Ukubuyiselwa emuva kweThailand kokuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate kwenzeka ngemuva kokungenelela kweBayer nge-US, imibhalo ikhombisa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngonyaka owedlule iThailand kwakumiselwe ukuvinjelwa ukhula olusetshenziswa kabanzi olubulala amakhemikhali i-glyphosate, isenzo esishayelwe ihlombe ngabameli bezempilo yomphakathi ngenxa yobufakazi bokuthi ikhemikhali libanga umdlavuza, kanye nokunye ukulimaza abantu nemvelo.

Kepha ngaphansi kwengcindezi enkulu evela ezikhulwini zase-US, uhulumeni waseThailand wakuguqula ukuvinjelwa obekuhleliwe kwe-glyphosate ngoNovemba odlule futhi walibazisa ukuvalwa kweminye imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane ezimbili zezolimo yize iKomiti Likazwelonke Lezinto Eziyingozi lathi ukuvinjelwa kuyadingeka ukuvikela abathengi.

Ukuvinjelwa, ikakhulukazi kwi-glyphosate, "kungaba nomthelela omubi" ukungeniswa kwempahla yaseThailand kotshwala, ukolweni nokunye kwempahla yezolimo, uMnyango Wezolimo wase-US u-Underdretary Ted McKinney uxwayise uNdunankulu waseThailand u-Prayuth Chan-Ocha efuna ukuguqulwa. Ukungeniswa kwamanye amazwe kungathinteka ngoba lezo zimpahla, nezinye eziningi, imvamisa zifakwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate.

Manje, ama-imeyili asanda kuvezwa phakathi kwezikhulu zikahulumeni nomzali waseMonsanto uBayer AG kukhombisa ukuthi isenzo sikaMcKinney, nalezo ezithathwe ezinye izikhulu zikahulumeni wase-US ukukholisa iThailand ukuthi ingavimbeli i-glyphosate, zabhalwa kakhulu futhi zaqhutshwa yiBayer.

Ama-imeyili atholwe ngesicelo soMthetho weNkululeko Yolwazi yiCentre for Biological Diversity, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo. I- iqembu limangalelwe UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (USDA) kanye noMnyango Wezohwebo wase-US ngoLwesithathu bafuna amarekhodi omphakathi angeziwe maqondana nezenzo zeminyango yezohwebo nezolimo ekucindezeleni iThailand ngodaba lwe-glyphosate. Kunemibhalo eminingana uhulumeni okwamanje anqabile ukuyikhipha mayelana nokuxhumana neBayer nezinye izinkampani, kusho le nhlangano.

"Kubi ngokwanele ukuthi lolu phiko lushaye indiva isayensi ezimele ukuxhasa ngokungacabangi ukuzimela kukaBayer kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate," kusho uNathan Donley, usosayensi omkhulu eCentre for Biological Diversity. "Kodwa-ke ukusebenza njenge-ejenti yeBayer ukuphoqa amanye amazwe ukuthi athathe leso sikhundla kuyinto embi kakhulu."

I-Glyphosate iyona isithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup herbicides kanye neminye imikhiqizo eyenziwe nguMonsanto, ebiza izigidigidi zamaRandi ekuthengisweni konyaka. UBayer uthenge iMonsanto e2018 futhi ubelokhu elwa kanzima kusukela lapho ukuvimbela ukukhathazeka okukhulayo emhlabeni jikelele ngocwaningo lwesayensi olukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate herbicides ingadala umdlavuza wegazi obizwa nge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Inkampani nayo ukulwa namacala okubandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kwe-100,000 abathi ukuthuthukiswa kwabo kwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kubangelwe ukuvezwa kwe-Roundup namanye ama-herbicides asekelwe eMonsanto glyphosate.

Ababulali bokhula beGlyphosate bangamakhemikhali asetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, ikakhulukazi ngoba iMonsanto yakha izitshalo ezakhiwe ngofuzo ezibekezelela ukufuthwa ngqo nalelo khemikhali. Noma ilusizo kubalimi ekugcineni amasimu engenalo ukhula, umkhuba wokufafaza i-herbicide eziqongweni zezitshalo ezikhulayo ushiya amazinga ahlukahlukene we-pesticide kokudla okusanhlamvu okuluhlaza nokudla okuphelile. Abalawuli beMonsanto kanye ne-US bagcina amazinga wezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasekudleni kwemfuyo akulimazi kubantu noma emfuyweni, kepha ososayensi abaningi abavumelani futhi bathi ngisho nokulandela amanani kungaba yingozi.

Amazwe ahlukene abeka amazinga ahlukene wezomthetho kulokho abanquma ukuthi kuyimali ephephile yombulali wokhula ekudleni nasezintweni eziluhlaza. Lawo “mazinga wezinsalela eziphezulu” abizwa ngama-MRL. I-US ivumela ama-MRL aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate ekudleni uma kuqhathaniswa namanye amazwe.

Uma iThailand ivimbela i-glyphosate, izinga elivunyelwe le-glyphosate ekudleni kungenzeka libe yi-zero, uBayer uxwayise izikhulu zase-US.

Usizo lwezinga eliphezulu

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngoSepthemba 2019 futhi futhi ekuqaleni kuka-Okthoba ka-2019 uJames Travis, umqondisi omkhulu wezindaba zikahulumeni waseBayer kanye nokuhweba, wafuna usizo ekuqedeni ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate kusuka ezikhulwini eziningi ezisezingeni eliphezulu ezivela e-USDA nase-Office of the United States Ummeleli Wezohwebo (USTR).

Phakathi kwalabo iBayer eyayifuna usizo kubo kwakukhona uZhulieta Willbrand, ngaleso sikhathi owayeyinduna yabasebenzi bezohwebo nezangaphandle kwezolimo eMnyangweni Wezolimo wase-US. Ngemuva kwesinqumo seThailand sokuguqula ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate, uWillbrand waqashwa ukuthi asebenzele iBayer ngqo ezindabeni zokuhweba zomhlaba wonke.

Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi ngabe usizo oluvela kuWillbrand ngenkathi eyisikhulu sikahulumeni lumsizile yini ukuthi athole umsebenzi eBayer, le nkampani yathi "izama ngokusemandleni" ukuqasha abantu abavela "kuzo zonke izizinda" nakunoma iyiphi "umbono wokuthi uqashwe nganoma yisiphi isizathu ngaphandle kwethalente elikhulu aliletha eBayer ngamanga. ”

Ku-imeyili eya kuWillbrand yangomhla ziyi-18 kuSepthemba 2019, uTravis wamtshela ukuthi uBayer wayecabanga ukuthi “kunenani langempela” ngokubandakanyeka kukahulumeni wase-US mayelana nokuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate, futhi waphawula nokuthi iBayer ihlela amanye amaqembu ukuthi nawo azobhikisha ngokuvinjelwa.

"Ekugcineni, sifundisa amaqembu abalimi, amasimu kanye nabalingani bebhizinisi ukuze nabo bakwazi ukuzwakalisa ukukhathazeka kanye nesidingo senqubo eqinile, esekelwe kwisayensi," kusho uTravis ebhalela uWillbrand. UWillbrand wabe esedlulisela i-imeyili kuMcKinney, uNobhala Ongaphansi Kwezobambiswano Wezolimo kanye Nezindaba Zakwamanye Amazwe e-USDA.

Ku-Okthoba 8, 2019, intambo ye-imeyili enesihloko esithi "Isifinyezo Sokuvinjelwa KweThailand - Intuthuko Ihamba Ngokushesha," uTravis ubhalele uMarta Prado, iphini likamelekeleli omele i-US Trade for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, bekopisha uWillbrand nabanye, ukuze bavuselele kubo ngesimo.

UTravis ubhale ukuthi iThailand ibukeka ikulungele ukuvimbela i-glyphosate ngesivinini “esisheshayo”, ngoDisemba 1, 2019. Kanye ne-glyphosate, izwe belihlela ukuvimbela chlorpyrifos, isibulala-zinambuzane esenziwe sathandwa yiDow Chemical esaziwa ngokulimaza ubuchopho bezingane; futhi i-paraquat, ososayensi be-herbicide bathi kubanga isifo sohlelo lwemizwa esaziwa nge-Parkinson's.

UTravis uveze ubungozi ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate okungahle kube nakho ekuthengisweni kwempahla yase-US ngenxa yenkinga ye-MRL futhi wahlinzeka nangezinye izinto ezingemuva izikhulu ezingazisebenzisa ukuzibandakanya neThailand.

"Ngokwentuthuko yakamuva, sikhula ngokukhathazeka kakhulu ukuthi abanye abenzi bezinqubomgomo nabenzi bomthetho bayayijaha le nqubo futhi ngeke babonisane kahle nabo bonke ababambiqhaza bezolimo noma babheke ngokuphelele umthelela wezomnotho nowezemvelo wokuvinjelwa i-glyphosate," kubhalela uTravis izikhulu zase-US.

Ukuhwebelana ngama-imeyili kukhombisa ukuthi izikhulu zeBayer nezaseMelika zikhulume ngezisusa ezingaba khona zezikhulu zaseThailand nokuthi ubuhlakani obunjalo bungaba lusizo kanjani. "Ukwazi okumshukumisayo kungasiza ngezimpikiswano eziphikisayo ze-USG," esinye isikhulu sase-US wabhalela uBayer mayelana nomholi oyedwa waseThai.

UTravis uphakamise ukuthi izikhulu zase-US zibandakanyeke kakhulu njengoba zazenzile neVietnam lapho lelo zwe lithutha ngo-Ephreli 2019 ukuvimbela i-glyphosate.

Ngemuva nje kwesikhalazo esivela kuBayer, uMcKinney wabhalela uNdunankulu waseThailand ngalolu daba. Ku- Okthoba 17, 2019 incwadi McKinney, owake wakwenza lokho usebenzile AbakwaDow Agrosciences, bameme izikhulu zaseThailand eWashington engxoxweni yokuzibonela mathupha mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate kanye nokuzimisela kwe-Environmental Protection Agency ukuthi i-glyphosate “ayinabungozi empilweni yomuntu lapho isetshenziswa njengokugunyaziwe.”

"Uma ukuvalwa komthetho kungalandelwa kuzothinta kakhulu ukuthengwa kwempahla yaseThailand kwezolimo ezifana nesoya nobhontshisi," kubhala uMcKinney. "Ngiyaninxusa ukuthi nibambezele isinqumo nge-glyphosate size sikwazi ukuhlela ithuba lochwepheshe bezobuchwepheshe base-US ukuthi babelane ngolwazi olufanele kakhulu ukubhekana nezinkinga zaseThailand."

Isikhathi esingaphezudlwana kwenyanga kamuva, ngoNovemba 27, Thailand kuguqulwe ukuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate. Iphinde yathi izobambezela ukuvinjelwa kweparaquat kanye ne-chlorpyrifos izinyanga ezimbalwa.

IThailand iphothule ukuvinjelwa kwe-paraquat ne-chlorpyrifos ngoJuni 1, walo nyaka. Kepha i-glyphosate ihlala isetshenziswa. 

Lapho ebuzwa ngokuzibandakanya kwakhe nezikhulu zase-US ngalolu daba, iBayer yakhipha isitatimende esilandelayo:

"Njengezinkampani eziningi nezinhlangano ezisebenza ezimbonini ezilawulwa kakhulu, sinikezela ngolwazi futhi sifaka isandla ekwenziweni kwemigomo esekwe kwisayensi nasezinhlelweni zokulawula. Ukuxhumana kwethu nabo bonke labo abasemkhakheni womphakathi kuyinto ejwayelekile, enobungcweti, futhi iyahambisana nayo yonke imithetho nezimiso.

Ukuguqulwa kweziphathimandla zaseThailand kokuvinjelwa kwe-glyphosate kuyahambisana nokunqunywa kwesayensi okwenziwe yizindikimba ezilawulayo emhlabeni wonke, kufaka phakathi I-united statesEuropeGermanyAustraliaKoreaCanadaE-New ZealandJapan nakwezinye izindawo eziphothule kaninginingi ukuthi imikhiqizo yethu esekwe ku-glyphosate ingasetshenziswa ngokuphepha njengokuyalelwa.

