ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

Ukukhushulwa okungalungile, okukhohlisayo kukaMark Lynas kwe-ajenda yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UMark Lynas uyintatheli wangaphambilini waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane owenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngaleyo mikhiqizo esakhiweni sakhe IGates Foundation exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science. Izindlu eCornell University kusukela ngonyaka we-2014, ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso wobudlelwano nomphakathi eqeqesha abakhulumayo futhi yakhe amanethiwekhi wethonya, ikakhulukazi emazweni ase-Afrika, ukukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ososayensi, ongoti bezokudla bathi uLynas akalungile kwisayensi

Ososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza izitatimende ezinganembile nezingahambisani nesayensi emizamweni yakhe yokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, izifundiswa zangena ngoJulayi 2020 esihlokweni ULynas ubhalele iCornell Alliance for Science ethi i-agroecology "inobungozi bokulimaza abampofu." Abagxeki bachaza udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi”Kanye ne-“ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela”Ukuthi“ngephutha uhlanganisa ukongiwa kwe-agroecology bese enza iziphetho zasendle. "

Isazi sezolimo nomhlaba uMarc Corbeels, iphepha lakhe uLynas okwakuthiwa uzolichaza kule ndatshana, uthe uLynas wenza “ukwenziwa okwandile. ” UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezepolitiki eQueen's University, ucele ukuthi kuhoxiswe; “Into efanele ukuyenza kungaba khipha ucezu lwakho olunamaphutha kakhulu lokho kudida izinto eziyisisekelo ngamasu ezolimo, ”kusho uTaylor kuTwitter. Uchaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “Imibono emsulwa” kanye “nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza 'ngokwesayensi'. ”  

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo ngomsebenzi kaLynas (kugcizelela okwethu):

  • “Ngingasho ngokusobala ukuthi akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO nokuthi iningi lezitatimende (zikaLynas) zingamanga, ” ubhale uDavid Schubert, PhD, Head, Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory & Professor e-The Salk Institute, encwadini ayibhalele ISan Diego Union Tribune.
  • “Nayi eminye imikhakha ye- amaphuzu angalungile noma alahlekisayo uLynas akwenzayo mayelana nesayensi noma ukuthuthukiswa kwe-GE, ”kubhala uDoug Gurian-Sherman, PhD, owayengusosayensi omkhulu, Inyunyana Yososayensi Abakhathazekile. “Esikhundleni sokuphikisana noma ukuxoxa ngesayensi yangempela, uLynas uphonsa iziphakamiso futhi usebenzise ukuthembela egunyeni kunedatha noma ucwaningo. " 
  • Izimangalo zikaLynas mayelana nokuqiniseka kokuphepha kwe-GMO “akunasayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo, ” ngokusho kukaBelinda Martineau, PhD, unjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo owasiza ekwakheni ukudla kokuqala kwe-GMO (bheka incwadi eya ku-NYT futhi I-Biotech Salon).
  • Ekubuyekezweni Incwadi kaLynas Imbewu Yesayensi, isazi semvelaphi yabantu uGlenn Davis Stone uchaze le ncwadi njenge “ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwamaphuzu okuxoxa embonini evamile. ” 
  • "The Uhlu lokuhlanjwa kwezimpahla lwalokho uMark Lynas okungahambanga kahle ngakho kokubili ama-GMO nesayensi lubanzi, futhi iphikisiwe ngephuzu ngabathile abahola phambili emhlabeni izazi ngezolimo futhi izazi zezinto eziphilayo,”Kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, PhD, owayengumqondisi weFood First, ku I-Huffington Post.
  • UMark Lynas une “wenza umsebenzi ophume…" kubhale uThimothewu A. Wise, owayengumqondisi wocwaningo eGlobal Development and Environment Institute eTufts University.
  • "Ukulandisa kukaLynas kungamanga,”Ngokusho kuka- Ukukhishwa kwe-2018 kusuka e-African Centre for Biodiversity, iqembu elizinze eNingizimu Afrika. 
  • “Maka Izimangalo zikaLynas zibonisa ukungazi okujulile kwezesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. Kufanele ungamnaki, ” uthumele uPete Myers, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Environmental Health Sciences, umshicileli we-EHN.org.

Amaqhinga 'okukhohlisayo, adukisayo futhi angenasimiso' 

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika athi uLynas usemelele kabi amaqiniso amaningi ukuthuthukisa uhlelo lwezombusazwe. Ngokombiko wangoDisemba 2018 yi-African Centre for Biodiversity, Lynas kanye neCornell Alliance for Science basebenzise izithombe zabalimi base-Afrika ngaphandle kolwazi nemvume yabo, bexhaphaza izithombe ngezindlela ezidukisayo zokuthi abalimi badinga ama-GMO.

ULynas usebenzise lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle komongo futhi ngaphandle kwemvume yakhe.

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uLynas wabhala lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle kwemvume nangaphandle komongo, esikisela ukuthi uyisisulu “sokungabi nabulungisa emhlabeni wonke.” UNkk. R empeleni ungumlimi ophumelelayo futhi olwela izindlela zokulima kanye nokuziphilisa kahle, ngokusho kombiko we-ACBio. Ucele uLynas ukuthi asuse isithombe sakhe, kodwa uhlala kwi-feed yakhe ye-twitter. I-ACBio ithe embikweni wayo ukuthi amaqhinga kaLynas “eqe umugqa obomvu wokuziphatha futhi kumele ayeke.”  

Iqembu elibusa ukudla nalo kusho ekukhululweni kwezindaba ukuthi uLynas "unomlando wokwenza ububi eTanzania" ngomkhakha wezokuvikela imboni ye-biotech. “Ukuhambela kwakhe kuleli kuhlelwe kahle yindawo yokwamukela izivakashi, esebenzisa izinkundla ezifana nemihlangano ejwayelekile ye-Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa (OFAB), lapho abezindaba bekhona khona bezobika ngezinkulumo zakhe. Ukuhlasela kwakhe bekuqondiswe kakhulu emithethweni yezwe yokuvikela ukuphepha, ikakhulukazi indlela yayo yokuvikela kanye nemibandela eqinile yezikweletu. ”

I-Alliance for Food Ubukhosi (i-AFSA), umfelandawonye omele amaqembu abalimi angama-35 nabathengi e-Afrika yonkana, nayo isole uLynas ngokugqugquzela “izethembiso ezingamanga, ukumelwa kabi, namanye amaqiniso. ” Kundatshana ka-2018, bachaze uLynas "njengongqondongqondo" ongahloniphi abantu base-Afrika, amasiko namasiko abo. "

Imiyalezo yokubulala izinambuzane isuselwa kumaphoyinti okukhuluma embonini, hhayi isayensi

Esinye isibonelo sokubika okunganembile kukaLynas ngesakhe Isihloko se-2017 i-Cornell Alliance for Science ehlasela i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-World Health Organisation ngokubika i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. U-Lynas wathi lo mbiko wophiko lochwepheshe "kwakuwukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" kanye "nokuhlanekezelwa okusobala kwezesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo," okwakuhlelwe abantu abanqotshwe "ukuthukuthela nemizwelo." Uthe i-glyphosate "iyikhemikhali elibi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni." 

A hlola iqiniso yi-US Right to Know uthole ukuthi uLynas wenza izimpikiswano ezifanayo ezidukisayo nezinamaphutha futhi wathembela emithonjeni efanayo emibili enamaphutha njengebhulogi eyathunyelwa ngenyanga edlule yi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu iMonsanto lalikhokha ukusiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate neminye imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ekuphakamiseni icala lakhe ukuthi "amaqembu ezishoshovu ahlukumeza isayensi futhi abeka eceleni inqubomgomo esuselwa ebufakazini ku-glyphosate saga," u-Lynas akagcinanga ngokuthembela ezimpikiswaneni nasezimbonini, kodwa futhi wabushaya indiva ubufakazi obuningi, obabikwa kabanzi kwabezindaba, ukuthi iMonsanto ilawula ukubuyekezwa kwesayensi nokulawula ku-glyphosate amashumi eminyaka usebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha kufaka phakathi izifundo zokubhala ghost futhi izihloko, izifundo zokubulala, ukucindezela isayensi engabazisayo, ukuhlasela ososayensi futhi izinhlangano zokulawula ezinamandla ngenhloso yokuvikela inzuzo yayo kumikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate. 

Kukhuthazwe, kuxhumene nenethiwekhi yezimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane

Izinkampani zezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yazo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi zivame ukukhuthaza uMark Lynas nomsebenzi wakhe. Bona isibonelo Iwebhusayithi kaMonsanto, ama-tweets amaningi wokuphromotha ngomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu okuhweba, amaqembu okubungaza, pro-umkhakha izifundiswa futhi abalobi, Futhi various Monsanto abasebenzi, kanye nenqwaba yama-athikili kaLynas kukhuthazwe ngu Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo, a iqembu le-propaganda ababambisana neMonsanto.

ILynas neCornell Alliance for Science nabo bayasebenzisana nabanye ababambe iqhaza kwinethiwekhi yezokuphepha kanye nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha wezolimo.

Iluleka iqembu labalingani beMonsanto i-Sense About Science

Imfihlo Uhlelo lweMonsanto PR yangomhla kaFebhuwari 2015 yaphakamisa Umuzwa Ngezesayensi njengeqembu elingasiza ekuholeni impendulo yomkhakha kwabezindaba ukudicilela phansi umbiko womdlavuza we-WHO nge-glyphosate. ULynas ukhonza ku- umkhandlu wokweluleka ye-Sense Mayelana neSayensi. I-Intercept ibikile ngo-2016 lokho "I-Sense About Science ayivezi ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho imithombo yayo yezindaba eziyimpikiswano ingososayensi abanobudlelwano nezimboni ezihlolwayo," futhi "kwaziwa ukuthi bathatha izikhundla ezingavumelani nesayensi noma ezichithe ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala." Umuzwa Ngezesayensi abambisene neCornell Alliance for Science ukunikeza "ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli" ngomqondisi weqembu UTrevor Butterworth, ochazwe yizintatheli njengo “imboni yamakhemikhali umbhali wobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Related: IMonsanto ithembele kulaba "abalingani" ukuhlasela ososayensi abaphezulu bomdlavuza

Kuhlanganiswe nesayensi yezulu ukugxeka ukuqalisa i-pro-fracking, pro-nuke, GMO “movement”

U-Lynas uzibiza ngomunye wabasunguli “bokunyakaza” “kwe-ecomodernism,” uhlobo oluhambisanayo lwenkampani “lwezemvelo” umlobi waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot aluchaza ngokuthi “aluthathi zinyathelo zepolitiki ukuvikela umhlaba wemvelo.” Abakwa-eco-modernists bakhuthaza ukuthosiwe, amandla enuzi nemikhiqizo yezolimo njengezixazululo zemvelo. Ngokusho kwabaholi be-eco-modernist UTed Nordhaus noMichael Shellenberger we-Breakthrough Institute, ubuchwepheshe bamandla obuthandwa ngabazalwane besigidigidi samafutha uKoch “benza okungaphezulu kakhulu ekunciphiseni ukukhishwa kwegesi ebamba ukushisa kunalabo abathandwa yiLeft-apocalyptic Left.” 

Ku-a wehlulekile umcimbi wokuqalisa kwe-ecomodernism ngoSepthemba 2015, uLynas wazihlanganisa no-Owen Paterson, ovelele ophika isayensi yezulu e-UK ngubani kunciphise imali ngemizamo yokulungiselela izwe ukufudumala komhlaba ngesikhathi esengunobhala wezemvelo. Ngenyanga efanayo, uPaterson ukhulume eCornell Alliance for Science, lapho ephakamisa khona ama-GMO nge-hyperbolic inkulumo igcwaliswe nge izimangalo ezingasekelwa, futhi wasola abezemvelo ngokuvumela izingane ukuba zife e-Afrika. "Imikhankaso eluhlaza eyizigidigidi ibulala izingane ezihlwempu," kusho u-a isihloko ukubika ngenkulumo kaPaterson's Cornell evela eMkhandlwini WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto lalikhokha ukuvikela imikhiqizo yayo. 

Isendlalelo sikaMark Lynas

ULynas wabhala izincwadi eziningana ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu (enye yazo yamukelwa yiRoyal Society) ngaphambi kokuba akhange umhlaba wonke "Ukuguqulwa" kusuka kwisishoshovu se-anti-GMO kumgqugquzeli wobuchwepheshe ngenkulumo ekhuthazwa kabanzi yango-2013 e-Oxford ethi abagxekayo babe kuchazwe njengo ukudukisa. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngalowo nyaka uLynas waba ngumuntu eCornell University Office of International Programs eKolishi Lezolimo neLife Sciences, waqala usebenzela iCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso wezokuxhumana owenziwe ngonyaka we-2014 wokukhuthaza ama-GMO nge imali evela eGates Foundation.

Bheka: Kungani iCornell University ibamba umkhankaso we-GMO propaganda?

ULynas wazibiza ngokuthi "ungumqondisi wezepolitiki" weCornell Alliance for Science kwiNew York Times yango-2015 i-op-ed. ICornell Alliance for Science ayichazi ukuthi luyini uhlelo lwayo lwezepolitiki, kepha imiyalezo kanye nezinhloso zeqembu zilandelela eduze uhlelo lwezohwebo lomkhakha wezolimo: ukukhulisa ukwamukelwa kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emhlabeni jikelele, ikakhulukazi e-Afrika.

I-Mysterious Lynas PR push, futhi yavuza imemo ye-EuropaBio

Ukusatshalaliswa okukhulu kwabezindaba ngokuguqulwa kukaLynas 'pro-GMO ngo-2013 kwaphakamisa izinsolo zokuthi umkhankaso we-PR wemboni wawusiza ukumphakamisa ekusithekeni. A idalulwe imemo ka-2011 okuvela enkampanini yePR yomkhakha - echaza ngezinhlelo zokuqasha “amanxusa” asezingeni eliphakeme ukunxenxa ukwamukelwa kweGMO - kwandisa izinsolo zokusekelwa kwezimboni ngoba lo mbhalo uqambe igama elithi Lynas. Uthe iqembu akakaze asondele kuye.

Ngokombiko othile Umbiko Guardian, I-EuropaBio, iqembu lezokuhweba elinamalungu alo afaka phakathi iMonsanto neBayer, lihlele ukuqasha amanxusa e-PR ukusiza abenzi bezinqumo "ukucabanga kabusha ngesimo seYurophu ngezitshalo zeGM." Amanxusa abengeke akhokhelwe ngqo kodwa azothola izindleko zokuhamba kanye "nokuxhaswa kokuxhumana okuzinikele" okuvela embonini yezimali. Isikhulu senkampani i-PR sathi "sinentshisekelo" kuLynas, phakathi kwabanye, endimeni yenxusa. ULynas uphikile ukuthi unokuxhumana nabo. "Angikaze ngicelwe ukuthi ngibe yinxusa, futhi angizokwamukela isicelo esinjalo uma ngicelwa," etshela iGuardian.

IGates Foundation, ama-GMO neMonsanto

IBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, umxhasi oyinhloko weCornell Alliance for Science no $ 12 wezigidi kwizibonelelo, igxekiwe ngamasu ayo oxhaso lokuthuthukisa ezolimo axhasa ama-ajenda ebhizinisi lezolimo. A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 okuvela eqenjini locwaningo IGRAIN ithole ukuthi iGates Foundation ichithe iningi lezimali zayo zokuthuthukisa ezolimo “ukondla abampofu e-Afrika” - cishe ama- $ 3 billion asetshenziswe ngaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi - fundisa ososayensi nabaphenyi emazweni acebile. Le mali isiza nasekuthengeni ithonya lezepolitiki kulo lonke elase-Afrika, kubika i-GRAIN. A Umbiko we-2016 weqembu lokukhuthaza i-Global Justice Now uphethe ngokuthi amasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo eGates Foundation “abhebhethekisa ukungalingani komhlaba wonke futhi agxilisa amandla ezinkampani emhlabeni jikelele.”

IGates Foundation inwebe kakhulu imali yayo yamaphrojekthi wezolimo eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule lapho uRob Horsch, Inhloko yangaphambili kaMonsanto yentuthuko yamazwe omhlaba ijoyine ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kwesisekelo ithimba lobuholi. Incwadi entsha kaLynas ethi “Seeds of Science” ichitha isahluko (“The True History of Monsanto”) izama ukuchaza ezinye zezono zenkampani edlule nokudumisa uRob Horsch isikhathi eside. Sichitha esinye isahluko (“i-Afrika: Bayeke Badle Ummbila Wezingane Oyingqayizivele”) siphikisa ngokuthi abantu base-Afrika badinga imikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo ukuze bazondle.

Ukugxekwa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yekoloniyalizim e-Afrika

  • Imbewu Ye-Neo-Colonialism: Kungani Abagqugquzeli be-GMO Bakuthola Kubi Kangaka Nge-Afrika, isitatimende ngu Umbutho Wobumbano Lokudla e-Afrika, 5/7/2018
  • Ngabe amaGates noRockefeller basebenzisa ithonya labo ukusetha i-ajenda emazweni ampofu?"Ucwaningo lukhomba izisekelo zikaBill noMelinda Gates kanye neRockefeller phakathi kwabanikeli abacebile abasondelene nohulumeni futhi okungenzeka ukuthi bathanda izinto eziseqhulwini," nguJohn Vidal, Tyena Guardian, 1/15/2016
  • Amandla Wentuthuko Nokuthuthuka. Ngubani owenza i-ajenda? nguJens Martens noKarolin Seitz, Umbiko ka-2015 (ikhasi 48).
  • I-Philanthrocapitalism: Izinhlelo ze-Gates Foundation zase-Afrika aziwona usizo, nguPhilip L Bereano, uSolwazi Emeritus e-University of Washington, Ukuvuselelwa Komhlaba Kwesithathu, 2017
  • IBill Gates Isiza KFC Ukuthatha i-Afrika, ngu-Alex Park, Umama Jones, 1/10/2014
  • IGates Foundation's Agenda Agenda e-Afrika 'Olunye Uhlobo Lobukoloniyali,' Kuxwayisa Ababhikishi, nguLauren McCauley, Amaphupho ajwayelekile, 3/23/2015
  • IGates Foundation ihola phambili ekuphangweni kwezolimo e-Afrika, nguColin Todhunter, Isazi Semvelo, 1/21/2016
  • Ngabe iGates Foundation iyisebenzisa kanjani imali yayo ukondla umhlaba?Umbiko wokusanhlamvu, 2014
  • UBill Gates usemkhankasweni wokuthengisa ama-GMO e-Afrika, kepha akalikhulumi lonke iqiniso, nguStacy Malkan, Okunye, 3/24/2016

Isithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane: Iqembu Elikhokhelwa yi-Koch Livikela I-Pesticide, Amafutha, Izimboni Zogwayi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

The Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele iyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo leyo abalingani neMonsanto, ivikela amakhemikhali anobuthi ekudleni nasemikhiqizweni yabathengi, futhi iphikisana nemithetho enganciphisa amandla ezinkampani. Ixhaswe kakhulu yizisekelo ezinamaphiko angakwesokudla eziphoqa ukuphika kwesayensi yezulu, IMF kwaqala ngo-1991 njengomzamo wokuvikela manje iNkantolo Ephakeme Yobulungiswa (nowayengummeli waseMonsanto) UClarence Thomas njengoba ayebhekene namacala okuhlukumeza ngokocansi. Ku-2018, iqembu futhi ivikelekile INkantolo Ephakeme iJustice Brett Kavanaugh ngesikhathi ebhekene nezinsolo zokuhlukumeza ngokocansi, futhi uchaze uKavanaugh njengo “Umpetha wabesifazane."

Bona: “Hlangana 'Nabesifazane' Abenza Umsebenzi Ongcolile Wabazalwane baseKoch, ” nguJoan Walsh, The Nation 

With isabelomali cishe ama- $ 2 million ngonyaka, i-Independent Women 's Forum manje ithi isebenzela izinqubomgomo “ezithuthukisa inkululeko.” Izinhlelo zayo zifaka phakathi ukunxenxa nokukhuthaza ukwesulwa kwemikhiqizo enobuthi, nokususa icala ekulimaleni kwezempilo nezemvelo kude nezinhlangano ezingcolisayo kanye nasezibophezelweni zomuntu siqu. Ngo-2017, iqembu i-gala yaminyaka yonke eWashington DC, ebigubha ilungu lebhodi le-IWF uKellyanne Conway njengompetha wabesifazane, ibixhaswe yizinkampani zamakhemikhali nezogwayi.

