ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

ISayensi Media Center Ithuthukisa Ukubukwa Kwebhizinisi Lwesayensi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IScience Media Center (SMC) iyinhlangano ye-PR engenzi nzuzo eqale e-UK ethola indawo yayo enkulu kakhulu ye- imali evela embonini amaqembu. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iBayer, iDuPont, iMonsanto, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye namaqembu ezindaba, izinhlaka zikahulumeni, izisekelo namanyuvesi. Imodeli ye-SMC isakazeka emhlabeni wonke futhi ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwemithombo yezindaba ngesayensi, kwesinye isikhathi ngezindlela ezehlisa ubungozi bemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Leli phepha lichaza umlando we-SMC, ifilosofi, imodeli yezimali, amaqhinga nemibiko evela kubagxeki abathi i-SMC inikeza imibono yezesayensi yezimboni, isimilo i-SMC esiyiphikayo.

Related:

Amaqiniso asemqoka

I-Science Media Centre yethulwa ngo-2002 iphendula “imisindvo yabezindaba mayelana neMMR, izitshalo zeGM kanye nocwaningo lwezilwane” ukusiza abezindaba bamele kangcono isayensi enkulu, ngokusho kwe iphepha lamaqiniso leqembu.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko wokusungulaIScience Media Center ichaza ukuthi yadalelwa ukubhekana kanjani:

  • “inkinga yenkinga” ekhulayo emibonweni yomphakathi ngesayensi
  • ukuwa kwenhlonipho ngegunya nobungoti
  • umphakathi onganaki ubungozi nokusakazwa kwabezindaba okwethusayo futhi
  • “amasu abezindaba abonakala sengathi aphakeme kakhulu” asetshenziswa ama-NGO ezemvelo njengeGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth.

Ama-SMC azimele abelana nge umqulu ofanayo njengoba okwangempela manje kusebenza eCanada, e-Australia, eNew Zealand, eJalimane naseJapane, futhi ama-SMC ahlelwa eBrussels nase I-united states.

Imodeli yeSMC ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngesayensi. A ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba yamaphephandaba ase-UK ngo-2011 nango-2012 athola ukuthi iningi lezintatheli elisebenzisa izinsizakalo ze-SMC alifunanga imibono eyengeziwe ngezindaba zabo. Leli qembu futhi linethonya kwezepolitiki. Ngonyaka we-2007, iSMC yamisa ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwemibungu ehlanganisa abantu / yezilwane ngomkhankaso wayo wezindaba wokushintsha ukusabalala kokukhathazeka kokuziphatha kuye ezinzuzweni zemibungu njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho kwe ku-Nature.

Izifundiswa eziningana nabaphenyi bagxeke iSMC ngokuxosha imibono yenkampani yesayensi, nangokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo nobempilo babantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Imibiko ibhale ukuthambekela kwe-SMC yokuphusha imiyalezo ye-pro-industry futhi ngaphandle kwemibono ephikisanayo ngezihloko ezinjenge ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi I-GMO.

Ku-imeyili, uMqondisi weSMC uFiona Fox uthe iqembu lakhe alihambisani nomkhakha wezimboni: “Silalela ngokucophelela noma yikuphi ukugxekwa kweSMC emphakathini wezesayensi noma ezintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK kodwa asikutholi ukugxekwa ngokuchema komkhakha wezimboni kusuka kulaba ababambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokuchema kwemboni yezimboni futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi labezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba ezingundabuzekwayo zesayensi sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile. ”

Izingcaphuno mayelana neSayensi Media Center

Izintatheli nabaphenyi ngethonya nobandlululo lweSayensi Media Center (ukugcizelelwa kufakwe kuzingcaphuno ezingezansi):

