Ukuphishekela iqiniso nokwenza izinto obala kwezempilo yomphakathi

Amaphepha eMonsanto - Izimfihlo Eziyingozi, Ukukhohlakala Kwebhizinisi, kanye Nokufuna Komuntu Ubulungiswa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Incwadi entsha yoMqondisi Wezocwaningo wase-USRTK uCarey Gillam iphumile manje futhi iqoqa izibuyekezo ezikhanyayo. Nayi incazelo emfushane yencwadi evela kumshicileli Isiqhingi Press:

U-Lee Johnson wayeyindoda enamaphupho alula. Konke ayekufuna kwakuwumsebenzi ozinzile kanye nekhaya elihle lomkakhe nezingane, okungcono kunempilo enzima ayaziyo esakhula. Wayengakaze acabange ukuthi angaba ubuso bokubambana kukaDavid noGoliyathi ngokulwa nesinye sezikhondlakhondla zezinkampani ezinamandla kakhulu emhlabeni. Kodwa ingozi yasemsebenzini yashiya uLee efakwe ikhemikhali enobuthi futhi ebhekene nomdlavuza obulalayo owaguqula impilo yakhe yabhekisa phansi. Ku-2018, umhlaba ubukele njengoba uLee ebhekwe phambili kwezimpi ezisemthethweni ezinkulu kakhulu emlandweni wakamuva.

Amaphepha eMonsanto yindaba yangaphakathi yecala elibalulekile likaLee Johnson elibhekene neMonsanto. KuLee, leli cala lalingumjaho ophikisana newashi, nodokotela babikezela ukuthi ngeke aphile isikhathi eside ngokwanele ukuthi angathatha ukuma kofakazi. Eqenjini le-eclectic labammeli abancane, abanesifiso sokumela, bekuyindaba yokuziqhenya kobungcweti nokuzibeka engcupheni komuntu siqu, nezigidi zamadola abo kanye nodumo olutholwe kanzima kulayini.

Ngamandla okulandisa athintekayo, Amaphepha eMonsanto ithatha abafundi ekusithekeni kwempi yomthetho ekhathazayo, ibuyisa ikhethini ebuthakathakeni bohlelo lwenkantolo yaseMelika nobude abameli abazoya kulo ukulwa nobubi bezinkampani futhi bathole ubulungiswa kubathengi.

Bona okuningi mayelana ne- bhuka lapha. Thenga incwadi ku AmazonBarnes & Noble, umshicileli Isiqhingi Press noma abathengisi bezincwadi abazimele.

Izibuyekezo

“Indaba enamandla, ixoxwa kahle, nomsebenzi omuhle wobuntatheli bokuphenya. UCarey Gillam ubhale incwadi ephoqelelayo kusukela ekuqaleni kuze kube sekugcineni, mayelana nezimpi zomthetho ezibaluleke kakhulu esikhathini sethu. ” - Lukas Reiter, umkhiqizi omkhulu we-TV nomlobi we "The Blacklist," "The Practice," ne "Boston Legal"

“Amaphepha eMonsanto ahlanganisa isayensi nenhlekelele yabantu nedrama yasenkantolo ngesitayela sikaJohn Grisham. Kuyindaba yokukhohlakala kwezinkampani ngezinga elikhulu - isambulo esethusayo sokuhaha komkhakha wamakhemikhali, ukuzikhukhumeza, nokunganaki impilo yabantu nempilo yeplanethi yethu. Kumele kufundwe. ” - UPhilip J. Landrigan, MD, uMqondisi, uHlelo Lwezempilo Yomphakathi Lomhlaba Wonke kanye neCommon Good, iBoston College

"Intatheli emnkantshubomvu ephenya uCarey Gillam utshela udaba lukaJohnson encwadini yakhe yakamuva ethi," The Monsanto Papers, "i-akhawunti esheshayo, ethintekayo yokuthi ingcebo yeMonsanto neBayer yashintsha kanjani kakhulu esikhathini esifushane kangaka. Ngaphandle kodaba oludingidwayo - isayensi nenkambiso yomthetho eyinkimbinkimbi - "Amaphepha eMonsanto" ukufundwa okuhlabahlosile okunikeza incazelo ekulula ukuyilandela yokuthi lamacala aqhubeka kanjani, amajaji afinyelela kanjani esinqumweni sawo nokuthi kungani iBayer ibonakala ngathi, empeleni , ngiphakamisa ifulegi elimhlophe manje. ” - St Louis Post-Dispatch

“Umbhali wakha icala eligculisayo lokuthi iMonsanto ibikuthanda kakhulu ukuvikela isithunzi senkomo yayo engukheshi kunokulalela ubufakazi besayensi ngezinto zayo eziyingozi. UGillam ulunge kakhulu ekunikezeni izinto eziyinkimbinkimbi zobuntu obusemthethweni, okunezela obunye ubuntu endabeni kaJohnson… Ukwehliswa okugunyaziwe kwenhlangano okusobala ukuthi ayinandaba nempilo yomphakathi. ” - UKirkus

“UGillam ulandisa ngokubalwa kwesikhashana nenkampani enkulu imikhiqizo yayo ebimakethwa njengephephile kusukela ngawo-1970. Njengokubhekwa kokukhohlakala kwezinkampani kanye nokuqondiswa komthetho ezimweni ezibucayi, incwadi kaGillam iveza isidingo sokuvikelwa nokuphepha kwabathengi. ” - Uhlu lwezincwadi

“Kufundwe kahle, kuphendulwa ikhasi. Ngangikhathazeke ngokuphelele ngenkohliso, ukuhlanekezelwa, nokuntuleka kwenkambiso yenkampani. ” - ULinda S. Birnbaum, Owabe enguMqondisi, Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Sezesayensi Yezemvelo kanye noHlelo Lukazwelonke Lwezidakamizwa, kanye neScholar eResidence, eDuke University

"Incwadi enamandla ekhanyisa iMonsanto nabanye osekuyisikhathi eside bengathintwa!"
- UJohn Boyd Jr., uMsunguli noMongameli, iNational Black Farmers Association

Mayelana Nombhali

Intatheli ephenyayo uCarey Gillam uchithe iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-30 ebika ngeMelika yezinkampani, kubandakanya neminyaka eyi-17 esebenzela i-Reuters international agency. Incwadi yakhe yango-2017 emayelana nobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane, iWhitewash: The Story of a Weed Killer, Cancer, and the Corruption of Science, iwine i-2018 Rachel Carson Book Award evela kwi-Society of Environmental Journalists futhi isiyingxenye yekharikhulamu kwezempilo eziningana zemvelo zaseyunivesithi. izinhlelo. UGillam njengamanje unguMqondisi Wokucwaninga weqembu labathengi elingenzi nzuzo i-US Right to Know futhi ubhala njengomnikeli we I-Guardian.

Uhlelo lukaBayer lokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup zesikhathi esizayo lubhekene nokuphikiswa okukhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkampani eziningi zezomthetho zase-US sezisungule umfelandawonye wokulwa ne- $ 2 billion entsha isiphakamiso sokuhlala ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG ohlose ukuqukatha isikweletu esiqhubekayo senkampani esihlobene nezimangalo zokuthi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula iRoundup idala uhlobo lomdlavuza olwaziwa njenge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

Lesi sivumelwano senzelwe ukunxephezela abantu abake bavezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup futhi asebevele benayo i-NHL noma bangathuthukisa i-NHL ngokuzayo, kepha abangakazithathi izinyathelo zokufaka icala.