Funda kabanzi ngaleli gala nabaxhasi balo kuHuffPost, “Ipolitiki Yokungazali Nomdlavuza, ”NguStacy Malkan. 

Ukuxhaswa ngezimali ngamabhiliyoni ezinhlangano nezinkampani

Iningi labanikeli abaziwayo be-Independent Women Forum ngabesilisa, njengoLisa Graves kubikwe iCentre for Media and Democracy. I-IWF ithole ngaphezulu kwe- $ 15 million kusuka ezisekelweni ezinamaphiko angakwesokudla ezikhuthaza ukwehliswa kwemithetho kanye nokuzimela kwenkampani, ngokusho kuka idatha eqoqwe yiGreenpeace USA. Abanikeli abahamba phambili be-IWF, neminikelo engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5, yiDonors Trust kanye neDonors Capital Funds, izimali eziyimfihlo "zemali emnyama" ixhunywe namafutha kawoyela UCharles noDavid Koch. Lezi zimali zixhuma imali evela kubaxhasi abangaziwa, kufaka phakathi izinkampani, ukuze amaqembu avela eceleni alwela intshisekelo yebhizinisi.

Umxhasi ophezulu we-IWF: imali emnyama evela kubaxhasi abangadalulwanga

Izisekelo zomndeni wakwaKoch zinikele ngqo ngaphezu kwe- $ 844,115 kanti abanye abaxhasi abaphezulu bafaka iSarah ISchaife Foundation, lo Isisekelo seBradley, iRandolph Foundation (ihlumela le- Isisekelo seRichardson), Futhi ISearle Freedom Trust - bonke abaxhasi abahola phambili be- ukuphika kwesimo sezulu-nesayensi imizamo nemikhankaso yoku vikela izibulala-zinambuzane futhi uzigcine zingalawulwa. 

I-ExxonMobil futhi UFiliphu Morris futhi baxhase i-IWF, kanye nefemu kagwayi ebizwa nge-IWF ohlwini lwamagama “izinkomba ezivela eceleni"Futhi"labo abahlonipha imibono yethu. ” URush Limbaugh unikele okungenani ngekota yesigidi ku-IWF, okuyi "uyamvikela noma nini lapho engena ocansini lobulili, ”Ngokusho kwendatshana ka-Eli Clifton kuThe Nation.

Abaholi be-IWF

UHeather Richardson Higgins, Sihlalo weBhodi ye-IWF kanye ne-CEO yeZwi Elizimele Labesifazane, ingalo yokubungaza ye-IWF, ubambe izikhundla eziphezulu ezisekelweni eziningi ezinamaphiko okudla, kufaka phakathi IRandolph Foundation, lo USmith Richardson Foundation futhi Ubuhle obuyindilinga.

UKellyanne Conway, Umeluleki weWhite House nowayengumphathi womkhankaso kaTrump, uyi Ilungu lebhodi le-IWF. Abaqondisi I-Emeritae Faka ULynne V. Cheney, unkosikazi kaDick Cheney futhi UKimberly O. Dennis, umongameli webhodi labaqondisi be Abaxhasi Trust nomongameli kanye ne-CEO ye ISearle Freedom Trust.

UNancy M. Pfotenhauer, owayekade eyisishoshovu seKoch Industries, washiya amaKoch Industries ukuba abe umongameli we-IWF ngo-2001 futhi kamuva wasebenza njengeSekela likaSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi be-IWF. Unomlando omude we ukugqugquzela amandla angcolile nokuphokophela ukwehliswa kwemithetho yezimboni ezingcolisayo.

I-ajenda ye-IWF ilandela eduze uhlelo lokunxenxa nokuthumela imiyalezo ngezintshisekelo zemboni kagwayi, uwoyela kanye namakhemikhali. Okulandelayo ezinye zezibonelo:

Iphika isayensi yezulu

A 2019 i-tweet ne-athikili ovela kwi-Independent Women Forum uncoma uMengameli uTrump “ngobuhlakani” ngokungathathi izinyathelo ukunqanda ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu. 

Greenpeace ichaza i-IWF njenge- "Koch Industries Climate Denial Group" lokho “okusakaze ukwaziswa okungelona iqiniso ngesayensi yesimo sezulu futhi kuthinta nomsebenzi wabaphikisi besimo sezulu.” 

UJane Mayer ubike The New Yorker ngo-2010: “Abazalwane (bakaKoch) banikele ngemali emaqenjini angacacile, futhi, njenge-Independent Women Forum, ephikisana nokwethulwa kwesivuvujikelele njengeqiniso lesayensi ezikoleni zomphakathi zaseMelika. Kuze kube ngo-2008, leli qembu laliqhutshwa nguNancy Pfotenhauer, owayekade eyisishoshovu seKoch Industries. UMary Beth Jarvis, iphini likamongameli wenkampani ephethwe yiKoch, usebhodini laleli qembu. ”

Uphikisana nokufundiswa kwesayensi yezulu ezikoleni

The Denver Post yabika ngo-2010 ukuthi i-IWF “icabanga ukuthi ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke '' kuyisayensi engenamsebenzi 'nokuthi ukuyifundisa kusabisa izingane zesikole ngokungadingekile.” Ngomkhankaso obizwa nge- "Balanced Education for Everyone," i-IWF iphikisana nemfundo yesayensi yezulu ezikoleni, lelo qembu kuchazwe njengo "Ukwazisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke okwethusayo."

UMongameli we-IWF uCarrie Lucas ubhala ngakho “ukungabaza okwandayo ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu” futhi uthi “umphakathi ungakhokha kakhulu ngalokhu kuphazamiseka.”

Ozakwethu neMonsanto

Esiphakamisweni sika-Ephreli 21, 2016 esiya kuMonsanto, IWF icele iMonsanto ukuthi inikele ngama- $ 43,300 emicimbini ye- “Super Women of Science” eyenzelwe ukwehlisa ukwesekwa kwezepolitiki kweProposition 65, umthetho waseCalifornia ovimbela izinkampani ukuthi zikhiphe amakhemikhali ayingozi ezindleleni zamanzi futhi zidinga ukuthi zazise abathengi ngokutholakala kwamakhemikhali anobuthi. Imicimbi ehlongozwayo ibiyingxenye yephrojekthi ye-IWF ye- “Culture of Alarmism” eyasungulwa “ukuqeda ukuzwelana nabezindaba ngobungozi abaseMelika ababhekene nabo ngemikhiqizo esiyisebenzisayo, ukudla esikudlayo nemvelo ezungeze imindeni yethu.” 

NgoFebhuwari 2017, uMonsanto wabambisana ne-IWF emcimbini owawunesihloko esithi "Ukudla Nokwesaba: Ungawathola Kanjani Amaqiniso Ngempucuko Yanamuhla Ye-Alarmism," kanye ne I-podcast ye-IWF ngaleyo nyanga kwaxoxwa ngokuthi "I-Monsanto ivuselelwa kanjani yizishoshovu."

I-IWF iphusha amaphuzu okukhuluma eMonsanto kanye nemboni yamakhemikhali: ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ukuhlasela imboni engokwemvelo nomama abakhetha ukudla okuphilayo, nokuphikisana nokusobala kumalebula okudla. Izibonelo zifaka:

  • Umthetho wokulebula weVermont's GMO awubuwula. (Umbheki)
  • Ukufakwa ilebula kwe-Sinister GMO kuzodala ukuthi izindleko zokudla zikhuphuke kakhulu. (IMF)
  • Ukuxokozela kwe-anti-GMO kuyisongo sangempela enhlalakahleni yemindeni. (Buyekeza National)
  • Omama abanengqondo badinga ukubuyisela emuva kumama onamahloni nokuzizwa benecala ngokulandisa kokudla okuphilayo. (I-podcast ye-IWF)
  • Abagxeki be-GMO banonya, bayize, banesikhundla futhi bafuna ukuphika labo abaswele. (New York Post)

Iphrojekthi ye- "Culture of Alarmism", esethiwe kabusha i- "Project for Progress and Innovation," iphethwe nguJulie Gunlock, obhala amabhulogi amaningi aphikisana nokuvikelwa kwezempilo yomphakathi kanye ukuvikela izinkampani. Uchaze “ukwenqaba kwe-FDA ukukhuthaza ama-e-cigarettes” njengo “inkinga yezempilo yomphakathi.

Izimpikiswano 'zikaPhilips Morris PR'

Ngo-Agasti 2017, IWF kubanjwe i-FDA ukwamukela uPhilip Morris ' Ugwayi we-IQOS, bethi abesifazane badinga le mikhiqizo ngezizathu ezahlukahlukene zebhayoloji ukubasiza bayeke ukubhema ugwayi ojwayelekile.

“Kusobala ukuthi i-FDA ayihlosile ukujezisa abantu besifazane, ngenxa yobulili babo. Kodwa-ke, yilokho kanye okuzokwenzeka uma abesifazane bekhawulelwa ekubhemeni imikhiqizo yokuyeka leyo ngokwemvelo engakwazi ukubanikeza usizo abaludingayo lokuyeka ugwayi wendabuko, ”kubhala i-IWF.

Ephendula incwadi ye-IWF, uStanton Glantz, PhD, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-UCSF Centre for Tobacco Control Research and Education, uthe: “Leli yi-standard Philip Morris PR. Asikho isiqinisekiso esizimele sokuthi i-IQOS iphephe njengogwayi noma ukuthi isiza abantu bayeke ukubhema. ”

Ompetha “inkululeko yokudla” esebenzisana nezinhlangano

I-IWF ihlasela i-US Food and Drug Administration “njengonondindwa bakahulumeni,” ngokwesibonelo ichaza i-ejensi njenge “ukudla amaMarx"Futhi"kungalawuleki ngokuphelele”Yokukhipha ukuholwa ngokuzithandela kubakhiqizi bokudla ukusika amazinga e-sodium.

Umcimbi wangoJuni 2017 we-IWF uzame ukudambisa ukwesaba ngokuqondiswa kwezempilo yomphakathi

Ngo-2012, i-IWF yethule “Abesifazane Ngenkululeko YokudlaIphrojekthi "yokubuyisela emuva esimweni somzanyana futhi ikhuthaze ukuzibophezela komuntu siqu" kokukhetha ukudla. I-ajenda ibibandakanya "nemithetho yokudla, isoda kanye nentela yokudla okulula, isayensi engenamsoco nokudla kanye nokwethuka kwemikhiqizo yasekhaya, imininingwane engeyona mayelana nokukhuluphala nendlala, nezinye izinhlelo zokudla zikahulumeni, kubandakanya nezidlo zasemini zesikole."

Ngokukhuluphala ngokweqile, i-IWF izama ukususa ukunakwa ekuziphenduleni kwezinkampani nasezinkingeni zomuntu siqu. Kulokhu ingxoxo noT Thom Hartmann, UJulie Gunlock we-IWF uthi izinkampani akumele zisolwe ngenkinga yokukhuluphala yaseMelika kepha kunalokho “abantu benza izinqumo ezimbi futhi ngicabanga ukuthi abazali bayazihlola ngokuphelele.” Isixazululo, uthe, ukuthi abazali bapheke kakhulu, ikakhulukazi abazali abahlwempu kwazise banenkinga enkulu yokukhuluphala.

Ihlasela omama ngokuzama ukunciphisa ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane

I-IWF iphusha imiyalezo ngemboni, isebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha, ukuzama ukukhipha omama abakhathazekile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane; isibonelo esivelele yile New York Post ka-2014 esihlokweni, "Ubushiqela be-Organic Mommy Mafia" kaNaomi Schafer Riley. Ngaphansi kwengubo yokukhononda mayelana "nokuhlazeka komama," uRiley - ngubani Umuntu we-IWF kepha akazange akudalule lokho kubafundi - imizamo yokuhlazeka nokusola omama abakhetha ukudla okuphilayo. I-athikili kaRiley itholwe ngokuphelele ngamaqembu angaphambili embonini kanye nemithombo ayethule ngamanga njengezimele, kubandakanya Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto; the I-Alliance for Food and Farming kanye noJulie Gunlock we “I-Culture of Alarmism Project” ye-IWF, naye ongazange akhonjwe kule ndatshana njengomsebenzi we-IWF. Ukuthola okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona i- "Ukuhlaselwa kwe-Organic: Ukuziba isayensi ukwenza icala lokulima ngamakhemikhali”(I-FAIR, 2014).

Ozakwethu abanamaqembu angaphambili embonini yamakhemikhali

IWF ibambisana namanye amaqembu angaphambili ezinkampani njenge Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, umvikeli oholayo wamakhemikhali anobuthi obelokhu ekhona ixhaswe nguMonsanto futhi Syngenta, kanye nezinye amakhemikhali, okwelapha kanye nogwayi izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni.

Ukuqhubeka nokufunda:

I-Intercept, ”AbakwaKoch Brothers Operatives Fill Top White House Positions,” nguLee Fang (4/4/2017)

The Nation, "Hlangana 'Nabesifazane' Abenza Umsebenzi Ongcolile Wabazalwane bakaKoch,” kaJoan Walsh (8/18/2016)

Isikhungo Sezindaba Nentando yeningi, "Abanikeli Abaziwa Kakhulu Benhlangano Ezimele Yabesifazane ngabesilisa," nguLisa Graves (8/24/2016)

Isikhungo Sezindaba Nentando yeningi, "Isiqinisekiso: Isithangami Sabesifazane Abangazimele Sazalelwa Ekuvikeleni uClarence Thomas kanye neFight Right," nguLisa Graves noCalvin Sloan (4/21/2016)

Slate, “Isiqiniseko Sokukhetha: Kwenzeka kanjani ukuthi 'Abesifazane beJaji uThomas' baphenduke amandla amakhulu,” nguBarbara Spindel (4/7/2016)

Iqiniso, "Iforamu Yabesifazane Ezimele Isebenzisa Uphawu Lokudukisa Ukududula I-Ajenda Yephiko Lakwesokudla," kaLisa Graves, uCalvin Sloan noKim Haddow (8/19/2016)

Ngaphakathi Ubuhle,"Imali Eseqenjini Lamaqembu Abesifazane Abalondolozayo Isalwela Impi Yamasiko," nguPhilip Rojc (9/13/2016)

The Nation, ”Qagela ukuthi Yiliphi Iqembu Labesifazane Rush Limbaugh elinikele ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaDola ku? Ukusikisela: iyona evikela yena noma nini lapho engena emsakazweni wobulili, ”ngu-Eli Clifton (6/12/2014)

The New Yorker, ”The Koch Brothers Covert Operations,” kaJane Mayer (8/30/2010)

I-Oxford University Press, "Righting Feminism: Conservative Women and American Politics," nguRonnee Schreiber (2008)

Ngaphakathi Ubuhle, ”Bheka Ubani Oxhasa Leli qembu Eliphezulu Labafazi Abalondolozayo,” nguJoan Shipps (11/26/2014)

Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni, “Abesifazane Abasadla ngoludala ba-Right for Media Mainstream; Abezindaba Ekugcineni Sebethole Abanye Besifazane Ukuba Babathande, ”nguLaura Flanders (3/1/1996)

ithunyelwe ekuqaleni ngo-Okthoba 6, 2018 futhi yavuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Related: Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza, nguStacy Malkan

Leli phepha lichaza okuqukethwe yiMonsanto uhlelo oluyimfihlo lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukudicilela phansi igama lophiko locwaningo lomdlavuza lwe-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ngenhloso yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iqembu lomhlaba wonke lochwepheshe kuphaneli ye-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Uhlelo lweMonsanto lubiza amagama angaphezu kweshumi nambili amaqembu "abalingani bezimboni" abaphathi benkampani abakuhlele "ukwazisa / ukugoma / ukubandakanya" emizamweni yabo yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono odumile, futhi "zinikeze ikhava yezinhlaka ezilawulayo. ” Ozakwethu bahlanganisa izifundiswa kanye namaqembu aphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nezokudla, amaqembu ezohwebo kanye namaqembu okubungaza - landela izixhumanisi ezingezansi kumashidi eqiniso anikeza imininingwane eminingi ngamaqembu ophathina.

Ngokubambisana la maphepha emininingwane ahlinzeka ngesense yokujula nobubanzi be-corporaukuhlaselwa kochwepheshe bomdlavuza we-IARC ngokwehlulwanse kaMi-onsanto edayisa kakhulu i-herbicide.

Izinhloso zikaMonsanto zokubhekana nesilinganiso se-IARC se-carcinogenicity se-glyphosate (ikhasi 5).

Background

Umbhalo osemqoka okhishwe ngo-2017 ngo izinqubo zomthetho ngokumelene neMonsanto kuchaza “uhlelo lokulungela nokuzibandakanya” kwenkampani ekuhlelweni komdlavuza we-IARC we-glyphosate, umhlaba isetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo. I- idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto - yangomhla kaFebhuwari 23, 2015 - yabela abasebenzi abangaphezu kwama-20 beMonsanto ezinhlosweni ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela wesinqumo," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa iMON POV" kanye "nokuhola izwi 'kubani i-IARC' kanye ne-2B intukuthelo." NgoMashi 20, 2015, i-IARC yamemezela isinqumo sayo sokuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-Group 2A carcinogen, "mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu. "

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane, bheka: “Ukulungiswa Kanjani KweMonsanto Ekuhlukanisweni Komdlavuza Wamakhemikhali Okulindelekile,”NguCarey Gillam, uHuffington Post (9/19/2017)

Isigaba 1-4 seMonsanto “Abalingani Bemboni”

Ikhasi 5 le- umbhalo weMonsanto ikhomba izingxenye ezine “zabalingani bemboni” abaphathi beMonsanto abebehlele ukuzibandakanya nohlelo lwayo lwe-IARC lokuzilungiselela. La maqembu ehlangene anokufinyelela okubanzi nomthelela ekuphusheni ukulandisa ngengozi yomdlavuza evikela inzuzo yezinkampani.

Umlingani womkhakha weTier 1 angama-lobby axhaswa ngezimboni kanye namaqembu e-PR.

Abalingani bezimboni zeTier 2 bangamaqembu angaphambili avame ukukhonjwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha basebenza nemboni yamakhemikhali ekusithekeni kobudlelwano bomphakathi nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Abalingani bemboni engu-Tier 3 bangamaqembu ezingenzi-nzuzo axhaswe izimboni zokudla. Lawa maqembu athakanyiswe kokuthi, “Xwayisa izinkampani zokudla ngethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement (IFIC, GMA, CFI) 'ngecebo lokutholwa' lokuhlinzeka ngemfundo yokuqala ngamazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate, chaza izifundo ezenzelwe isayensi uma kuqhathaniswa nemibono eqhutshwa yi-ajenda” yomdlavuza ozimele iphaneli.

Umlingani womkhakha we-Tier 4 "yizinhlangano zabakhiqizi abakhulu." Lawa ngamaqembu ezohwebo ahlukahlukene amele ummbila, isoya nabanye abatshali bezimboni nabakhiqizi bokudla.

Ukuhlela ukukhala ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza ku-glyphosate

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR uchaze izinhlelo zabo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kulungiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC."

Ukuthi lokho kudlalwe kanjani kungabonakala emibhalweni yozakwethu embonini amaqembu abesebenzisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile nemithombo ukusola i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza ngokungalungile nokuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abasebenza embikweni we-glyphosate.

Izibonelo zemiyalezo yokuhlasela zingabonakala kuwebhusayithi yeProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Leli qembu lithi lingumthombo ozimele wesayensi, kepha, imibhalo etholwe ngumbukiso wase-US Right to Know ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lokho kusebenzisana. UJon Entine wethule leli qembu e2011 ngenkathi uMonsanto eyiklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. Lena iqhinga lakudala leqembu langaphambili; ukuhambisa imiyalezo yenkampani ngeqembu elithi lizimele kepha akunjalo.

Uhlelo lucebisa i-Sense About Science ukuthi "ihole ukuphendula kwemboni"

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR ukhuluma ngezinhlelo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kuqondiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC." Lolu hlelo luphakamisa iqembu i-Sense About Science (kubakaki abanophawu lombuzo) ukuthi "liholele ekuphenduleni kwemboni futhi linikeze inkundla yezingqapheli ze-IARC nokhulumela imboni."