 Abalimi baseThailand basebenzise i-glyphosate ngokuphepha nangempumelelo amashumi eminyaka ukukhiqiza izitshalo ezibalulekile kufaka phakathi umdumbula, ummbila, umoba, izithelo, intende kawoyela nenjoloba. IGlyphosate isize abalimi ukuthi bathuthukise izindlela zabo zokuphila futhi bahlangabezane nokulindelwe umphakathi ngokudla okuphephile, okungabizi futhi okukhiqizwa ngendlela efanele. ”

 

Amaphepha eDicamba: Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-United States imangalela iMonsanto Co yangaphambili, eyathengwa ngo-2018 yiBayer AG, kanye ne-congresserate BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa okungekho emthethweni okusetshenzisiwe i ukhula lubulala i-dicamba yamakhemikhali, ukusetshenziswa okukhuthazwa yizinkampani.

Icala lokuqala ukuthethwa kwecala laxabanisa izinkampani zaseMissouri eziphathelene nezinkampani kwaholela ekutheni kukhishwe isinqumo esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 265 ezinkampanini. I- amajaji aklonyelisiwe $ 15 million kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye nezigidi ezingama- $ 250 kumonakalo wokujezisa.

Icala lifakwe enkantolo ye- Inkantolo Yesifunda Sase-US Yesifunda SaseMpumalanga yeMissouri, Southeastern Division, Idokodo Lombuso # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanikazi beBader Farms basola ukuthi izinkampani zakha uzungu lokudala "inhlekelele yezemvelo" ezokwengeza abalimi ukuthi bathenge imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba. Imibhalo esemqoka evela kulelo cala ingatholakala ngezansi.

Ihhovisi le-EPA loMhloli Jikelele (i-OIG) uhlela ukuphenya ukugunyazwa kwe-ejensi yemithi emisha yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ukuthola ukuthi ngabe i-EPA iyayilandela yini imigomo yenhlangano kanye "nezimiso ezizwakalayo ngokwesayensi" ngenkathi ibhalisa ama-dicamba herbicides amasha.

ISENZO SENKULULEKO

Ngokwehlukana, ngoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokuvumela ukubulawa kwe-dicamba okwenziwe yiBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences kanye kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Izinhlangano eziningi zamapulazi zijoyine iCorteva, iBayer neBASF ekuceleni inkantolo ukuthi ingaphoqeleli ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa. Imibhalo itholakala ngezansi.

ISENDLALELO: I-Dicamba isetshenziswe ngabalimi kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1960s kepha ngemikhawulo ebibhekele amandla amakhemikhali ukukhukhumala nokuhamba ngamandla- ukusuka kude lapho efafazwe khona. Ngenkathi imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edumile kaMonsanto, njenge-Roundup, iqala ukuphelelwa amandla ngenxa yokuphikiswa kokhula okusakazekile, uMonsanto wanquma ukwethula uhlelo lokutshala i-dicamba olufana nohlelo lwalo oludumile lweRoundup Ready, olwalubhanqa imbewu ebekezelela i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba bangaphatha kalula ukhula olunenkani ngokufafaza amasimu wonke nge-dicamba, noma ngabe izinyanga zikhula ngokufudumele, ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo. IMonsanto umemezele ukusebenzisana ne-BASF ngo-2011. Lezi zinkampani zithe imishanguzo yabo emisha ye-dicamba izobe incipha kakhulu futhi ingathambeki kangako kunezindlela ezindala ze-dicamba.

I-Environmental Protection Agency yavuma ukusetshenziswa kwe-Monsanto's dicamba herbicide “XtendiMax” ngo-2016. I-BASF yathuthukisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza nge-Engenia. Kokubili i-XtendiMax ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala e-United States ngo-2017.

IMonsanto iqale ukuthengisa imbewu yayo ebekezelela i-dicamba ngonyaka we-2016, futhi isimangalo esibalulekile sabamangali ukuthi ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunyelwa kokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula entsha ye-dicamba kukhuthaze abalimi ukuthi bafafaze amasimu ngezinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba. Icala leBader lithi: “Imbangela yokucekelwa phansi kwezitshalo zikaMmangali Bader Farms ukukhishwa kwamabomu kommangalelwa uMonsanto ngamabomu nangobudedengu kohlelo lwesitshalo olungasebenzi kahle - okuyi-soya yalo eguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo i-Roundup Ready 2 Xtend kanye nembewu kakotini iBollgard II Xtend (“ izilimo ze-Xtend ” ) - ngaphandle kwesihlanganisi esivunyelwe i-EPA esivunyelwe i-dicamba herbicide. ”

Abalimi bathi izinkampani ziyazi futhi zilindele ukuthi imbewu entsha izokhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukukhukhuleka kuzolimaza amasimu abalimi abangayithenganga imbewu ekwazi ukubekezelela i-dicamba. Abalimi basola ukuthi lokhu bekuyingxenye yohlelo lokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba. Abaningi basola ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba okuthengiswa yizinkampani nakho kuyakhukhula futhi kudale ukulimala kwezitshalo njengoba nje izinhlobo ezindala zenzile.

Ngeminye imininingwane mayelana ne-dicamba, sicela ubone eyethu ishidi lamaqiniso le-dicamba.

Amaqembu ama-Big Ag athi inkantolo ayikwazi ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi kufanele ivimbele nini i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abahlukumezi abasindayo kunabo bonke batshele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi akufanele izame ukuvimba abalimi bakakotini nabasoya beGMO ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula be-dicamba ngokungekho emthethweni ekupheleni kukaJulayi, yize inkantolo yakhipha umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ngokushesha.

