalisa igama elihle. ”

Kule vidiyo, uDkt. Payne uthi, “asikho isayensi esivumelana nalaba bantu abesaba ama-GMO.” Eqinisweni, ososayensi nezifundo eziningi baye bakwenza ukuphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nama-GMO.

Ibambisene namaqembu angaphambi kokungathembeki emicimbini yemijikelezo ye-Biotech Literacy exhaswa ngezimali e-UF nase-UC Davis

A Ingqungquthela kaJuni 2014 ukukhuthaza ama-GMO abizwa nge- “Ikamu Le-Boot Biotech Literacy Project”Ikhokhiswe njengobambiswano phakathi kweYunivesithi yaseFlorida, i Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, amaqembu amabili angaphambili asebenza neMonsanto ukukhuthaza imikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo nokuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni. Lawo maqembu womabili atshele ososayensi nezintatheli - ngokunganembile - ukuthi imicimbi ixhaswe yinhlanganisela kahulumeni, izifundiswa kanye nezimboni.

Ngo-2015, intatheli uBrooke Borel kubika kuSayensi Edumile:

“Ingqungquthela okukhulunywa ngayo yabizwa ngeBiotech Literacy Project Boot Camp. Ngamenywa ukuba ngibe khona futhi ngizokhuluma kwamanye amaphaneli, yize bekungakacaci ekuqaleni ukuthi lokho kuzobandakanya ini. Nganikezwa isizumbulu sama- $ 2,000, kanye nezindleko. Ngabhala ngabuza ukuthi ngubani ozohlinzeka ngalesi sikhundla futhi ngatshelwa ukuthi kuzohlanganiswa imali evela ku-UC Davis, i-USDA, imali yombuso kanye neBiotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO). ”

Phakathi ku 2016 imeyili kososayensi, uBruce Chassy we-Academics Review wathi imboni "ibingumxhasi ongaqondile" weBiotech Literacy Project Boot Camps:

“I-bootcamp yezinsuku ezintathu ibiza kakhulu ngoba sikhokhela wonke umuntu indawo yokulala nezindawo zokuhlala kanye ne-honaria. Ababambe iqhaza bathole ama- $ 3 nabethuli okungafika ku- $ 250 (izintatheli azibizi)… Ngidinga ukucacisa ngaphambili ukuthi ukwesekwa kwethu kuvela ku-BIO, USDA, state-USAID kanye nemali eyisisekelo, ngakho-ke imboni ayixhasi ngokungaqondile. Siphumele obala ngo-2,500% mayelana noxhaso. ”

Kodwa-ke, labo hulumeni kanye nemithombo yezemfundo bakuphikile ukuthi banikela ngezimali kwiBiotech Literacy Project Boot Camps, ngokusho kombiko kaPaul Thacker I-Progressive. UThacker wabhala, “okuwukuphela komthombo wemali olandelanayo imboni ye-biotech.”

Kokubili i-Academics Review and Genetic Literacy Project inomlando wokudukisa umphakathi ngezimali zawo nangemisebenzi yabo yokuvikela imboni yezolimo.

  • Ukubuyekezwa kwe-Academics kuye kwabanga kaningi njengeqembu elizimele, kepha ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know embule ukuthi i-Academics Review yamiswa njengeqembu eliphambili ngosizo lweMonsanto, ngenkathi "igcina iMonsanto ngemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi."
  • Inothi elithi "Ukusobala ngokwezezimali" kwiwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project lithi ezinganembile, izinguquko kaningi futhi kwesinye isikhathi iziphikisile. Umqondisi we-GLP uJon Entine une ubuhlobo obuningi obuseduze neMonsanto.

UDkt Folta uphinde wahlela lokho akubiza ngokuthi “usuku lwe-biotechnology literacy kanye nezokuxhumana”Ukukhuthaza ama-GMO eNyuvesi yaseFlorida ngo-2015. Izipikha zifaka osolwazi be-UF, isisebenzi saseMonsanto uVance Crowe, abamele amaqembu amabili ahambelana nomkhakha wezolimo (i Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla futhi Kwenziwe kabusha), Futhi UTamar Haspel, umlobeli wephephabhuku lokudla weWashington Post.

UDkt Folta uchaze izinhlelo zakhe ku Isiphakamiso wasithumela eMonsanto efuna ukuxhaswa ngezimali emicimbini ayichaze “njengesixazululo senkinga yezokuxhumana nge-biotech” esivela “ekulawuleni umbono womphakathi” kanye “nokuqinisa kwabo imizamo yokufaka ilebula yokudla ngokungadingekile.” Kuma-imeyili wathumela eHaspel, UDkt. Folta uthe izethameli zomcimbi "we-biotechnology literacy" kuzoba "ososayensi, odokotela kanye nabanye ochwepheshe okudingeka bafunde ukukhuluma nomphakathi."

Uchaze ukunyakaza kokudla "njengeqembu labashokobezi"

UDkt Folta ubhalele phambili incwadi yango-2015 ebizwa ngokuthi “Fear Babe: Shattering Vani Hari's Glass House.” Umphambili uchaza ukunyakaza kokudla njengeqembu lamaphekula, uFolta aqamba igama elithi “Al Quesadilla”:

“U-Al Quesadilla ungumbonisi oqokelwe eqenjini lamaphekula lanamhlanje eliphakeme futhi elixhaswe ngezimali elifungile ukusebenzisa ukwesaba ukuphoqa izinguquko kwezepolitiki ezungeze ukudla. I-Al Quesadilla inomsebenzi ophakathi nendawo - ukuphoqelela izinkolelo zabo mayelana nokudla nokukhiqizwa kokudla emphakathini obanzi. Izinkolelo zabo ngokwemvelo zenkolo. Zisuka enhliziyweni ngokujulile futhi zangaphakathi. Izinkolelo zabo zisekelwe ekuchazelweni kahle kwemvelo, ukungathembi amasiko ezinkampani nokungabaza isayensi yanamuhla…

I-Al Quesadilla yiqembu lamaphekula eligugile nelinyonyobayo. Njengabo bonke amaphekula, bafeza izinhloso zabo ngokusebenzisa ukwesaba nokuphoqelela. Bahlela iziteleka ngokucophelela emigomeni esengozini - abathengi baseMelika… ”

Incwadi, eshicilelwe ngu ISenapath Press, yabhalwa nguMark Alsip, i-blogger ye-Bad Science Debunked, uMarc Draco, "ilunga elingumakadebona" ​​ekhasini le-Facebook Livinjelwe yi-Food Babe, noKavin Senapathy, ongumnikeli weForbes owayenezindatshana zakhe eziningana isuswe yiForbes.

Incwadi ikhuthaza ama-GMO, ibanga i-MSG kanye i-aspartame “azinabungozi” futhi zithi zichaza “amaqiniso abangela ukwesatshiswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane.”