Iqembu elincane labameli abahlanganisa lolu hlelo neBayer bathi "luzosindisa izimpilo" futhi linikeze izinzuzo ezinkulu kubantu abakholelwa ukuthi baba nomdlavuza ngenxa yokuvezwa yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula.

Kepha abameli abaningi abagxeka lolu hlelo bathi uma luvunywa luzobeka isibonelo esiyingozi kwezinye izinhlobo zamacala athinta inqwaba yabantu abalimele yimikhiqizo noma imikhuba yezinkampani ezinamandla.

"Lesi akusona isiqondiso esifuna uhlelo lwezobulungiswa luhambe," kusho ummeli uGerald Singleton, inkampani yakhe ejoyine nezinye izinkampani zabameli ezingaphezu kuka-60 ukuphikisana nohlelo lukaBayer. "Asikho isimo lapho lokhu kuhle kwabamangali."

Uhlelo lokukhokha lukaBayer lwafakwa eNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esifundeni esiseNyakatho neCalifornia ngoFebhuwari 3, futhi kumele livunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria ukuze lisebenze kahle. Uhlelo lokukhokhelwa ngaphambi kwesikhathi olwethulwe ngonyaka odlule lwalungu- edelelwa uChabria abese ehoxa. Ijaji belibheke ukwedluliswa kwamacala e-federal multidistrict Roundup okubandakanya izinkulungwane zabamangali abavela e-United States.

Izimpendulo zohlelo lokukhokha kumele zilindeleke ngoMashi 3 bese kulalelwa lolu daba kulindeleke ukuthi kube ngoMashi 31.

Okukhathaza kakhulu ukuthi abasebenzisi be-Roundup bamanje abangahle babe nomdlavuza futhi bafune ukumangalela ngokuzayo bazoba ngaphansi kwemibandela yokuxazululwa kwezigaba ngaphandle kokuthi baphume ngokusemthethweni kuleyo nkathi esikhathini esithile. Omunye wemibandela abazobe bekhonjelwe wona uzobavimba ekufuneni ukulimala kokujeziswa kunoma yiliphi icala elizayo.

Leyo migomo neminye ebekiwe ayinabulungiswa ngokuphelele kubasebenzi basemapulazini nakwabanye okulindeleke ukuthi babe nomdlavuza ngokuzayo kusukela ekuvezweni yimikhiqizo yenkampani yokubulala ukhula, ngokusho kukaSingleton. Lolu hlelo luzuzisa iBayer futhi luhlinzeka "ngemali yegazi" ezinkampanini ezine zabameli ezisebenzisane neBayer ukwakha lolu hlelo, esho.

Lawo mafemu asebenzisana neBayer ukusungula nokuphatha uhlelo bazothola isamba esihlongozwayo esingu- $ 170 million uma uhlelo luqala ukusebenza.

U-Elizabeth Cabraser, ongomunye wabameli abakha lesi sakhiwo esisha esihlongozwayo, uthe ukugxekwa akuyona incazelo efanelekile ngalesi sivumelwano. Empeleni, uthe lolu hlelo “lunikeza ukufinyelela okubalulekile futhi okudingeka ngokushesha, imfundo, ukufinyelela kwezempilo, kanye nezinzuzo zesinxephezelo” kubantu abake bathola umuthi wokubulala ukhula weMonsanto's Roundup kodwa abangakenzi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

"Sifuna ukwamukelwa kwalesi sivumelwano ngoba sizosindisa izimpilo futhi sithuthukise nezinga lempilo ngokuxilonga kusenesikhathi, sisize abantu… sibazise futhi siqwashise umphakathi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kweRoundup neNHL…" esho.

Okhulumela iBayer akaphendulanga esicelweni sokuphawula.

Indawo entsha ehlongozwayo kuhloswe ngamacala azayo futhi ahlukile ku- $ 11 billion iBayer ebekelwe ukukhokhela izimangalo zomdlavuza ezikhona zase-US. Abantu abathintwe yisiphakamiso sokukhokhelwa kwesigaba kungabantu nje kuphela abaye bavezwa ku-Roundup kepha abakabi kumacala futhi abakathathanga zinyathelo kunoma yiliphi icala.

IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.

Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Yize lesi sivumelwano esihlongozwayo sithi “sibhekana nezikhalazo ezine ezaphakanyiswa iNkantolo maqondana nesinqumo sangaphambili, esasihoxisiwe,” u-Singleton nabanye abameli ababandakanyeka kweqembu eliphikisayo bathi lesi sicelo esisha sokubhadala simbi njengaleso sokuqala.

Ngaphezu kokukhathazeka ukuthi amalungu ekilasi ngeke abe nelungelo lokufuna izicelo zokukhokhelwa isijeziso, abagxeki baphikisana nesikhathi seminyaka emine "sokuma" esivimba ukufakwa kwamacala amasha. Abagxeki bathi futhi uhlelo lokwazisa abantu ngokuhlala ngezigaba alwanele. Abantu bazoba nezinsuku eziyi-150 ngemuva kwesaziso sokuthi “baphume” ekilasini. Uma bengaphumi, basekilasini ngokuzenzekelayo.

Abagxeki baphikisana nokwakhiwa okuhlongozwayo kwephaneli lesayensi elizosebenza "njengesiqondisi" sokwengezwa kwezinketho zesinxephezelo esikhathini esizayo "nokunikeza ubufakazi mayelana nokubulawa kwe-carcinogenicity - noma cha - kweBayer. Njengoba kunikezwe umlando obhaliwe kaMonsanto wokukhohlisa okutholakele kwesayensi, umsebenzi wephaneli lesayensi uzoba yinsolo, kusho uSingleton.

Isikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha sasizosebenza okungenani iminyaka emine futhi singanwetshwa ngemuva kwalesi sikhathi. Uma iBayer ikhetha ukungaqhubeki nesikhwama sesinxephezelo ngemuva kwesikhathi sokuqala sokukhokha, izokhokha enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 200 njenge- “pay end” esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, kusho isifinyezo sokukhokha.

Kunikezwe “isinxephezelo esikhulu”

Amafemu abhalise isivumelwano neBayer athi ekufayeleni kwabo enkantolo ukuthi lesi sivumelwano sihlelelwe ukunikeza abamangali abangase babe khona lokho "okufeza izintshisekelo zabo," kufaka phakathi ithuba lokuthola "isinxephezelo esikhulu" uma bethuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma .

Lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama sezinxephezelo ukwenza imiklomelo ephakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000 ngelungu ngalinye lesigaba. "Imiklomelo Yokukhokha Esheshayo" engu- $ 5,000 izotholakala ngokushesha, okudinga nje ukukhonjiswa kokuchayeka nokuxilongwa.

Labo bantu baqale ukuvezwa kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup okungenani izinyanga eziyi-12 ngaphambi kokutholakala kwabo bazokwazi ukuthola imiklomelo. Imiklomelo engaphezulu kwama- $ 200,000 ingenziwa "ngezimo ezingavamile." Lawo malungu ekilasi afanelekayo atholakale ene-NHL ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2015, ngeke athole imiklomelo engaphezu kwe- $ 10,000, ngokwecebo. 