I-Sense About Science iyisiza somphakathi esizinze eLondon lokho kuthiwa kuthuthukisa ukuqonda komphakathi ngesayensi, kodwa iqembu "laziwa ngokuthatha izikhundla buck ukuvumelana kwesayensi noma ukuchitha ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala, ”Kubika uLiza Gross ku-The Intercept. Ngo-2014, iSense About Science yethule inguqulo yase-US ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kwe-  UTrevor Butterworth, umbhali onomlando omude wokungavumelani naye isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo ngamakhemikhali anobuthi.

I-Sense About Science ihlobene ne- Isayensi Media Center, isayensi PR agency eLondon ethola uxhaso lwezinkampani futhi yaziwa nge ukugcizelela imibono yenkampani yesayensi. Intatheli ephethe sisondelene neSayensi Media Center, UKate Kelland, ushicilele izindatshana eziningana kwiReuters ezigxeka i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-IARC eyayisekelwe kuyo izindaba ezingamanga futhi ukubika okungaphelele okungaphelele. Izindatshana zeReuters zithuthukiswe kakhulu ngamaqembu kaMonsanto “abalingani bemboni” futhi zasetshenziswa njenge isisekelo se ukuhlaselwa kwezepolitiki ngokumelene ne-IARC.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • "I-IARC iyazenqaba izimangalo ezingamanga ku-Reuters," Isitatimende se-IARC (3 / 1 / 18)
  • Indaba ka-Reuters ka-Aaron Blair IARC ikhuthaza ukulandisa okungamanga, USRTK (7 / 24 / 2017)
  • Isimangalo seReuters sokuthi i-IARC "ihlele kahle" okutholakele nakho kungamanga, USRTK (10 / 20 / 2017)
  • "Ngabe izibopho zezinkampani zinomthelela ekusetshenzisweni kwesayensi?" Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (7 / 24 / 2017)

“Bandakanya uHenry Miller”

Ikhasi 2 lombhalo weMonsanto PR likhomba okwokuqala okulethwa ukuhlelela nokulungiselela: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller" "ukugoma / ukusungula umbono womphakathi nge-IARC nezibuyekezo."

"Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngokusalungiswa okuseqophelweni eliphezulu."

UHenry I. Miller, MD, osebenza naye eHoover Institution kanye nomqondisi osungula iHhovisi Le-Biotechnology le-FDA, une umlando omude oqoshiwe wokusebenzisana nezinkampani ukuvikela imikhiqizo enobungozi. Uhlelo lweMonsanto lukhomba “umnikazi we-MON” womsebenzi njengo-Eric Sachs, isayensi, ubuchwepheshe nobuchwepheshe beMonsanto.

Imibhalo kamuva kubika iThe New York Times kwembule lokho amaSachs uthumele i-imeyili uMiller kusasele isonto ngaphambi kombiko we-IARC glyphosate ukubuza ukuthi ngabe uMiller wayenesifiso sokubhala "ngalesi sinqumo esiyimpikiswano." UMiller uphendule wathi, "Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngidalelwe ubuciko obusezingeni eliphezulu." Ngo-Mashi 23, uMiller uthumele isihloko kuForbes "okubonakala kakhulu" okusalungiswa okuhlinzekwe nguMonsanto, ngokusho kwe Times. IForbes inqamule ubudlelwano bayo noMiller ngemuva kwesigameko sokubhala ngezipoki futhi ususe izindatshana zakhe kusuka kusayithi.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

Yize umqulu weMonsanto PR ungazange uqambe igama le- umkhandlu waseMelika oxhaswe ngezinkampani weSayensi nezeMpilo (ACSH) phakathi "kwabalingani bayo bezimboni," ama-imeyili akhishwe nge-litigation show ukuthi iMonsanto uxhase uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo futhi wacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abaphathi beMonsanto bebengakhululekile ngokusebenzisana ne-ACSH kodwa benze njalo noma kunjalo ngoba, "asinabo abalandeli abaningi futhi asikwazi ukulahlekelwa yilabo abambalwa esinabo."

Umholi wesayensi ephezulu kaMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein ubhalele ozakwabo ukuthi, “Ngingakuqinisekisa ukuthi anginabo bonke abantu abanenkanyezi nge-ACSH- banenqwaba yezinsumpa- kodwa: NGEKE UTHOLE UKUBALULEKA OKUNGCONO KWEDOLOLA LAKHO kune-ACSH” (kugcizelela yena). UGoldstein uthumele izixhumanisi zezinto eziningi ze-ACSH ezikhuthaza futhi zivikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane azichaze ngokuthi “ZISEBENZISA KAKHULU.”

Bona futhi: Ukulandelela i-Agrichemical Industry Propaganda Network 

Landela okutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu embonini yokudla kanye nezifundiswa ku ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo ye-USRTK iyatholakala kufayela le- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe ngu-UCSF.

Indlela Abadukisa Ngayo UTamar Haspel Abafundi BeWashington Post

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UTamar Haspel yintatheli ezimele ebilokhu ibhala amakholomu okudla nyangazonke eWashington Post kusukela ngo-Okthoba 2013. Amakholomu kaHaspel avame ukukhuthaza nokuvikela imikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo, kuyilapho ethola nezinkokhelo zokukhuluma emicimbini ehambisana nemboni, futhi kwesinye isikhathi evela emaqenjini ezimboni - umkhuba owaziwa ngokuthi yi "buckraking" ophakamisa imibuzo mayelana nokuqonda.

Ukubuyekezwa kwamakholomu kaHaspel eWashington Post kuphakamisa okunye ukukhathazeka: ezimweni eziningi, uHaspel wehlulekile ukudalula noma achaze ngokuphelele ukuxhumana kwezimboni ngemithombo yakhe, kuncike ezifundweni ezigxilwe embonini, amaqiniso akhethwe ngamakhemikhali okuxhasa izikhundla zomkhakha noma acaphune inkulumo-ze yezimboni ngokungafanele . Bona ukubuyekezwa komthombo nezinye izibonelo ezichazwe ngezansi. UHaspel ubengakaphenduli emibuzweni yale ndatshana.

Ukubheja ekushayweni kokudla: ukushayisana kwezintshisekelo?

Engxoxweni yango-2015 eyayiqhutshwa yiWashington Post, ephendula umbuzo wokuthi ngabe uyayithola yini imali emithonjeni yezimboni, uHaspel wabhala lokho, "Ngiyakhuluma futhi ngilinganisa amaphaneli nezimpikiswano kaningi, futhi kungumsebenzi engikhokhelwa wona." Udalula ukuzibandakanya kwakhe kokukhuluma kuye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, kepha ayivezi ukuthi yiziphi izinkampani noma amaqembu okuhweba amxhasa ngemali noma ngamanani abawanikezayo.

Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi uthathe malini embonini yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo angaphambili, UHaspel ubhale kuTwitter, “Njengoba noma yiliphi iqembu elikholelwa ukuthi i-biotech linokuthile elikunikezayo 'liqembu eliphambili,' inala!”

Ngokusho the Amazinga we-Washington Post kanye Nezimiso Zokuziphatha, izintatheli azikwazi ukwamukela izipho, ukuhamba mahhala, ukuphathwa ngendlela ekhethekile noma ukwamukelwa mahhala emithonjeni yezindaba, futhi “kufanele zenze wonke umzamo wokuhlala kubalaleli, zingashiyi inkundla, zibike izindaba, hhayi ukwenza izindaba.” Le mithetho ayisebenzi kuma-freelancers kodwa, futhi iphepha likushiyela kubahleli ukuthi bathathe isinqumo.

UHaspel uchaza inqubo yakhe yokwamukela izingxoxo zokukhokha ezikhokhelwayo kuye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu: ukuthi imicimbi iyizimpikiswano ezakhayo mayelana nezindaba zokudla ezibandakanya amaphimbo amaningi kunezinkampani ezenza inzuzo. Akuyona yonke imicimbi esohlwini lwakhe ebonakala ihambisana naleyo mibandela (bona “imicimbi yokuqeqeshwa kwemiyalezo ye-biotech” imicimbi yokuqeqeshwa komyalezo exhaswa ngezimboni echazwe ngezansi). Umhleli kaHaspel uJoe Yonan usho kanje unethezekile ngendlela uHaspel asebenza ngayo ekukhulumisaneni okukhokhelwayo futhi uthola ukuthi "kuyisilinganiso esifanelekile." 

Ukuphawula okwengeziwe okuvela kuHaspel nakuYonan kubikwa lapha, "I-Buckraking kwi-Food Beat: Kunini lapho kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo?" by Stacy Malkan (Ubulungiswa kanye nokunemba ekubikeni, 2015). Bheka futhi, "Umbiko omfushane ngezintatheli ezintathu okukhulunywe ngazo kwizicelo zethu ze-FOIA," nguGary Ruskin (I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi, 2015). Ngemibono evela kuzintatheli nabahleli bebhakede, bheka ukubika kukaKen Silverstein (IHarper's, ngo-2008).

Ukuthatha isigqi se-GMO

UHaspel waqala ukubhala ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ku- Mashi 2013 ku-Huffington Post ("Iya eFrankenfish! Kungani Sidinga i-GM Salmon"). Imibhalo yakhe ngezinye izihloko ezihlobene nokudla yaqala ukuvela eWashington Post naseHuffPo ngo-2011 nakwezinye izindawo kusukela maphakathi nawo-1990. Okokugcina kukaHaspel uchungechunge lwezihloko zeHuffington Post kwaqhubeka ngesihloko semikhiqizo yezimboni yezolimo, ngamabhulogi wokukhishwa kwezifundo mayelana nezingozi ezingaba khona ze- glyphosate futhi Ukudla kwezilwane kwe-GMO, A impikiswano ngokumelene Imikhankaso yokulebula i-GMO kanye ucezu olukhukhumezayo mayelana newebhusayithi yezentengiso yezimboni zezolimo, Izimpendulo ze-GMO.

GMOAnswers.org bekuyingxenye yomkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi obudle izigidi zamarandi i imboni yezolimo yamenyezelwa entwasahlobo ka-2013 ukulwa nokukhathazeka kwabathengi mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngemuva kwemikhankaso yokuqamba ama-GMO amalebuli.

I-HuffPo Julayi 2013: Isibonelo sendlela iHaspel eyithuthukise ngayo imithombo yezimboni ngokungaqondile. Ezinye izibonelo ezingezansi. 

Ikholomu Elitholakele leWaPo: kumbiwe imibono yezimboni

UHaspel wethule ikholomu yakhe yokudla “Evunjiwe” nyangazonke eWashington Post ku October 2013  ("Ukudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo: Kuyini futhi akulona iqiniso") ngesithembiso sokuthi “umbe ujule ukuzama ukuthola ukuthi yini eyiqiniso nokuthi yini engekho empikiswaneni ephathelene nokudla kwethu.” Weluleke abafundi ukuthi babone ukuthi “ungamethemba ngubani” empikiswaneni ye-GMO futhi wakhomba amaqembu amaningi angazange aluphumelele uvivinyo lwakhe lokungakhethi (i-Union of Concerned Scientists phakathi kwabo).

I-Haspel November 2013 ikholomu (“okuvunyelwene ngakho yi-GMO: Lapho abasekeli nabaphikisi bavumelana khona”) kunikeze imibono ebanzi ebanzi kusuka kuzintshisekelo zomphakathi kanye nasemithonjeni yezimboni; Kodwa-ke, kumakholomu alandelayo, uHaspel kuyaqabukela ecaphuna amaqembu anentshisekelo yomphakathi futhi abeke isikhala esincane kakhulu kochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi kanye nemithombo yedatha kunalokho akwenzayo kwimithombo exhunywe embonini noma kochwepheshe ekuhlaziyweni kobungozi noma "ekuboneni ubungozi" abavame ukubukela phansi impilo yomphakathi nokuphepha ukukhathazeka, kanye nokubukwa kwemboni. Ezimweni eziningana, iHaspel yehlulekile ukudalula noma ichaze ngokuphelele ukuxhumana kwezezimboni nemithombo.

Ikholomu 'yokunyakaza kokudla' okwenziwe umkhakha

Isibonelo esikhombisa ezinye zalezi zinkinga ngezeHaspel January 2016 ikholamu ("Iqiniso elimangazayo ngokuhamba kokudla"), lapho athi khona abantu abakhathalele ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo noma ezinye izici zokukhiqizwa kokudla - "ukunyakaza kokudla" - bayingxenye engezansi yabantu. Akahlanganisanga nezingxoxo nabathengi, ezempilo, ezemvelo noma amaqembu ezobulungiswa azithatha njengengxenye yokunyakaza kokudla.

IHaspel ithole ikholamu ngamaqembu amabili wespin axhaswe ngemali embonini, i- Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke futhi UKetchum, inkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi eqhuba Izimpendulo ze-GMO. Ngenkathi echaza uKetchum njengenkampani ye-PR "esebenza kakhulu nomkhakha wezokudla," uHaspel akazange adalule ukuthi uKetchum waqashwa imboni yezolimo ukuze ashintshe umbono wabathengi ngokudla kwe-GMO (futhi akazange akhulume ngomlando wehlazo kaKetchum i-flacking yeRussia futhi eqhuba izinhloli ngokumelene namaqembu ezemvelo).

Umthombo wesithathu wekholomu yakhe kwakuyinhlolovo yocingo eneminyaka emibili eyenziwe UWilliam Hallman, umhlaziyi wombono womphakathi ovela kuRutgers obike ukuthi abantu abaningi abanendaba nokubekwa ilebula kwe-GMO. (Ngonyaka owedlule, uHallman noHaspel baxoxisana ngemibono yabathengi mayelana nama-GMO ngokuxhaswa nguhulumeni iphaneli abelane ngayo no-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto.)

Ukusebenzisana namaqembu we-spin spin

Ukusondelana kukaTamar Haspel kanye nokusebenzisana kwakhe nabadlali ababalulekile emizamweni yezobudlelwano nomphakathi embonini yezolimo kuphakamisa okunye ukukhathazeka mayelana nenhloso yakhe.

A isilinganiso sokuphromotha esivela eHaspel ivela ekhasini eliyisiqalo le-STATS / Sense About Science, ichaza ama-STAT "njengabaluleke" ekubikeni kwakhe. Ezinye izintatheli zichaze ama-STATS njenge- umkhankaso wokuvikela umkhiqizo “umkhankaso wokwaziswa okungaziwa”Lokho kusebenzisa amaqhinga kagwayi okukhiqiza ukungabaza ngengozi yamakhemikhali futhi idlala indima ebalulekileezombusazwe ze-hardball zokulawulwa kwamakhemikhali. ” I-2016 Indaba ku-The Intercept ichaze izibopho zikagwayi ze-STATS ne-Sense About Science (ezihlanganiswe ngonyaka wezi-2014 ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kaTrevor Butterworth) nendima abayidlalayo ekuphusheni imibono yezimboni ngesayensi.

Ubudlelwano bomphakathi ngo-2015 idokhumenti yamasu waqamba igama elithi Sense About Science phakathi kwe- “abalingani bemboni ”UMonsanto uhlele ukuzibandakanya emkhankasweni wayo "wokulungisa ukukhala" ngokumelene ne-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ukudicilela phansi umbiko mayelana ne-carcinogenicity ye-glyphosate.

Umkhakha wezolimo ujikeleza imicimbi

NgoJuni 2014, iHaspel yayiyi- Ilungu le "faculty" (eceleni kwabamele imboni abambalwa) emcimbini wokuqeqeshwa kwemiyalezo obizwa nge- Ikamu Le-Boot Biotech Literacy Project lokho kwaxhaswa yimboni yezolimo futhi kwahlelwa yi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, amaqembu amabili aphambili embonini iMonsanto nawo ayikhombe "njengabalingani bemboni" kuyo Uhlelo lwe-2015 PR.

IGenetic Literacy Project ingeyokuqala uhlelo lwe-STATS, kanye ne-Academics Review kwaba usethe ngosizo lweMonsanto kuya hlazisa abagxeki bezimboni ngenkathi ugcina ukusebenzisana izigxivizo zeminwe zifihliwe, ngokuya ngama-imeyili atholwe ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi.

Ikhempu ebihanjelwa yiHaspel ibihlose “ukulungisa kabusha impikiswano mayelana nokudla kanye nempikiswano ye-GMO,” ngokwe-ajenda. UPaul Thacker ubike ngalo mcimbi ku-Okuqhubekayo, "Imboni iphinde yaxhasa ngasese uchungechunge lwezingqungquthela ukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukubumba impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate… Kuma-imeyili, abagqugquzeli babhekise kulezi zingqungquthela njengezikhungo zokufundisa ukufunda nge-biotech, kanti izintatheli zichazwa 'njengabalingani.' ”

Izifundiswa ezijwayele amaqhinga we-spin we-corporate zibuyekeze imibhalo yekamu ebhuthini ngesicelo sikaThacker. “Lezi yizinto ezicindezelayo,” kusho uNaomi Oreskes, uprofesa womlando wesayensi eHarvard University. "Kusobala ukuthi kuhloswe ngakho ukukholisa abantu ukuthi izitshalo ze-GMO zinenzuzo, ziyadingeka, futhi aziyona ingozi eyenele ukufakazela ukufakwa kwamagama." UMarion Nestle, uprofesa wezokudla, izifundo zokudla, kanye nempilo yomphakathi eNyuvesi yaseNew York, uthe, "Uma izintatheli ziya ezingqungqutheleni ezikhokhelwa ukuya kuzo, kumele zisole ngokusobala."

UCami Ryan, owayesebenza ekamu ebhuthini owaqhubeka nokusebenzela iMonsanto, kuphawulwe ku- ukuhlolwa komhlangano ababambiqhaza babefuna, "Izikhathi eziningi ze-Haspel-ish, ama-Ropeik-ish." UDavid Ropeik ungumeluleki wokubona ngobungozi kabani amaklayenti afaka iBayer nezinye izinkampani zamakhemikhali, nobani Haspel esetshenziswe njengomthombo kukholamu abhale ngayo nge-glyphosate.

Usuku lwe-2015 lwe-biotech literacy noKevin Folta 

NgoMeyi 2015, uHaspel wethule inkulumo ethi “usuku lwe-biotechnology literacy kanye nezokuxhumana”E-University of Florida ehlelwe nguKevin Folta, uprofesa oxhumene nomkhakha wezolimo ezimayelana Nomphakathi futhi imizamo yokunxenxa. UFolta wayefake iHaspel ku Isiphakamiso wasithumela eMonsanto efuna ukuxhaswa ngezimali emicimbini ayichaze “njengesixazululo senkinga yokuxhumana nge-biotech” esivela “ekulawuleni umbono womphakathi” kanye “nokuqinisa kwabo imizamo yokufaka ilebula yokudla ngokungadingekile.” Ikhasi 4 le- Isiphakamiso uchaze umcimbi ozofaka oprofesa be-UF “nabanye abaningi abalethwe bevela ngaphandle kubandakanya nabamele imboni, ongoti bezintatheli kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi (isib. . ”

Monsanto isiphakamiso sikaFolta esixhaswe ngemali, bakubiza ngokuthi “indlela enhle evela eceleni yokuthuthukisa uhlobo lokukhuthaza esifuna ukuluthuthukisa.” (Imali ibiyi ezanikelwa endaweni yokudla ngo-Agasti 2015 ngemuva kokuthi uxhaso lube sesidlangalaleni.)

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, uFolta wabhalela uHaspel ngemininingwane emayelana nomcimbi wokuqeqeshwa kwemiyalezo, “Sizobhekana nezindleko kanye ne-honorary, noma yini edingekayo. Izethameli kuzoba ososayensi, odokotela kanye nabanye ochwepheshe okudingeka bafunde ukuthi bangakhuluma kanjani nomphakathi. ”

UHaspel uphendule wathi, "Ngingene impela," futhi udlulise i-anecdote evela kwelinye iphaneli "lokuxhumana ngesayensi" elisanda kushintsha umbono womuntu mayelana neMonsanto. "Kungenzeka ukuhamba phambili, kodwa ngiyaqiniseka ukuthi kungenxa yokuxhumana komuntu nomuntu," kusho uHaspel ebhalela uFolta.