Inkulumo-ze ye-pesticide

UDkt Folta ukuchitha ukukhathazeka ngokuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngezimangalo ze-propaganda, hhayi isayensi. Isibonelo, wenza futhi wehluleka ukulungisa isivakashi sakhe ngezitatimende eziningi ezesabekayo mayelana nokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane kulo 2015 i-podcast interview no-Yvette d'Entremont, i- “SciBabe.” UFolta uthi:

  • Uma othile ekhathazekile ngokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane, “mbuze ukuthi unazo yini izimpawu zobuthi bezibulala-zinambuzane. Ngaphandle kokuthi babe nezimpawu zobuthi bezibulala-zinambuzane, cishe akukho okumele ukhathazeke ngakho. ”
  • "Ingozi yakho kunoma yiluphi uhlobo, ikakhulukazi, ukuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kungenzeka ukuthi iphakathi nendawo ngokuphindwe izikhathi eziyizi-10,000 XNUMX nesigidi kunengozi yemoto."

Amaqhinga okuxhumana akhohlisayo

Esinye isibonelo sokuxhumana okulahlekisayo okuhlobene noDkt Folta sibhalwe ku-2015 Indaba yeBuzzFeed nguBrooke Borel. Indaba ilandisa ngokutholwa kukaBorel ukuthi uDkt Folta wasebenzisa umazisi ongamanga ukuxoxa nososayensi kanye naye uqobo kwi-podcast ebizwa nge- "The Vern Blazek Science Power Hour."

Ukuqhubeka nokufunda:

New York Times, "I-Food Industry Yabhalisa Izifundiswa ku-GMO Lobbying War, Ama-imeyili Show," ngu-Eric Lipton (9/6/2015)

Ama-imeyili athunyelwe ngu I-New York Times

I-Progressive, "Flacking for GMOs: How the Biotech Industry Plantts Positive Media," nguPaul Thacker (7/21/2017)

Huffington Post, "Uthando Olungapheli lukaKeith Kloor ngama-GMO," nguPaul Thacker (7/19/2017)

Izindaba Zomhlaba Wonke, "Imibhalo Idalula I-Canadian Teenager Target ye-GMO Lobby," ngu-Allison Vuchnich (12/22/2015)

Imvelo Biotechnology, "Ukumela Ukubonakala," nguStacy Malkan (1/2016)

Umama uJones, "Lawa ma-imeyili akhombisa uMonsanto encike koSolwazi ekulweni impi ye-GMO," nguTom Philpott (10/2/2015)

I-BuzzFeed, "Imbewu Money: Ukuvuma kweGMO Defender," nguBrooke Borel (10/19/2015)

USRTK Umbiko Omfushane, "Izintatheli zehlulekile ukudalula uxhaso lwemithombo ezivela eMonsanto"

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi, "AbaPuppetmasters base-Academia (noma Lokho okususwe yi-NYT)," nguJonathan Latham (9/8/2015)

USRTK incwadi eya kuDkt Folta mayelana nezicelo zethu ze-FOIA

Ifilimu ye-Food Evolution GMO Ikhonza I-Ajenda Yezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kubuyekezwe ngezibuyekezo ze-Food Evolution: 

NguStacy Malkan, 6/19/2017 

Eminye imizamo yokuthumela imiyalezo embonini inzima kakhulu bagcina beqhakambisa amaqhinga abo we-PR ukwedlula umyalezo abazama ukuwudlulisa. Leyo yinkinga nge Ukuvela Kokudla, idokhumentari entsha yomqondisi oqokwe yi-Academy Award uScott Hamilton Kennedy futhi ilandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson.

Le filimu, evulwa emashashalazini ngoJuni 23, ithi inombono oqondile ngempikiswano mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kepha ngesethulo sayo esinefilosofi yesayensi nedatha, iphuma ibukeka njengecala lezincwadi lenkulumo-ze yenkampani embonini yezolimo kanye izitshalo zayo ze-GMO.

Ukuthi inhloso yefilimu okuhloswe ngayo ukuthi isebenze njengemoto ethuthela imiyalezo embonini akuyona imfihlo. Ukudla Evolution kwaba kuhlelwe ngo-2014 futhi ixhaswe yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu labahwebi, ukuqeda umzamo wokuthumela imiyalezo iminyaka eminingi.

I-IFT ixhaswe ngokwengxenye ngu izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla, kanye neqembu umongameli ngaleso sikhathi kwakunguJanet Collins, owayengumphathi weDuPont noMonsanto ngubani manje kuyasebenzela ICropLife America, inhlangano yokuhweba ngezibulala-zinambuzane. UMongameli Okhethiwe we-IFT USindi Stewart usebenzela iDuPont.

I-IFT ikhethe uKennedy ukuthi aqondise ifilimu, kodwa yena nomkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan bathi babenakho ukulawula ngokuphelele ifilimu abayichaza njengophenyo oluzimele ngokuphelele ngesihloko sama-GMO kubandakanya yonke imibono.

Ukwethembeka kwefilimu kunenkinga yokuzikhethela kwabo ukwamukela kuphela isayensi nososayensi abahambisana nabadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abazuza kuma-GMO kanye namakhemikhali asetshenziswa kuwo, kuyilapho benganaki isayensi nedatha engahambelani naleyo ajenda.

Ukwelashwa kweMonsanto Science

Isibonelo esisobala sokungathembeki kwesayensi kuFood Evolution yindlela ifilimu esebenza ngayo ne-glyphosate. Ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula isenhliziyweni yendaba ye-GMO, kusukela Ama-80-90% wezitshalo ze-GMO zenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-glyphosate.

IFood Evolution ibika ukuthi ukwanda kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate ngenxa yama-GMO akuyona inkinga, ngoba i-glyphosate iphephile. Imithombo emibili isungula lesi simangalo kwifilimu: umlimi uthi i-glyphosate "inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti, ”noRobb Fraley kaMonsanto - ephendula owesifazane ezilalelini ombuza ngesayensi exhumanisa i-glyphosate nezinkinga zokuzalwa nomdlavuza - umtshela ukuthi konke lokho kuyisayensi embi," yi-pseudoscience. "

Yonke isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-glyphosate "yi-pseudoscience," kusho uMonsanto.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngokukhathazeka kwe-carcinogenicity okugubuzele iMonsanto ku International isayensi ukukhwabanisa, noma abalimi abaningi Bamangalela iMonsanto esola ukuthi bathole umdlavuza ovela enkomishini ye-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngombiko wango-2015 wenhlangano yomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ebeka i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu, noma Isinqumo saseCalifornia ukufaka i-glyphosate ohlwini lweProp 65 lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza, noma izifundo ezibuyekezwa kontanga ezixhumene imiphumela engemihle yezempilo ukuze glyphosate futhi Roundup.