Izinhlangano eziyisithupha zezentengiselwano zikazwelonke, zonke ezinokuxhumana okudala kwezezimali eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani ezithengisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba okukhulunywa ngayo, zifake isikhalazo ngoLwesithathu eNkantolo Yezokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika ngeSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye linxusa inkantolo ukuthi ingazami ukugxambukela. ngesimemezelo se-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ngoJulayi 31.

Bacele nenkantolo ukuthi ingayibukeli phansi i-EPA njengoba kuceliwe ngamaqembu awine i- Juni 3 umyalelo wenkantolo ekhipha ukuvinjelwa.

"Abalimi baseMelika bakabhontshisi nabokotini bangaba sengozini enkulu yezezimali uma bevinjelwa ukusebenzisa i-Dicamba Products kule nkathi yokukhula," kusho umbiko omfushane owenziwe yi-American Farm Bureau Federation, i-American Soybean Association, iNational Cotton Council of America, iNational Association of Wheat Growers, National I-Corn Growers Association, nabakhiqizi be-National Sorghum.

Ngokwehlukana, iCropLife America, i-lobbyist enethonya embonini yezolimo, wafaka isikhashana  ithi ifuna ukunikeza "Ulwazi Olusizo eNkantolo." AbakwaCropLife basho lokhu kufayela ukuthi inkantolo ayinalo igunya lokuthi i-EPA iqhubeka kanjani nokusula ukusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala izinambuzane njengababulali bokhula i-dicamba.

Le minyakazo ingeyakamuva ezimweni eziningi ezalandela isinqumo seSekethe Yesishiyagalolunye, esathola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye nemikhiqizo edayiswa yiBASF, kanye IDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye walezi zinkampani, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bayo leyo mikhiqizo kubalimi abatshala izilimo ngaphandle kokotini nobhontshisi obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-EPA ibonakale iliphika i-oda, kepha, lapho utshele abalimi bakakotini nabasoya bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngoJulayi 31.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS) namanye amaqembu abekade beyise i-EPA enkantolo ngalolu daba babuyele enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, bafuna ukuthi i-9 Circuit bamba i-EPA ngokwedelela. Inkantolo manje isicubungula leso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA nezinkampani ezibulala izibulala-zinambuzane zizamile ukudida lolu daba nokuzama ukwesabisa iNkantolo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell, umqondisi wezomthetho we-CFS nommeli walaba bafaka izicelo. "INkantolo ibambe ukuthi lo mkhiqizo usebenzisa okungekho emthethweni kanti ubuqili be-EPA abunakukushintsha lokho."

Umyalo wokuvinjelwa kwemikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Izitshalo zibekezelela i-dicamba ngenkathi ukhula lufa.

Amaqembu okwamukela izivakashi epulazini athi ngamafuphi awo ukuthi ama-acre angama-64 million atshalwe nembewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini. Bathe uma labo balimi bengakwazi ukufafaza amasimu abo ngemikhiqizo ye-dicamba bazoba “ngokuvikeleka kakhulu kukhula olumelana neminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, okubanga
imiphumela ebalulekile yezimali evela ekulahlekelweni komkhiqizo. ”

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, kusho inkantolo yombuso kulesi sinqumo.

"Inhloso ye-EPA ukuvikela impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo…" kusho umongameli webhodi leNational Family Farm Coalition uJim Goodman. "Ukwedelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungeke kuvezwe ngokucacile kunokunganaki kwabo okusobala isinqumo seNkantolo Yesishiyagalolunye Yesekethe Yokwedlulisa Amacala sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu kakhulu zedicamba ngokushesha ukuvimbela izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo zabalimi ukuba zingabhujiswa."

NgoFebhuwari, a Ijaji laseMissouri liyalile IBayer neBASF bakhokhele umlimi wamapentshisi amadola ayizigidi eziyi-15 kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa ngomonakalo we-dicamba ezingadini zomlimi. Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi iMonsanto neBASF bakha uzungu ezenzweni ababazi ukuthi zizoholela ekulimaleni kwezitshalo okubanzi ngoba babelindele ukuthi kuzonyusa inzuzo yabo

Izidlakela zamakhemikhali ezethukile zifuna indlela enkantolo lapho kuvinjelwa ababulali babo bokhula

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bephawula “isimo esiphuthumayo,” imidondoshiya yamakhemikhali i-BASF ne-DuPont bacele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi ibavumele bangenelele ecaleni lapho inkantolo ekuqaleni kwenyanga yayalela ukuthi imithi yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ivinjelwe ngokushesha kanye nomkhiqizo we-dicamba owenziwe ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG .

Isenzo sezinkampani zamakhemikhali silandela a Isinqumo sangoJuni 3 yiNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye eyathi i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye wenkampani i-dicamba, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

I-EPA weqe lowo myalo, kodwa-ke, ukutshela abalimi ukuthi bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngasekupheleni kukaJulayi.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu amapulazi nabathengi abafake icala okokuqala bephikisana ne-EPA babuyela enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, ukucela umyalelo ophuthumayo ephethe i-EPA ngokudelela. Inkantolo yanikeza i-EPA kuze kuphele usuku ngoLwesibili, ngoJuni 16, ukuba iphendule.

Isiphithiphithi Ezweni Lepulazi

Umyalelo ovimbela imikhiqizo yezinkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lepulazi ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya nabakotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe yilaba abathathu izinkampani.

“Uhlelo lwezitshalo lwe-dicamba” luhlinzekela abalimi ukuthi batshale amasimu abo ngezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba, abangazifafaza “ngaphezulu-phezulu” ngombulali wokhula we-dicamba. Uhlelo luye lwacebisa izinkampani ezidayisa imbewu namakhemikhali futhi lusize abalimi abatshala ukotini okhethekile obekezelela i-dicamba noshuya ukubhekana nokhula olunenkani olumelana nemikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate-based Roundup.

Kepha kwinani elikhulu labalimi abangazitshali izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo, ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-dicamba herbicides kusho ukulimala nokulahleka kwezitshalo ngoba i-dicamba ithambekele ekukhuphukeni nasekukhukhulekeni amabanga amade lapho ingabulala khona izitshalo, izihlahla nezihlahlana hhayi ukuguqulwa kofuzo ukumelana nekhemikhali.

Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zokulimala kwe-dicamba drift. Ngaphezu kwamahektare ayisigidi okonakele kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yombuso yaphawula kulesi sinqumo sayo.

Abalimi abaningi baqale bagubha isinqumo senkantolo futhi bakhululeka ukuthi amapulazi abo kanye nezithelo zabo zezithelo zizosinda kuleli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba ababhekane nawo ehlobo langaphambilini. Kepha ukukhululeka kube okwesikhashana lapho i-EPA ithi ngeke iphoqe ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa okunqunywe yinkantolo.

Ekugcwaliseni okwenziwe ngoLwesihlanu, IBASF incenge inkantolo hhayi ukuphoqelela ukuvinjelwa ngokushesha futhi watshela inkantolo ukuthi kuzodingeka ivalwe indawo yokukhiqiza eBeaumont, eTexas, okwamanje "esebenza amahora angama-24 ngosuku cishe ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" uma ingakwazi ukukhiqiza uhlobo lwayo lwe-dicamba herbicide olubiziwe Engenia. I-BASF isebenzise u- $ 370 million eminyakeni eyedlule ithuthukisa lesi sitshalo futhi iqashe abantu abayi-170 lapho, kusho inkampani.

Iqaphela "ukutshalwa kwezimali okukhulu" kumkhiqizo wayo, i-BASF iphinde yatshela inkantolo ukuthi kunokwanele komkhiqizo wayo njengamanje kuso sonke "isiteshi samakhasimende" sayo ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-26.7 kasoya nobotini. I-BASF inomkhiqizo owengeziwe obiza u- $ 44 million we-Engenia dicamba onawo, owanele ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-6.6 kabhontshisi nokotini, kusho inkampani.

UDuPont / Corteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, etshela inkantolo ekufayilini kwayo ukuthi ukuvinjelwa "kulimaza ngqo" inkampani "kanye nabalimi abaningi ezweni lonke abaphakathi nenkathi yokukhula." Kuzolimaza “isithunzi” senkampani uma kuvalwa umuthi wayo wokubulala ukhula, inkampani itshele inkantolo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukudala "imali engenayo" ngokuthengisa umuthi wayo we-dicamba, obizwa ngeFeXapan futhi uzolahlekelwa yileyo mali uma ukuvinjelwa kuphoqelelwa, kusho inkampani.

IMonsanto ibisebenza kuleli cala elisekela ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesinqumo, kepha bobabili i-BASF neDuPont bagomela ngokungeyikho ukuthi icala lasenkantolo lisebenza kuphela emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto hhayi kweyabo. Inkantolo ikubeke kwacaca nokho ukuthi i-EPA yamukele ngokungemthetho imikhiqizo eyenziwe yizo zontathu lezi zinkampani.

Iholwa yiCentre for Food Safety, isicelo esimelene ne-EPA silethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, iCentre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Ngokucela inkantolo ukuthi ithole i-EPA ngokwedelela, i-consortium ixwayise ngomonakalo wezitshalo ozofika uma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ingavinjelwe ngokushesha.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukufafazwa kwamakhilogremu ayizigidi eziyi-16 ngaphezulu kwe-dicamba nokudala umonakalo ezigidini zamahektare, kanye nezingozi ezinkulu ezinhlotsheni eziyizinkulungwane ezisengozini yokuqothulwa," kusho le nhlangano. “Kukhona okunye futhi okusengcupheni: umthetho. INkantolo kumele isebenze ukuvimbela ukungabi nabulungisa futhi ibambelele ebuqothweni benqubo yokwahlulela. Futhi unikezwe okusobala
ukunganakwa kwe-EPA okukhonjisiwe ngesinqumo seNkantolo, abafaki bezikhalazo banxusa iNkantolo ukuthi ibukele phansi i-EPA. ”

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izindaba zakamuva: Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US umemezele ngo-Okthoba 27 kuzovumela abalimi base-US ukuthi baqhubeke nokufafaza izitshalo ngomuthi we-weerkiller we-Bayer AG osetshenziswe kuma-soya kabhontshisi we-GMO kanye ne-cotton, ngaphandle komyalelo wenkantolo ovimba ukuthengisa. NgoJuni an Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala yanquma ukuthi I-EPA “ibubeke eceleni kakhulu ubungozi” bababulali bokhula be-dicamba. Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-US imangalela iBayer (phambilini eyayiyiMonsanto) kanye ne-BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa kakhulu kwe-dicamba. Sithumela imibhalo yokuthola nokuhlaziywa kwezilingo ku- Ikhasi le-Dicamba Papers.

Uhlolojikelele

I-Dicamba (I-3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid) iyinhlangano ebanzi i-herbicide yaqala ukubhaliswa ngo-1967. I-herbicide isetshenziselwa izitshalo zezolimo, umhlaba olinywayo, amadlelo, i-turfgrass kanye ne-rangeland. IDicamba ibhaliswe futhi ekusetshenzisweni okungezona kwezolimo ezindaweni zokuhlala nakwezinye izindawo, ezinjengezinkundla zegalofu lapho isetshenziswa kakhulu ukulawula ukhula lwamaqabunga abanzi njengama-dandelions, i-chickweed, i-clover kanye ne-ivy yomhlabathi.

Imikhiqizo engaphezu kwe-1,000 XNUMX edayiswa e-United States efaka phakathi i-dicamba, ngokusho kweNational Pesticide Information Center. Indlela yokwenza kukaDicamba injenge-auxin agonist: ikhiqiza ukukhula okungalawuleki okuholela ekufeni kwezitshalo.

Ukukhathazeka Ngezemvelo 

Izinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba zaziwa ngokushushumbisa kude nalapho zisetshenziswe khona, futhi ngokuvamile zazingasetshenziswa kabanzi phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele lapho zazingabulala khona izitshalo noma izihlahla ezazingahlosiwe.