The i-ajenda efakwe kungobo yomlando ngosuku lokuxhumana eFlorida lubhale izikhulumi njengoHaspel, Folta, abanye osolwazi abathathu be-UF, isisebenzi saseMonsanto uVance Crowe kanye nabamele Kwenziwe kabusha futhi Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla (amanye amaqembu amabili iMonsanto ebizwa ngokuthi abalingani bomkhakha isu layo le-PR lokuvikela i-glyphosate). Kwenye imeyili kuFolta, UHaspel wakuthakasela ukuhlangana noCrowe, “Ngikubheke ngabomvu lokhu. (Bengifuna ukuhlangana noVance Crowe - ngijabule kakhulu ukuthi uzobe ekhona.) ”

Ukuziphatha nokudalulwa

NgoSepthemba 2015, iThe New York Times yaveza uFolta ku- indaba esekuqaleni ngu-Eric Lipton mayelana nokuthi amaqembu embonini athembele kanjani kwizifundiswa ukulwa nempi yokulebula i-GMO. U-Lipton ubike ngesicelo sikaFolta sokuqoqa imali esiya eMonsanto, nokuthi uFolta ubelokhu esho esidlangalaleni ukuthi akanabo ubudlelwano neMonsanto.

UHaspel ubhalele uFolta ezinyangeni ezimbalwa kamuva, "Ngiyaxolisa kakhulu ngalokho osudlule kukho, futhi kuyakhathaza lapho ukuhlaselwa okunenhliziyo embi, kunabahlanganyeli kufihla izingqinamba zangempela - kwezesayensi kanye nasekubonakaliseni izinto obala, zombili lezi zinto ezibaluleke kakhulu." UHaspel ubalule ukuthi ubesebenza neNational Press Foundation ukuthuthukisa ukungqubuzana okungcono kwamazinga wenzalo yezintatheli ezizimele.

IHaspel kwakuyi 2015 umuntu weNational Press Foundation (iqembu elixhaswe ngemali yizinkampani, kufaka phakathi IBayer neDuPont). Kundatshana abhalele yona i-NPF mayelana izimiso zokuziphatha zabasebenza ngokuzimela, UHaspel uxoxe ngokubaluleka kokudalulwa futhi wachaza nenqubo yakhe yokukhuluma emicimbini kuphela uma ababambiqhaza okungebona bezimboni nemibono ehlukahlukene bebandakanyekile - imigomo engafinyelelwanga yimicimbi ye-biotech literacy. Ikhasi lokudalula ku- iwebhusayithi yakhe ayivezi ngokunembile i- abahlanganisi nabaxhasi wekamu lebhuthi lokufunda nokubhala le-biotech ka-2014. UHaspel akayiphendulanga imibuzo ephathelene nemicimbi yokufunda nge-biotech.

Ukubuyekezwa komthombo: ukubika okulahlekisayo ngama-pesticides

Ukubuyekezwa komthombo kwamakholomu amathathu kaTamar Haspel eWashington Post ngesihloko semithi yokubulala izinambuzane kutholakale okuningi okuphathelene nezibonelo zemithombo engaxhunywanga exhunywe embonini, ukushiywa kwedatha nokubikwa okungaphandle komongo okusebenzise ukuqinisa imiyalezo embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane ukuthi imithi yokubulala izinambuzane ayiyona inkinga futhi organic akuyona inzuzo enkulu. Ukubuyekezwa komthombo kuhlanganisa lamakholomu amathathu:

  • “Ingabe okuphilayo kungcono empilweni yakho? Ukubheka ubisi, inyama, amaqanda, umkhiqizo kanye nenhlanzi ”(April 7, 2014)
  • “Yikhemikhali iMonsanto elincike kuyo. Kuyingozi kangakanani? ” (October 2015)
  • "Iqiniso ngomkhiqizo ophilayo kanye ne-pesticides" (Kwangathi 21, 2018)

Kuncike emithonjeni exhunywe embonini; yehlulekile ukudalula ubudlelwane bemboni yabo

Kuwo womathathu amakholomu aboniswe kulokhu kubuyekezwa komthombo, iHaspel yehlulekile ukudalula ukuxhumana kwemikhakha yezibulala-zinambuzane emithonjeni esemqoka eyehlisa ubungozi bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Akukho nokukodwa kokuxhuma embonini okulandelayo okukhulunywe ngakho kumakholomu akhe kusukela ngo-Agasti 2018 ngenkathi lokhu kubuyekezwa kushicilelwa.

Embikweni wakhe we-2018 "weqiniso mayelana nomkhiqizo wemvelo kanye ne-pesticides," uHaspel unikeze abafundi "umbono wobungozi obukhulu" kusuka ekuvezweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane okwandayo ngokucaphuna isifundo lokho kulinganisa ubungozi bokudla izibulala-zinambuzane kusuka ekudleni kuya ewayinini yokuphuza. UHaspel akazange adalule ukuthi ababhali abane kwabahlanu balolo cwaningo babeqashwe yiBayer Crop Sciences, engomunye wabakhiqizi abakhulu bezibulala-zinambuzane emhlabeni. Akazange futhi adalule ukuthi ucwaningo ekuqaleni lwalunephutha eliqhakazile elalilungiswa kamuva (noma ngabe wayexhumanisa nocwaningo lokuqala nolungisiwe). Ucwaningo ekuqaleni lwabika ingozi elingana nokuphuza ingilazi eyodwa yewayini njalo iminyaka eyisikhombisa; kamuva yalungiswa yaba ingilazi eyodwa yewayini njalo izinyanga ezintathu; Lelo phutha namanye amaningi akhonjwe kuwo incwadi eya kulo magazini ososayensi abaningana abachaze ucwaningo lwewayini "njengolulula ngokweqile noludukisa kakhulu."

Ukuchitha ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela yokuhlangana kokuchayeka kwizibulala-zinambuzane eziningi, uHaspel ucaphune enye cwaningo kusuka kumbhali okuyiwona kuphela onxuse i-Bayer ocwaningweni olunamaphutha lokuqhathanisa iwayini, futhi “a Umbiko we-2008”Lokho“ kwenza ukuhlolwa okufanayo. ” Ababhali balowo mbiko wango-2008 bahlanganisa u-Alan Boobis no-Angelo Moretto, izifundiswa ezimbili ezabanjwa ku ukungqubuzana kwehlazo lenzalo ngo-2016 ngoba babe ngusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elakhipha i-glyphosate engcupheni yomdlavuza ngasikhathi sinye njengoba babephethe izikhundla zobuholi e I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo elithole okukhulu iminikelo evela embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane.

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2015 emayelana nobungozi be-glyphosate, “ikhemikhali iMonsanto incike kuyo,” uHaspel ucaphune imithombo emibili exhumene nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane angayidalulanga: uKeith Solomon, usosayensi wezobuthi owabhala amaphepha nge-glyphosate ixhaswe nguMonsanto (futhi ngubani uMonsanto ukukhuthaza njengomthombo); noDavid Ropeik, ongumxhumanisi wokubona ngobungozi ohambisana neHarvard naye onenkampani yePR amaklayenti afaka iDow, iDuPont neBayer. UHaspel noRopeik bakhulume ndawonye emkhakheni wezolimo imiyalezo exhaswe umkhakha ukuqeqeshwa ikamu ebhuthini e-University of Florida e 2014.

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2014 mayelana nokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zibeka engcupheni yini ezempilo, uHaspel wethule ukungabaza ngezingozi zezempilo ze-organophosphates, isigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane exhumene ukulimala kwemizwa ezinganeni, Nge ukubuyekeza ethola ukuthi "izifundo ze-epidemiological azizange zithinte ngokuqinile noma imuphi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane njengoba uhlobene kakhulu nemiphumela emibi yokukhula kwezinzwa ezinganeni nasezinganeni." Umbhali oholayo wayengu- UCarol Burns, usosayensi eDow Chemical Company, ongomunye wabakhiqizi abakhulu be-organophosphates ezweni.

Leyo kholamu ibuye yasebenzisa imboni eya kusosayensi wezobuthi uCarl Winter njengomthombo wokuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni okususelwa ekuhlolweni kwe-EPA. IMonsanto yayikhona ukugqugquzela umsebenzi kaBusika ngaleso sikhathi ezindaweni zokukhuluma, kanti uBusika naye wakhonza kwi ibhodi lokweluleka ngesayensi weqembu elixhaswe ngemali yiMonsanto Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, okuyinto ngiziqhayisa kokuthunyelwe kwebhulogi ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule mayelana nokushicilelwa kwe-anti-organic okwakucaphuna umfana wabo, "umeluleki we-ACSH uDkt. Carl Winter."

Idukisiwe nokubikwa okungaphandle kokuqukethwe

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2014, uHaspel wasebenzisa iphepha lika-2012 yiAmerican Academy of Pediatrics ngaphandle komongo ukuqinisa impikiswano yakhe yokuthi ukudla i-organic kungahle kunganikeli izinzuzo zezempilo, kepha akabazisanga abafundi ngobubanzi obugcwele besifundo noma iziphetho. I- Iphepha le-AAP walandisa ngobufakazi obuningi besayensi obukhombisa ukulinyazwa kwezingane kusuka kokuchayeka okunzima nokuhlala isikhathi eside kuya kuma-pesticides ahlukahlukene, futhi waphetha ngokuthi, "Ukuchayeka kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane kufanele kukhawulelwe ngangokunokwenzeka." Lo mbiko ucaphune ubufakazi bokuthi “kwehle ngokushesha okukhulu ekukhishweni komchamo kwama-metabolites ezibulala-zinambuzane” ezinganeni ezidla ukudla okungokwemvelo. I-AAP nayo ikhishiwe izincomo zenqubomgomo ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane.

UHaspel washiya wonke lowo mongo futhi wabika kuphela ukuthi umbiko we-AAP, “waphawula ukuhlangana phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-organophosphate nezinkinga zezinzwa ezitholakale kwezinye izifundo kodwa waphetha ngokuthi kusengakacaci ukuthi ukwehliswa kokuchayeka ngokudla izinto eziphilayo kungaba 'emtholampilo efanele. '”

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2018, uHaspel wadukisa wabika ukuthi i-chlorpyrifos ye-pesticide “kube yimpi phakathi kwamaqembu ezemvelo, afuna ukuthi ivinjelwe, ne-EPA, engafuni” - kepha akabazisanga abafundi ngephuzu elisemqoka: ukuthi i-EPA wayencome ukuvinjelwa i-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobufakazi obandayo bokuthi ukutholakala kokubeletha kungahle kwenzeke ube nemiphumela ehlala njalo ebuchosheni bezingane. I-ejensi ihlehlise inkambo kuphela ngemuva kwe- UTrump EPA waphazamisa. UHaspel uthole umusho wakhe odukisayo othi “amaqembu ezemvelo vs EPA” ngokuxhumanisa neNew York Times ikhasi lemibhalo lokho kunikeze umongo omncane ngesinqumo se-EPA, kunokuxhumanisa nendaba ye-NYT echaze i- umongo wezepolitiki wethonya lenkampani.

Kuncike emithonjeni evumelana 

Kwikholamu yakhe ka-2018, uHaspel usungule impikiswano yakhe yokuthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni akukhathazi kakhulu isu lokuzibika elisolisayo alisebenzise kwezinye izikhathi: ecacisa isivumelwano phakathi kwemithombo eminingi ayaziyo. Kulokhu, uHaspel ubike ukuthi amazinga ezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni “aphansi kakhulu” futhi “akufanele ukhathazeke ngawo,” ngokusho kwe- “i-USDA ne-Environmental Protection Agency (kanye nabaningi bezazi ezinobuthi engikhulume nabo iminyaka). ” Yize ebike ukuthi, "Akuwona wonke umuntu onokholo kulezo zivivinyo," uHaspel akazange akhulume ngemithombo engavumelani futhi wakushaya indiva ngokuphelele lokho Umbiko we-American Academy of Pediatrics lokho kuncoma ukwehliswa kokuchayeka kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane, akubalule ngokungahambisani nekholamu yakhe yango-2014. Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2015 ekhuluma nge-glyphosate waphinde wacaphuna imithombo enomqondo ofanayo, ebika ukuthi usosayensi “ngamunye” akhulume naye “uqaphele ukuthi kuze kuphakame imibuzo yakamuva, i-glyphosate ibiphawuliwe ngokuphepha kwayo.”

Kuphuthelwe idatha efanele 

Idatha efanelekile uHaspel uphuthelwe kuyo ekubikeni kwakhe mayelana nobungozi noma ama-pesticides kanye nezinzuzo zezitatimende ezifakiwe eziphilayo ngamaqembu ezempilo avelele kanye nesayensi yakamuva:

Imibono eminingi yokubika kukaHaspel

  • “Inhlangano yokudla incane? Akuveli lapho sihlala khona, ”kusho uChellie Pingree no-Anna Lappé, Washington Post (2.4.2016)
  • "Umbhali wephephandaba waseWashington Post uyoshaya iMonsanto - futhi," nguStacy Malkan, Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (2.4.2016)
  • Ukubheja kwi-Food Beat: Kunini lapho kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo khona? ” nguStacy Malkan, Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (10.28.2015)
  • "Impendulo yokuthi 'Ingabe Okuphilayo Kungcono Yini Empilweni Yakho?'” Isikhungo se-Organic (4.8.2014)
  • "Ukuhlaselwa kwe-Organic: Ukuziba isayensi ukwenza icala lokulima ngamakhemikhali," nguKari Hamerschlag noStacy Malkan, Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (7.2014)

UTrevor Butterworth, iSense Mayelana neSayensi ne-STATS Spin Science for Industry

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UTrevor Butterworth nozakwabo eSense About Science / STATS babhalele abezindaba ezivelele futhi bacashunwa njengongoti abazimele kwezesayensi nabezindaba. Leli phepha linikeza ubufakazi bokuthi la maqembu nababhali banomlando omude wokusebenzisa amaqhinga kagwayi ukwenza ukungabaza ngesayensi nokufuna ukwehliswa kwemikhiqizo ebalulekile ezimbonini zokudla ezinamakhemikhali, izidakamizwa kanye nokudla okungenamsoco.

Amaqembu ahlobene: UJon Entine / Iphrojekthi Yokufunda Ngofuzo, Isayensi Media Center, ICornell Alliance yeSayensi

Uhlolojikelele

Vimba Ukudalulwa Kwezinzwa Ngezesayensi: Ababiki Beendaba Baqaphe

Ukudalulwa kukaNovemba 2016 ku-The Intercept, “Ukuhlwanyela Kwembewu: Indlela Abazibeke Ngayo Abaqaphi Bakwa 'Sound Science' Bancoma Izikali Zezimboni,” kuchaza imininingwane ngobudlelwano bakagwayi nokuxhumana kwemboni kweSense About Science.

“I-Sense About Science ithi ikhuthaza ukusebenzela obala” kepha “ayivezi njalo lapho imithombo yayo ezindabeni eziyimpikiswano ingososayensi abanobudlelwano nezimboni ezihlolwayo,” kubhala uLiza Gross. "Uma izintatheli zibuza ngokufanele ukuthi ngubani oxhasa ucwaningo ngobungozi be-asbestos, noma amakhemikhali okwenziwa, bazokwelulekwa ukuba bangabaze nobufakazi obuvezwa yiSense About Science kulezi zingxoxo."

Umlando Wokuvikela Amakhemikhali, Ukudla Okungafuneki Nezidakamizwa 

I-Sense About Science yasungulwa njengeqembu lokwamukela izivakashi e-UK ngo-2002 nguDick Taverne, usopolitiki waseNgilandi nosomabhizinisi zibopha imboni kagwayi nezinye izimboni I-Sense About Science ivikele.

Uhlobo lwe-US lweqembu yethulwa ngo-2014 eBrooklyn ngaphansi kobuqondisi bukaTrevor Butterworth. Kusukela ngo-2003 kuya ku-2014, iButterworth ibingumhleli ku STATS, okumanje ihlanganiswe ne-Sense About Science USA.  Ngesikhathi esebenza, uButterworth uqoqe umsebenzi omkhulu ophikisana nokususwa kanye nokuhlaselwa kososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngemikhiqizo ebalulekile ezimbonini zamakhemikhali, zokudla okungenamsoco nezidakamizwa - ngokwesibonelo phthalates, BPA, i-vinyl plastic, ukukhwabanisa, ukuhola ngezindebe zomlomo, i-formaldehyde insipho yengane, isiraphu yengqolowa, ama-sodas anoshukela, izithako zokufakelwa futhi Oxycontin.

IButterworth nayo iyi- ovakashele esikanye naye eCornell University Alliance for Science, umkhankaso wezokuxhumana obuseCornell University oxhaswe yiGates Foundation ukuze khuthaza ama-GMO. IButterworth iyagijima indawo yokusebenzela eCornell ukufundisa uhlobo lwakhe lobudlelwano nabezindaba kubafundi nososayensi abasebasha.

URebecca Goldin, uprofesa wezibalo waseGeorge Mason University, unguMqondisi we-STATS futhi uvela kwi-Sense About Science USA ikhasi labasebenzi.

Phambilini abakwa-STATS babehlaliswe eGeorge Mason University futhi bafaka amafomu entela ngokuhlanganyela neCentre of Media and Public Affairs (CMPA), okuyiqembu elaqashwa nguPhillip Morris ngawo-1990 ukuba khetha imibiko yabezindaba ngogwayi. I-STATS ne-CMPA bezingacaciswanga ngokuxhaswa kwazo. Ubuningi be imali ye-STATS kubonakala sengathi ivela eqenjini elincane lezisekelo ezilwa nokulawulwa okuhola abaxhasi bamaqembu aphika ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu.

Ukuvikelwa kwe-OxyContin

Amaqhinga aseButterworth, Goldin ne IZIBALO kuyabonakala emsebenzini wabo wokuvikela i-Oxycontin; babhale izindatshana bephika inkinga yokuluthwa i-opioid enqunywe ngodokotela, bagxeka ukusakazwa kwabezindaba futhi baphikisana nemithetho yokubusa kwimigomo. Bona izindatshana ku- Forbes (EButterworth), IZIBALO.org (Goldin), kanye Scientific AmericanHuffington Post futhi Slate (okwedlule IZIBALO Mfowethu Maia Szavalitz). Ukuhlaziywa okusha ngu Abaphenyi baseHarvard ne-CNN ithole ukuthi imiyalo ye-opioid kadokotela iyinkinga ngempela: “abenzi bama-opioid bakhokhela odokotela izizumbulu zemali, futhi lapho opioid eyinikeza udokotela ngokwengeziwe, wenza imali eyengeziwe.”

Ukuphikwa Kwesayensi Yezulu

A 2002 ibhuku ngumsunguli we-STATS / CMPA uRobert Lichter, uDavid Murray we-STATS noJoel Schwartz we-Hudson Institute bayiphikile isayensi yezulu, phakathi kwezinye izindaba zesayensi, futhi basebenzisa izindlela eziningi "zokuphikisa" ukuhlasela abezindaba, kufaka phakathi ukushiya okutholakele okungahambisani ne-ajenda yabo nokusebenzisa ukuhlaziywa kwezibalo okungajulile, ngokusho kwe- ukubuyekeza eSalon nguDavid Appell. Ephawula le ncwadi, u-Appell wabhala: “Ingabe ukhathazekile ngokufa kwezinhlobo eziphilayo ngenxa yokufudumala kwembulunga yonke? Ungenzi. Lezo zindaba ezesabisayo zenziwa ngababhali abaluhlaza abathanda amaphephabhuku ezesayensi ukuze bathole ama-factoid ethusayo futhi abasebenza ngokubambisana nososayensi abashayela iVolvo abasonta imiphumela yabo ngomzamo wokuphikisana nenqubekela phambili nobungxiwankulu. ” Bona ngezansi ukuthola eminye imininingwane mayelana Uxhaso lwe-STATS kusuka ekuphikisweni kwesimo sezulu ngenethiwekhi yemali emnyama.

Umbhali Wezobudlelwano Komphakathi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Umqondisi weSense About Science USA uTrevor Butterworth ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile emkhankasweni wenkulumo-ze wemboni yamakhemikhali wokuhlambalaza ukukhathazeka kwezempilo nge-chemical bisphenol A (BPA) ngenkathi ese-STATS, ngokusho kuka-2009 uphenyo yi-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.