Isivumelwano sizohlinzeka ngezeluleko zamahhala zomthetho futhi sinikeze ”ukwesekwa ukusiza amalungu ekilasi ekuzulazuleni, ekubhaliseni nasekufakeni izicelo zemihlomulo yokuhlala.”

Ngokwengeziwe, lesi siphakamiso sithi ukukhokhelwa kuzokhokhela ucwaningo lwezokwelapha nolwezesayensi ekutholeni nasekwelapheni i-NHL.

Okuqaphelekayo, uhlelo luthi akekho umuntu ozolahlekelwa yilungelo lakhe lokufaka icala ngaphandle uma ekhetha ukwamukela isinxephezelo esikhwameni sesinxephezelo, futhi akekho noyedwa odinga ukwenza lokho kuze kube lelo lungu lesigaba ngasinye litholakala ukuthi line-NHL. Bebengeke bakwazi ukufuna umonakalo wokujeziswa kepha bebengafuna esinye isinxephezelo.

“Noma yiliphi ilungu lesigaba elingafaki isimangalo futhi lamukele isinxephezelo somuntu ngamunye ligcina ilungelo lalo lokumangalela iMonsanto ngokukhokhelwa isinxephezelo kunoma iyiphi inkolelo-mbono yezomthetho, okubandakanya ukulimala komuntu, ukukhwabanisa, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo, ubudedengu, ukufihla inkohliso, ukumelwa kabi ngobudedengu, ukwephula iwaranti, ukukhangisa okungelona iqiniso , nokwephula noma ikuphi ukuvikelwa komthengi noma umthetho noma izenzo ezingalungile nezikhohlisayo, ”kusho uhlelo.

Ukuqwashisa abantu ngokuxazululwa kwesenzo sekilasi, izaziso zizothunyelwa ngeposi / zithunyelwe nge-imeyili emapulazini, amabhizinisi nezinhlangano ezingama-266,000 kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni lapho ukubulala ukhula kwenkampani bekungasetshenziswa kanye nabantu abangama-41,000 abangenayo iHodgkin lymphoma futhi bacelwe ukuthola imininingwane ngesifo sabo. Ngokwengeziwe izingqwembe zizothunyelwa ngeposi ezitolo ezingama-2,700 XNUMX zibacela ukuthi babhale izaziso zokuxazululwa kwezigaba zesigaba.

Njengengxenye yendawo yokuhlala ehlongozwayo, iBayer ithe izofuna imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yokwengeza imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela kwizifundo zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana ne-glyphosate ukuphepha. Kodwa abagxeki bathi ukuhlinzeka ngezixhumanisi zewebhusayithi akwanele futhi iBayer idinga ukubeka isexwayiso esiqondile sengozi yomdlavuza emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula.

Ukuxazululwa kwesenzo esenziwe ngezigaba kusongela ukuthinta “amakhulu ezinkulungwane noma ngisho izigidi” zabantu abaye bavezwa i-Roundup futhi "baphakamisa imibuzo 'eyingqayizivele' futhi ejulile" ngaphansi koMthethosisekelo wase-US, ngokusho kuka inkantolo yokugcwalisa ngokuphikisana nohlelo lweBayer olwenziwe ngummeli wabamangali u-Elizabeth Graham.

UGraham utshele inkantolo ukuthi uma lolu hlelo lwamukelwa lungaba "nomthelela omangazayo hhayi kuleli cala kuphela, kepha nakusasa lecala lokuhlukunyezwa kwabantu abaningi."

Abalimi abamnyama

 INational Black Farmers Association (NBFA) ilinganisele lolu daba ngoLwesithathu, yafaka ukugcwaliswa okude nenkantolo kaChhabria ethi "ingxenye enkulu" yamalungu ayo angaphezu kwe-100,000 "adalulwe futhi angalimala yiRoundup, kanye nesithako sayo esisebenzayo i-glyphosate."

Iningi labalimi selivele lisungule i-lymphoma engeyona eye-Hodgkin abasola ngokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup, futhi "ingebhe enkulu kakhulu ukuthi bazosheshe babe nezimpawu," kusho ukugcwalisa kwe-NBFA.

I-NBFA ifuna ukubona imikhiqizo ye-Roundup isuswa kwezentengiselwano noma kwezinye izinguquko ezenziwe ukuvikela abalimi, kusho ukufayila.

Ukukhathazeka kwe-NBFA kudinga ukuthi kubhekwane nakho yinkantolo, ikakhulukazi njengoba iBayer ibheka “ukulungisa isenzo sesigaba ngeqoqo labameli abathi bamele izintshisekelo zabo bonke abalimi abadalulwe ku-Roundup kodwa abasazothuthukisa kubangela umdlavuza. ”

Amacala enkantolo e-Australia

Njengoba iBayer isebenza ukuqeda amacala eRoundup e-United States, inkampani nayo ibhekene nezimangalo ezifanayo zabalimi nabanye abase-Australia. Isenzo sekilasi esifakwe iMonsanto siyaqhubeka, kanti ummangali oholayo uJohn Fenton, owafaka isicelo seRoundup njengengxenye yomsebenzi wasepulazini. UFenton watholakala ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngo-2008.

Uchungechunge lwezinsuku ezisemqoka selusunguliwe: IMonsanto inangoMashi 1 ukuhlinzeka ngemibhalo yokutholwa kwabameli babamangali kanti uJuni 4 yisikhathi esinqunyiwe sokushintshaniswa kobufakazi bochwepheshe. Amaqembu azongena ekuxazululeni ngoJulayi 30 kanti uma kungenakutholakali lutho leli cala lizoqala ukuqulwa ngecala ngoMashi 2022.

UFenton uthe yize "ezolithanda ithuba" lokuthi aquliswe icala axoxe indaba yakhe, unethemba lokuthi ukulamula kuzoxazulula lolu daba. “Ngicabanga ukuthi ukuvumelana sekuqala ukushintsha ngenxa yalokhu ebekwenzeka eMelika. Abalimi sebazi kangcono futhi ngikholwa wukuthi bathatha izinyathelo zokuqapha ezingaphezu kwezangaphambili.

UFenton uthe unethemba lokuthi iBayer ekugcineni izobeka ilebula lokuxwayisa emithini yokubulala ukhula yeMonsanto.

"Okungenani ngesexwayiso umsebenzisi angazenzela eyakhe ingqondo ngokuthi iyiphi i-PPE (imishini yokuzivikela) akhetha ukuyigqoka."

IBayer yenza uhlelo olusha lwama- $ 2 billion lokuqeda izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngoLwesithathu ubesazama futhi ukuphatha nokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo, kubekwa eceleni isivumelwano esingu- $ 2 billion neqembu labammeli bommangali uBayer athemba ukuthi bazothola ukuvunywa yijaji likahulumeni ngubani wenqaba uhlelo lwangaphambilini Ihlobo elidlule.

Ngokuphawulekile, lesi sivumelwano sidinga iBayer ukuthi ifune imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukufaka imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela ezifundweni zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate.