Esikhundleni sokubuka ubufakazi, i-Food Evolution inikeza ababukeli ukwelashwa okuphelele kwesayensi yeMonsanto: noma yisiphi isayensi esiphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo yezolimo kufanele zinganakwa, kuyilapho izifundo ezibeka leyo mikhiqizo ekukhanyeni okuwukuphela kwesayensi kufanele kuxoxwe ngakho.

Amazinga aphindwe kabili kuSayensi kanye nasekubonakaliseni izinto obala

Ukuphathwa ngokulinganayo kwezihloko zokuxoxwa ngemibono ehlukene bekuzosiza ukwethembeka kweFood Evolution. Esikhundleni salokho, ifilimu ipenda abagxeki be-GMO ebabonisa ngokungathembeki noma ukuzenzela inzuzo ngomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo, ngenkathi ishiya imininingwane ebalulekile ngemithombo yayo yezimboni.

Kwesinye isigcawu, umlingiswa ophambili wefilimu, uprofesa we-UC Davis u-Alison van Eenennaam, ukhulula ukuthi ukubonakala kwesiteji nomphathi weMonsanto empikiswaneni kungangcolisa igama lakhe lokuzimela. Ababukeli abakaze bafunde ukuthi wayejwayele sebenzela iMonsanto, noma ukuthi uphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi we-GE eziphakamisa intshisekelo yezezimali esihlokweni esiseduze.

Usosayensi we-Pro-industry Pamela Ronald, omunye umthombo oyinhloko wesayensi, uthola ukwelashwa kweqhawe ngaphandle kokusho lokho ezimbili zezifundo zakhe zihoxisiwe. Yize kunjalo ababukeli bashaywa ngesando ngezindaba zokuthi ucwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini - oluthola izinkinga zezinso nezicubu kumagundane afunzwa ummbila weGMO - "luhoxisiwe, lwahoxiswa, lwahoxiswa!"

Ifilimu ishiya iqiniso lokuthi isifundo bekuyi yaphinde yashicilelwa, futhi wahoxiswa endaweni yokuqala ngemuva kwesisebenzi sangaphambili seMonsanto uthathe isikhundla sokuhlela nephephabhuku lapho lashicilelwa khona ekuqaleni.

Ukulandisa kwe- “Africa Needs GMOs”

Kokunye ukulandisa okuphindwe kahle, iFood Evolution ithatha ababukeli ohambweni lomzwelo oluya ezweni elisathuthuka, nakwenye ithrekhi yemiyalezo yomkhakha oyintandokazi: kunokugxila ekutheni ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo busetshenziswa kanjani ohlelweni lwethu lokudla manje - ikakhulukazi ukudlulisa ukubekezelelana kwe-herbicide - kufanele gxila ekutheni ingasetshenziswa kanjani ngokuzayo.

Njengoba kunesikhathi esiningi se-air and tension eshubile, le filimu ihlola inkinga ye-banana wilt, isifo esibulala izitshalo eziyisisekelo e-Afrika, futhi iholela ababukeli ukuthi bakholelwe ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo buzosindisa isivuno, abalimi kanye nomphakathi.

Kungenzeka. Kepha ifilimu ayikunaki ukusho ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bomsindisi we-GE abukatholakali futhi kungenzeka bungasebenzi. Ngokusho kwephepha ku- Isitshalo se-Biotechnology Journal, ukumelana okuboniswa kulebhu kunamandla kepha kungahle kungahlali isikhathi eside ezindaweni ezivulekile.

Le filimu “iwukungathembeki okuyisisekelo.”

Okwamanje, isixazululo se-low-tech sisebenza kahle futhi kubukeka sengathi singasebenzisa imali ethile. Ngokusho kwephepha lika-2012 kwi Ijenali Yezentuthuko Nezomnotho Wezolimo, izikole zabalimi, ezisiza abalimi ukuthola ulwazi lwezandla ngamasu okuvimbela ukubola kwebhanana, kwaholela ekwehliseni amazinga okutheleleka nokubuyiswa kwezitshalo okuphezulu e-Uganda. Imiphumela yezikole zabalimi “iye yaphawuleka,” ngokwe-UN.

Isixazululo asidingi ukuthi kukhulunywe ngakho ku-Food Evolution.

"Ngokuyisisekelo ukungathembeki kwefilimu ukuthola isisombululo se-GE esingahle singasebenzi, njengoba ososayensi uqobo bevuma," kusho uMichael Hansen, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, "ngenkathi ehluleka ukukhomba enye indlela yokulawula inkinga esebenza kakhulu kahle, kepha akubandakanyi ukuthengisa umkhiqizo ukuze wenze imali. ”

Ngabe iMonsanto yayihlangene ne-Food Evolution?

IMonsanto nabalingani bayo bebekhuluma ngezinhlelo zedokhumentari ngasekupheleni kuka-2013, ngokusho kuka ama-imeyili atholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ama-imeyili awanabo ubufakazi obuxhumanisa lezo zingxoxo ne-Food Evolution, kepha basungula isifiso sikaMonsanto ngefilimu esizwakala sifana kakhulu naleso esidalwe nguKennedy.

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto yabhala ngoDisemba 2013 eqenjini labeluleki be-PR, “kusobala ukuthi intshisekelo enkulu yokulandela ifilimu eliyi-documentary. Okubaluleke kakhulu, ukuvumelana ngukuthi ukubamba iqhaza kukaMonsanto kwamukelekile, ikakhulukazi esigabeni sokuhlela. ”

Wancoma ukubizwa kocingo lokuhlela lukaJanuwari 2014. UJon Entine we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project wakhuphuka wahola, futhi wathi "uthole isibambiso sakhe esingu- $ 100,000 kumuntu ongusomabhizinisi ozimele uma singathola" (wonke umugqa unqanyuliwe). I-Entine futhi inokuxhumana ne-Institute for Food Technologists; ukhulume ngo “ubushoshovu bokulwa nokudla”Emhlanganweni wonyaka we-IFT wango-2012.

Omunye umuntu okukhulunywe ngaye kuma-imeyili eMonsanto, UKarl Haro von Mogel - ngubani owayexoxile nge-Sachs "Ukwehla kwefilimu exhaswe yi-'Big 6 '” futhi kwaphakanyiswa ukuthi "okungabaluleke ngaphezu kwemali yabo ukubamba iqhaza kwabo" - kwaxoxwa nabo kuFood Evolution, futhi wabandakanyeka nasekuqopheni isigcawu esisodwa, esikisela abanye ekusithekeni ukuxhumana nabenzi bamafilimu.