  • “Izikhungo zeSayensi Media ... seziphenduke abadlali abanethonya, kepha abanempikiswano emhlabeni wobuntatheli. Yize ezinye izintatheli zikuthola kuwusizo, ezinye zikholelwa ukuthi zithambekele kososayensi bakahulumeni nezimboni. ” Ukubuyekezwa kobuntatheli beColumbia
  • “Kuya ngokuthi ubuza kubani, (Umqondisi weSMC) UFiona Fox usindisa ubuntatheli besayensi noma ayibhubhise," U-Ewen Callway, Nature
  • “Ukwehla kwesibalo sezintatheli zesayensi zase-UK ezicindezeleke isikhathi asisayi emkhakheni wemba izindaba. Baya emihlanganweni ehlelwe kusengaphambili e-SMC… The ikhwalithi yokubika kwesayensi kanye nokwethembeka kolwazi olutholakala emphakathini konke lokhu kuhlupheke, kuhlanekezela ikhono lomphakathi lokwenza izinqumo ngengozi. ” UConnie St. Louis, iCity College yaseLondon, eCJR
  • “Inkinga akukhona ukuthi bathuthukisa isayensi, njengoba besho ukuthi benza, kodwa ukuthi bona khuthaza isayensi esebenza ngokuhlanganyela. " UDavid Miller, University of Bath, eSciDev
  • "Kulabo abangaphuphuthekiswanga yi-aura ekhangayo ye-SMC, kubonakala sengathi inhloso yayo ecashile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izintatheli nabezindaba babika izindaba zesayensi nezokwelapha kuphela ngendlela yokuthi kuvumelana 'nenqubomgomo' kahulumeni nezimboni ezindabeni okukhulunywa ngazo. " UMalcolm Hooper, iYunivesithi yaseSunderland, iphepha leCFS / ME
  • “Kuyabonakala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezihlangene ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK ukuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe beBiotec kanye nezokuxhumana ngocingo. ” Iphepha likaDon Maisch kumaselula
  • "The Indima ye-SMC ibonakala ifaka umbono omncane of, ezimweni eziningi imibono emihle, yokuphepha kokuthwebula ama-fracking. ” UPaul Mobbs, Uphenyo Lwezemvelo lweMobbs
  • “Isikhungo sesayensi, esihlala singaziphethe kahle ngokwezepolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu inethiwekhi yezombangazwe eyinqaba neyenkolo. " UGeorge Monbiot, The Guardian

Uxhaso Lwamabhizinisi LweScience Media Center

Isabelo esikhulu sezimali se-SMC, cishe ama-30%, sivela ezinkampanini nakumaqembu ezohwebo. Abaxhasi kusukela ngo-Agasti 2016 kufaka phakathi inqwaba yamakhemikhali, i-biotechnology, inuzi, ukudla, ezokwelapha, ezokuxhumana kanye nezimboni zezimonyo. Abaxhasi bezimboni zezolimo bahlanganisa iBayer, iDuPont, iBASF, iCropLife International, iBioIndustry Association kanye neChemical Industries Association. Abaxhasi bangaphambilini zifake iMonsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola neKraft. I-SMC nayo ithola uxhaso oluvela ezinhlakeni eziningi zezindaba, uhulumeni kanye nezifundiswa.

SMC kusho yona inikela ngeminikelo evela kunkampani eyodwa noma isikhungo kuya ku-5% wemali engenayo yonyaka ngemizamo “yokuvikela ethonyeni elingalungile” - kukhishwa imali engaphandle yeminikelo emikhulu evela ku-Wellcome Trust nakuhulumeni wase-UK Umnyango Webhizinisi, Amandla Nezimboni Isu.

Umlando We-SMC: “UMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani”

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990, ubudlelwano phakathi kwesayensi nabezindaba base busezingeni elichachambile, kuchaza iSMC ividiyo yephromoshini. "Ngesikhathi sokutshalwa kweBSE, MMR, GM, kwakukhona umqondo wangempela ngaleli gebe phakathi kososayensi nabezindaba," kusho uFox kule vidiyo. I-SMC yadalelwa “ukusiza ukuvuselela ukwethembana komphakathi kwezesayensi ngokusebenzela ukukhuthaza ukumbozwa okulinganiselayo, okunembile futhi okunengqondo kwezindaba eziyimpikiswano zesayensi,” ngokusho kwayo umbiko wokubonisana.