I-Ejensi Yezokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo ivume ukubhaliswa kwamafomu amasha e-dicamba ngo-2016, kodwa-ke, ivumela ukusetshenziswa okusha kwezicelo "ezingaphezulu kweziphezulu" ezitshalweni ezikhulayo ze-dicamba ezibekezelela ukotini nezimbotyi zesoya. Ososayensi baxwayise ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kuzoholela ekulimaleni kwe-dicamba drift.

Ukusetshenziswa okusha kwe-dicamba kwenzeka ngenxa yokuthuthukiswa kokumelana nokhula kabanzi emithini yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate, kubandakanya nomkhiqizo odumile weRoundup, owethulwe nguMonsanto ngawo-1970. Ngama-1990s, iMonsanto yethula izitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate, yaphinde yakhuthaza abakwa-famers ukuthi basebenzise izinhlelo zabo zokutshala "Roundup Ready". Abalimi bangatshala isoya sikabhontshisi we-glyphosate obekezelela izakhi zofuzo zikaMonsanto, ummbila, ukotini nezinye izitshalo, bese befutha imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula efana ne-Roundup ngqo ngaphezulu kwezitshalo ezikhulayo ngaphandle kokubabulala. Uhlelo lwenza ukuphathwa kokhula kube lula kubalimi ngoba babekwazi ukufafaza amakhemikhali ngqo kuwo wonke amasimu abo ngenkathi yokukhula, kuqeda ukhula olwaluncintisana nezitshalo ukuthola umswakama nomsoco womhlabathi.

Ukuthandwa kohlelo lweRoundup Ready kwaholela ekwandeni kokumelana nokhula, kepha, kushiya abalimi ngezinsimu zokhula oluqinile ezazingasafi lapho zifuthwa nge-glyphosate.

Ku-2011 iMonsanto imemezele ukuthi i-glyphosate, ibikhona “Uthembele ebangeni elide ngokwako” futhi ithe ihlela ukusebenzisana neBASF nokwenza uhlelo lokutshala izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezizobekezelela ukufuthwa nge-dicamba. Ithi izokwethula uhlobo olusha lwe-dicamba herbicide olungeke lukhukhuleke luqhelelene namasimu lapho lufuthwe khona.

Kusukela kwethulwa uhlelo olusha, izikhalazo ngomonakalo we-dicamba drift sezikhuphukile ezifundeni eziningana zepulazi, kufaka phakathi izikhalazo eziningi ezivela e-Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Missouri nase-Arkansas.

Embikweni wangomhla ziyi-1 ku-Novemba 2017, i-EPA ithe ithole uphenyo olusemthethweni lokulimala kwezitshalo ezingama-2,708 (njengokusho kweminyango yezolimo). Le nhlangano ithe bekungaphezu kwamahektare ayizigidi ezingama-3.6 kabhontshisi owathinteka ngaleso sikhathi. Ezinye izitshalo ezithintekile bekungotamatisi, ikhabe, ikantaloupe, izivini, amathanga, imifino, ugwayi, izingadi zokuhlala, izihlahla nezihlahlana

NgoJulayi 2017, uMnyango Wezolimo waseMissouri wakhipha okwesikhashana i- "Stop Sale, Use or Removal Order," kuyo yonke imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eMissouri. Umbuso wasusa lesi sinqumo ngoSepthemba 2017.

Le yimikhiqizo ethile ye-dicamba:

Ngo-Okthoba 31, 2018, i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yamemezela ukwelulwa kokubhaliswa kwe-Engenia, XtendiMax neFeXapan ngonyaka ka-2020 ukuze kusetshenziswe “ngaphezulu” ezindaweni ezingabekezeleleki zikakotini nezimboni zesoya. I-EPA ithe ithuthukise amalebuli wangaphambilini futhi yafaka ezinye izindlela zokuvikela ngomzamo wokukhulisa impumelelo nokusetshenziswa okuphephile komkhiqizo emkhakheni.

Ukubhaliswa kweminyaka emibili kusebenza ngokusemthethweni ngoDisemba 20, 2020. I-EPA isho lezi zinhlinzeko ezilandelayo:

  • Abafakizicelo abaqinisekisiwe kuphela abangafaka i-dicamba ngaphezulu-phezulu (labo abasebenza ngaphansi kweso lomfakisicelo oqinisekisiwe bangabe besakwazi ukwenza izicelo)
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi ezinsukwini ezingama-45 ngemuva kokutshala noma kuze kufike esigabeni sokukhula sika-R1 (ukuqhuma kokuqala), noma yikuphi okuza kuqala
  • Vimbela ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kwe-dicamba kukotini ezinsukwini ezingama-60 ngemuva kokutshala
  • Okotini, nciphisa inani lezicelo ezingaphezulu kwezingu-XNUMX kuya kwezimbili
  • Kosabhontshisi, inani lezicelo ezisezingeni eliphezulu lihlala kwababili
  • Izicelo zizovunyelwa kusuka ehoreni elilodwa ngemuva kokuphuma kwelanga kuya emahoreni amabili ngaphambi kokushona kwelanga
  • Ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo zezilwane ezisengcupheni zingaba khona, isiphepho saphansi sizohlala ezinyaweni eziyi-110 futhi kuzoba ne-buffer entsha engamamitha angama-57 ezungeze ezinye izinhlangothi zensimu (i-110-foot downwind buffer isebenza kuzo zonke izinhlelo zokusebenza, hhayi kuphela ezifundeni lapho izinhlobo ezisengozini yokuphela zingaba khona)
  • Imiyalo yokuhlanza ithangi ethuthukisiwe yohlelo lonke
  • Amalebula athuthukisiwe okuthuthukisa ukuqwashisa kwabafakizicelo kumthelela we-pH ephansi ekushiseni okungenzeka kwe-dicamba
  • Ilebuli ihlanza kanye nokuvumelana ukuze kuthuthukiswe ukuhambisana nokusebenza

Inkantolo Yesicelo Sokudlulisa Amacala yase-9 

NgoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokugunyaza ukubulala ukhula okwenziwe yi-Bayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Inkantolo kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo.

Imininingwane engaphezulu ingaba utholwe lapha.