Ukwengeza, ngokusho kukaBayer, lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama esizonxephezela "abafaka izicelo ezifanelekile" ohlelweni lweminyaka emine; ukusungula iphaneli lesayensi elelulekayo okutholakele kwalo kungasetshenziswa njengobufakazi kumacala angahle abe khona esikhathini esizayo; kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokucwaninga nokuxilonga zocwaningo lwezokwelapha kanye / noma lwesayensi ekuhloleni nasekwelapheni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Uhlelo kumele luvunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni saseNyakatho saseCalifornia. UChhabria ubengamele ukubekwa kwamacala amaningi eRoundup multidistrict.

UBayer uthe amalungu amakilasi afanelekayo eminyakeni emine ezayo azokwazi ukuthola amazinga wemiklomelo ekhokhelwayo ngokuya ngemikhombandlela ebekwe esivumelwaneni. “Isigaba sokuhlala” sibhekise kubantu ababekade bevezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup kepha bengakafaki icala enkantolo abathi balimalekile ngenxa yalokho kuvezwa.

Amalungu ekilasi lezokuhlala azokwazi ukuthola isinxephezelo phakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000, kusho uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ukusatshalaliswa kwesikhwama sokuhlala kuzokwenzeka kanjena:
* Isikhwama Sesinxephezelo - Okungenani ama- $ 1.325 billion
* Uhlelo Lokuhlinzeka Ngokutholakala Kokuxilonga - $ 210 million
* Uhlelo Lwezimali Zocwaningo - $ 40 million
* Izindleko Zokulawulwa Kwezokuhlala, Izindleko Zokweluleka KwePhaneli Yesayensi, Izindleko Zesigaba Sokuhlala, Izintela,
kanye nezimali nezindleko ze-Ecrow Agent - Kuze kube yizigidi ezingama- $ 55
Uhlelo lokuhlongozwa oluhlongozwayo lwamacala ezenzo zesigaba esizayo luhlukile ku- isivumelwano sokukhokha IBayer yenziwa nabameli bamangali angamashumi ezinkulungwane asebevele baletha izimangalo ezithi ukutholakala kweRoundup nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate kubenze ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.
Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ucwaningo olusha luhlola umthelela we-Roundup herbicide kuma-honeybees

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Iqembu labacwaningi baseChina lithole ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate-based herbicide iyingozi kuma-honeybees noma ngaphansi kokunconywa okunconywayo.

Ephepheni elishicilelwe ku iphephabhuku online Imibiko yeSayensi, Abaphenyi abasebenzisana neChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kanye neChinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathe bathole imithelela eminingi engemihle kuzinyosi lapho bebeka izinyosi kuRoundup - a glyphosateumkhiqizo osuselwe kuthengiswa ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Ukukhunjulwa kwezinyosi zezinyosi "kwakuphazamiseke kakhulu ngemuva kokuchayeka kuRoundup" kusikisela ukuthi ukuvezwa kwezinyosi ezingapheli emakhemikhali okubulala ukhula "kungaba nomthelela omubi ekuseshweni nasekuqoqweni kwezinsizakusebenza nasekuhlanganiseni imisebenzi yokudla" yizinyosi, abacwaningi bathi .

Futhi, "amandla okukhuphuka wezinyosi zezinyosi anciphe kakhulu ngemuva kokwelashwa ngokuhlungwa okunconyiwe kweRoundup," abacwaningi bathola.

Abaphenyi bathi kunesidingo “sohlelo lokuxwayisa nge-herbicide olunokwethenjelwa” ezindaweni zasemakhaya eChina ngoba abafuyi bezinyosi kulezo zindawo “ngokuvamile abaziswa ngaphambi kokuba kufuthwe amakhambi okubulala ukhula” futhi “kwenzeka izehlakalo ezinobuthi njalo zezinyosi zezinyosi”.

Ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo eziningi ezibalulekile zokudla kuncike kuzinyosi zezinyosi nezinyosi zasendle ukuze kuthunyelwe impova, futhi ukwehla okuphawuliwe kubantu bezinyosi baphakamise ukukhathazeka emhlabeni jikelele mayelana nokutholakala kokudla.

Iphepha elivela eRutgers University eshicilelwe ehlobo eledlule uxwayise ngokuthi "isivuno sezithelo sama-aphula, ama-cherry kanye namajikijolo kulo lonke elase-United States sincishiswa ukungabi khona kwezipolishi."

Ukufa nokuhlala njengoba iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuqeda amacala we-Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinyangeni eziyisikhombisa ngemuva kweBayer AG umemezele izinhlelo ngokuxazululwa kokushonelwa kwamacala omdlavuza we-US Roundup, umnikazi waseJalimane weMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo ezilethwe abantu abaphethwe umdlavuza abathi zibangelwe yimikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye icala livele lathola ukuvalwa, yize ummangali angiphilelanga ukukubona.

Abameli bakaJaime Alvarez Calderon, bavumelane ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto ngesinqumo esanikezwa yiBayer ngemuva kweJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoMsombuluko inqatshelwe isahlulelo esifingqiwe ngokuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela icala ukuthi lisondele ecaleni.

Isivumelwano sizoya emadodaneni amane ka-Alvarez ngoba ubaba wabo oneminyaka engu-65, osebenza isikhathi eside esebenzela iwayini eNapa County, California, ushone nje esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka esedlule kusuka kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma usola umsebenzi wakhe wokufafaza i-Roundup ezungeze impahla ye-winery iminyaka.

Ekulalelweni kwenkantolo ngoLwesithathu, ummeli womndeni wakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi lesi sinqumo sizolivala leli cala.

Ngemuva kokuqulwa kwecala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze e-winery iminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isifutho sasebhakeni ukufaka isicelo sikaMonsanto kusekelwe ku-glyphosate ukubulala ukhula kuma-acreage asakazekayo eqembu le-Sutter Home lamawayini. Wayevame ukuya ekhaya kusihlwa nezingubo ezimanzi ngomuthi wokubulala ukhula ngenxa yokuvuza kwemishini kanye nombulali wokhula okhukhuleka emoyeni. Watholwa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, elashwa kaningi ngamakhemikhali nezinye izindlela zokwelashwa ngaphambi kokushona ngoDisemba 2019.

UDiamond uthe ujabule ngokuxazulula leli cala kodwa unamacala angama-Roundup "angu-400 plus" amanye angakalungiswa.

Akayedwa. Okungenani uhhafu weshumi namanye amafemu wezomthetho wase-US anabamangali baseRoundup abafuna izilungiselelo zesilingo zango-2021 nangaphezulu.

Kusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto ku-2018, iBayer ibilokhu ilwela ukuthola ukuthi ungayenza kanjani kuqedwe ukuqulwa kwamacala lokho kufaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube yimanje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ngaphezu kwemizamo yokuxazulula izimangalo ezisalindile njengamanje, iBayer inethemba lokuthi izokwakha indlela yokuxazulula izimangalo ezingaba khona ezingabhekana nazo kubasebenzisi beRoundup abathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngokuzayo. Uhlelo lwayo lokuqala lokusingatha amacala esikhathi esizayo yenqatshwa nguJaji Chhabria futhi inkampani ayikamemezeli uhlelo olusha.