Ephendula ama-imeyili, uKennedy ubhale on Twitter: “@Foodevomovie has had ZERO $ or INPUT from #Imonsanto. Sisobala ngokuphelele futhi sijabule 2 sinengxoxo esekelwe eqinisweni. ”

Uthe enkulumweni yakhe, "lokho kushintshaniswa kwama-imeyili bekungahlangene nakancane nephrojekthi yethu ...

Abantu ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili bebengabandakanyeki ekuqopheni nasekululekeni, usho kanjalo, kanti uKarl Haro von Mogel “ubeyisihloko kule filimu futhi ebengenaqhaza noma ithonya kunoma yiziphi izinqumo zokudala / zokuhlela ngale filimu nganoma yisiphi isikhathi embonisweni . Futhi kungasiza ukuveza ukuthi ingxoxo ye-imeyili obhekise kuyo yenzeka kudala singakaze sazi uKarl noma omunye walaba bantu. ”

Sneak Peek Behind the Scene

Okunye ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili okutholwe yi-US Right to Know inikeza ukubonwa ngemuva kwezigcawu ekuthuthukisweni kokulandisa ku-Food Evolution. Ukushintshisana kubonisa ukufuna kukaKennedy izibonelo azofaka “thina / izwe elisathuthuka sidinga i-GMO.”

“Noma yimuphi omunye umhlaba 'wethu / osathuthuka udinga i-GMO' unganginika amagama eceleni kwamawolintshi? Ulethisi weShintakus? ” Kubuza uKennedy. Umkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan uphendule ngohlu lwemikhiqizo ye-GMO kubandakanya irayisi elibekezelela isomiso, amakinati angenalo igciwane, amazambane angenayo i-carcinogen… “bese ufaka inkinobho yeGolden Rice.”

Ngenkathi uKennedy efuna "izitshalo eziphezulu ze-GMO ezisetshenziswayo njengamanje, nokuthi imaphi amazwe," uMark Lynas we ICornell Alliance yeSayensi ubhale wathi, "Ngempela iBt brinjal eBangladesh iyona kuphela eyi-GMO futhi esebenza kabanzi."

Ukubikwa kwefilimu okuqhutshwa ifreyimu kuyishaya indiva leyo mininingwane ngokungabi bikho kwezixazululo ze-GMO ezisebenzayo, futhi akusho ukuthi isibonelo esisondelene kakhulu, i-Vitamin-A ethuthukisiwe yeGold Rice, namanje ayitholakali ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu neminyaka yokulingwa, ngoba akusebenzi kahle ensimini njengama-rice akhona manje.

Yini inkulumo-ze?

Esigcawini okufanele sidlulise ukwethembeka kwesayensi, iFood Evolution ikhanyisa uphawu lwe-American Council on Science and Health okwamanje uNeil deGrasse Tyson uthi kukhona ukuvumelana komhlaba wonke mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO. Isiliphu esifanelekayo. ASCH kuyinto iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi kuhambelana eduze neMonsanto.

Indawo ye-logo ye-ACSH nayo iyavela ngemuva kulokhu Isiqeshana semizuzu engu-2 kusuka enkulumweni yakamuva yeClimate One, njengoba uKennedy ephikisana nesiphakamiso sokuthi ifilimu yakhe iyinkulumo-ze.

“Sinquma kanjani ukuthi yini inkulumo-ze?” Kubuza uKennedy. “Ngithi enye yezindlela esikwenza ngayo (ukubuza), ingabe imiphumela iyacelwa, noma imiphumela ithenjisiwe? Angibuzwanga ngemiphumela futhi angithembisanga imiphumela. Uma unenkinga ngefilimu, inkinga ikimi. ”

Lokhu kubuyekezwa kwavela ekuqaleni Huffington Post futhi bekulokhu liphinde lanyatheliswa ku-Alternet. 

Bona futhi: I-athikili yokulandelela kaStacy Malkan, Abalandeli bakaNeil deGrasse Tyson Owes Ingxoxo Ethembekile Ngama-GMO kune-Food Evolution. "Ukuxoxisana nabanye abahlaziyi beGMO abambalwa abavela kule filimu, noma bacelwa ukuba babe kuyo, kufakazela isithombe senqubo engajwayelekile ebandakanya ukuqoshwa ngokunyenya, ukuhlelwa kokukhetha, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo nokungadalulwa mayelana nokuxhaswa kwefilimu."

Izigxivizo zeminwe zeMonsanto Zithole Konke Ukuhlaselwa Kokudla Okuphilayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Le ndatshana ivele okokuqala ku- Huffington Post.

NguStacy Malkan

Lapho inhlangano engenzi nzuzo enedumela elihle ikhipha umbiko ohlasela imboni yokudla yemvelo ngo-Ephreli 2014, leli qembu lenza konke okusemandleni alo ukuzimela.

Ikhasi le-30 umbiko by Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, echazwe “njengengenzi nzuzo eholwa ochwepheshe abazimele bezemfundo kwezolimo nakwezesayensi yokudla,” yathola ukuthi abathengi babekhohliswa ukuba basebenzise imali ethe xaxa yokudla okuphilayo ngenxa yemikhuba yokukhangisa ekhohlisayo eyenziwa imboni yezinto eziphilayo.

Izihloko ezisematheni ezentengiselwano zababaza: “Okungokwemvelo kuveziwe!” (Izindaba zeBrownfield) nokuthi “Imboni Engokwemvelo Iyakhula Ngabathengi Abakhohlisayo” (Izindaba Zokuphepha Kokudla), bethi okutholakele ngochwepheshe abazimele.

Lokhu okutholwe “kuvunyelwe yithimba lamazwe omhlaba lesayensi ezimele yezolimo, isayensi yokudla, ongoti bezomnotho nabezomthetho abavela ezikhungweni zomhlaba ezihlonishwayo,” ngokusho kweqembu isitatimende sephephandaba.

Uma ngabe iphuzu mayelana nenkululeko belingacacanga, ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kugcina ngalokhu: “Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundiswa akunakho ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okuhlobene nalolu shicilelo, nazo zonke izindleko ezihambisanayo ezikhokhelwe ukusebenzisa izimali zethu jikelele ngaphandle kokucaciswa okuthile ithonya noma isiqondiso somnikeli. ”

Okungazange kushiwo embikweni, ukukhishwa kwezindaba noma kuwebhusayithi: Abaphathi beMonsanto Co, umkhokheli ohola phambili emhlabeni wezolimo kanye nembewu eyenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanye nabalingani abakhulu beMonsanto, ababambe iqhaza ekuqoqeni isikhwama se-Academics Review, babambisana namasu waze waxoxa nangezinhlelo zokufihla uxhaso lwezimboni, ngokusho kwama-imeyili etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

Izinhloso zikaMonsanto ekuhlaseleni imboni yezinto eziphilayo zisobala: Imbewu namakhemikhali kaMonsanto anqatshelwe ukusetshenziswa kwezolimo, futhi ingxenye enkulu yemiyalezo kaMonsanto ukuthi imikhiqizo yayo iphakeme kunokwemvelo njengamathuluzi okukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kokudla komhlaba wonke.