Imibhalo eyisisekelo ye-SMC ifaka:

  • February 2000 Umbiko wekomidi leNdlu YeNkosi ichaza “inhlekelele yokwethembana” ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi nesayensi, futhi yancoma uhlelo olusha lwesayensi nabezindaba.
  • Septhemba 2000 “Indlela Yokuziphatha / Imihlahlandlela Yezokuxhumana Kwezesayensi Nempilo, ”YiRoyal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) incoma imihlahlandlela yezintatheli nososayensi ukuze kuliwe“ nomthelela omubi walokho okubhekwa 'njengezindaba ezesabisayo' ezingenasisekelo kanye nalezo ezinikeza amathemba angamanga kulabo abagula kakhulu. ”
  • 2002 Umbiko Wokubonisana we-SMC ichaza inqubo yenhlolokhono nababambiqhaza abavela kuhulumeni, izimboni kanye nabezindaba abatshele ukuthi iSMC "izoyithatha kanjani i-gauntlet ephonswe phansi yiNkosi… yokuguqula isayensi ibe yizindaba eziphambili."

Umzamo weSMC waba nempikiswano ngokushesha. Umbhali uTom Wakeford wabikezela ngo-2001 ukuthi iSMC izoba “uMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani lapho ababusi abaqanjiwe bakaGeorge Orwell bazoziqhenya ngabo.” Wabhala uMgcini, "Abantu abaphezulu kuHulumeni, iRoyal Society kanye neRoyal Institution bathathe isinqumo sokuthi ulwazi lwabo lomnotho olubaluleke kakhulu ludinga ukuthi kuncishiswe ukukhuluma ngokukhululeka." Uchaze i-Code of Practice: “Lo Mthetho uncoma ukuthi izintatheli zibonisane nochwepheshe abagunyaziwe, incwadi eyimfihlo okufanele inikezwe 'izintatheli ezibhalisiwe ezinemininingwane eqondile.'”

Iphrojekthi yokuqala ye-SMC - umzamo wokudicilela phansi ifilimu eqanjiwe le-BBC eliveza izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngendlela engathandeki - liphakamise uchungechunge lwezihloko ezibucayi kwi-Guardian (umhleli we-Guardian wabhala nayo le filimu). Lezi zihloko zichaze iSMC njenge- “iqembu lokwamukela izivakashi zesayensi exhaswa izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi namakhemikhali ”ebisebenza “Uhlobo lweyunithi yokuphika esheshayo yaseMandelsoni”Futhi ngisebenzisa“ ezinye amasu we-clumsiest spin weNew Labor ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi (ifilimu) kusengaphambili. ”

UDick Taverne noSense Mayelana neSayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi - umzamo wokucela ukwakhiwa kabusha kwemibono yesayensi - eyethulwa e-UK ngonyaka we-2002 kanye ne-SMC ngaphansi kobuholi buka-Lord Dick Taverne nabanye abanobudlelwano ne-SMC. U-Lord Taverne wayeyi-SMC Ilungu leBhodi Elilulekayo futhi yena kudalwe ngokubambisana ikhodi yokusebenza ye-SIRC.

Indaba ka-2016 ku-The Intercept nguLiza Gross uchaze i-Sense About Science nabaholi bayo “njengabaqaphi abazimele 'besayensi yomsindo'” abathi “balinganise izikali embonini.” UGross uchaze izibopho zomkhakha kagwayi zikaTaverne kanye nemizamo ye-PR yenkampani:

Ngokwamaphepha angaphakathi akhishwe ngamacala ngabakhiqizi bakagwayi, inkampani yababonisi bakaTaverne, iPRIMA Europe, isize iBritish American Tobacco ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwane nabatshalizimali bayo futhi shaya imithetho yaseYurophu ngogwayi ngawo-1990. UTaverne uqobo usebenze kuphrojekthi yabatshalizimali: Ku- imemo engenalo usuku, U-PRIMA uqinisekise inkampani kagwayi ukuthi "umsebenzi uzokwenziwa mathupha nguDick Taverne," ngoba ubekwazi ukubuza abaholi bezimboni futhi "uzofuna ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izidingo zomkhakha zibaluleke kakhulu ezingqondweni zabantu." Phakathi neminyaka eyishumi efanayo, uTaverne wayehleli ebhodini legatsha laseBrithani lenkampani yezokuxhumana yomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller, eyabiza uPhilip Morris njengekhasimende. Umqondo weqembu “lesayensi elizwakalayo”, elenziwe ngoxhaxha lososayensi ababezokhuluma bephikisana nemithethonqubo abantu bezimboni ababengenakho ukwethembeka ukuyiphikisa, kwakuyinkulumo uBurson-Marsteller ayenza kuPhilip Morris ku Imemorandamu yonyaka we-1994.