Isimemo sikaBayer sokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza wase-US Roundup ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni izinkulungwane zamacala aseMelika alethwe ngabantu abathi bona noma abathandekayo babo baba nomdlavuza ngemuva kokuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Izincwadi zakamuva ezivela kubameli babamangali eziya kumakhasimende abo zigcizelele leyo nqubekelaphambili, eqinisekisa ukuthi iningi labamangali likhetha ukubamba iqhaza kulesi sikhokhelo, yize kunezikhalazo zabamangali abaningi zokuthi babhekene neziphakamiso zokukhokha ezincane ezingafanele.

Kwezinye izibalo, ukukhokhiswa okujwayelekile kuzoshiya isinxephezelo esincane, mhlawumbe izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamaRandi, kubamangali ngabanye ngemuva kokukhokhwa kwemali yabameli kanye nezindleko ezithile zezokwelapha ezibuyiswayo.

Yize kunjalo, ngokwencwadi ethunyelwe kwabamangali ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba ngenye yamafemu abameli abahamba phambili enkantolo, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-95 "wabamangali abafanelekile" banquma ukubamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokuxazulula okuxoxiswene ngalo nenkampani neBayer. “Umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala” manje unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokubuyekeza amacala bese eqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukuthola izimali zokuhlala, ngokusho kwezincwadi.

Abantu bangakhetha ukuphuma kuleso sivumelwano bese befaka izicelo zabo ekulamuleni, kulandelwe ukulamula okuyisibopho uma befisa noma bezama ukuthola ummeli omusha ozoqula icala labo. Labo bamangali bangaba nesikhathi esinzima sokuthola ummeli ozobasiza bathathe udaba lwabo baluse enkantolo ngoba amafemu abameli avumelana nokuxazululwa kweBayer avumile ukuthi angazami amanye amacala noma asize ekulingweni okuzayo.

Omunye ummangali, ocele ukungadalulwa ngegama ngenxa yobumfihlo bezinqubo zokukhokha, uthe uyaphuma kuleso sinqumo ngethemba lokuthola imali ethe xaxa ngokulamula noma ngecala elizayo. Uthe udinga ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo nokwelashwa komdlavuza wakhe kanti nohlaka oluhlongozwayo lokuhlalisa abantu ngeke lumshiye ngalutho ukukhokhela lezo zindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokukhokha imali encane ngangokunokwenzeka ngaphandle kokuya ecaleni," esho.

Ukulinganiselwa okulinganiselwe kokukhokhwa okujwayelekile kwemali ngayinye kummangali kungama- $ 165,000, abameli nabamangali abathintekayo ezingxoxweni bathe. Kepha abanye abamangali bangathola okuningi kakhulu, kanti abanye bathola okungaphansi, kuya ngemininingwane yecala labo. Kunemigomo eminingi yokunquma ukuthi ngubani ongabamba iqhaza ekukhokhelweni nokuthi ingakanani imali lowo muntu angayithola.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufanele abe yisakhamuzi sase-US, kutholakale ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), futhi wadalulwa ku-Roundup okungenani unyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokutholakala ukuthi une-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokukhokha neBayer sizophela lapho umphathi eqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-93 abafaka izicelo abafanelekile, ngokwemigomo yesivumelwano.

Uma umphathi wezokukhokha ethola ummangali engafanelekile, lowo mmangali unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokudlulisa isinqumo.

Kwabamangali ababhekwa njengabafanelekile umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala uzonikeza icala ngalinye amaphuzu amaningi ngokuya ngemibandela ethile. Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye azolithola lisuselwa kunani lamaphoyinti abalwe ngesimo sawo ngasinye.

Amaphuzu esisekelo asungulwa kusetshenziswa iminyaka yomuntu lowo ngesikhathi etholakala ukuthi une-NHL kanye nezinga lobunzima "bokulimala" njengoba kunqunywa izinga lokwelashwa nomphumela. Amazinga agijima u-1-5. Umuntu oshone nge-NHL unikezwa amaphuzu esisekelo ezingeni lesi-5, ngokwesibonelo. Amaphuzu amaningi anikezwa abantu abasha abahlushwa imijikelezo eminingi yokwelashwa kanye / noma abashona.

Ngaphezu kwamaphoyinti esisekelo, ukulungiswa kuvunyelwe okunikeza amaphuzu amaningi kubamangali ababenokuchayeka okuningi ku-Roundup. Kukhona nezibonelelo zamaphoyinti amaningi ezinhlobo ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali abatholakale benohlobo lwe-NHL olubizwa nge-Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma bathola ukukhushulwa ngamaphesenti ayi-10 kumanani abo, isibonelo.

Abantu futhi bangadonswa amaphuzu ngokususelwa ezicini ezithile. Nazi izibonelo ezithile ezithile ezivela kumatrix wamaphoyinti asungulwe ngecala le-Roundup:

  • Uma umsebenzisi womkhiqizo we-Roundup ashone ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amaphuzu aphelele wesimangalo alethwe egameni lawo azokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angama-50.
  • Uma ummangali oshonile ebengenaye umlingani noma izingane ezincane ngesikhathi sokushona kwabo kudonswa amaphesenti angama-20.
  • Uma ummangali enomdlavuza wegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amaphuzu abo anqunywa ngamaphesenti angama-30.
  • Uma isikhathi phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-Roundup kommangali nokutholakala kwe-NHL bekungaphansi kweminyaka emibili amaphuzu asikwa ngamaphesenti angama-20.

Izimali zokuhlala kufanele ziqale ukugelezela kubahlanganyeli entwasahlobo ngezinkokhelo zokugcina ezinethemba lokuthi zenziwe ehlobo, ngokusho kwabameli abathintekayo.

Abamangali nabo bangafaka izicelo zokuba yingxenye yesikhwama semali sokulimala esingajwayelekile, esakhelwe iqembu elincane labamangali abahlushwa ukulimala okukhulu okuhlobene neNHL. Isimangalo singafanelekela isikhwama sokulimala esingajwayelekile uma ukufa komuntu ku-NHL kwenzeka ngemuva kwezifundo ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ezigcwele ze-chemotherapy nezinye izindlela zokwelapha ezinolaka.

Kusukela ethenge iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo ebandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based, njengeRoundup, idala umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Ukudluliswa Kwezilingo Kuyaqhubeka

Noma iBayer ihlose ukuqeda ukuvivinywa okuzayo ngamadola okukhokha, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula imiphumela yezilingo ezintathu inkampani elahlekile.

Ekulahlekelweni kokuqala kwesivivinyo - Icala likaJohnson v. Monsanto - IBayer ilahlekelwe yimizamo yokuguqula amajaji athola ukuthi uMonsanto ubhekene nesifo somdlavuza kaJohnson ezingeni lenkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, kwathi ngo-Okthoba, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia unqabile ukubuyekeza icala.

IBayer manje inezinsuku eziyi-150 kusukela kuleso sinqumo sokucela ukuthi lolu daba luthathwe yiNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US. Le nkampani ayikasithathi isinqumo sokugcina mayelana nalesi sinyathelo, ngokusho komkhulumeli weBayer, kodwa iveze phambilini ukuthi ihlose ukuthatha lesi sinyathelo.

Uma iBayer ifaka isicelo eNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US, abameli bakaJohnson kulindeleke ukuthi bafake isicelo sokuphikisa esinemibandela becela inkantolo ukuthi ihlolisise izinyathelo zokwahlulela ezanciphisa umklomelo wamajaji kaJohnson kusuka ku- $ 289 million kuya ku- $ 20.5 million.