Izifundiswa Phatha Umyalezo kaMonsanto 

I-Academics Review yasungulwa ngokubambisana "ngoprofesa ababili abazimele… emaphethelweni ohlangothi lweplanethi," uBruce Chassy, ​​Ph.D., uprofesa osafufusa e-University of Illinois, noDavid Tribe, Ph.D., umfundisi omkhulu e-University of Melbourne . Bona Faka isicelo iqembu "lamukela kuphela iminikelo engavinjelwe emithonjeni engeyona eyezinkampani."

Kodwa-ke ukuhwebelana ngama-imeyili okubili ngo-2010 kuveza izinhlelo zokuthola uxhaso lwezinkampani lwe-Academics Review ngenkathi kugcinwa iminwe yenkampani ifihliwe.

Ngo-Mashi 11, 2010 ukushintshana nge-imeyili noChassy, ​​uJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana eMonsanto manje osephethe i- I-PR kanye nefemu yocwaningo lwemakethe, wanikela ngokusebenza "njengemoto yezentengiso" ukusiza ukuthola uxhaso lwezinkampani lwe-Academics Review.

UChassy uxoxe ngentshisekelo yakhe yokuhlasela imboni ephilayo kuma-imeyili. "Ngingathanda ukuba negama eliphakeme phakathi kwe-aura engokwemvelo lapho ngizokwethula khona imicibisholo ye-ballistic…" ubhale wathi, "Ngiqinisekile anginayo imali."

U-Byrne uphendule wathi,

“Yebo, ngiphakamisa ukuthi sisebenzele imali (yethu sonke) kuqala futhi ngokushesha! Ngiphakamise uVal [Giddings, owayeyisekela likamongameli we-BIO, inhlangano yokuhweba embonini ye-biotech] ukuthi mina naye sihlangane ngenkathi ngise-DC ngesonto elizayo ukuze sikwazi (hhayi nge-imeyili) ukuthola isithombe esicacile sezinketho ngokuyisa iphrojekthi ye-Academic Review namanye amathuba. "Isikhungo Sokukhululeka Kwabathengi" (ActivistCash.com) singene ngalokhu ngokweqile. "

ICentre for Consumer Freedom iqondiswa nguRick Berman, ilobbyist obizwe “UDkt Evil"Futhi"inkosi yamaqembu angaphambili ezinkampani kanye nenkulumo-ze“Ngomsebenzi wakhe wokuqhakambisa imboni kagwayi nezinye izinto ezibandakanyeka ezinkampanini ngaphansi kwamaqembu angachemile.

"Ngicabanga ukuthi sinomqondo ongcono kakhulu," kusho uByrne etshela uChassy.

U-Byrne wabelana ngohlu lwamathuba ahlosiwe ngabantu, amaqembu kanye nokuqukethwe okugxeka ama-GMO kanye neMonsanto: UVandana Shiva, Andrew Kimbrell, Ronnie Cummins, Sierra Club, Greenpeace, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, incwadi kaMichael Pollan ethi “In Defense of Ukudla, ”ama-movie athi“ Food, Inc ”ne-“ The World According to Monsanto, ”kanye“ nesihloko esinqamula kuzo zonke izindawo ezinobungozi ze-ag-biotech (ngaphandle kokuwela / ukungcola, izinyosi, izimvemvane, ukuphepha kwabantu, njll.) . ”

"Bonke laba bantu, izinhlangano, izinto zokuqukethwe nezindawo zezihloko zisho imali yezinkampani ezahlukahlukene ezithende kahle, uByrne wabhala, enezela:

Bonke laba bantu, izinhlangano, izinto zokuqukethwe nezindawo zezihloko zisho imali yezinhlangano zezinkampani ezithende kahle.

“Ngikholwa wukuthi mina noVal singakhomba futhi sisebenze njengezimoto ezifanele (ezingezona ezemfundo) esingaxhuma ngazo lezi zinhlaka nomsebenzi ngephrojekthi ngendlela esiza ukuqinisekisa ukuthembeka nokuzimela (futhi ngaleyo ndlela kube nenani) labanikeli abakhulu / abanikazi… Ngikholwa ukuthi ikhabethe lethu lekhishi lapha lingasebenza njengabagcini bamasango (kwezinye izimo abathathi ntela) ukuze kutholakale izimpendulo ezisebenzayo, ezithembekile, ukugoma kanye nokwenza imisebenzi ngokusebenzisa leplatifomu yephrojekthi… ”

"Kuzwakala kukuhle kimi," kuphendula uChassy. “Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi uzongitshela ukuthi nixoxa ngani.”

Ku-an ukushintshana nge-imeyili noChassy yangomhla kaNovemba 30, 2010, u-Eric Sachs, ophethe ezobudlelwano nomphakathi eMonsanto, waxoxa ngokuthola ukwesekwa kwebhizinisi kwe-Academics Review ngenkathi "egcina iMonsanto ingemuva."

USachs ubhalele uChassy:

"Mina nawe sidinga ukukhuluma kabanzi ngesayithi kanye nomqondo" wokubuyekezwa kwezifundiswa ". Ngikholwa wukuthi kunendlela eya enqubweni ebingaphendula kangcono ekukhathazekeni nasezinsolweni zesayensi. Ngihlanganyele noVal izolo. Ngokombono wami inkinga ingenye yokubandakanyeka kochwepheshe futhi engaxazululwa ngokukhokha ochwepheshe ukuze banikeze izimpendulo. Mina nawe sixoxe ngalokhu esikhathini esedlule. UVal uchaze ukuthi igxathu lokuqala lisungula isimo esingu-501 (c) sesi-3 sokungenzi nzuzo ukwenza lula ukuqoqwa kwemali. Lokho kunengqondo kepha kukhona okuningi. Ngixoxile noJerry Steiner namuhla (Ithimba Elilawulayo leMonsanto) futhi ngingasiza ukukhuthaza i-CLI / BIO / CBI nezinye izinhlangano ukuthi zisekele. Ukhiye kuzoba ukugcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi. ”

Ukhiye uzobe ugcina iMonsanto ngemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi.

I-CLI / BIO / CBI ibhekisa emaqenjini amathathu okuhweba embonini - iCrop Life International, iBiotechnology Innovation Organisation kanye noMkhandlu Wezokwazisa ngeBiotechnology Information - amele izinhlangano zezolimo.