Phakathi kwamaphrojekthi ayo okuqala, iSense About Science ihlele incwadi evela ku- 114 ososayensi ukunxenxa uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuba "aphikisane nezimangalo ezingamanga" mayelana nama-GMO, futhi wenza inhlolovo ukugqamisa inkinga yokucekelwa phansi kwesivuno seGMO.

I-Sense About Science USA ivulwe ngo-2014 ngaphansi kobuholi besikhathi eside umlingani wemboni yamakhemikhali uTrevor Butterworth, kanye nabalingani be-Gates exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science, a Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO.

Imisuka YamaKhomanisi Yezinguquko

Abaqondisi abasungula nabamanje beScience Media Center kanye neSense About Science - Umqondisi weSMC UFiona Fox kanye noMqondisi we-SAS UTracey Brown - nabanye ababandakanyeka nalawo maqembu, kubikwa ukuthi baxhunywe ngeRevolutionary Communist Party, iqembu leTrotskyist splinter elalihlelwe ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1970 ngaphansi kobuholi besazi sezenhlalo UFrank Ferudi, ngokusho kwababhali UGeorge Monbiot, UJonathan Matthews, UZac Goldsmith futhi UDon Maisch.

Iqembu likaFerudi elihlukanise i-RCP lahlangana Ukuphila kweMarxism, Umagazini we-LM, I-Spiked Magazine futhi Isikhungo Semibono, owamukela ubungxiwankulu, ukuzimela futhi wakhuthaza umbono wezobuchwepheshe nokudelela abezemvelo, ngokusho kukaMonbiot. (UFerudi kuphendula kule ngcezu.) A Isihloko se-Guardian mayelana nomcimbi we-LM ngo-1999 uchaze inethiwekhi "njengempendulo ebhekiswe Kwesobunxele" (ngamazwi kaFuredi) enombono womhlaba wokuthi ukucabanga kwesokunxele "akuyona into yezepolitiki" futhi "ayikho enye indlela emakethe."

"Enye yezinto ezixakile kwezepolitiki yanamuhla wukubusa kwababengamaphiko kwesobunxele asebephendukele kwesokudla," kubhala uMonbiot ku Isihloko se-2003 Kuchazwa ubudlelwano phakathi kweSense About Science kanye neScience Media Center, abantu ababambe iqhaza kuleyo mizamo kanye nezixhumanisi zenethiwekhi ye-LM:

“Ngabe konke lokhu kwenzeke ngengozi? Angicabangi kanjalo. Kepha akulula ukuqonda ukuthi kungani kwenzeka. Ngabe sibheke iqembu elifuna amandla ngenxa yalo, noma elilandela ukwakheka kwezepolitiki, okuyisinyathelo esiphakathi kwalo? Engingakusho ukuthi isikhungo sezesayensi, esihlala singenapolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu oxhumano lwezepolitiki oluyinqaba nolwehlukile. Esikhundleni sokwakha kabusha ukuthembela komphakathi kwezesayensi nakwezokwelapha, ifilosofi yaleli qembu enyanyekayo ekugcineni ingayiqeda. ”

amaqhinga

I-SMC e-UK ithi inakho i-database enezingcweti ezingama-2700 kanye nezikhulu ezingaphezu kwezingu-1200 zabezindaba, kanye nohlu lwamakheli olunezintatheli ezingaphezu kwezingama-300 ezimele yonke imibhalo emikhulu yase-UK. I-SMC isebenzisa amaqhinga amathathu amakhulu ukuthonya ukusabalala kwesayensi, ngokusho kwayo ividiyo yephromoshini:

  1. Impendulo esheshayo ezindabeni eziqhamuka nezingcaphuno zemibono: Lapho kuvela indaba yesayensi, “kungakapheli nemizuzu emingaki kukhona ama-imeyili e-SMC emabhokisini okungenayo awo wonke intatheli kazwelonke enikeza ochwepheshe,” kusho uFox.
  2. Ukuthola izintatheli kuqala ngocwaningo olusha. I-SMC "inelungelo lokufinyelela kumajenali esayensi angaba ngu-10-15 ngaphambi kokuphakanyiswa kwama-embargo" ukuze bakwazi ukulungiselela ukuphawula kusengaphambili kochwepheshe bezinkampani zangaphandle okukhombisa ukuthi izifundo ezintsha ziyakudinga ukunakekelwa nokuthi kufanele zihlelwe kanjani.
  3. Ukuhlela cishe i-100 press ngamafuphi unyaka "owabeka i-ajenda" ngokusobala ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene zesayensi ezinempikiswano ezifana nodoti wenuzi, i-biotechnology kanye nezifo ezisafufusa.

Izibonelo zethonya nokuchema

Abaphenyi abaningana kanye nezifundiswa babike ukuthi bathi ukwenzelela kwe-SMC okuxhasa izimboni ngezihloko ezinempikiswano, kanye nokuthi izintatheli zithembele kangakanani emibonweni yochwepheshe be-SMC ukuhlela izindaba zesayensi.

Ukungabi nemibono ehlukahlukene

Uprofesa wobuntatheli uConnie St. Louis waseCity University, eLondon, uhlole umthelela weSMC ekubikeni kwesayensi emaphephandabeni kazwelonke ayi-12 ngo-2011 nango-2012, futhi wathola:

  • Ama-60% ama-athikili abika izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
  • Ama-54% okuphendula "kochwepheshe" anikezwe yi-SMC ekuqhamukeni kwezindaba ngalesi sikhathi esihlanganisiwe bekusezindabeni
    • Kulezi zindaba, ama-23% awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
    • Kulabo abakwenzile, kuphela ama-32% wemithombo yangaphandle enikeze umbono ophikisayo kulokho okunikezwa ngungoti ekuphenduleni kwe-SMC.

"Kunezintatheli eziningi kunokuba kufanele ngabe zisebenzisa kuphela ochwepheshe be-SMC hhayi ukuxhumana nemithombo ezimele," kuphetha uSt.

Ochwepheshe akubona njalo ososayensi

UDavid Miller, uprofesa wesayensi yezenhlalo evela e-University of Bath, e-UK, uhlaziye okuqukethwe kwe-SMC kuwebhusayithi kanye nezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act, futhi wabika:

  • Abanye ochwepheshe be-SMC abangama-20 kwabangu-100 abacashunwe kakhulu kwakungebona ososayensi, njengoba kuchazwa ngokuba ne-PhD nokusebenza esikhungweni sokucwaninga noma emphakathini ophakeme kakhulu, kepha babengama-lobbyists kanye nama-CEO amaqembu amaqembu embonini.
  • Imithombo yezimali ibingadalulwa njalo ngokuphelele ngesikhathi esifanele ku-inthanethi.
  • Kwakungekho bufakazi bokuthi iSMC yayivuna umxhasi othile, kodwa yayithanda imikhakha ethile yezinkampani nezihloko ezazikhuluma ngazo “kukhombisa izinto eziza kuqala zabaxhasi bazo.”

“Uma uthi ucaphuna ososayensi bese ugcina usebenzisa ama-lobbyists kanye nama-NGO, umbuzo uthi: ngabe ukhetha kanjani ukuthi yiliphi ama-lobbyists noma ama-NGO okumele abe nawo? Kungani ungenawo ama-lobbyist aphikisana nokuhlolwa kofuzo noma amalungu e-Greenpeace aveza umbono wawo kunesikhundla se-bioindustry? Lokho kuveza ngempela uhlobo lokuchema olusebenzayo, ”kusho uMiller.