Amanye amacala enkantolo yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ngaphezu kwesikweletu uBayer abhekene nesibopho sakwaMonsanto sikaRoundup somdlavuza, inkampani ilwa nezikweletu zeMonsanto ezinkantolo zokungcola kwePCB nasenkingeni yokulimala kwezitshalo okubangelwe uhlelo lwezitshalo olususelwa ku-Micanto dicamba herbicide.

Ijaji lombuso eLos Angeles ngesonto eledlule wasenqaba isiphakamiso yiBayer ukukhokha imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 648 ukuxazulula amacala asezingeni elilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukungcoliswa okuvela kuma-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB, enziwe iMonsanto.

Nangesonto eledlule, ijaji eliqulile icala le I-Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto wenqaba iziphakamiso zikaBayer zokuqulwa kwecala elisha. Ijaji lisike umonakalo wokujeziswa onikezwe yijaji, noma kunjalo, kusuka ku- $ 250 million kuya ku- $ 60 million, kushiya umonakalo ongaphelele we $ 15 million, ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 75 million.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe ngokutholwa kwecala likaBader kuveze ukuthi iMonsanto ne-giant BASF yamakhemikhali babazi iminyaka ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zokwethula uhlelo lwembewu yezolimo kanye namakhemikhali olususelwa ku-dicamba kungenzeka ziholele emonakalweni emapulazini amaningi ase-US.

Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

Izilingo zomdlavuza weRoundup zisasongela iBayer, kepha izingxoxo zokuxazulula ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abameli bomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG kanye nabamangali abamangalela uMonsanto batshele ijaji lombuso ngoLwesine ukuthi bayaqhubeka nokwenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni amacala asezweni lonke alethwe ngabantu abathi iMoonanto's Roundup ibenze baba nomdlavuza.

Ekulalelweni kwevidiyo, ummeli weBayer uWilliam Hoffman utshele iJaji Lesifunda lase-US uVince Chhabria ukuthi inkampani ifinyelele kwizivumelwano - noma isizofinyelela kwizivumelwano - ukuxazulula amacala angaphezu kuka-3,000 XNUMX aqoqelwe enkantolo yamacala amaningi (MDL) afakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda yase-US isifunda esiseNyakatho yeCalifornia.

Le nkampani ngokwehlukana isivele ixazulule izinkulungwane zamacala angaphandle kwe-MDL, amacala abelokhu eqhubeka ezinkantolo zombuso. Kodwa impikiswano nokuphikisana kuye kwaphazamisa ukunikezwa kokukhokhelwa ngokuphelele, ngezinsolo ezivela kumafemu abanye abamangali okuthi iBayer ibuyise izivumelwano ezifinyelelwe ezinyangeni ezedlule, kanti amafemu abanye abamangali angafuni ukuvumelana nalokho abakubheka njengokungeneli okwenziwe yiBayer.

Akukho obekuxoxwa ngakho ngalezo zikhalazo, nokho, ekulalelweni kwangoLwesine, izinhlangothi zombili ziveza imibono ethembayo.

“Inkampani iqhubekele phambili yaphothula izivumelwano eziningana namafemu…. sethemba nokuthi sizophothula ezinye izivumelwano ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ezizayo, ”kusho uHoffman etshela ijaji.

“Lapho sikhona njengamanje… lezi zibalo zilinganiselwe ngandlela thile kodwa ngicabanga ukuthi zisondele ngokufanelekile: Kunamacala angaba ngu-1,750 angaphansi kwezivumelwano eziphakathi kwenkampani nezinkampani zabameli namanye amacala abalelwa ku-1,850 kuya ku-1,900 asezigabeni ezahlukahlukene zengxoxo njengamanje, ”kusho uHoffman. "Sisebenzela ukwenza uhlelo lokusheshisa izingxoxo futhi ngethemba lokuthi sizoletha izivumelwano nalawo mafemu."

Ummeli wabamangali uBrent Wisner utshele ijaji ukuthi kubalulekile ukuthi wazi ukuthi kusele “amacala ambalwa” ngaphakathi kwe-MDL angakaxazululwa kuze kube manje. Kodwa, uthe - "Silindele ukuthi bazoba khona maduze."

IJaji uChhabria uthe ngokwenqubekela phambili uzoqhubeka nokuhlala kwamacala eRoundup kuze kube nguNovemba 2 kodwa uzoqala ukuhambisa amacala enkantolo uma engaxazululwa yilelo phuzu.

Ukusebenza Okubi kweBayer Kusolwa Ngokuthi

Ithoni yokubambisana evezwe ekulalelweni kwangoLwesine ibikude kakhulu nokulalelwa okwenziwe ngenyanga edlule lapho ummeli wabamangali u-Aimee Wagstaff  utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi iBayer ibingahloniphi izivumelwano zokuhlala okwenziwe okwesikhashana ezenziwe ngoMashi futhi bezihlose ukuphothulwa ngoJulayi.

IBayer yamemezela ngoJuni ukuthi ifinyelele esivumelwaneni samaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi namafemu abameli baseMelika ukuxazulula iningi lezicelo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezingaphezu kuka-10. Kodwa ngaleso sikhathi amafemu abameli abaphambili kuphela ababehola amacala ayenezivumelwano zokugcina ezazisayinwe neBayer kwakunguMiller Firm neWeitz & Luxenburg.

Isivumelwano seMiller Firm sisodwa sifike ku- $ 849 wezigidi ukumboza izimangalo zamakhasimende angaphezu kuka-5,000 XNUMX Roundup, ngokusho kwemibhalo yezokukhokha.

Ezinze eCalifornia Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman Inkampani yezomthetho; i Andrus Wagstaff iqinile evela eColorado; kanye ne- Moore Law Group YaseKentucky yayinezivumelwano zokuzama kodwa hhayi izivumelwano zokugcina.

Ngokwencwadi ebhalwe nguWagstaff efakwe enkantolo, uBayer ucele ukwelulwa kaninginingi kuze kube yilapho isivumelwano nenkampani yakhe sihluleka maphakathi no-Agasti. Ngemuva kokubika izindaba kuJaji Chhabria, izingxoxo zokuxazulula izinkinga zaqala futhi zaba ekugcineni ixazululwe ngamafemu amathathu kulenyanga.

Imininingwane ethile lokuthi izindawo zokuhlala izophathwa zifakwe ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto enkantolo eMissouri. IGarretson Resolution Group, Inc., eyenza ibhizinisi njenge-Epiq Mass Tort, izosebenza njenge-
"Umlawuli Wokuxazululwa Kwamanga, ” ngokwesibonelo, kumakhasimende ka-Andrus Wagstaff amadola akhe okuzokhokha azodinga ukuthi asetshenziswe ngokwengxenye noma ephelele ukubuyisa izindleko zokwelashwa komdlavuza ezikhokhwe yi-Medicare.

UBayer uthenge iMonsanto e2018 ngesikhathi kuqala ukuhlolwa komdlavuza we-Roundup. Selokhu lalahlekelwa zontathu lezi zivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi selilahlekelwe imizamo yokuqala yokudlulisa amacala efuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola ukuthi ama-herbicides kaMonsanto enza umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

IBayer ibisabise ngokuthi izofaka izicelo zokuqothuka uma kungatholakali indawo yokuhlala yonke, ngokusho kwezokuxhumana kusukela kumafemu wabamangali kuya kumakhasimende abo.