Izintatheli uMeg Kissinger noSusanne Rust bachaze iButterworth njengesibonelo “sababhali bezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yamakhemikhali” abangachazi ukwethembeka kwabo. Bachaze iqhaza ayelibambile ekwenziweni komkhankaso "okungakaze kube khona kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi okusebenzisa izindlela eziningi ezifanayo - nabantu - imboni kagwayi esetshenzisiwe ekulweni kwayo nomthetho isikhathi eside":

"Ukuvikelwa kweBPA kumablogi kuvela kuTrevor Butterworth… Uhlala ehlanganisa i-Inthanethi ngezindaba ezikhuluma nge-BPA futhi anikeze imibono ngaphandle kokuveza ubuhlobo bakhe nezimboni."

Ku-athikili ehambisana nayo, uKissinger noRust kuchazwe ama-STATS "njengomdlali omkhulu emkhankasweni wobudlelwano bomphakathi wokuhlambalaza ukukhathazeka" ngeBPA. Yize leli qembu, “lizisholo ukuthi liyinhlangano yezindaba ezimele,” babhala:

“Ukubuyekezwa kwezimali zayo neWebhusayithi yayo kukhombisa ukuthi i-STATS ixhaswa ngezinhlangano zezinqubomgomo zomphakathi ezikhuthaza ukupheliswa komthetho. I-Journal Sentinel yathola imibhalo ekhombisa ukuthi inhlangano yabazali bayo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs, yakhokhelwa ngeminyaka yawo-1990 nguPhilip Morris, inkampani kagwayi, ukuze ahlukanise izindaba ezibucayi ngokubhema. ”

Baveze ukuthi umbiko waseButterworth onamagama angama-27,000 we-STATS ugxeka ukusakazwa kwabezindaba nge-BPA - okwakudlalwa kakhulu kumawebhusayithi ezimboni zepulasitiki - “uhambisana nendlela esetshenziswe ekuhlaziyweni kukagwayi.”

"Umngani" weCoke

Ngo-2014, isikhulu esiphezulu seCoca-Cola sachaza iButterworth “njengomngani wethu” kumalungu eqembu eliphambili elixhaswe yiCoke, futhi lamfaka njengomuntu ongasiza ekugcwaliseni “isidingo sabo sezintatheli ezisebenza kahle kwezesayensi,” ngokusho kwama-imeyili etholwe yi-US Right to Know.

Ukuhwebelana ngama-imeyili kubandakanye uRhona Applebaum, ngaleso sikhathi owayeyisikhulu sezesayensi nezempilo eCoca-Cola, kanye nabaholi beGlobal Energy Balance Network (GEBN), evezwe yi I-New York Times futhi Associated Press njengeqembu langaphambili leCoca-Cola ebelisebenza eduze nabaphathi beCoke ukususa icala lokukhuluphala kude neziphuzo ezinoshukela. I-Applebaum wasula esikhundleni sakhe eCoke futhi I-GEBN ivaliwe ngemuva kokugqashuka ngo-2015.

Phakathi ku Mashi 2014 i-imeyili, I-Applebaum idlulisele abaholi be-GEBN i-Harvard Business Review i-athikili ebhalwe eButterworth leyo izama ukudicilela phansi ucwaningo olumatanisa ushukela nokuzonda kwesisindo, futhi yamchaza “njengomngani wethu.” Kwi Novemba 2014 uchungechunge lwe-imeyili, I-Applebaum kanye nabaholi be-GEBN baxoxe ngesidingo sokuqasha izikhungo zesayensi futhi bathole ososayensi abengeziwe "kwisekethe." I-Applebaum yancoma "isidingo sezintatheli ezinhle zesayensi njengengxenye ye-GEBN egxila ebufakazini. Wethula ngokucatshangelwa uTrevor Butterworth. Ngidinga lolo hlobo lokukhulelwa. ”

Iphini likamengameli weGEBN uSteven Blair ubhale wathi, “Ngiyavumelana noRona ngoTrevor. Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi usohlwini lwamalungu angaba amalungu. ” U-Applebaum uphendule wathi, "Ukulungele futhi uyakwazi."

I-Ally yamaqembu amaningi ezimboni

Imibhalo ebanzi yaseButterworth evikela amakhemikhali, ushukela noshukela esikhundleni sekuhehe udumo lwamaqembu amaningi ezimboni kule minyaka edlule.

Amaqembu ezohwebo akhuthaze umsebenzi waseButterworth afaka phakathi I-American Beverage Association, lo I-American Chemistry Council, lo INorth American Metal Packaging Alliance, lo Inhlangano Yomhlaba Yamanzi Amabhodlela, lo I-International Sweeteners Association, the I-Plastics Industry Trade Association, lo inhlangano yezokuhweba embonini yezimonyo, imboni yamakhemikhali inqubomgomo iwebhusayithi, lo Isikhungo Sokuncintisana Samabhizinisi, lo Cato Institute futhi Isikhungo Senkululeko Yabathengi.

The Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni lelo kukhuthaza njalo Umsebenzi kaButterworth, umchaze njengo “master junk science debunker” futhi “njengomngani wethu”

IButterworth nayo ibhalwe njenge umngani weNational Press Foundation. Usihlalo weSense About Science USA, UHeather Dahl, nguisihlalo esedlule esedlule”WeNational Press Foundation, futhi uhlala ekomidini eliphezulu le-NPF.

I-Sucralose Echo Chamber

IButterworth ingumvikeli ovelele wamaswidi okwenziwa okuphepha kwawo okungabazekayo. Ngo-2011, uButterworth wakhuluma engqungqutheleni i-International Sweeteners Association futhi wabonakala nakowabo isitatimende sephephandaba enesihloko esithi, "Ochwepheshe Bancoma Ama-sweeteners Ase-Low-Calorie afana ne-Sucralose to Help Manage Weight."

Ukhonjwe njengesintatheli esivame ukufaka isandla kwi-Financial Times naseWall Street Journal, uButterworth uthe nge-sucralose, “Isisindo sobufakazi besayensi obucatshangelwe, umphumela wokuhlolisisa ngokucophelela, ozimele, ochwepheshe, kukhombisa kaningi ukuthi abukho ubufakazi bokuthi engcupheni yezempilo. ”

Njengesibonelo sendlela imboni ekhiqiza imboni esebenza ngayo ukujija izintatheli: Ngo-2012, eButterworth ubhalele iForbes indatshana ukuhlasela ucwaningo olwaveza ukukhathazeka nge-sucralose nguDkt. Morando Soffritti, umqondisi weRamazzini Institute, ayichaze ngokuthi "yinto yokuhlekisa."

Ku-2016 isitatimende sephephandaba, ephendula olunye ucwaningo lweSoffritti, iqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke kwafakwa izingcezu zaseButterworth ngo-2012 nezingcaphuno zokuhlasela, kanti bathathwa yizintatheli e- The IndependentThe Daily MailTelegraph futhi Deseret News, bonke bakhombe iButterworth njengomthombo ophuma eForbes.

Ukuseshwa kwe-Google yiRamazzini Institute kuvela ukuthi iButterworth yango-2012 iForbes yaba yinto yokuqala.

Ixhaswe yi-Network Climate Change Denier Dark Money Network

Ngenkathi i-STATS ithi ayithathi hlangothi, inqwaba yemali isuke ivela kwizisekelo ezimbalwa ezilandelanayo, eziphikisana nemithetho ebambe iqhaza elikhulu ekuxhaseni izinhlangano ezizama ukudicilela phansi isayensi yezulu.

Ngokuvumelana ne Uphenyo lokunqanda:

“Phakathi kuka-1998 no-2014, abakwa-STATS bathole ama- $ 4.5 million, amaphesenti angama-81 eminikelo yabo, evela kuSearle Freedom Trust, iSarah Scaife Foundation, iJohn M. Olin Foundation, iDonors Trust (isikhwama esasekelwa kakhulu nguCharles Koch), nelinye ilungelo izisekelo -wing. Searle, okuyi ichaza umsebenzi wayo njengokukhuthaza 'inkululeko yezomnotho,' kunikeze ama-STATS $ 959,000 phakathi kuka-2010 no-2014.

Izisekelo zokulwa nomthetho, kufaka phakathi lezi, zichithe imali engaphezu kwesigamu sezigidigidi phakathi kuka-2003 no-2010 'ukukhohlisa nokudukisa umphakathi ngesimo sesayensi yezulu kanye nosongo olubangelwa ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu,' ngokusho kocwaningo lwango-2013 olwenziwe yisazi sezenhlalo eDrexel University uRobert Brulle. ”

In the isitatimende sephephandaba maqondana nesifundo sakhe, uBrulle uveze ukuthi izisekelo zeScaife neSearle ziphakathi "kwabaxhasi abakhulu kunabo bonke bezinhlangano ezihlela ukwenqaba ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu" kanye nezisekelo "ezikhuthaza imibono engenamakethe emikhakheni eminingi."

I-Scaife Foundation neSearle Freedom Trust kube ngabaxhasi abakhulu be-STATS, nge-Scaife ihlinzeka cishe yonke imali yeqembu phakathi kuka-2005 kuya ku-2007, ngokusho kweGreenpeace uphenyo ngezimali ze-STATS, kanti uSearle wenyuka ngemali ecishe ibe yisigidi samaRandi phakathi kuka-2010 no-2014.

UMongameli kanye noMphathi Omkhulu weSearle Freedom Trust, UKimberly Dennis, futhi ungusihlalo webhodi labaqondisi beDonors Trust, iqembu uMama Jones alibize nge- “i-ATM yemali emnyama yenhlangano elondolozayo, ”Kanye no-a ohola imali wenqaba ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu nezinhlangano ezingabazayo. Ngaphansi kobuholi bukaDennis, iSearle Foundation neDonors Trust yathumela imali engama- $ 290,000 ku-STATS ngo-2010, eGreenpeace kubika.

IKoch Industries / iGeorge Mason University Foundation

UCharles Koch, oyi-CEO ye-petrochemical conglomerate Koch Industries, unikeze imali engaphezu kuka- $ 100 million emakhampasi angama-361 asuka ngo-2005 kuya ku-2014, ngokusho kweGreenpeace ukuhlaziywa kokufakwa kwe-IRS. The IGeorge Mason University Foundation, othole izigidi ezingama- $ 45.5, nguyena owazuza kakhulu kulokhu.

Abafundi bakwaGMU baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemali yoKoch encwadini yango-2014 kumongameli we-GMU, ephawula ukuthi inyuvesi "igxekiwe njengenkampani engaphansi kweKoch Industries." Ukuphendula isicelo samarekhodi esidlangalaleni solwazi mayelana noxhaso lukaKoch, abafundi "batshelwe ukuthi yonke iminikelo yezezimali ihanjiswa ngeGMU Foundation, engadingi ukuphendula isicelo sethu seFOIA njengenhlangano ezimele ehlukile."

I-GMU Foundation ixhase udadewabo wenhlangano i-CMPA $ 220,990 e 2012, kanye ne- $ 75,670 e 2013, ngokuya ngamarekhodi entela. Ngaleyo minyaka i-CMPA nayo yasiza ngezezimali ama-STATS. In 2012, Abakwa-STATS babike isikweletu esingu- $ 203,611 esivela ku-CMPA ukuthi “ngenxa yokunganeliswa kwemali” “akubuyiswanga.” In 2013, Abakwa-STATS babike imalimboleko evela ku-CMPA ngo- $ 163,914.

Amarekhodi entela ka-2014 akhombisi ukubolekwa kwemali phakathi kwamaqembu noma iminikelo evela ku-GMU Foundation. Ukufakwa kwentela kwe-CMPA ka-2014 ikhombisa isinxephezelo se- $ 97,512 seButterworth ne- $ 173,100 sikaJon Entine, isikhathi eside Ukusebenzisana komphakathi ngokuxhumana okujulile nomkhakha wamakhemikhali, oqhuba i- Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, A iqembu eliphambili lezimboni zezolimo.

Ukuzimela Ngokuphelele?

I-STATS manje yabelana ngewebhusayithi neSense About Science USA, futhi inikeza lokhu inothi ngezimali:

“I-STATS.org iphethwe yiSense About Science USA; it is grants grants from the Searle Freedom Trust and a donance from the American Statistical Association. I-Sense About Science USA ixhaswe yiLaura noJohn Arnold Foundation neminikelo evela kumalungu omphakathi. I-Sense About Science USA ayemukeli ukuxhaswa noma ukwesekwa kwemboni. I-Sense About Science USA izimele ngokuphelele kunoma iyiphi inyuvesi, umphakathi, noma enye inhlangano. ”

The iwebhusayithi idlulisa umuzwa wokusekelwa emazingeni aphansi, ephawula ukuthi umkhankaso wayo odinga ukubhaliswa kwezilingo zemithi yokwelashwa udonse abaxhasi abangama-30,000. “Asinawo amahhovisi kanokusho. I-Sense About Science USA ingemuva kwesitolo sokubhaka kanye nekhefi. Sibeka imali yethu ekwenzeni, futhi konke okuncane kuyasiza. ”

Izibopho Zogwayi

Kokubili i-STATS ne-Sense Mayelana neSayensi kunezimpande embonini kagwayi izimpi ze-PR.

I-STATS ne-CMPA zisungulwe nguRobert Lichter, PhD, owayengumhlaziyi wezindaba zeFox kanye noprofesa wezokuxhumana eGMU. UPhillip Morris wenza isivumelwano no-CMPA noLichter ngawo-1990, ngokusho kwemibhalo evela kuTobacco Institute eyatholakala emtatsheni wezincwadi zomkhakha kagwayi i-UCSF.

Ngo-1994, uPhillip Morris wafuna usizo lweCMPA ekubhekaneni “nokuhlaselwa kwakamuva kwemboni kagwayi” kwabezindaba, ngokusho kwe imemo yangaphakathi ukuphakamisa amasu okuthi “abuyise ukunakwa kwabezindaba ngesidingo sokunganaki.”

Kwi-imeyili yangoFebhuwari 8, 1999, iphini likamongameli uPhillip Morris uVic Han wabiza iCMPA "njengeqembu elibheka abezindaba esibe nesandla kulo eminyakeni embalwa edlule," I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel kubikiwe.

Umsunguli weSense About Science, uDick Taverne, naye uvela kumafayela wemboni kagwayi we-UCSF. Njengoba uLiza Gross echaza ku I-Intercept:

“Ngokwamaphepha angaphakathi akhishwe enkantolo ngabenzi bakagwayi, inkampani yababonisi bakaTaverne, iPRIMA Europe, isize iBritish American Tobacco ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwane nabatshalizimali bayo futhi shaya imithetho yaseYurophu ngogwayi ngawo-1990. UTaverne uqobo usebenze kuphrojekthi yabatshalizimali: Ku- imemo engenalo usuku, U-PRIMA uqinisekise inkampani kagwayi ukuthi 'umsebenzi uzokwenziwa mathupha nguDick Taverne,' ngoba ubekwazi ukuxoxisana nabaholi bezimboni futhi 'uzofuna ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izidingo zomkhakha zibaluleke kakhulu ezingqondweni zabantu.'

Phakathi neminyaka eyishumi efanayo, uTaverne wayehleli ebhodini legatsha laseBrithani lenkampani yezokuxhumana yomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller, eyabiza uPhilip Morris njengekhasimende. Umqondo weqembu “lesayensi elizwakalayo”, elenziwe ngoxhaxha lososayensi ababezokhuluma bephikisana nemithethonqubo abantu bezimboni ababengenakho ukwethembeka ukuyiphikisa, kwakuyinkulumo uBurson-Marsteller ayenza kuPhilip Morris ku Imemorandamu yonyaka we-1994. "

UTaverne wesule esikhundleni sokuba ngusihlalo weSense About Science ngo-2012. ISense About Science USA yethulwa ngo-2014 eBrooklyn iqondiswa iButterworth. La maqembu womabili achazwa njengezinhlangano ezingosisi “ezinobudlelwano obusondelene nezinhloso ezifanayo.”

Ukudalula i-'Bogus Science 'Nge-Living Marxism Network 

U-Lord Taverne wasungula iSense About Science ngo-2002 ukuze "adalule isayensi mbumbulu," ngokusho kuka imemori yakhe. Njengoba uLiza Gross echaze ku I-Intercept, abaxhasi bokuqala baleli qembu babandakanya amanye amaklayenti amabhizinisi wangaphambili kaTaverne nezinkampani ayengumnikazi wesitoko kuzo.

Njengemiklamo yayo yokuqala, iSense About Science ihlele incwadi evela ku- 114 ososayensi ukunxenxa uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuba "aphikisane nezimangalo ezingamanga" mayelana nama-GMO, futhi wenza inhlolovo ukugqamisa inkinga yokucekelwa phansi kwesivuno seGMO.

Ngo-2000, uTaverne wasiza ekwakheni i- “Indlela Yokuziphatha: Imihlahlandlela Yezokuxhumana Kwezesayensi Nezempilo, ”Imanifesto yeSocial Institute Research Center kanye neRoyal Institution ngezinqubo izintatheli nososayensi okufanele bazisebenzise ukugwema" izindaba ezesabisayo "ezingekho emthethweni kwabezindaba.

Izinkombandlela bekungumbhalo oyisisekelo weSense About Science kanye nenhlangano engudadewabo, i- Isayensi Media Center, iqembu elibiziwe "Inhlangano ye-PR yesayensi." Ixhaswe ngokwengxenye yizinkampani, iScience Media Center ivame ukukhuthaza imibono yososayensi abathihlisa ingozi ngobuchwepheshe namakhemikhali aphikisanayo, nomsebenzi wayo wokuqala obandakanyekile ukuvikela ama-GMO kusetshenziswa amaqhinga okuntshontsha.

Njengababhali UGeorge Monbiot, UZac Goldsmith, UJonathan Matthews kanti abanye babhale phansi, zombili i-Sense About Science kanye neScience Media Center zivela futhi ziqondiswa yinethiwekhi yabantu abaxhumene ne-Revolutionary Communist Party, eyathi kamuva yahlangana Ukuphila kweMarxism, Umagazini we-LM, I-Spiked Magazine futhi Isikhungo Semibono, ezithuthukisa umbono ofanele wobuchwepheshe, ukubukwa kwemakethe okukhululekile ngokweqile futhi ukubukela phansi abezemvelo.

As UMonbiot wabhala ngo-2003, “isikhungo sezesayensi, ngaso sonke isikhathi esingenandaba nezepolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sasivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe umphakathi ngamalungu oxhumano lwezepolitiki oluyinqaba futhi olungamasiko.”

Ukufunda okuqhubekayo:

 I-Intercept: Abanakekeli Abazibiza Kanjani 'Bezomculo Ocacile' Bancoma Izikali Zezimboni

I-Atlantic: AmaLobbyist asiphotha kanjani isayensi ebuthakathaka ukuvikela i-BPA

Ukubuyekezwa kobuntatheli beColumbia: BPA, Health and Nuance: Umbiko we-STATS ugxeka ukusakazwa kwabezindaba kodwa unamaphutha awo

I-Consumer Reports: Imboni Iphendula Embikweni Wabathengi Umbiko we-BPA

CJR: Hlangana nendoda efuna ukusiza izintatheli ngezinombolo

USRTK: UJon Entine: I-Master Messenger Yezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Isazi sezinto eziphilayo: Kungani iCornell University ibamba umkhankaso weGNO Propaganda?

Okuningi kubaxhasi:

Washington Post: I-Scaife: Uxhaso lukaBaba Welungelo

I-Drexel University: Hhayi Izelamani ZakwaKoch Nje: Isifundo Esisha seDrexel Siveza Abaxhasi Ngasemuva Komzamo Wokuphika Isimo Sezulu

Ibhulogi leDeSmogIzisekelo Zomndeni We-Scaife

Ibhulogi leDeSmog: UCharles G. Koch; Richard Mellon Sciafe; ISearle Freedom Trust; I-Donors Trust: Imininingwane Yokufunda Imali Emnyama Egeleza Ekuphikeni Kwesayensi Yezulu

Associated Press: IGeorge Mason University Iba Intandokazi kaCharles Koch

Huffington Post: KuCharles Koch, uProfesa bangamaLobbyists

Izimali Zenethiwekhi Yezenhlalo Yesimo Sezulu Esenqabela Inkohliso Yamakhemikhali Anobuthi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Zikhuthaza ama-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, zivikela amakhemikhali anobuthi nokudla okungenamsoco, futhi zihlasela abantu abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngaleyo mikhiqizo ngokuthi “balwa nesayensi.” Kodwa-ke uJon Entine, uTrevor Butterworth noHenry Miller baxhaswa ngamaqembu afanayo axhasa ukwenqatshwa kwesayensi yezulu.