Strategic spin triumph emibungwini yabantu / yezilwane e-hybrid

Ngo-2006, lapho uhulumeni wase-UK ecabanga ukuvimbela ososayensi ekwakheni imibungu ehlanganiswa nabantu-yezilwane, iSMC yahlanganisa imizamo yokususa ukugxila ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kude nezinkinga zokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwemibungu ehlanganisiwe njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho ku-Nature.

Umkhankaso we-SMC "wawunqobe amasu ebudlelwaneni bezindaba" futhi "ububhekele kakhulu ukuguqula isimo sokutholakala kwemibungu eyizilwane ezingabantu," ngokusho kuka-Andy Williams, umcwaningi wezindaba e-University of Cardiff, e-UK, owenza ukuhlaziywa egameni le-SMC kanye nabasizi bomkhankaso.

UWilliams uthole:

  • Imithombo engaphezulu kwama-60% ezindabeni ezibhalwe yizintatheli zesayensi nezempilo - leyo okubhekiswe kuyo yi-SMC - isekele ucwaningo, futhi yingxenye eyodwa kuphela yekota yemithombo ephikisana nalokhu.
  • Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli ebezingakahlosiwe yi-SMC zikhulume nososayensi abambalwa abasekelayo kanye nabaphikisi abaningi.

"UWilliams manje ukhathazekile ngokuthi imizamo ye-SMC iholele izintatheli ukuthi zinikeze isithunzi ososayensi ngokweqile, nokuthi zavimbela impikiswano," Indatshana Yemvelo ibikile. Ingxoxo noWilliams in SciDevNet kubika:

"Ulimi oluningi olusetshenzisiwe ukuchaza [izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC] kugcizelela ukuthi babeyithuba lokuthi ososayensi bachaze isayensi ngamagama abo, kodwa - okubaluleke kakhulu - ngendlela engathathi hlangothi futhi engenaxabiso," esho. Kepha lokhu akulinaki iqiniso lokuthi le micimbi ibiphethwe ngokuqinile icindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo, engeza, nokuthi isethelwe ukuvikela umthelela omkhulu kwabezindaba kososayensi ababandakanyekayo. Izintatheli ezingongoti bezesayensi zondliwe "yimixhaso yolwazi" yi-SMC futhi zinamathuba amaningi kakhulu kunezinye izintatheli ukucaphuna imithombo yokuvikela ukuxubana, kusho uWilliams.

Ikhuthaza ukubukwa kwemboni ku-fracking

Ngokombiko othile Februwari 2015 ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba olwenziwe nguPaul Mobbs we-Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, i-SMC yanikela ngamazwibela amaningi ochwepheshe mayelana ne-fracking phakathi kowezi-2012-2015, kepha idlanzana lososayensi ababephethe ukuphawula kwakusuka ezikhungweni ezinobudlelwano bezezimali nemboni kaphethiloli noma amaphrojekthi ocwaningo axhaswe imboni.

“Iqhaza le-SMC libukeka lifaka umbono omncane emibonweni emincane yezimvo zokuphepha kwe-fracking. Le mibono isuselwa esikhundleni sobungcweti salabo abathintekayo, futhi ayisekelwa ngezikhombo zobufakazi ukuqinisekisa ubuqiniso bayo. Ngenxa yalokho, le mibono iye yacashunwa kwabezindaba ngaphandle kokungabaza. ”

“Mayelana negesi ephuma emanzini, i-SMC ayinikezi umbono olinganiselayo ngobufakazi obutholakalayo, kanye nokungaqiniseki, ngemithelela kawoyela negesi engajwayelekile. Inikeza izingcaphuno ezivela ezifundweni ezimele kakhulu umbono 'wase-UK', ongabunaki bonke ubufakazi obutholakala kulolu daba obuvela e-USA, Australia naseCanada. ”