I-Bayer inks isebenza nezinkampani ezintathu zomthetho womdlavuza weRoundup njengoba ukuhlala kuqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IBayer AG ifinyelele emigomeni yokugcina nezinkampani ezintathu zabameli ezimele izinkulungwane zabamangali abathi ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto i-glyphosate kubangele ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Amadili amasha enziwe nge-California Baum Hedlund Aristei & Goldman Inkampani yezomthetho; i Andrus Wagstaff iqinile evela eColorado; kanye ne- Moore Law Group waseKentucky. Amafemu ngalinye lafaka isaziso ngezibambiso neNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US yesiFunda esiseNyakatho neCalifornia ngoMsombuluko.

Amadili eza ngemuva kwezinsolo zezinkampani ezintathu zabameli zokuthi iBayer ibiphikisana nezivumelwano esezenziwe ezinyangeni ezedlule. Amafemu atshele inkantolo ngoMsombuluko ukuthi manje ngamunye wabo "banesivumelwano esisebenza ngokuphelele futhi esibophayo neMonsanto."

Ngokuphawulekile, amadili abonisa isinyathelo esibucayi ekuletheni ukuvalwa kwecala lokuhlukunyezwa kwabantu abaningi elineminyaka emihlanu manje elinamacala angaphezu kuka-100,000 alethwe ngabantu abavela e-United States abasebenzisa i-Roundup namanye ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate enziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kokuba waba nomdlavuza.

UBayer uthenge iMonsanto e2018 ngesikhathi kuqala ukuhlolwa komdlavuza we-Roundup. Selokhu lalahlekelwa zontathu lezi zivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi selilahlekelwe imizamo yokuqala yokudlulisa amacala efuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola ukuthi ama-herbicides kaMonsanto enza umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

IBayer ibisabise ngokuthi izofaka izicelo zokuqothuka uma kungatholakali isixazululo ezweni lonke, ngokusho kwezokuxhumana okuvela ezinkampanini zabamangali kumakhasimende abo.

IBayer yamemezela ngoJuni ukuthi ifinyelele esivumelwaneni samaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyishumi namafemu abameli baseMelika ukuxazulula iningi lezicelo zomdlavuza weRoundup ezingaphezu kuka-10. Kodwa ngaleso sikhathi yizinhlaka ezimbili kuphela ezinkampanini zabameli ezazithweswe amacala amakhulu ezazinezivumelwano zokugcina ezazisayinwe neBayer - The Miller Firm neWeitz & Luxenburg, ngokusho kwemithombo esondelene nezingxoxo. Inkampani iBaum, i-Andrus Wagstaff kanye ne-Moore babe nezivumelwano zokuvumelana kepha hhayi izivumelwano zokugcina, kusho imithombo.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani. UBayer uzame ukuthola imvume yenkantolo ngohlelo obekuzobambezela ukufakwa kwamacala amasha omdlavuza weRoundup iminyaka emine, futhi bekuzosungula "iphaneli lesayensi" elinamalungu amahlanu ukunquma ukuthi ngabe iRoundup ingadala i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, futhi uma kunjalo , kumazinga aphansi okuvezwa. Uma ngabe iphaneli linqume ukuthi akukho ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kwe-Roundup ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma lapho-ke amalungu ekilasi azovinjelwa ekufuneni okuzayo esikhathini esizayo.

Ijaji lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria wenqaba uhlelo,  ukuthumela iBayer emuva ebhodini lokudweba.

UBayer wayenakho kusho ngoLwesine ukuthi ibisenza inqubekela phambili ekusetshenzisweni kohlelo “olubukeziwe” lokuxazulula amacala angaba khona we-Roundup angakusasa. Imininingwane yohlelo lwesigaba esibuyekeziwe izophothulwa emasontweni azayo, ngokusho kweBayer.

Abamangali abaningana bebengajabule ngalesi sikhalazo, bethi ngeke bathole imali eningi yize beneminyaka yokwelashwa okubizayo komdlavuza kanye nobuhlungu nokuhlupheka okuqhubekayo. Ngempela, abamangali abaningi bashonile besalinde isinqumo.

NgoSepthemba 9, abameli bakaMarie Bernice Dinner nomyeni wakhe uBruce Dinner bafaka isicelo enkantolo sokuthi uMarie oneminyaka engu-73 ubudala washona ngoJuni 2 evela ku-non-Hodgkin lymphoma yena nomyeni wakhe abasolwa ukuthi babangelwa ukuvezwa kwakhe ngababulali bokhula baseMonsanto .

Abameli bakaBruce Dinner bacele inkantolo ukuthi ibavumele ukuthi bachithe isikhalazo ngeMonsanto ukufaka isimangalo sokufa ngokungekho emthethweni. Lezi zithandani bezishade iminyaka engama-53 futhi zinezingane ezimbili nabazukulu abane.

“UMarie Bernice wayengumuntu ongajwayelekile. Ukufa kwakhe bekufanele kuvinjelwe, ”kusho ummeli uBeth Klein, omele umndeni.

Izifundo ezintsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo yokuzala

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengoba iBayer AG ifuna ukwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi imithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto eglyphosate ibangela umdlavuza, izifundo eziningana ezintsha ziphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nomthelela wamakhemikhali ongahle ube khona empilweni yokuzala.

Ukuhlanganiswa kwezifundo zezilwane okukhishwe kuleli hlobo kukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunomthelela ezithweni zokuzala futhi kungasongela ukuzala, kungeze nobufakazi obusha bokuthi umenzeli wokubulala ukhula angaba ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine. Amakhemikhali aphazamisa i-Endocrine angalingisa noma aphazamise amahomoni omzimba futhi axhumene nezinkinga zokukhula nokuzala kanye nokungasebenzi kahle kobuchopho namasosha omzimba.

Phakathi ku iphepha elishicilelwe ngenyanga edlule in I-Endocrinology yamangqamuzana namaselula, Abaphenyi abane base-Argentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi i-glyphosate iphephile.

Ucwaningo olusha luza njengoba iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuxazulula izimangalo ezingaphezu kuka-100,000 ezilethwe e-United States ngabantu abasola ukutholakala kwe-Roundup kaMonsanto kanye neminye imikhiqizo ye-herbicide esuselwa e-glyphosate kubangele ukuthi bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali ecaleni lamacala ezweni lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala yafuna ukufihla izingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula.

UBayer uzuze ifa le-Roundup litigation lapho uthenge iMonsanto ku-2018, ngaphambi nje kokunqoba kwecala lokuqala kwabamangali.

Izifundo zibuye futhi njengoba amaqembu abathengi esebenza ukuqonda kangcono ukuthi angakunciphisa kanjani ukuvezwa kwabo yi-glyphosate ngokudla. Ucwaningo ishicilelwe ngo-Agasti 11 ithole ukuthi ngemuva kokushintshela ekudleni okuphilayo izinsuku ezimbalwa nje, abantu bangehlisa amazinga e-glyphosate atholakala emchameni wabo ngamaphesenti angaphezu kwama-70. Ngokuphawulekayo, abacwaningi bathola ukuthi izingane ezifundweni bezinamazinga aphakeme kakhulu e-glyphosate emchameni wazo kunabantu abadala. Bobabili abadala nezingane babone amaconsi amakhulu phambi kwe-pesticide kulandela ukuguqulwa kokudla.