Izinsalela Zokudla 

Njengoba nje ukutholakala kwe-glyphosate emasimini asepulazini kutholakale kushiya izinsalela ze-glyphosate kokudla okuphelile, okufana ne-oatmeal, izinkwa, okusanhlamvu, njll, izinsalela ze-dicamba kulindeleke ukuthi zishiye izinsalela ekudleni. Abalimi abakhiqiziwe kwabo kungcoliswe yizinsalela ze-dicamba nge-drift bazwakalise ukukhathazeka kwabo ngokuthi imikhiqizo yabo ingahle yenqatshwe noma ilimale ngenye indlela kwezentengiso ngenxa yenkinga yezinsalela.

I-EPA ibeke amazinga okubekezelela i-dicamba okusanhlamvu okuningana nenyama yemfuyo edla okusanhlamvu, kepha hhayi ngezithelo nemifino enhlobonhlobo. Ukubekezelelana kwe-dicamba kubhontshisi kusethwe ezingxenyeni eziyi-10 ngesigidi, ngokwesibonelo, e-United States, kanye nezingxenye ezi-2 ngesigidi sikakolweni wokusanhlamvu. Ukubekezelelana kungakwazi ubonwe lapha. 

I-EPA isikhiphile lesi sitatimende maqondana nezinsalela ze-dicamba ekudleni: "I-EPA yenze ukuhlaziywa okudingwa yi-Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) futhi yanquma ukuthi izinsalela zokudla" ziphephile "- okusho ukuthi kunesiqiniseko sokuthi akukho ukulimala kubantu, kufaka phakathi konke ukubonwa okungakhonjwa ngendlela efanelekile, kufaka phakathi izinsana nezingane, kusuka ekudleni nakwezinye izinto ezingekho emsebenzini ku-dicamba. ”

I-Cancer ne-Hypothyroidism 

I-EPA ithi i-dicamba ayinakuba yi-carcinogenic, kepha ezinye izifundo zithole ingozi eyengeziwe yomdlavuza kubasebenzisi be-dicamba.

Bona lezi zifundo maqondana nemiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ye-dicamba:

Ukusetshenziswa kwe-Dicamba kanye nesifo somdlavuza esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo: ukuhlaziywa okubuyekeziwe I-International Journal of Epidemiology (05.01.2020) “Phakathi kwabafakizicelo abangama-49 922, abangama-26 412 (52.9%) basebenzise i-dicamba. Uma kuqhathaniswa nabafakizicelo ababika ukuthi abayisebenzisi i-dicamba, labo abasengozini ephakeme kakhulu yokuchayeka babe sengozini enkulu yomdlavuza wesibindi nowangaphakathi we-intrahepatic kanye ne-lymphocytic leukemia engapheli kanye nokwehla kwengozi ye-myeloid leukemia. ”

Ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye ne-Incident Hypothyroidism kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane eSifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (9.26.18)
"Kuleli qoqo elikhulu labalimi abebesengozini yokutholakala nezibulala-zinambuzane, sithole ukuthi ukusetshenziswa njalo kwezinambuzane ezine ze-organochlorine (i-aldrin, i-chlordane, i-heptachlor, ne-lindane), ama-insecticide amane e-organophosphate (coumaphos, diazinon, dichlorvos, ne-malathion), kanti imithi emithathu yokubulala ukhula (i-dicamba, i-glyphosate, ne-2,4-D) yayihlotshaniswa nengozi eyengeziwe ye-hypothyroidism. ”

I-Hypothyroidism nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane phakathi kwabasebenzisi bezinambuzane abazimele besilisa esifundweni sezempilo sezolimo. Ijenali Yemithi Yezemvelo Emsebenzini (10.1.14)
"Imithi yokubulala ukhula i-2,4-D, i-2,4,5-T, i-2,4,5-TP, i-alachlor, i-dicamba, ne-oyela kaphethiloli konke kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwengozi ye-hypothyroidism"

Ukubuyekezwa kokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kuqoqo lezempilo leZolimo. Izindlela Zokuphila Zezemvelo (8.1.10)
“Sibuyekeze izifundo ezingama-28; iningi lezibulala-zinambuzane ezingama-32 ezihloliwe bezingahlangene kakhulu nezehlakalo zomdlavuza kubafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane. Izilinganiso zokukhuphuka kwamazinga (noma izingqinamba ezingavumelani) namaphethini okuphendula okuchayeka okuhle abikwe ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyi-12 okwamanje ebhaliswe eCanada kanye / noma e-United States (alachlor, aldicarb, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dicamba, S-ethyl-N, N- i-dipropylthiocarbamate, imazethapyr, metolachlor, pendimethalin, permethrin, trifluralin). ”

Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafaka Izicelo Zezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KuDicamba Kwezempilo Yezolimo Isifundo. Izindlela Zempilo Yezemvelo (7.13.06)
“Ukuvezwa kwezinto bekungahlobene nezehlakalo zomdlavuza jikelele futhi bezingekho izinhlangano eziqinile ezinoma yiluphi uhlobo lomdlavuza. Lapho iqembu lesethenjwa lalinabafakizicelo abadalulwe kancane, sabona ukuthambekela okuhle engcupheni phakathi kwezinsuku zokuvezwa kwempilo yonke kanye nomdlavuza wamaphaphu (p = 0.02), kepha azikho izilinganiso zamaphoyinti ngamunye ezaziphakanyiswe kakhulu. Siphinde sabona ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwengozi ekhulayo yomdlavuza wekoloni ezinsukwini zombili zokuvezwa kwempilo kanye nezinsuku zokuphila ezinesisindo, yize le miphumela ibangelwe kakhulu yingozi ephezulu ezingeni eliphakeme lokuchayeka.