NguStacy Malkan

Umbhali waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot unesixwayiso kulabo bethu abazama ukuqonda amaqiniso amasha ezepolitiki e-US nase-UK: "Asinalo ithemba lokuqonda ukuthi yini ezayo kuze kube yilapho siqonda ukuthi inethiwekhi yemali emnyama isebenza kanjani," wabhala ku i-Guardian.

Kungenzeka ukuthi iCorporate America yehlisa ukwenanela uDonald Trump, kepha kwathi lapho uTrump esekutholile ukuqokwa, "imali enkulu yaqala ukuthola ithuba elingakaze libonwe," kubhala uMonbiot. “Ukungahambisani kwakhe kwakungeyona inkinga, kepha kwakuvula: i-ajenda yakhe yayingakhiwa. Futhi uhlelo olumnyama lwemali olwalusungulwe ezinye izinkampani zaseMelika lwalulungele ngokuphelele ukulwakha. ”

Le nethiwekhi, noma imali emnyama i-ATM njengoba uMama Jones ekuchazile, kubhekiswa enanini elinzima lokulandela umkhondo eligeleza lisuka kozigidigidi abangamasiko amakhulu, abanjengoCharles noDavid Koch nababambisene nabo, nezinkampani eziba ngamaqembu angaphambili akhuthaza imibono yezimakethe ezikhululekile ngokweqile - ngokwesibonelo, izimpi ezilwa nezikole zomphakathi, izinyunyana, ukuvikelwa kwemvelo, izinqubomgomo zokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nesayensi esongela inzuzo yebhizinisi.

"Asinathemba lokuthi sizokuqonda okuzayo size siqonde ukuthi isebenza kanjani imali emnyama."

Ababhali abaphenyayo UJane Mayer, UNaomi Oreskes, u-Erik Conway kanti abanye badalule ukuthi “indaba yemali emnyama nendaba yokwenqatshwa kwesimo sezulu iyindaba efanayo: izinhlangothi ezimbili zemali eyodwa,” njengoba uSenator wase-United States uSheldon Whitehouse ayichaza ngonyaka odlule inkulumo.

Amasu "okuholwa nguKoch, umsebenzi wokuthenga umthelela" - kufaka phakathi imisebenzi yenkulumo-ze ejikeleza isayensi ngaphandle kokubheka iqiniso - "mhlawumbe yisona sizathu esikhulu esingenayo umthetho-mali ophelele wesimo sezulu eCongress," kusho uWhitehouse.

Ngenkathi la maqhinga elandelelwe kahle emkhakheni wesimo sezulu, okungaxhunywanga kangako iqiniso lokuthi abaxhasi abalandela ukuphika kwesayensi yesimo sezulu baphinde babhalise inethiwekhi yabasebenzi be-PR abakhe imisebenzi yokuphotha isayensi ukuphika ubungozi bezempilo bamakhemikhali anobuthi ekudleni esikudingayo sidle nemikhiqizo esiyisebenzisa nsuku zonke.

Izigxobo ziphakeme empilweni yesizwe sethu. Amanani we- umdlavuza wezingane manje seziphezulu ngama-50% kunangesikhathi lapho “impi yomdlavuza” yaqala emashumini eminyaka adlule, futhi isikhali esihle kunazo zonke asisisebenzisi neze: izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukutholakala kwamakhemikhali abangela umdlavuza.

"Uma sifuna ukunqoba impi yomdlavuza, sidinga ukuqala ngamanxusa ayizinkulungwane omzimba namakhemikhali ahlolwe ngangokunokwenzeka, okungenzeka noma aziwa ngama-carcinogens ngabantu yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation" kubhala usosayensi nomlobi uDevra U-Lee Davis, PhD, MPH, ku The Hill.

Ukunciphisa amanxusa aziwayo "akuhlangene neze nesayensi, futhi kuningi okuphathelene namandla ezimboni ezinenzuzo enkulu ethembele ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi ukuphikisana nemibiko yesayensi ngobungozi," kusho uDavis.

Ukuvikela amakhemikhali anobuthi nokudla okungenamsoco 

Lapho imikhiqizo ebalulekile embonini yokudla kwamakhemikhali nokudla okungenamsoco ingena enkingeni ngesayensi, kuvela abalingiswa namaqembu abikezelwayo endaweni yesehlakalo, besebenzisa amasu abezindaba agugile ukukhipha izinkampani ezidinga ukukhuthazwa yi-PR.

Amagama abo namasu abawasebenzisayo - izindatshana ezinde eziphikisayo, ezivame ukwenziwa ukuhlaselwa ngabantu - zizokwaziwa ososayensi abaningi, izintatheli kanye nabameli babathengi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemikhiqizo enobuthi kule minyaka eyi-15 edlule.

Izicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi ngu I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ezivundulule izinkulungwane zemibhalo, kanye nemibiko yakamuva eyenziwe ngu Greenpeace, The Ngenisa nabanye, bakhanyisa ukukhanya okusha kule nethiwekhi yenkulumo-ze.

Abadlali ababalulekile kubalwa uJon Entine, uTrevor Butterworth, uHenry I. Miller namaqembu axhumene nabo: STATS, Centre for Media and Public Affairs, Genetic Literacy Project, Sense About Science neHoover Institute.

Yize kunemilando ebhalwe kahle njenge-PR operatives, i-Entine, iButterworth neMiller yethulwa njengemithombo yesayensi ebucayi ezinkundleni zokuxhumana eziningi, ezivela Wall Street Journal, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Newsweek, I-Philadelphia Enquirer, I-Harvard Business Review futhi, bridge ngokuvamile, Forbes - ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwemithombo yabo yezimali noma i-ajenda yokususa umthetho ezimbonini ezingcolisayo ezizikhuthazayo.

Izindatshana zabo zibeka phezulu ekusesheni kweGoogle izinto eziningi eziseqhulwini embonini yamakhemikhali nokudla okungenamsoco - okucindezela ukulandisa kokuthi ama-GMO, izibulala-zinambuzane, amakhemikhali epulasitiki, abashukela esikhundleni sikashukela baphephile, futhi noma ngubani osho okwahlukile ukuthi “uphikisana nesayensi.”

Kwezinye izimo, bathola ithonya njengoba behambisana nezikhungo zokusungula ezifana neBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, iCornell University kanye neYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis.

Kodwa-ke imithombo yabo yezimali ibuyela emuva emibonweni efanayo "yemakethe yamahhala" evela emafutheni kawoyela, ezemithi namakhemikhali axhasa ukwenqaba kwesayensi yezulu - ISearle Freedom Trust, Izisekelo zeScaife, IJohn Templeton Foundation nabanye bahlonzwa njengabaxhasi abakhulu nabangaguquguquki bamaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu, ngokusho kuka Ucwaningo lwe-2013 nguDrexel University isazi sezenhlalo uRobert Brulle, PhD.

Labo abafuna ukuqonda imigomo yenqubomgomo yenethiwekhi yemali emnyama yokuqaqa ukuvikelwa kwezempilo kohlelo lwethu lokudla benza kahle ukubheka lokhu abasakaza inkulumo-ze banamuhla nemiyalezo yabo.

UJon Entine - Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy / STATS

UJon Entine, owayekade eyintatheli, uzibonakalisa njengegunya lokulawula isayensi. Noma kunjalo ubufakazi obanele busikisela ungumsebenzi wobudlelwano bomphakathi obunesikhathi eside enobudlelwano obujulile nezinkampani zamakhemikhali ezihlushwa imibuzo ngezingcuphe zezempilo.

Eminyakeni edlule, u-Entine unakho ehlaselwa Lokhu ososayensi, oprofesa, abaxhasi, abameli futhi izintatheli ngubani ophakamise ukukhathazeka mayelana ukukhwabanisa, amandla enuzi, izibulala-zinambuzane futhi Amakhemikhali esetshenzisiwe amabhodlela ezingane futhi amathoyizi ezingane. Indaba kaMama Jones ka-2012 kaTom Philpott ichaza u-Entine njengo “Umxolisi webhizinisi lezolimo, ”Futhi uGreenpeace uchaza umlando wakhe ku Iwebhusayithi yokubuka iPolluter.

U-Entine manje ungumqondisi we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, iqembu eligqugquzela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Isiza sithi asithathi hlangothi, kepha “sakhiwe ngokusobala ukukhuthaza isikhundla semboni futhi asizami ukubheka ukungathathi hlangothi ezindabeni,” kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union.

"Umyalezo uthi ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo muhle futhi noma ngubani okugxekayo uyimbono esabekayo, kepha lokho akusho ukuthi impikiswano yesayensi ikuphi ngempela."

Faka izimangalo, isibonelo, ukuthi "ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO kunamandla ukwedlula ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke" - isimangalo esiphikiswa yi-World Health Organisation, esithi akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile ngokuphepha kwe-GMO, nangamakhulu ososayensi abathi kukhona akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi kwezokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project nayo ayizange iveze obala mayelana nokuxhumana kwayo neMonsanto. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, isayithi lishicilele amaphepha amaningi ezifundo ze-pro-GMO ama-imeyili adalula kamuva ukuthi ayenjalo abelwe osolwazi yisiphathimandla seMonsanto esihlinzeke ngezindawo zokukhulumela amaphepha futhi sathembisa ukuthi bampompe baphume yonke indawo i-Internet.

Esinye isibonelo: Abalingani be-Genetic Literacy Project babambisana ne-Academics Review ku- Iphrojekthi Ye-Biotechnology Literacy, izingqungquthela ezisekela izimboni eziqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ngokuthi "zingayifaka kanjani kangcono impikiswano ye-GMO nomphakathi ongabazayo."

"Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi."

Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo, okushicilele i- umbiko ngo-2014 behlasela imboni ephilayo, baziveza njengeqembu elizimele, kodwa ama-imeyili embuliwe yasungulwa ngosizo lwesikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto esathembisa ukuthola imali "kuyilapho iMonsanto igcina ngemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi." Ama-imeyili futhi wabonisa owayengumsunguli we-Academics Review uBruce Chassy wayekade ethola Izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto nge-University of Illinois Foundation.

Ngakho-ke ngubani oxhasa iPhrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy and Entine?

Ngokusho kwabo iwebhusayithi, inqwaba yemali ivela ezisekelweni ezimbili - iSearle neTempleton - ekhonjwe ku- Ucwaningo lwe-Drexel njengabaxhasi abaphambili bokuphika isayensi yezulu Lesi siza siphinde sibhale uxhaso lweWinkler Family Foundation futhi "sidlule sisekela i-University of California-Davis Biotech Literacy Bootcamp" esivela kwi-Academics Review Charitable Association.

Imithombo yezimali yangaphambilini ibuye ifake abasekeli bokuphika isayensi yezulu kanye nokudluliswa kwemali okungadalulwanga.

IGenetic Literacy Project ne-Entine phambilini bezisebenza ngaphansi kwesambulela seStatistical Assessment Services (STATS), iqembu eliseGeorge Mason University, lapho u-Entine ayengumuntu khona eCentre for Health and Risk Communication kusuka ngo-2011-2014.

I-STATS ixhaswe kakhulu yi-Scaife Foundation neSearle Freedom Trust phakathi kuka-2005 no-2014, ngokusho kophenyo lweGreenpeace Uxhaso lwe-STATS.

UKimberly Dennis, umongameli kanye ne-CEO yeSearle Freedom Trust, futhi ungusihlalo webhodi leDonors Trust, elidume kabi Isikhwama semali esimnyama esixhunywe nguKoch abanikeli babo abangalandelelwa. Ngaphansi kobuholi bukaDennis, iSearle neDonors Trust yathumela imali engama- $ 290,000 ku-STATS ngo-2010, kubika iGreenpeace.

In 2012 futhi 2013, I-STATS ithole izimali ezibolekwe ngenhlangano engudadewabo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs, okuyi wathola Iminikelo ngaleyo minyaka evela eGeorge Mason University Foundation, okuyi ayivezi imithombo yezimali.

U-Entine uke wazama ukuziqhelelanisa kwesinye isikhathi ne-GLP okuvela kula maqembu; kodwa, amarekhodi entela i-Entine ikhokhelwe u- $ 173,100 yiCentre for Media and Public Affairs ngonyaka ophela ngoJuni 30, 2015.

Nge-2014, ama-imeyili ayabonisa, U-Entine wayezama ukuthola ikhaya elisha le-Genetic Literacy Project, futhi wayefuna ukusungula “ubudlelwano obusemthethweni” ne-University of California, Davis, World Food Centre. Ube ngumuntu oMdala eSikoleni se-Institute for Food and Agricultural Literacy futhi manje ukhomba njengomuntu owayekade esebenza naye. I-GLP manje isingaphansi kwesambulela seqembu elibizwa ngeSayensi Literacy Project.

U-Entine uthe ngeke aphendule imibuzo ngale ndaba.

UTrevor Butterworth - Umuzwa NgeSayensi USA / STATS

UTrevor Butterworth ubethembekile imboni isithunywa iminyaka eminingi, ukuvikela ukuphepha kwemikhiqizo ehlukahlukene eyingozi ebalulekile ezimbonini zamakhemikhali nezokudla okungenamsoco, njenge phthalates, BPA, i-vinyl plastic, isiraphu yengqolowa, ama-sodas anoshukela futhi ubumnandi bokufakelwa. Ungumnikeli wangaphambili ku Newsweek futhi ubhale ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi ze- Wall Street Journal.

Kusukela ngo-2003 kuya ku-2014, iButterworth ibingumhleli kwa-STATS, ixhaswe kakhulu yi-Scaife Foundation neSearle Freedom Trust. Ngo-2014, waba ngumqondisi wokusungula we Inzwa Mayelana neSayensi USA bese ngigoqa ama-STATS kulelo qembu.

Ukudalulwa kwakamuva kukaLiza Gross ku I-Intercept ichaze iSense About Science, umqondisi wayo uTracey Brown, uButterworth, i-STATS kanye nabasunguli balawo maqembu “njengabaqokiwe abazimele besayensi yomsindo” “abalinganisa izikali embonini.”

I-Sense About Science "izama ukusiza umphakathi onolwazi olungelona iqiniso ukuthi ihlunge izimangalo ezethusayo ngempilo nemvelo" kepha "inomlando ophazamisayo wokuqhakambisa ochwepheshe okuvele ukuthi banezibopho nezimboni ezilawulwayo," kubhala uGross.

"Uma izintatheli zibuza ngokufanele ukuthi ngubani oxhasa ucwaningo ngobungozi be-asbestos, noma amakhemikhali okwenziwa, bazokwelulekwa ukuba bangabaze nobufakazi obuvezwa yiSense About Science kulezi zingxoxo."

I-Sense About Science USA ithunyelwe le mpendulo uButterworth uthe nge-imeyili "udumele ngendaba edukisayo ka-Intercept, ebikhanyisela abantu nezinhlangano ezingaxhumananga neSense About Science USA ndawonye." Uthe iqembu lakhe alithathi mali yezinkampani futhi lizimele ngokusemthethweni kwi-UK Sense About Science.

Uthe futhi, "Angikaze ngihlanganyele emkhankasweni wokuthumela imiyalezo embonini - kunoma yikuphi, ngikhokhelwe noma cha."

Ezinye izintatheli ziphethe ngenye indlela. 

Abathelisi ku I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Atlantic futhi I-Consumer Reports uveze uButterworth njengomdlali ophambili emizameni ye-PR enonya embonini yamakhemikhali yokuvikela ikhemikhali iBPA.

Ngo-2009, izintatheli uSusanne Rust noMeg Kissinger be-Journal Sentinel kuchaze iButterworth njengomvikeli we-BPA "othanda kakhulu", kanye nesibonelo "sababhali bezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yamakhemikhali" abangakudaluli ukusebenzisana kwabo.

 "Ukuvikelwa kweBPA kumablogi kuvela kuTrevor Butterworth."

STATS, babhala, "Izisholo ukuthi iyinhlangano yabezindaba ezimele" kodwa "ixhaswe izinhlangano zezinqubomgomo zomphakathi ezikhuthaza ukupheliswa komthetho." Inhlangano engudadewabo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs, "inomlando wokusebenzela izinkampani ezizama ukudlulisa ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwemikhiqizo yazo." UButterworth uthe ukubika kwakhe ngeBPA kukhombisa ubufakazi ngaleso sikhathi obuvela emithonjeni egunyaziwe, kanti abakwa STATS bathumele izimpendulo lapha futhi lapha ekubikeni okubucayi.

Isibonelo sakamuva sendlela imibhalo kaButterworth eyadlala ngayo indima enkulu emizamweni yokubambela ezinkampanini yokuhlambalaza isayensi enenkinga ingabonakala emsebenzini wakhe we-sweetener yokufakelwa eyimpikiswano.

Ngo-2012, iButterworth yabhala i- Isihloko seForbes ukugxeka isifundo esiphakamise ukukhathazeka ngengozi yomdlavuza ye-sucralose. Uchaze abacwaningi, uDkt. Morando Soffritti kanye neRamazzini Institute, “njengento yokuhlekisa.”

Ngo-2016, iqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla lalinendatshana kaButterworth yango-2012 kanye “nento ehlaya” ehlaziya isitatimende sephephandaba ukuhlasela iSoffritti entsha "yokufunda ukwethuka" okuphakamise ukukhathazeka nge-sucralose. Izintatheli ku- The IndependentThe Daily MailTelegraph futhi Deseret News wacosha izingcaphuno zaseButterworth ehlazisa abacwaningi, wamkhomba kuphela njengentatheli yaseForbes.

Ngokunjalo, ngo-2011, iButterworth ibingungoti ovelele kwi-International Sweeteners Association Conference, futhi yafaka isicelo sayo kweyabo isitatimende sephephandaba abukho "ubufakazi bokuba yingozi empilweni" kusuka ku-sucralose. Ukhonjwe "njengentatheli evame ukufaka isandla kwi-Financial Times naseWall Street Journal."

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-USRTK akhombisa ukuthi i-Coca Cola VP URona Applebaum uchaze iButterworth kubaholi beGlobal Energy Balance Network - a Iqembu eliphambili leCoca-Cola sisebenzela ukuphotha isayensi ngokukhuluphala - njengo “umngane wethu”Kanye nentatheli obekade“ukulungele futhi uyakwazi”Ukusebenza nabo. IButterworth ithe ayikaze isebenze nalelo qembu.

IButterworth manje isihlangene neCornell University njenge ovakashele esikanye naye eCornell Alliance for Science, iqembu elasungulwa ngonyaka we-2014 linemali eyisibonelelo esingu- $ 5.6 million yeGates Foundation ukuze khuthaza ama-GMO. Iqembu elixhaswe ngabakwaGates manje selihlanganyela ne-Sense About Science USA kwi-workshop yokufundisa ososayensi abasebasha ukuthi “Yimela iSayensi. "

I-Sense About Science USA nayo isebenza ngokuzibandakanya komphakathi imihlangano yokucobelelana ngolwazi yososayensi ezindaweni ezifana ne-University of Washington, University of Pittsburg, Carnegie Melon, Rockefeller University, Caltech kanye ne-University of Massachusetts, Boston.

UHenry I. Miller - Isikhungo seHoover

UHenry I. Miller, MD, ozakwabo eHoover Institution, ungomunye wabavikeli abanamandla kakhulu wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nabaphikisi abanonya bokukufaka amalebuli. Ubhale ukuhlaselwa okuningi embonini yezinto eziphilayo, kufaka phakathi i- "The Colossal Hoax of Organic Agriculture" (Forbes), "Ukulima Ngokwemvelo Akusimeme" (Wall Street Journal) kanye ne "Iqiniso elingcolile Mayelana Nemikhiqizo Engokwemvelo" (Newsweek).