Ukwehlisa isineke ukukhathala okungamahlalakhona 

A Iphepha le-2013 nguMalcolm Hooper, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-Emeritus, e-University of Sunderland, e-UK, usole iSMC ngokuthuthukisa imibono yabanye abasebenza kwezokwelapha, ngokwehluleka ukubika ngesayensi yezinto eziphilayo kanye nokuphokophela "imibono kanye nenkulumo-ze yamaqembu anentshisekelo enamandla" emithonjeni yayo yezindaba sebenza ku-chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Iphepha likaHooper libika ngezixhumanisi eziphakathi kwe-SMC nabadlali abalulekile empikiswaneni yeCFS / ME nezixhumanisi zemboni yomshuwalense, futhi linikeza ubufakazi balokho uHooper akuchaze njengomkhankaso weSMC wokudicilela phansi abantu ngeCFS / ME, kanye nemizamo yayo yokudicilela phansi iPACE imiphumela yesivivinyo kwabezindaba. Uyaphetha, "Inhlangano eziphatha ngendlela engqubuzana nesayensi ngale ndlela ayinakuba nesicelo esisemthethweni sokumela isayensi."

Ukubukwa kwe-SMC, bheka Ishidi lamaqiniso lango-2018 ku-CFS / ME “ukugula nokuphikisana.”

Ukuphepha kwamaselula nabaxhasi bezingcingo

A Iphepha le-2006 nguDon Maisch, PhD, "kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokungakhethi kwemodeli yeSMC kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi lapho kunikezwa izeluleko zochwepheshe ezindabeni ezinengxabano lapho izintshisekelo ziyingxenye yohlaka lweSMC." Iphepha leMaisch lihlola ukuxhumana kwamaSMC ezindabeni ezibandakanya imisebe kagesi kagesi kanye nokuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, futhi linikeza lokho akubiza ngokuthi "umlando ongacwaningwa wemodeli yeSMC yokuxhumana kwesayensi."

“Kusobala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezisebenzisanayo ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK yokuqhakambisa ubuchwepheshe be-Biotec nobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana. Lokhu kungachaza ukuthi kungani abantu abangenazo iziqu zangempela kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi bekwazile ukufinyelela ezikhundleni ezaba ubuso bomphakathi bezikhungo zesayensi zaseBrithani. Ibuye ichaze ukuthi kungani isikhungo sezesayensi nezokwelapha sase-UK, sazi ukuthi ingxenye enkulu yemali yesayensi ivela emithonjeni yezimboni, ingabalingani abazimisele ukuvumela izinhlangano ze-PR ezine-ajenda enqunywe kusengaphambili ukuthi zibakhulumele futhi zisekele inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni kunentshisekelo yomphakathi . ”

Ukuvikela i-GMO

Njengokwehliswa ngenhla, bobabili iScience Media Center neqembu lodadewabo iSense About Science bethule ngamaphrojekthi avikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. I-SMC ivame ukunikeza ochwepheshe abagxeka izifundo eziveza ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ngo-2016, ososayensi baphindisela emuva ekuphenduleni kochwepheshe be-SMC abathi babekhuluma kabi ngomsebenzi wabo kuma-GMO. Ucwaningo oluholwa nguMichael Antoniou, PhD, iNhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group, eKing's College London School of Medicine, futhi lwashicilelwa ku Imibiko yeSayensi, wasebenzisa ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana ukuze aqhathanise ummbila we-GMO nozakwabo ongeyona i-GM futhi wabika ukuthi ummbila we-GM nowe-GM "awalingani kakhulu." I-SMC ikhiphe i- ukusabela kochwepheshe ukuhlambalaza isifundo, futhi bekungavumeli ababhali ukuthi baphendule noma balungise imininingwane enganembile ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, ngokusho kwabalobi bezocwaningo.

“Lawa mazwana [acashunwe ekukhishweni kweSMC] awanembile ngakho-ke asabalalisa ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngephepha lethu. Sazisiwe ukuthi akusiyo inqubomgomo yeScience Media Centre ukuthumela izimpendulo, ezifana nezethu, kumazwana okuphawula abawathumelayo / abawabeka kwiwebhusayithi yabo, ”kusho u-Antoniou. Ababhali bokufunda bathumele impendulo yabo lapha.