IGlyphosate, isithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup, isibulali sokhula esisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. IMonsanto yethule izitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kuma-1990s ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuzo zonke izinkambu zezitshalo, babulale ukhula kepha hhayi izitshalo ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo. Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngabalimi kanye nabaninikhaya, izinsiza kanye nezinhlangano zomphakathi, kudonse ukukhathazeka okukhulayo eminyakeni edlule ngenxa yokugcwala kwayo nokwesaba ukuthi ingahle yenzeni empilweni yabantu neyemvelo. Ikhemikhali manje selitholakala kakhulu ekudleni nasemanzini nasemchameni womuntu.

Ngokusho kososayensi base-Argentina, eminye imiphumela ebikiwe ye-glyphosate ebonwe ezifundweni ezintsha zezilwane kungenxa yokuchayeka emithamo ephezulu; kodwa kunobufakazi obusha obukhombisa ukuthi ngisho nokuvezwa komthamo ophansi nakho kungashintsha ukuthuthukiswa kwendlela yokuzala yabesifazane, kube nemiphumela ekuzaleni. Lapho izilwane zivezwa ku-glyphosate ngaphambi kokuthomba, izinguquko ziyabonakala ekukhuleni nasekuhlukaniseni ama-ovary follicles nesibeletho, ososayensi bathi. Ngokwengeziwe, ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe nge-glyphosate ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungashintsha ukukhula kwenzalo. Konke kunezela ukukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides yiziphazamisi ze-endocrine, abacwaningi baphetha kanjalo.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osafufusa wasePurdue University, uthe ucwaningo olusha lukhulisa ulwazi mayelana nobukhulu bomonakalo ohambisana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides futhi lunikeza "ukuqonda kangcono ukuqonda ubucayi bokuchayeka okukhona kuyo yonke indawo yethu isiko manje. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka eminingi ukuthi i-Roundup kaMonsanto kungenzeka ibe nomthelela ezinkingeni zokuzala emfuyweni.

One ukutadisha okuphawulekayo eshicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi kumagazini Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo, inqume ukuthi i-glyphosate noma i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "okubalulekile kwe-hormonal kanye ne-uterine target molecular" kumagundane akhulelwe adaluliwe.

Isifundo esihlukile muva nje eshicilelwe encwadini I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphenyi base-Iowa State University babheka ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kumagundane. Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi ukuvezwa okungapheli okungapheli kwezinga eliphansi le-glyphosate "kuguqula i-ovarian proteome" (iqoqo lamaprotheni azwakalayo ohlobo oluthile lweseli noma lomzimba) futhi "ekugcineni kungathinta ukusebenza kwe-ovarian. Ephepheni elihlobene elivela kubaphenyi abafanayo be-Iowa State kanye nomlobi oyedwa owengeziwe, eshicilelwe ku I-Toxicology Yokuzala, abacwaningi bathi abatholanga imiphumela ephazamisa i-endocrine kumagundane adalulwe ku-glyphosate, noma kunjalo.  

Abaphenyi abavela e-University of Georgia kubikwe kulo magazini Isayensi Yezilwane Nezilwane ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwemfuyo okusanhlamvu okugcwele izinsalela ze-glyphosate kubonakale kuthwala ukulimala kwezilwane, ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwezifundo ngesihloko. Ngokuya ngokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate abonakala esebenza "njengezidakamizwa ezinobuthi zokuzala, ezinemiphumela ehlukahlukene kuzinhlelo zokuzala zabesilisa nabesifazane," kusho abacwaningi.

Imiphumela eyethusayo ibikhona futhi kubonakala ezimvwini. Ucwaningo olushicilelwe kumagazini Ukungcola kwemvelo ibheke imithelela yokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate ekukhuleni kwesibeletho kumawundlu ezinsikazi. Bathola ushintsho abathi lungathinta impilo yokuzala yezimvu futhi lukhombise ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate asebenza njengesiphazamisi se-endocrine.

Futhi kushicilelwe ku- Ukungcola kwemvelo, ososayensi baseFinland naseSpain bathi ku iphepha elisha ukuthi benze ukuhlolwa kokuqala kwesikhathi eside kwemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe- "sub-toxic" glyphosate ezinkukhu. Bazama ukudalula izigwaca zabesifazane nabesilisa emithini ye-glyphosate-based herbicides kusukela eminyakeni eyi-10 kuye emavikini angama-52.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate herbicides ingakwazi "ukuguqula izindlela ezibalulekile zomzimba, isimo se-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kanye ne-microbiome" kepha ababonanga imiphumela ekukhiqizeni. Bathe imiphumela ye-glyphosate ingahle ingabonakali njalo “ngokuhlolwa kwendabuko, ikakhulukazi okwesikhashana, ikakhulukazi okunobuthi, futhi lokho kuhlola kungenzeka kungabuboni ngokugcwele ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate neNeonicotinoids

Omunye izifundo ezintsha sha ukubheka imithelela ye-glyphosate kwezempilo kushicilelwe kule nyanga ku- Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yocwaningo Lwezemvelo Nempilo Yomphakathi.  Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane i-thiacloprid ne-imidacloprid, kungenzeka kube ngabaphazamisi be-endocrine.

Ama-insecticide ayingxenye yesigaba samakhemikhali se-neonicotinoid futhi aphakathi kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni.

Abaphenyi bathi babheke umphumela we-glyphosate nama-neonicotinoid amabili kuzinhloso ezimbili ezibucayi zohlelo lwe-endocrine: i-Aromatase, i-enzyme ebhekele i-estrogen biosynthesis, ne-estrogen receptor alpha, iphrotheni enkulu ekhuthaza ukusayinda kwe-estrogen.

Imiphumela yabo ibixubile. Abaphenyi bathi maqondana ne-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uvimbela umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa ukuvimbela "bekuyingxenye futhi kubuthakathaka." Okubalulekile ukuthi abacwaningi bathi i-glyphosate ayizange idale umsebenzi we-estrogenic. Imiphumela "ibingahambisani" nohlelo lokuhlola olwenziwe yi-US Environmental Protection Agency, oluphethe ngokuthi “abukho ubufakazi obukholisayo bokusebenzisana okungaba khona nendlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate,” kusho bona.

Abaphenyi babone umsebenzi we-estrogenic nge-imidacloprid ne-thiacloprid, kepha ekugxilweni okuphezulu kunamazinga okubulala izinambuzane alinganiswa kumasampula womuntu. Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi “imithamo ephansi yalezi zinambuzane akumele ibhekwe njengengozi,” kodwa, ngoba le mibulala-zinambuzane, kanye namanye amakhemikhali aphazamisa i-endocrine, “kungadala umphumela we-estrogenic.”

Okutholakele okuhlukahlukene kuza njengoba amazwe amaningi nezindawo emhlabeni wonke zihlola ukuthi kufanele kukhawulwe noma kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ubuse ngenyanga edlule ukuthi kunobufakazi "obuningi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kanye nezinye izithako kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup, idale umdlavuza.

Bhalisela incwadi yethu yezindaba. Thola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke ebhokisini lakho lokungenayo.