UMiller ubhale futhi evikela i- izibulala-zinambuzane ezilimaza izinyosi, amakhemikhali epulasitiki futhi imisebe evela ezikhungweni zamandla enuzi, futhi ubelokhu ephikisana ne ukwenziwa kabusha kwe-DDT. Akaphendulanga ezicelweni zokuphawula ngale ndaba.

Ngokungafani neButterworth ne-Entine, uMiller unesizinda sesayensi kanye nezimpawu zikahulumeni; ungudokotela wezokwelapha futhi wayengumqondisi osungula ihhovisi le-FDA le-biotechnology.

NjengoButterworth no-Entine, uxhaso lukaMiller luvela emaqenjini axhasa ukwenqaba kwesayensi yezulu - iHoover Institute's umxhasi ophezulu yiSarah Scaife Foundation, kanti leli qembu selithathe nemali kwaSearle Freedom Trust, Exxon Mobile, American Chemistry Council, Charles Koch Foundation naseDonors Trust.

Njengabasunguli be I-STATS ne-Sense Mayelana neSayensi, UMiller ubuye abe nobudlelwano nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini kagwayi. Ngonyaka we-1994 Imemo yeqhinga le-PR lenkampani kagwayi uPhillip Morris, UMiller wabizwa ngokuthi "umsekeli oqavile" womkhankaso womhlaba wonke wokulwa nemithetho kagwayi. Ngo-2012, UMiller wabhala leyo nicotine “akukubi kangako kuwe ngamanani ahanjiswa ngogwayi noma imikhiqizo engenantuthu.”

UMiller ubuye abe yilungu "lebhodi lokweluleka ngokwesayensi" le IGeorge C. Marshall Institute, edume kakhulu ngomkhakha wayo kawoyela negesi okhokhela ukwenqabela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, nowayengumphathiswa we Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, “okuxhomeke kakhulu ekuxhasweni yizinkampani ezinesabelo sezezimali ezingxoxweni zesayensi okuhlose ukubunjwa,” ngokusho kuka umama Jones.

Mhlawumbe ngokubona ukuthi amadoda akhombisayo akuyona imithombo engcono kakhulu yokuthonya abesifazane abathenga ukudla, uMiller usanda kwabelana ngama-byline nabesifazane abasifazane abajoyine ukuhlasela kwakhe abameli bezempilo kanye nabalimi abaphilayo.

Izibonelo zifaka isiqeshana esibhalwe ngokuhlanganyela noKavin Senapathy, umsunguli we- iqembu lokho kuzama phazamisa imicimbi yokukhuluma kwabagxeki be-GMO, isihloko esithi “Shala Izishoshovu; ” futhi eyodwa nge UJulie Kelly, uthisha wokupheka onomyeni wakhe olwela amalungelo enkampani enkulu yezolimo i-ADM, echaza ezolimo eziphilayo njenge “umbuso omubi. "

Umsebenzi wakamuva kaKelly ufaka isiqeshana ku- Buyekeza National kufaka ukungabaza kubaphenyi besayensi yesimo sezulu, nendatshana eku- The Hill enxenxa iCongress ukuthi ibuyisele imali i-International Agency for Research on Cancer, ayisola "ngokuhlanganiswa komdlavuza" kanye "nokusebenzisa isayensi engaqondakali ukuthuthukisa uhlelo oluthinta ezepolitiki."

Njengoba singena eshumini leminyaka lesihlanu lokulahlekelwa yimpi yomdlavuza, futhi njengoba ukungazinzi kwesimo sezulu kusongela imvelo kanye nohlelo lwethu lokudla, sekuyisikhathi sokuqaqa inethiwekhi yabaphikisi besayensi abathi babanga isembatho sesayensi futhi sibadalule ukuthi bayini: abasabalalisi bezindaba abenza lokho umsebenzi ongcolile wemboni.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Isazi sezinto eziphilayo.

UStacy Malkan ungumsunguli futhi ungumqondisi obambisene weqembu elingenzi nzuzo lomqapha womphakathi Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” ongomunye wabasunguli bomkhankaso kazwelonke we-Safe Cosmetics nowake waba ngumshicileli wephephandaba.

Kungani iCornell University Ibamba Umkhankaso We-GMO Propaganda?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Lo mbhalo ka-Stacy Malkan wasekuqaleni uvele ku- Isazi sezinto eziphilayo

Abasunguli beCornell University, u-Andrew D. White no-Ezra Cornell, baphupha ngokwakha inyuvesi enkulu ethatha indlela ebucayi yokufunda. Umoya wabo wenguquko, nesithembiso sokuphishekela ulwazi ngokuzuzisa okukhulu, ngu wathi enhliziyweni yesikole i-Ivy League iphupho labo laba.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuthi le mibono isetshenziswa kanjani yiyunithi yaseCornell esebenza njengengalo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yezolimo.

Nokho yilokho okubonakala kuqhubeka eCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), uhlelo umkhankaso ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela ku-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation kanye nomgomo “wokudicilela phansi inkulumo-mpikiswano ekhokhisiwe” mayelana nama-GMO.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezinto zokwenziwa nezinhlelo zeqembu kusikisela ukuthi ngaphansi kwesithembiso salo “sokubuyisa ukubaluleka kobufakazi besayensi ekuthathweni kwezinqumo,” i-CAS ithuthukisa ama-GMO isebenzisa imiyalezo engathembekile namasu we-PR akhiwa izinkampani zezolimo ezinomlando omude wokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi .

Ukuxhumana nesayensi noma inkulumo-ze?

I-CAS umkhankaso wezokuxhumana ozinikele ekukhuthazeni ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo (okwaziwa nangokuthi ama-GMO) emhlabeni jikelele. Lokhu kucaciswa kweqembu ividiyo yephromoshini.

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uchaza iqembu lakhe "njengenhlangano engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana emelwe ososayensi, abalimi, ama-NGO, izintatheli kanye nezakhamizi ezikhathazekile" ezizosebenzisa "amapulatifomu asebenzisanayo e-inthanethi, izinsizakusebenza zemultimedia nezinhlelo zokuqeqesha ezokuxhumana ukwakha inhlangano yomhlaba wonke yokukhuthaza ukufinyelela kwi-biotechnology . ”

Ngale ndlela, bathi bazosiza ekunciphiseni ukungondleki nendlala emazweni asathuthuka, ngokusho kwevidiyo.

UDkt Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe alinakho ukuxhumana nezimboni futhi alitholi izinsiza ezivela embonini. "Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni," ubhale kanje iposi blog enesihloko esithi “Ilungelo Lokwaziwa (Ngokunembile) lapho ebephindisela khona emuva ekugxekeni eqenjini lami, i-US Right to Know.

Noma kunjalo izinhlelo ezihamba phambili ze-CAS - isifundo samasonto ayi-12 se- Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kanye nezinsuku ezimbili izifundo zokuxhumana - fundisa amakhono okuxhumana nabantu "abazibophezele ekukhuthazeni ukufinyelela okwandisiwe kwe-biotechnology" ikakhulukazi ukuze bakwazi "ukuhola imizamo yokukhuthaza ezimeni zabo zendawo."

Leli qembu futhi linokusebenzisana okungajwayelekile nezintatheli. Kusho ukuthini, njengoba ividiyo ye-CAS isho, ukuthi "imelwe" yizintatheli?

Ukunikezwa kwe-CAS ubudlelwane bobuntathelis ngemiklomelo yemali yezintatheli ezikhethiwe ukuze “zithuthukise ukubika okunemibandela ejulile” mayelana nezinkinga eziphathelene nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, ubuchwepheshe be-biotechnology kanye nezolimo ezisimeme.

Ngabe lezi zintatheli nazo zingabameli beGMO? Kulungile kanjani ukuthi izintatheli zimelele izikhundla zenqubomgomo yeqembu elisekela ezolimo nemboni?

Imilayezo yezintshisekelo zebhizinisi

Into eyodwa icacile emyalezweni we-CAS otholakala esidlangalaleni: umongo abawunikeza ngesihloko sokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo awunabunzulu futhi ubanzi kepha ukhetha kakhulu futhi uhlose ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Isibonelo, ividiyo: Egcwele ithemba ngamathuba ama-GMO wokuxazulula indlala emhlabeni ngokuzayo, ayishayi indiva inqwaba yocwaningo lwezesayensi olubhale izinkinga ezihlobene nama-GMO - izitshalo ze-GMO ezibekezelela ukhula kuqhutshwa phezulu ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-herbicide kuxhumene nomdlavuza ngochwepheshe abaphambili bomdlavuza emhlabeni; futhi yashesha ukumelana nokhula ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-US, elenza ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo kube nzima kubalimi, kungabi lula.

Akukho lapho kushiwo khona ukwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ezenzelwe gwema izinambuzane eziyingozi, noma ukukhathazeka okukhulayo kodokotela bamaphethini ngokugula ezindaweni ezinjenge Hawaii futhi Argentina lapho ukuvezwa kusinda kakhulu kumakhemikhali ahambisana nama-GMO.

Akukho ukuqashelwa ukuthi abaningi ososayensi futhi ukudla abaholi bathe ama-GMO awabalulekile ekuphakeleni umhlaba, impikiswano okuyisona sizathu esenza izitshalo ze-GMO zingamukelwa kabanzi ngaphandle kwase-United States naseLatin America.

Zonke lezi zinto zifanele engxoxweni yokuthi amazwe asathuthuka kufanele yini amukele izitshalo nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kepha i-CAS ishiya eceleni le mininingwane futhi ikhulise umbono ongelona iqiniso wokuthi isayensi ixazululwe ekuphepheni nasekudingekeni kwama-GMO.

Ukusabalalisa imininingwane ekhethiwe yohlobo oluchemile noma oludukisayo ukuthuthukisa i-ajenda ethile kwaziwa njengomkhuba wenkulumo-ze.

Ukusebenza encwadini yokudlala ye-PR yomkhakha

 ICornell Alliance for Science bekufanele samanje “Umbono omusha wezokuxhumana kwe-biotechnology,” kepha iqembu lithembele kusethi yemilayezo namasu wokuxhumana ajwayelekile kunoma ngubani olandela imikhankaso ye-PR embonini yamabhizinisi ezolimo.

Umbiko Ukuphalaza ukudla, engibhalile ngokubambisana noKari Hamerschlag no-Anna Lappé, ibhala ukuthi amaqembu axhaswa ngezimboni zezolimo nezimboni asebenzisa kanjani amashumi ezigidi zamaRandi ngonyaka ukukhuthaza imiyalezo edukisayo maqondana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo sezolimo esisebenza ngezimboni, esisebenza ngamakhemikhali, nofuzo.

Izinkampani ezizuza kakhulu kulolu hlelo - iMonsanto, iDow, iDuPont nezinye iziqhwaga zezolimo - ziphambanise kaningi ukuthembela ngokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi, njengoba uGary Ruskin akhombisile embikweni wakhe Ibhizinisi Lokusiza. Ngakho bathembele amaqembu angaphambili futhi ababambisene nabangaphandle njengososayensi noprofesa ukusabalalisa imiyalezo yabo.

Indaba esemqoka embonini ukuthi isayensi yezokuphepha kwe-GMO ixazululiwe. Izithunywa ze-pro-industry zigxila ekusetshenzisweni kobuchwepheshe esikhathini esizayo ngenkathi zilulaza, zinganaki noma ziphika ubungozi; yenza izimangalo ezinganembile mayelana nezinga lesivumelwano sesayensi kuma-GMO; futhi bahlasele abagxeki abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka njenge- "anti-science."

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uMark Lynas, umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS, wabhala i-New York Times i-op-ed esola amazwe ayi-17 e-European Union avimbela ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ze-GMO ngokuthi “kuphendulwa isayensi.” Wababiza ngokuthi “umfelandawonye wabangazi.”

I-athikili inzima ekuhlaselweni nasekukhanyeni kwesayensi, ibhulasha phezu kwesihloko ngesimangalo esingalungile mayelana nokuvumelana kokuphepha okuthi ososayensi abaningi baphikisile.

Njengesazi sezakhi zofuzo uBelinda Martineau, PhD, wabhala ku impendulo kuLynas, "Ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo… (akukhona) ngokwesayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo."

I-World Health Organization uthi, "Akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kwakho konke ukudla okuphathelene ne-GM."

Kodwa-ke, ngenkathi bethi bayimele isayensi, i-CAS ijwayele ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile - nokungajwayelekile - mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Kusuka kweqembu Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa:

  • "Kungenzeka ukuthi ushayiswe yi-asteroid kunokulimazwa ukudla kwe-GE - futhi lokho akulona ihaba."
  • “Izilimo ze-GE ezitholakalela umphakathi njengamanje azinabungozi obukhulu kwezempilo noma ukukhathazeka ngezemvelo kunezinye zazo ezingezona izakhi. Lona akuwona umbono wami. ”

Eqinisweni, kuyinkulumo-ze.

Ukulwa nokuba sobala kwezesayensi

Ngentwasahlobo ka-2014, i-CAS yethule i- isikhalazo ngihlasela iqembu lami lase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngokufaka izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuthola ama-imeyili oprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni njengengxenye yethu uphenyo ezimbonini zokudla nezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yabo ye-PR.

I-CAS ibize i-FOIA ukuthi icele "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi," kepha imibhalo etholwe ngalezi zicelo ze-FOIA iveze izindaba ezindabeni emithonjeni yezindaba ephezulu emayelana nezifundiswa ezazisebenza nezinhlangano zezimboni ze-PR emikhankasweni yokukhuthaza ama-GMO ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho emphakathini.

Indaba yagqashuka ekhasini lokuqala leNew York Times esihlokweni ngu-Eric Lipton owaphumelela kabili umklomelo wePulitzer Prize, owachaza ukuthi iMonsanto, lapho ibhekene nokungaqiniseki kwabathengi ngama-GMO, “ibuyise kabusha isu labo lokunxenxa nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukuze kubonakale iqembu labameli abangavamile: izifundiswa, ezilethwe ekukhanyeni okungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eza nozalo loprofesa. ”

Kokunye, kubika nguLaura Krantz eBoston Globe, isikhulu seMonsanto sitshele uprofesa waseHarvard uCalestous Juma ukuthi abhale iphepha mayelana nokuthi adingeka kanjani ama-GMO ukondla i-Afrika.

“IMonsanto ayigcinanga nje ngokusikisela lesi sihloko kusolwazi uCalestous Juma. Kufike lapho kuze kwanikezwa isifinyezo sokuthi iphepha lingathini kanye nesihloko esiphakanyisiwe. Le nkampani bese ixhuma lo profesa nenkampani yezokumaketha ukuyipompa nge-Internet njengengxenye yecebo likaMonsanto lokunqoba umphakathi nabomthetho, ”kubhala uKrantz.

UJuma uthe akayithathanga mali eMonsanto kodwa uqaphele ukuthi uthole uxhaso kwiGates Foundation, ebibambisene neMonsanto iminyaka eminingi kumaphrojekthi we-GMO ngemuva URob Horsch, Isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto ekuthuthukisweni kwamazwe omhlaba, wajoyina iSisekelo ngo-2006. IHorsch manje kuhola Ithimba lezocwaningo nezentuthuko zikaGates. (A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 yiqembu locwaningo iGrain lithole ukuthi cishe ama-90% ama- $ 3 billion iGates Foundation ayisebenzisile ukondla abampofu e-Afrika waya ezizweni ezicebile, ikakhulukazi amanyuvesi nezikhungo zocwaningo.)

Umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi ngabe izifundiswa ezenza imithombo ezimele zisebenza ngasese nezinkampani kanye namafemu abo e-PR emikhankasweni yemiyalezo ehlanganisiwe ukuze baqhube i-ajenda yenkampani.

I-CAS ithatha isikhundla esicelweni sayo sokuthi umphakathi awunalo ilungelo lokwazi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kwabasebenzi bezimboni ze-PR nososayensi bomphakathi abayi-14 "abafake isandla ekuvumelaneni kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO."

Isicelo sikaCornell sihambisana nemontage yezithombe equkethe uCarl Sagan, Madame Curie, Albert Einstein nabanye ososayensi abangasekho abangasayinisanga isicelo, bagxivizwa ngesiqubulo esithi, “Ngima ne- # Science14” - okuncane okukhangayo kwe-PR okubukisa i inkulumo-ze yokungathembeki kujwayele ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.

Ukuqondanisa nabalobi bezimboni ze-PR

Esikhungweni esihlonishwayo njengoCornell, ungalindela ukuthola ochwepheshe kwizifundo zesayensi noma zokuziphatha ezifundisa izifundo zokuxhumana ezithembisa ukubuyisa ubuqotho besayensi enkulumweni yomphakathi. Esikhundleni salokho, ku-CAS, uzothola ochwepheshe kwezokuxhumana kwezinhlekelele abagxile ekuphikiseni imithetho yezempilo yomphakathi.

Isibonelo, uTrevor Butterworth, umuntu ovakashele eCornell kanye nomqondisi weSense About Science ("inhlangano engathathi hlangothi, engenzi nzuzo ekhuthaza ukuqonda ngesayensi!") ukubambisana nge-CAS ukufundisa abafundi nososayensi ukuthi bangaxhumana kanjani nezintatheli mayelana nama-GMO.

IButterworth inomlando omude wokuxhumana nesayensi ukuze kuhlomule izinkampani ezifisa ukugcina imikhiqizo yazo ingalawulwa. I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ka-2009 esihlokweni nguMeg Kissinger noSusanne Rust mayelana nemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni kwi-bisphenol A (BPA) emkhombe "njengombhali wezobudlelwano embonini yamakhemikhali."

Njengomhleli we-STATS eGeorge Mason University, uButterworth wayengumvikeli omkhulu we-BPA "ohlanganisa njalo i-Intanethi ezindabeni ze-BPA futhi anikeze imibono ngaphandle kokuveza obudlelwano bakhe nezimboni," kubhala uKissinger noRust.

“I-STATS ithi izimele futhi ayithathi hlangothi. Kepha ukubuyekezwa kwemibiko yayo yezezimali kukhombisa ukuthi igatsha leCentre for Media and Public Affairs. Leli qembu lakhokhelwa imboni kagwayi ukuze liqaphe izindaba ezithinta ubungozi bukagwayi. ” (Imboni kagwayi, baphawula ukuthi, yayinxenxa nemboni yamakhemikhali ukugcina i-BPA ingalawulwa.)

IButterworth iphinde yathuthukisa nezikhundla ezimbonini eziphikisana nemithetho ye-vinyl plastic kanye phthalates, ukukhwabanisa, i-fructose ephezulu isiraphu yengqolowa futhi ama-sodas anoshukela.

Manje usebenzisana neCAS ukufundisa abafundi indlela yokuxhumana ngama-GMO, kanti umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS uLynas uhlala ebhodini lezeluleko leSense About Science.

Umsebenzi kaLynas uphakamisa imibuzo eminingi: Kungani iqembu lesayensi lidinga umqondisi wezepolitiki? Futhi kungani iCAS ikhetha uLynas ngendima? ULynas akayena usosayensi kepha ungumbhali wezemvelo owasukuma udumo olungazelelwe ngemuva kokwamukela ama-GMO, futhi isayensi yakhe iye yagxilwa isikhathi eside ngu ososayensi, Izintatheli futhi oprofesa.

Ukwehlisa impikiswano ye-GMO?

Izinkampani zaziwa ngokusabalalisa imiyalezo ethusayo lapho imikhiqizo yazo ingena enkingeni; izibonelo kufaka phakathi i- "DDT ilungele mina," "Odokotela abaningi bayabhema amaKamela" kanye nomkhankaso weDutch Boy wokukhuthaza upende wokuhola ezinganeni.

Iphuzu eliphansi lokuthumela imiyalezo embonini yamakhemikhali bekungokwalo Umkhankaso we-PR ukudweba umbhali “weSilent Spring” uRachel Carson (kanye nezazi zemvelo ngokujwayelekile) njengababulali bezigidi zezingane e-Afrika ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lolo hlobo lwemiyalezo lubuyela emuva empikiswaneni ye-GMO.

NgoSepthemba 2015, i-CAS Speakers Series yabamba u-Owen Paterson, iLungu lePhalamende lase-UK, ngo-a inkulumo enesihloko esithi, “Bheka Ilungelo Lakho Eliluhlaza: Akusona Isimo Sezulu Ukuvumela Izigidi Zife.”