UChassy uphendule uSachs, “Yebo kufanele sikhulume nge-Academics Review. Ngicabanga ukuthi sisesigabeni esisodwa. ”

Lapho ebuzwa ngqo ngezimali, uChassy uphendule nge-imeyili wathi: “Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundiswa akuceli noma kwamukele izimali kunoma yimuphi umthombo wocwaningo oluthile noma eminye imisebenzi ehambisana nanoma yimiphi imikhiqizo, izinsizakalo noma imboni. Ukubuyekezwa kwe-Academics kwamukela kuphela iminikelo engavinjelwe evela emithonjeni engekho yezinkampani ukusekela umsebenzi wethu. ”

Uthe ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics kwahlanganisa futhi kwabikwa ukuthi akukho mali engenayo ngo-2012 futhi wahlinzeka ngama-IRS form 990s for 2013 futhi 2014 (manje nayo ithunyelwe kuwebhusayithi). Leyo mibhalo ibika u- $ 419,830 kumali engenayo kepha ayifaki lwazi ngabanikeli. UChassy akazange aphendule ezicelweni zokunikeza lolo lwazi.

Cindezela Amakhava Ukuhlasela "Okuzimele" ku-Organic

I-Academics Review yakhipha ucwaningo lwayo lwezinto eziphilayo ngo-Ephreli 2014 kumjikelezo oqinile wokushicilelwa kwabezindaba ochaza okutholwe "ngabaphenyi abazimele":

“Imboni Yokudla Engokwemvelo Ike Yabandakanyeka Embikweni Wokufaka Izimangalo 'Wezinkulungwane Eziningi Zomphakathi Wokukhishwa Kolwazi' (I-Navigator Yokudla)

• “Umbiko: Imboni Engokwemvelo Ithole Iminyaka Engama-25 Yokukhula Ngokushesha Ngokusebenzisa Ukwesaba Nokukhohlisa”Izindaba Zokuphepha Kokudla)

• “Icala Elibi Lokumakethwa Kokudla Okuphilayo” (I-Dairyma kaHoardn)

• "Ukusebenzisa Ukwesaba Njengecebo Lokuthengisa" (Izindaba Zebhizinisi Lokudla)

In the New York Post, UNaomi Schaffer Riley wakha icala elibhekene "nobushiqela be-organic mommy mafia" abakhohliswa amaqhinga wokumaketha angenabungozi embonini yezinto eziphilayo. Imithombo yakhe ibandakanya umbiko we-Academics Review noJulie Gunlock, umbhali wencwadi ekhuluma “ngesiko lokwesaba.”

URiley akazange asho ukuthi uGunlock, kanye noRiley uqobo, bobabili abadala abafo e-Independent Women Forum, iqembu uxhaswa kakhulu yi-Donors Trust, enayo ukuhlaselwa kwezinkampani okubhange ezinyunyaneni, ezikoleni zomphakathi kanye nososayensi bezulu.

In the I-Register ye-Des Moines, UJohn R. Block, owayengunobhala wezoLimo e-US manje osebenzela inkampani yabameli enxenxa izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo, ubike “ngombiko we-blockbuster” we-Academics Review nemiphumela yayo yokuthi imfihlo yemboni yezimboni eyimpumelelo “ukumaketha kwabantu abamnyama. ”

The iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi I-American Council on Science and Health, okuyi ithola uxhaso kusuka embonini yezolimo nalapho uChassy esebenza khona njengomeluleki wesayensi, ehlohla isihloko esithi "abamnyama abamaketha" kuma-athikili ngumongameli we-ACSH Hank campbell futhi UHenry I. Miller, MD, uzakwabo waseHoover Institute obesebenza njengesikhulumi ezikhangisweni ngomzamo wokubulala ilebula le-GMO eCalifornia, okwakunguMonsanto ohola imali.

Miller, onomlando omude wokwenza izimangalo zesayensi ezinganembile ukusekela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi, kusetshenziswe nombiko wokubuyekezwa kwezifundo njengomthombo wokuhlaselwa okungokwemvelo ku Newsweek futhi Buyekeza National, futhi wafuna ku Wall Street Journal ukuthi ukulima ngokwemvelo akusimeme.

Izindikimba ezifanayo zokulwa nemvelo zidlula kwezinye iziteshi ze-PR zezimboni zezolimo.

Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a iwebhusayithi yezokumaketha uxhaswe yizinkampani zeBig Six ze-agrichemical (futhi kuphi Chassy futhi Tribe zisebenza "njengochwepheshe abazimele"), zithuthukisa imibono yokuthi iyini imvelo akunampiloakukho okungcono ngemvelo futhi uhlelo lokumaketha nje - yize, ngokumangazayo, inkampani ye-PR eqhuba i-GMO Answers yethule iqembu elikhethekile eSan Francisco ukuzama imali emakethe yemvelo.

Ukuhamba Kwemali Kuya Esidlangalaleni; Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa Kuthula 

NgoMashi 2016, kubika uMonica Eng yeWBEZ kumadokhumende akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto ikhokhele uSolwazi Bruce Chassy imali engaphezu kwama- $ 57,000 esikhathini esiyizinyanga ezingama-23 ukuhamba, ukubhala nokukhuluma ngamaGMO - imali engazange ivezelwe umphakathi.

Ngokophenyo luka-Eng, le mali ibiyingxenye okungenani yama- $ 5.1 million emalini engadalulwanga iMonsanto ethunyelwe nge-University of Illinois Foundation kubasebenzi baseyunivesithi nasezinhlelweni phakathi kuka-2005 no-2015.

"UChassy akazange adalule ubudlelwano bakhe bezezimali neMonsanto kumafomu wombuso noma eyunivesithi okuhloswe ngawo ukuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo," kubika i-Eng.

“Imibhalo iqhubeka ikhombisa ukuthi uChassy kanye nenyuvesi bayalele iMonsanto ukuthi ifake leyo mali kwi-University of Illinois Foundation, okuwumgwamanda onamarekhodi avikelwe ekuhlolweni komphakathi. Isisekelo futhi sinamandla okuthatha imali yangasese bese siyikhiphela kumuntu 'njengeyunivesithi ekhokhelwayo' - engadalulwanga. ”

NgoJanuwari 2016, uCarey Gillam, umqondisi wezocwaningo wase-US Right to Know, kubikwe ngama-imeyili okukhombisa ukuthi amakhulu ezinkulungwane zamadola asegeleze esuka eMonsanto aya eNyuvesi yase-Illinois “njengoba uChassy ebambisene kumaphrojekthi amaningi neMonsanto ukulwisana nokukhathazeka komphakathi ngezitshalo ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs) - konke lokhu ngesikhathi ezimele njengesifundiswa esizimele sesikhungo somphakathi. ”

"Okutholayo lapho ufunda ngamaketanga e-imeyili amalungiselelo avumela abadlali bemboni ukuthi bahlanganise imiyalezo ye-pro-GMO ngaphakathi kweveli lobuchwepheshe obuzimele, futhi okuncane, uma kukhona, ukudalulwa esidlangalaleni kokuxhumana okwenzeka ngemuva," kubhala uGillam .