I-non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma kanye nokuvezwa okuthe ngqo kwezibulala-zinambuzane emadodeni: IsiCross-Canada Study of Pesticides and Health. I-Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers kanye nokuvimbela (11.01)
“Phakathi kokuhlanganiswa ngakunye, ekuhlaziyweni kwe-multivariate, ubungozi be-NHL bunyuswe ngokweqile ngokutholakala kwemithi yokubulala ukhula… dicamba (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.00-2.81); … .Kwezinye izinhlobo zama-multivariate, ezibandakanya ukuvezwa kwamanye amakilasi amakhulu amakhemikhali noma izibulala-zinambuzane ngazinye, umdlavuza womuntu siqu owedlule, umlando womdlavuza phakathi kwezihlobo zokuqala, nokuvezwa kwezingxube eziqukethe i-dicamba (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.40– 2.75)… babeyizibikezelo ezibalulekile ezizimele zengozi eyengeziwe yeNHL ”

icala 

Ukukhathazeka ngomonakalo we-dicamba kudale amacala avela kubalimi ezifundazweni eziningi zase-US. Imininingwane ngecala ingatholakala lapha.

UDicamba: Abalimi besaba enye inkathi yokulimala kwezitshalo; Kulindwe isinqumo senkantolo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngokujika kwekhalenda kuze kube nguJuni, abalimi e-Midwest yase-US basonga ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ezintsha zesoya futhi banakekele izinkambu ezikhulayo zezitshalo zommbila ezincane neziza zemifino. Kepha abaningi futhi balungiselela ukushaywa isitha esingabonakali esidale umonakalo ezweni lasepulazini ehlobo eledlule - ikhemikhali killer dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umlimi oqinisekisiwe wezinto eziphilayo eRobinson, eKansas, uchaza izinkathi ezimbalwa zokugcina zezikhathi zasehlobo njengoba kubonakala “ngezinxushunxushu,” futhi wathi ulahlekelwe yingxenye yesitifiketi sensimu eyodwa yezitshalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efuthwe kude. Manje unxusa omakhelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula emasimini abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ikhemikhali alihlali kude nempahla yakhe.

"Kukhona i-dicamba yonke indawo," kusho uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomunye wabalimi abangamakhulu azungeze i-US Midwest kanye nezifunda eziningana eziseningizimu ezibike ngomonakalo wezitshalo nokulahleka abathi kubangelwe ukukhukhuleka kwedicamba eminyakeni embalwa edlule.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambekela okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe.

Lokho kuvinjelwa kuguqulwe ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba "ngaphezulu" kwalezi zilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. IMonsanto, manje ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole ukuvunyelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukumaketha ukwakheka okusha kwama-dicamba herbicides okufafaza ngaphezu kweziqongo zezitshalo ezikhula zibekezelela i-dicamba. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza.

Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwaqala izitshalo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu abalimi nabathengi umangalele i-EPA ngokuxhasa kwayo ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kakhulu kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi manje ilinde isinqumo senkantolo yesishiyagalolunye yokudlulisa amacala eSan Francisco maqondana nesicelo sabo sokuthi inkantolo ichithe umthetho we-EPA imvume yemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Izimpikiswano zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Ephreli.

Abathengi kanye namaqembu ezemvelo asola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokwehluleka ukuhlaziya "izindleko ezibalulekile zenhlalo yomnotho kanye nezolimo kubalimi" okuholele emazingeni "ayinhlekelele" omonakalo wezitshalo.

La maqembu athi i-EPA ibonakala inentshisekelo enkulu kuyo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi weMonsanto nezinye izinkampani kunokuvikela abalimi.

Abameli beMonsanto, abamele inkampani njengeyunithi yeBayer, bathe abamangali abanampikiswano ethembekile. Umuthi omusha we-dicamba herbicide wenkampani, obizwa nge-XtendiMax, “usize abalimi ekubhekaneni nenkinga enkulu yokulwisana nokhula ezweni lonke, kanti isivuno sikabhontshisi nesokotini sesibe namandla kakhulu ezweni lonke ngaleli cala,” kusho kuya kafushane yafakwa ngabameli benkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Isicelo sabafaka isicelo somyalelo wokumisa ngokushesha konke ukuthengiswa nokusetshenziswa kwesibulala-zinambuzane simema amaphutha ezomthetho kanye nemithelela engaba yinhlekelele emhlabeni wangempela," kusho inkampani.

Njengoba belinde isinqumo senkantolo yenhlangano, abalimi banethemba lokuthi imikhawulo emisha ebekwe yizifundazwe ezithile izobavikela. UMnyango Wezolimo e-Illinois ululeke abafake izicelo abangakwazi ukufafaza ngemuva kukaJuni 20, ukuthi akufanele bafafaze imikhiqizo ye-dicamba uma izinga lokushisa lingaphezu kuka-45 degrees Fahrenheit, nokuthi kufanele basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba lapho umoya uvunguza usuka ezindaweni “ezizwelayo”. IMinnesota, Indiana, North Dakota kanye neNingizimu Dakota ziphakathi kwezinye izifundazwe ezibeka izinsuku zokunquma zokufafaza i-dicamba.

USteve Smith, umqondisi wezolimo kwaRed Gold Inc, inqubo yamatamatisi esemathinini enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, uthe ngisho nangemingcele yombuso "ukhathazeke kakhulu" ngesizini ezayo. Amahektare amaningi okutshala notshwala obubekezelela i-dicamba athuthukiswe yiMonsanto ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi kube khona ama-dicamba amaningi afuthwayo, kusho yena.

"Sisebenze kanzima ukugcina umlayezo ngaphandle wokuthi ungasondeli eduze kwethu, kodwa kukhona umuntu, kwesinye isikhathi, ozokwenza iphutha elingasilahlekisela kakhulu ibhizinisi lethu," esho.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuthi inkantolo izokuchitha ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA futhi “imise lolu hlanya lohlelo.”

Ngaphandle kokulimala okungaba khona kwe-dicamba ezitshalweni, ucwaningo olusha isanda kushicilelwa ekhombisa ukuthi abalimi abachayeke emazingeni aphezulu e-dicamba babonakala benobungozi obuphakeme besibindi nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Abaphenyi bathi imininingwane emisha ikhombisile ukuthi inhlangano ebonwe phambilini kudatha phakathi kwe-dicamba ne-lung namaphilisi e-colon "ibingasabonakali" ngemininingwane ebuyekeziwe.