EzikaPaterson inkulumo kwagcwala izimangalo ze-hyperbolic mayelana nama-GMO angenakho ukuqina kwesayensi (ama-GMOs) empeleni iphephe kunezilimo ezijwayelwe ... enye yezintuthuko ezigcina imvelo emhlabeni ingakaze ibonwe… kungasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi ezisaphazwa namuhla yimibono yamaqembu omkhankaso wezemvelo asekelwa kakhulu. ”)

Le nkulumo ithole indumiso evela ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni, ku blog nguDkt. Gil Ross onesihloko esithi, "Imikhankaso Eluhlaza Yezigidigidi Eziyizigidi Ezimbili Ibulala Izingane Ezimpofu."

URoss uchaze kubhulogi ukuthi iCAS Speakers Series yadalwa, “ukusebenzisa amaqiniso ukumelana nokuthambekela okubonakalayo kwabafundi basekolishi ukulandela imantra yezemvelo ngaphandle kokucabanga kakhulu… umqondo wokwesaba ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ufana nokubheka ngaphansi kombhede ngenxa yama-hobgoblins afana no-Godzilla, avuswa ukuhlolwa kwe-athomu kwempi yomshoshaphansi. ”

UPaterson noRoss abasizi ngomfanekiso wobuqotho besayensi i-CAS izama ukuveza lokho. URoss uyisigebengu esilahlwe yicala esachitha isikhathi ejele ngokukhwabanisa kweMedicaid. UPaterson, owayengunobhala wezemvelo e-UK, ubonakala kabanzi njenge- ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kuyabazeka imibono kabani akuhambisani nesayensi.

Ngabe ama-blogger aseHawaii asiza kanjani ukondla abampofu e-Afrika?

 Ngenkathi yokukhula konyaka, iziQhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo ebalulekile yokuhlola ama-GMO. Futhi ayiziro yomhlabathi ye- ukukhathazeka mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane ezihlotshaniswa nama-GMO, kanye nokugxila okuyinhloko kwemikhankaso yenkulumo-ze ye-pro-GMO yomkhakha nabalingani bayo njenge-CAS.

Elif Bealle, umqondisi omkhulu we IHawaii Alliance Yezenzo Eziqhubekayo, ubesebenza emizamweni engaphansi ye ukubikwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, banns futhi izindawo zokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane cishe izitshalo ze-GMO. Ubuye futhi wabheka i-CAS, athe ibilanda ama-blogger endawo futhi inabalingani eziQhingini eziningana.

“Baziveza 'njengezakhamuzi zendawo ezikhathazekile' noma 'njengezintatheli ezingathathi hlangothi.' Cishe basebenza isikhathi esigcwele bephawula ngama-athikili ephephandaba aku-inthanethi, bethumela, i-Community Voice Op-Eds, njll. Okuthunyelwe kwabo kubhulogi kuthathwa njalo kusatshalaliswe yiwebhusayithi yeqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech eHawaii, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association, ”kusho uBealle.

Isibonelo, uJoni Kamiya, i-CAS Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke, usebenzisa blog yakhe, Indodakazi kaMlimi waseHawaii, ukugqugquzela “ukuphepha nesayensi” yama-GMO ngemiyalezo ecwebezela isayensi futhi ehlazisa abagxeki be-GMO.

UKamiya futhi "uchwepheshe ozimele" we-GMO Answers, a GMO PR iwebhusayithi eyenziwe yinkampani yeKetchum PR futhi ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo. Izindatshana zakhe zibhalwe ku KaJon Entine I-Genetic Literacy Project, nayo eyathwetshelwa ukushicilela amaphepha okuphakanyiswa kweGMO anikezwe abakwaMonsanto futhi abhalwa ngosolwazi.

Ukubhalwa kukaKamiya kuvela ekhasini lasekhaya le- IKauai Farming and Jobs Coalition, iqembu elinemali engaziwa elithi "limele abantu kanye nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene emphakathini wethu" futhi lithuthukisa izindatshana zeMonsanto, i-Genetic Literacy Project kanye neminye imboni yokudla amaqembu angaphambili njengesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi.

Abanye ababambisene ne-CAS eziqhingini bahlanganisa uLorie Farrell, a Umlingani we-CAS obhalela izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi wasiza ukuxhumanisa ukuphikisana nokuvinjelwa kokulinywa kwe-GMO esiQhingini Esikhulu sabaFuyi baseHawaii nabaseRanchers United; noJoan Conrow, obonisana nabantu isivumelwano noCornell bese ebhala i- ibhulogi elibhekene IKauai Eclectic.

Imiyalezo yabo ilandela iphethini ejwayelekile: bathi ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO futhi bahlasela abantu abafuna ukubekwa obala nokuphepha njengabantu bangaphandle ababulala "umoya we-Aloha" weziQhingi.

Ukuhlomisa ingxabano

Kuye esihlokweni, "The War on Genetically Modified Food Critics," uTufts uProfesa Timothy Wise uthatha abezindaba abenze iphutha ngokulahla amaqhinga embonini ye-PR futhi ngokungafanele abike isayensi ku-GMO "njengelungisiwe."

"Esikubonayo wumkhankaso ohlangene wokuthi… kupendwe abagxeki be-GMO njengabaphikisana nesayensi ekubeni benganiki ngxoxo ebucayi ngempikiswano yesayensi esathukuthele," kubhala uWise.

Esinye isikhombisi salowo mkhankaso, uthe, kwakuwumnikelo weGates Foundation eya kuCornell ukuze "adicilele phansi" impikiswano ngokudla okuyi-GM.

"IGates Foundation ikhokhela ososayensi nabameli baseCornell ukubasiza bakholwe umphakathi ongenalwazi nongavunyelwe ingqondo, 'okungenzeka ukuthi abanolwazi olwanele,' ukuthi abanalwazi futhi badidekile engqondweni ... Kufana nokudicilela phansi isifuba ngokulwa nohlangothi olulodwa izikhali eziningi, ”kubhala uWise.

Esikhundleni sokuhlomisa izimpi ze-PR ngenhloso yokusebenzela imboni, iCornell University kufanele imele isayensi ngokubiza ingxoxo ethembekile ngama-GMO - evuma ubungozi kanye nezinzuzo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Lowo ogwema ukuhlasela futhi afune indawo esivumelana ngayo namaqembu afuna ukubekwa obala kanye namazinga ezempilo nezokuphepha.

Umqondisi we-CAS uDkt. Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe linamanani afanayo azungeze ilungelo lokwazi nokufinyelela olwazini, futhi uphikisana nombono wokuthi i-CAS yasungulwa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO.

“Lokho okubizwa ngokuthi 'ama-GMOs' akuyona into e-monolithic,” kubhala uDkt. Evanega kuye blog. “Isibonelo, akunangqondo ukuhlanganisa ndawonye ubuchwepheshe obuhlukahlukene njengamabhaktheriya akhiqizelwe ukukhiqiza i-insulin nopopo okwenzelwe ukumelana negciwane. Sisekela ukufinyelela - emisha kanye nolwazi oluzosiza abantu benze izinqumo ezizwakalayo ezisuselwa kwisayensi nobufakazi - hhayi ukwesaba, imizwa. ”

Impela ama-GMO akuyona into e-monolithic. Yingakho kungalungile futhi kungathembeki ukusho ukuthi abantu banamathuba amaningi okushaywa yi-asteroid kunokulimala ngama-GMO.

Ubumbano lwesayensi olumayelana nokubuyisa ubuqotho kwisayensi kufanele lukhanyise irekhodi eliphelele locwaningo, hhayi ukuphalaza amaphuzu okukhuluma amafemu e-PR nabadlali bezinkampani.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabasunguli nomqondisi-co weqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” (New Society Publishing, 2007). UStacy wayeyintatheli futhi engummemezeli wephephandaba futhi esengummeli wesikhathi eside wezempilo yezemvelo. Ubuye wasungula iCampaign for Safe Cosmetics ngo-2002 wasebenza njengomqondisi wezokuxhumana kwi-Health Care Without Harm iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili.

Izintatheli Ziyahluleka Ukudalula Imithombo Exhaswe yiCoca-Cola: Umbiko Omfushane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngesikhathi sophenyo nangemva kwalokho Ukuwa weqembu eliphambili leCoca-Cola iGlobal Energy Balance Network, i- New York Times futhi Associated Press ukuthola ukuthi osolwazi abadumile baseyunivesithi abasebenza ngezinkinga zokukhuluphala babexhaswe yiNkampani yeCoca-Cola.

Lokhu akuyona nje ihlazo lezempilo lomphakathi. Iyintatheli futhi.

Izintatheli zicaphune ababili balaba profesa okungenani izikhathi ezingama-30 ezindabeni zezindaba, ngemuva kokuthi osolwazi bathole uxhaso lwabo lweCoca-Cola, kepha ngaphandle kokubalula lolo xhaso ezindabeni zabo. Izitolo eziningi ezishicilele lezi zihloko zinethonya, njengeThe New York Times, Washington Post, Los Angeles Times, USA Today, Boston Globe, The Atlantic Monthly, US News neWorld Report, iNewsweek neNational Public Radio.

Kungukushayisana kwezintshisekelo kosolwazi abasebenza ngezinkinga zokukhuluphala ukwamukela uxhaso kuCoca-Cola. Manje kunobufakazi obuningi bezokwelapha bokuthi isoda nemboni kasoda - ikakhulukazi iCoca-Cola nePepsiCo - okuyingxenye unomthwalo wemfanelo ngenxa yethu esesizwe ukukhuluphala ubhubhane, futhi kwandise izehlakalo ze sikashukela futhi inhliziyo izifo.

Uma uprofesa ethatha imali kwenye yalezi zinkampani ezingama-soda, lokho kungumongo obalulekile wemibono yabo ngokukhuluphala, nezintatheli zichitha abafundi bazo ngokwehluleka ukuzibika. Abafundi kudingeka bazi ukuthi ngubani okhokha imithombo yokuhlola ukuba semthethweni kanye nokuchema kwale mithombo.

Umthelela ophelele wokucaphuna laba profesa ngaphandle kokudalula imali yabo yeCoca-Cola ukwenyusa ukwethembeka kwabo ngokungafanele, ngenkathi kubukela phansi ukwethembeka kwezempilo yomphakathi kanye nabameli babathengi.

Lo mbiko omfushane ubuyekeza ukufakwa kwezindaba ucaphuna abaholi ababili beqembu eliphambili leCoca-Cola Global Energy Balance Network: uProfesa James O. Hill noSteven N. Blair.

UJames O. Hill kwaba Umongameli we Amandla Emhlaba Ibhalansi Network. Unguprofesa wezifo zezingane nemithi e-University of Colorado, kanye nomqondisi weCentre for Human Nutrition yabo. Ngokusho kwe-Associated Press, USolwazi Hill ubhalele ngasese isikhulu seCoca-Cola, "Ngifuna ukusiza inkampani yakho igweme isithombe sokuba yinkinga ezimpilweni zabantu futhi ibuyele ekubeni yinkampani eletha izinto ezibalulekile nezijabulisayo kubo."

Ngokusho the New York Times, UCoca-Cola “ngonyaka odlule wanikeza 'isipho semali esingavinjelwe' se- $ 1 million ku-University of Colorado Foundation… inyuvesi yathi iCoca-Cola inikeze le mali 'ngenhloso yokuxhasa' iGlobal Energy Balance Network.”

Ngokuvumelana ne Associated Press, “Kusukela ngo-2010, uCoke wathi unikeze u- $ 550,000 uHill ongahlobene neqembu le- [Global Energy Balance Network]. Ingxenye enkulu yalokho kwakuwucwaningo yena nabanye ababebandakanyeka kulona, ​​kodwa lesi sibalo siphinde sihlanganise izindleko zokuhamba nezimali zokuzibandakanya kokukhuluma nokwenza omunye umsebenzi. ”

USteven N. Blair kwaba Iphini likahulumeni we-Global Energy Balance Network. Unguprofesa e-Arnold School of Public Health, eminyangweni yezokuzivocavoca isayensi ne-epidemiology kanye ne-biostatistics e-University of South Carolina. Ngokusho kwe- New York Times, lapho uProfesa Blair ememezela iGlobal Energy Balance Network, wenza isimangalo esingesihle ngokulandelayo: “Imithombo yezindaba ethandwa kakhulu nabezindaba isayensi ithi, 'O badla kakhulu, badla kakhulu, bayadla futhi okuningi '- ukusola ukudla okusheshayo, ukusola iziphuzo ezinoshukela njalonjalo… Futhi empeleni abukho ubufakazi obuqand' ikhanda bokuthi lokho, empeleni, yikhona okuyimbangela. ”

Ngokusho the New York Times, “UDkt. UBlair uthole imali engaphezu kuka- $ 3.5 million evela kwaCoke ngezinhlelo zocwaningo kusukela ngo-2008. ”

Okulandelayo uhlu lwezindatshana zezindaba ezingama-30 ezibhalwe ngemuva kokuthi uProfesa Hill noBlair bathole uxhaso kuCoca-Cola (ngemuva kukaJanuwari 1, 2011 weHill, noJanuwari 1, 2009 weBlair) lapho izintatheli zehluleka ukudalula ukuthi uProfesa Hill noBlair baxhaswa nguCoca-Cola.

  1. I-Los Angeles Times: Izinyathelo, Isikhathi, Ibanga: Noma Kukalwa Kanjani, Ukuhamba Kungafinyelela Izinjongo Zezempilo. NguMary MacVean, Septhemba 6, 2013.
  2. I-Los Angeles Times: I-'Fed Up 'Yamadokhumentari Abeka Icala Lokukhuluphala KweMelika Embonini Yezokudla. NguMary MacVean, ngoMeyi 9, 2014.
  3. I-Los Angeles Times: Amanani Okukhuluphala e-US Avela Ekugcineni Ukulinganiswa. Ngu-Shari Roan, ngoJanuwari 17, 2012.
  4. I-Los Angeles Times: Inkinga ye-Halloween: Ukuphatha ama-Candy okunempilo. NguKaren Ravn, Okthoba 31, 2011.
  5. I-Los Angeles Times: Ukubhukuda nge-Fittest? NguJudy Foreman, ngoJulayi 19, 2010.
  6. I-Los Angeles Times: Hlala Uhamba, Unganyakazi. NguJeannine Stein, ngoJulayi 13, 2009.
  7. I-Los Angeles Times: Amadolobha Azama Ukusika Amafutha Ngezinhlelo Zokunciphisa Isisindo. NguKaren Ravn, ngoJanuwari 31, 2011.
  8. USA Namuhla: Ukuthatha umhlalaphansi: Inkokhelo Yendlela Yokuphila Esebenzayo. NguNanci Hellmich, ngo-Ephreli 16, 2015.
  9. USA Namuhla: Ukuzuza Kwesisindo Seholide Akunakugwenywa. NguNanci Hellmich, ngoDisemba 2, 2013.
  10. USA Namuhla: Flex Metabolism Yakho futhi Uncibilike Amaphawundi. NguNanci Hellmich, Agasti 19, 2013.
  11. USA Namuhla: I-Adidas MiCoach, i-Nike +, Amadivayisi Enzwa Yenza Abantu Bavivinye. NguJanice Lloyd, ngoJanuwari 27, 2010.
  12. USA Namuhla: Abantu baseMelika Balwa Namafutha, Kodwa Izinkinga Zazibekwa Kubo. NguNanci Hellmich, Novemba 5, 2012.
  13. Umsakazo Kazwelonke Womphakathi (NPR): Ukuthi Sikugcina Kanjani Ukudla Ekhaya Kungaxhunyaniswa nokuthi Sidla Kangakanani. Ngu-Angus Chen, Meyi 19, 2015.
  14. Umsakazo Kazwelonke Womphakathi (NPR): Izifundo Zokuzivocavoca Zitholela Izindaba Ezinhle Zamadolo. Ngu-Allison Aubrey, Septhemba 5, 2009.
  15. Umsakazo Kazwelonke Womphakathi (NPR): Ukuhlala Usuku Lonke: Kubi Kakhulu Kuwe Kunokuthi Ucabange. NguPatti Neighmond, ngo-Ephreli 25, 2011.
  16. Izindaba zase-US noMbiko Womhlaba: Yini i-Colouradans Eyaziyo Ngokuqina Kwempilo Ongayaziyo? Ngu-Elisa Zied, Okthoba 8, 2013.
  17. Izindaba zase-US noMbiko Womhlaba: Ungahlala Kancane Futhi Uhambise Okuningi. Ngu-Elisa Zied, Septhemba 11, 2013.
  18. I-Boston Globe: Ufuna Ukuthola Isimo? Vele Uhambise! NguGareth Cook, ngoJanuwari 22, 2012.
  19. I-Boston Globe: Izinyathelo Ezinempilo. NguDeborah Kotz, ngoJuni 27, 2011.
  20. I-Atlantic Monthly: Ukuthi Ukukhuluphala Kwaba Kanjani Isifo. Ngu-Harriet Brown, Mashi 24, 2015.
  21. I-Forbes: Izeluleko Ezi-6 Zokulahlekelwa Isisindo Isayensi Eqinisweni Eziwazi Umsebenzi. Ngu-Alice G. Walton, ngoSepthemba 4, 2013.
  22. I-Forbes: Kanjani Imodeli Ethola Ukukhuluphala Kwezingane. NguTrevor Butterworth, Agasti 22, 2013.
  23. I-Newsweek: Viagra Iphilisi Elisha Lesisisindo? NguTrevor Butterworth, ngoJanuwari 29, 2013.
  24. I-Atlantic Monthly: Umuntu Ophelele. NguDavid H. Freedman, ngoJuni 2012.
  25. I-New York Times: Ukuxosha Ukudla kanye nokwamukela Amafutha. NguMandy Katz, ngoJulayi 15, 2009.
  26. I-Washington Post: Kungenzeka Yini Ukufanelekela Nokukhuluphala? NguRachael Rattner ne-Live Science, ngoDisemba 16, 2013.
  27. I-Associated Press (AP): Isifundo Sithi Noma Ukukhuluphala Kancane Kuyingozi. NguStephanie Nano, ngoDisemba 1, 2010.
  28. IDenver Post: Ukulwa Nokukhuluphala Emaphethelweni Amaningana Kusiza Ukuguqula Okuguqukayo eColorado. Ngu-Ally Marotti, Agasti 7, 2013.
  29. ICharleston Post ne-Courier: Ukufunda Izixhumanisi Ukukhuluphala Kokusebenza. NguDavid Slade, ngoMeyi 28, 2011.
  30. I-Peoria Journal-Star: Ukuziphatha Kokuhlala Phansi Kuyingozi Yezempilo Edinga Ukucindezelwa Kuyo Yonke Iminyaka. NguSteve Tarter, ngoJulayi 24, 2015.

Kungani izintatheli eziningi nezindawo zezindaba zehluleka ukudalula izingxabano zentshisekelo yalaba profesa ababili abavelele?

Singakuvimbela kanjani ukwehluleka okufanayo kobuntatheli ngokuzayo? Impendulo eyodwa icacile: izintatheli nabahleli kumele baqaphele oprofesa abaxhaswe ngezinkampani abazenza ochwepheshe bezinkinga kodwa abasebenza njengezikhulumi zezinkampani zokudla ezinjengeCoca-Cola.

Abafundi, futhi, kufanele bazi ukuthi ezinye izindawo zezindaba ezinethonya azihlali ziveza ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo zemithombo yazo, okwenza ukuthi izindaba zazo zokudla nezolimo zingabi nobulungisa futhi zithembeke. Inikeza abafundi isizathu esizwakalayo sokungabaza eminye imithombo yezindaba ejwayelekile yezindaba zokudla nezolimo ngenxa yezinhlangothi ezisekela imboni kwesinye isikhathi eziqukethwe kukho.

NgoNovemba, sabhala umbiko ofanayo mayelana nokuthi izintatheli zenziwa kanjani yehlulekile ukudalula ubudlelwano bemithombo ne-agronhemical giant Monsanto. Yomibili le mibiko iveza inkinga efanayo: izifundiswa ezivela emithonjeni yezindaba njengemithombo ezimele lapho empeleni zithatha imali ezinkampanini ukuthuthukisa imibono ethile. Izintatheli zinesibopho sokwazi nokuveza uma imithombo yazo isebenza egameni lezimboni.