The okuthunyelwe kokugcina esizeni Sokubukeza Izifundo, sangomhla ka-Septhemba 2, 2015, yibhulogi kaChassy echaza ukuthi amanye ama-imeyili akhe azokwaziswa umphakathi ngenxa yezicelo ze-FOIA ze-US Right to Know, azibonakalisa njengokuhlaselwa eminyakeni engama-40 isayensi yomphakathi, ucwaningo nokufundisa.

Ukwesekwa kwezezimali okuvela emkhakheni ozimele ocwaningweni lomkhakha kahulumeni kanye nokufinyelela kubantu “kufanelekile, kuvamile futhi kuyadingeka ukufeza izidingo zomphakathi,” kubhala uChassy. "Ukwesekwa okunjalo kufanele, futhi kukho konke engikubonile, kube sobala futhi kwenziwe ngaphansi kweziqondiso zokuziphatha eziqinile zezikhungo zikahulumeni ezisizakala emikhakheni ezimele noma eminikelweni yomuntu ngamunye yezezimali."

Ezinsukwini ezintathu kamuva, amanye ama-imeyili kaChassy aqala ukwenziwa obala ekhasini lokuqala New York Times i-athikili yomlobi wezindaba ophumelele amahlandla amabili wePulitzer Prize u-Eric Lipton. ULipton ubike ukuthi uMonsanto wanikeza uChassy isibonelelo semali engadalulwanga ngo-2011 “yokwenza imisebenzi ye-biotechnology nemisebenzi yezemfundo.”

UChassy utshele uLipton ukuthi imali ayithola kuMonsanto "isize ekukhuphuleni izwi lakhe ngokuhamba, iwebhusayithi ayenzile nezinye izindlela."

Usathola I-Press njengoMthombo Ozimele 

Ngaphandle kokudalulwa kuma-imeyili nokudalulwa kwezibopho zezezimali zikaChassy eMonsanto, iwebhusayithi ye-Academics Review kanye nombiko wayo ohlasela imboni yezinto eziphilayo kusathunyelwe ku-inthanethi nazo zonke izincazelo ezithi zizimele.

Futhi uChassy usakujabulela ukusakazwa ngabezindaba njengochwepheshe "ozimele" kuma-GMO. NgoMeyi 2016, babili abahlukene Associated Press izindaba ucaphune uChassy ngaleso sihloko. Ayikho le ndaba eye yakhuluma ngokuxhumana kwezezimali kukaChassy nomphakathi manje neMonsanto.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu labathengi i-US Right to Know. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethole umklomelo, “Hhayi Ubuso nje Obuhle: I-Ugly Side ye-Beauty Industry” (New Society 2007). 

Kuyini Ukuqhubeka NgeGlyphosate? Ukuphathwa Okungajwayelekile Kwe-EPA Kwekhemikhali Ephikisanayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo kwe-Environmental Protection Agency kwe-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni sekuqala ukudala imibuzo eminingi kunezimpendulo. NgoMsombuluko, kuphinde kwavela "oops" abakhulu be-EPA.

NgoLwesihlanu, ngomhlaka-29 Ephreli, i-EPA yathumela kuwebhusayithi yayo uchungechunge lwamaphepha ahlobene nokuhlolwa kwayo okwakulindelwe isikhathi eside kwe-glyphosate, isithako esisebenzayo eMonsanto's Roundup herbicide neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni wonke. Ukuhlolwa kobungozi kuqale ngo-2009 futhi bekufanele kuphothulwe ngo-2015. Kodwa imibuzo yokuthi i-glyphosate ingawudala umdlavuza noma cha iyawubuyekeza lo msebenzi, futhi yehlise inqubo.

NgoMsombuluko, ngemuva kokuthi okuqukethwe yimibhalo kuqale ukudala imibuzo kwabezindaba, i-EPA yawafaka lawo madokhumende kwiwebhusayithi yayo:

Okhulumela i-ejensi uthe lokhu:

“Imibhalo yeGlyphosate yathunyelwa ngephutha edokodweni le-Agency. Le mibhalo manje seyisusiwe ngoba ukuhlolwa kwethu akukona okokugcina. I-EPA ayikakuqedi ukubuyekeza kwethu umdlavuza. Sizobheka umsebenzi wabanye ohulumeni kanye nomsebenzi owenziwa yi-HHS's Agricultural Health Study njengoba sithatha isinqumo se-glyphosate. Ukuhlola kwethu kuzobuyekezwa kontanga bese kuqedwa ngasekupheleni kuka-2016. ”

I-EPA ithe "isebenza ngezinto ezithile ezibalulekile zesayensi kwi-glyphosate, kufaka phakathi izinsalela zamakhemikhali obisi lwebele lomuntu;" "izigameko ezijulile zabantu kanye nokuhlolwa kwezifo ezithathelwanayo;" kanye nokuhlaziywa kokuqala kobuthi be-glyphosate ku-milkweed, isisetshenziswa esibucayi se-monarch butterfly.

Kungaziwa noma cha, enye yalezo zincwadi ezithunyelwe zabe sezihoxiswa kwakuyi-doozy, isando esisindayo esifuna ukudiliza izinkathazo mayelana nezibopho ze-glyphosate nomdlavuza. I-ejensi ikhiphe Imemorandamu yangaphakathi ye-EPA ka-Okthoba 1, 2015 kwikomidi layo lokuhlola umdlavuza (CARC) eliphikisayo okutholwe ngoMashi 2015 yiNhlangano Yezempilo Yomhlaba 's I-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ehlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu. I-EPA ithole ukuthi i-glyphosate “Akunakwenzeka ukuthi ibe yiCarcinogenic kubantu.”

Imemorandamu yathi ukuhlukaniswa kwabo kwakususelwa “ekucabangeni kwesisindo sobufakazi.”

I-CARC isho lokhu:

“Ubufakazi besifo ngalesi sikhathi abusekeli ubudlelwano obuyimbangela phakathi kokuvezwa yi-glyphosate kanye nezicubu eziqinile. Abukho futhi ubufakazi bokuxhasa ubudlelwano obuyimbangela phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kanye nezicubu ezingekho eziqinile ezilandelayo: i-leukemia, i-myeloma eminingi, noma i-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ubufakazi besifo ngalesi sikhathi abuhambelani ebudlelwaneni obuyisisekelo noma obucacile bokuhlangana phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-NHL. Izifundo eziningi zokulawulwa kwamacala kanye nesifundo esisodwa sabantu abazoba iqembu alitholanga nhlangano; kanti, imiphumela evela kwinani elincane lezifundo zokulawulwa kwamacala (ikakhulukazi eSweden) yaphakamisa inhlangano. ”

UMonsanto ubabaze futhi wathumela ku-twitter ukukhishwa kombhalo, okulandela ukukhishwa yi-EPA kwe imemorandamu ehlukile ukusekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate ngoJuni odlule. Isimemo esisha kunazo zonke sinikeza inkampani ubufakazi obungeziwe bokuzivikela ngokuqongelelwa kwamacala afakwe ngabasebenzi bezolimo nabanye abasola ukuthi i-Roundup herbicide kaMonsanto esekwe eglyphosate yabanikeza umdlavuza.

"Lesi yisikhundla esiphezulu se-EPA sokuphepha komkhiqizo — benza nomsebenzi omuhle wokuchaza wonke amaphutha e-IARC," kusho isikhulu seMonsanto Chief Technology Officer uRobb Fraley esitatimendeni esithunyelwe ku-twitter.

IMonsanto ibilokhu icele i-EPA ukuthi ivikele i-glyphosate ezinsolweni zomdlavuza selokhu kwaphuma isigaba se-IARC ngoMashi 2015. A Mashi 23, 2015 Intambo ye-imeyili ye-EPA ikhishwe njengengxenye yemininingwane yesicelo senkululeko yolwazi ngemizamo kaMonsanto yokwenza i-EPA "ilungise" irekhodi ku-glyphosate "njengoba kuhlobene nokubangwa komzimba."

Omunye umqulu osanda kukhishwa yi-EPA - okwabuye kwahoxiswa - ibonisa ukuthi kungani ukuhlolwa kobungozi be-EPA ngokuphepha kwezindaba ze-glyphosate kakhulu. Kumemorandamu yango-Okthoba 22, 2015, i-EPA ichaze kabanzi ukuthi i-glyphosate isetshenziswa kangakanani ezintweni zokudla.

Leyo memo ivuselela ukulinganiselwa kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate ezitshalweni ezifundeni eziphezulu zezolimo, futhi inikezela ngokulinganiselwa kokusetshenziswa konyaka okulinganiselwe kweminyaka eyishumi ka-2004-2013. Izitshalo ezingamashumi ayisikhombisa zisohlwini lwe-EPA, kusuka ku-alfabhethi kusuka ku-alfalfa nama-alimondi kuya kumakhabe nokolweni. IGlyphosate esetshenziswa emikhakheni yesoya, njalo ngonyaka, ikhonjwe kumakhilogremu ayizigidi ezingama-101.2; ngokusetshenziswa okuhlobene nommbila kumakhilogremu ayizigidi ezingama-63.5. Zombili lezo zilimo zenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngakho-ke zingafuthwa ngqo nge-glyphosate njengoba abalimi belapha amasimu okhula. Ukotini ne-canola, nakho okwakhiwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo ukuze kube nokubekezelela i-glyphosate, nakho kunezinombolo ezisetshenziswa kakhulu. Kepha ukusetshenziswa okuphawulekayo kwe-glyphosate kubonakala nangamawolintshi (3.2 million lbs); amabele (3 million lbs); ama-alimondi (ama-2.1 million lbs); amagilebhisi, (1.5 million lbs); ubhamubhamu nama-apula (ama-400,000 lbs ngamunye); nezinhlobonhlobo zezithelo, imifino namantongomane.

Ngaphandle - noma mhlawumbe ngenxa - yokubambezeleka kokukhishwa kokuhlolwa kokugcina kokulawulwa kobungozi ku-glyphosate, imibuzo mayelana nomthelela wekhemikhali empilweni yomuntu nasemvelweni ibilokhu ikhula. Ngaphezu kwamacala athi i-glyphosate idale umdlavuza kubasebenzi basemapulazini nakwabanye, amaqembu azimele agijimisana nokuhlola imikhiqizo yokudla enhlobonhlobo yezinsalela ze-glyphosate.

Ngolwesihlanu icala ngokushintshwa okusha kokukhathazeka nge-glyphosate kwafakwa eNkantolo Yesifunda yase-US eSan Francisco. Leyo suti, efuna isimo sesigaba, ithi izinsalela ze-glyphosate ezitholakala eQuaker Oats zivala izimangalo zeQuaker Oats Co zokuthi umkhiqizo wayo ungokwemvelo ngokuphelele. "IGlyphosate i-biocide yokwenziwa futhi ingadala umdlavuza womuntu, enezingozi ezengeziwe zezempilo ezaziwa ngokushesha," kusho icala. "Uma umkhiqizo uthi 'Uyi-100% Yemvelo,' abathengi abagcini ngokuvuma ukukhokha imali ethe xaxa ngalo mkhiqizo, balindela ukuthi ungabi nazo izibulala-zinambuzane,” kusho icala.

Imibuzo nge-glyphosate seyande kakhulu kangangoba uMmeli wase-US u-Ted Lieu ubhalele izikhulu ze-EPA incwadi ngoDisemba ecela ososayensi be-EPA ukuthi bahlangane neqembu lososayensi abazimele ukuthi babheke "imininingwane ehluphayo" ephathelene ne-glyphosate. U-Lieu ubalule ukukhathazeka kokuthi i-EPA incike kwimininingwane esekelwa yi-Monsanto kunocwaningo oluzimele, olubuyekezwa ngontanga ekuhloleni i-glyphosate. Imithombo esondelene nalesi simo ithi kuhlelwe ukuthi umhlangano ube ngoJuni 14, yize bobabili ihhovisi le-EPA kanye noLieu benqabile ukuphawula.

Ukukhuthala kwe-EPA ekumbeni imibuzo nokukhathazeka kwe-glyphosate kuyakhuthaza kulabo abafuna ukubona ukuthi kwenziwa ukuhlolwa okuphelele kobungozi. Kepha ukubambezeleka nezenzo ezingabazekayo ngokukhipha imibhalo bese uzihoxisa emehlweni omphakathi akunikezi ukuzethemba.

Ngempela, kwesinye isinyathelo sokufuna ukwazi, i-EPA ngoMeyi 2 futhi ikhiphe nohlelo olusha olusha olusha “lokubuyekezwa kokubhaliswa.“Kepha ngenkathi ezinye izindlela zokuhlolwa kobungozi zamakhemikhali zibhalwe kuwebhusayithi ye-EPA ezokhishwa ngasekupheleni kuka-2016, i-glyphosate ibingafakwanga.

Hawu?

Lesi sihloko ekuqaleni savela Huffington Post

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli yakudala yaseReuters, umbhali / umhleli wamanje ozimele kanye nomqondisi wezocwaningo we-US Right to Know, iqembu elicwaninga ngomkhakha wezokudla. Mlandele kuTwitter @CareyGillam