Intatheli uRebekah Wilce ibike kanjalo ku-PR Watch ngo-2014 ngezibonelo eziningana zokuchema kwe-pro-GMO kwezokuxhumana ze-SMC. Wabhala:

I-SMC izibiza ngesikhungo esizimele sokuxoxisana nabezindaba ngezindaba zesayensi. Abagxeki, nokho, bayakungabaza ukuzimela kwayo kusuka embonini ye-GMO - yize isitatimende seqembu ukuthi inkampani ngayinye noma omunye umxhasi anganikela kuphela ngamaphesenti amahlanu emholweni weqembu wonyaka - futhi axwayise ukuthi le nhlangano ibheke ngaphesheya kwechibi iye e-United States ukuhlinzeka nge-GMO spin lapha.

I-SMC kwahola impendulo ocwaningweni luka-2012 olubika ukuthi ukuthola izicubu ezilwaneni zaselebhu zondla ama-GMO esifundweni sesondlo sesikhathi eside. Ucwaningo luye lwahlazeka kakhulu emaphephandabeni, lwahoxiswa yilo magazini wokuqala futhi lwaphinde lwashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Imidiya

Uchungechunge lweColumbia Journalism Review olunezigaba ezintathu, ngoJuni 2013, “Science Media Centers and the Press”

Nature, ngu-Ewen Callaway, Julayi 2013, “Abezindaba zesayensi: Isikhungo sokunakwa; UFiona Fox neScience Media Center yakhe bazimisele ukuthuthukisa ezokunyathelisa zaseBrithani. Manje imodeli isakazeka emhlabeni wonke ”

Nature, nguColin Macilwain, “Izizwe ezimbili zihlukaniswe inhloso eyodwa: Izinhlelo zokuphindaphinda iScience Media Center yaseBrithani e-United States zigcwele ingozi”

I-FAIR, ngu-Stacy Malkan, ngoJulayi 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zenkampani Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwezesayensi?"

SciDevNet, nguMićo Tatalović, ngoMeyi 2014, “Isikhungo Sezindaba Sezindaba sase-UK sibhebhezela ukuphusha isayensi yezinkampani” Isikhungo semvu

Ukubuka kwe-PR, nguRebekah Wilke, ngo-Ephreli 2014, "IScience Media Center Spins Pro-GMO Line"

Kwiqembu elihlobene i-Sense About Science:

I-Intercept, ebhalwe nguLiza Gross, ngoNovemba 2016, “Seeding Doubt: Yeka indlela abazibeke ngayo abaqaphi 'besayensi ezwakalayo' befaka esikalini embonini.”

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: I-Sense About Science-USA Director uTrevor Butterworth Spins Science for Industry

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba 'Ozakwethu' Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Izimali Zenethiwekhi Yezenhlalo Yesimo Sezulu Esenqabela Inkohliso Yamakhemikhali Anobuthi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Zikhuthaza ama-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, zivikela amakhemikhali anobuthi nokudla okungenamsoco, futhi zihlasela abantu abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngaleyo mikhiqizo ngokuthi “balwa nesayensi.” Kodwa-ke uJon Entine, uTrevor Butterworth noHenry Miller baxhaswa ngamaqembu afanayo axhasa ukwenqatshwa kwesayensi yezulu.

NguStacy Malkan

Umbhali waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot unesixwayiso kulabo bethu abazama ukuqonda amaqiniso amasha ezepolitiki e-US nase-UK: "Asinalo ithemba lokuqonda ukuthi yini ezayo kuze kube yilapho siqonda ukuthi inethiwekhi yemali emnyama isebenza kanjani," wabhala ku i-Guardian.

Kungenzeka ukuthi iCorporate America yehlisa ukwenanela uDonald Trump, kepha kwathi lapho uTrump esekutholile ukuqokwa, "imali enkulu yaqala ukuthola ithuba elingakaze libonwe," kubhala uMonbiot. “Ukungahambisani kwakhe kwakungeyona inkinga, kepha kwakuvula: i-ajenda yakhe yayingakhiwa. Futhi uhlelo olumnyama lwemali olwalusungulwe ezinye izinkampani zaseMelika lwalulungele ngokuphelele ukulwakha. ”

Le nethiwekhi, noma imali emnyama i-ATM njengoba uMama Jones ekuchazile, kubhekiswa enanini elinzima lokulandela umkhondo eligeleza lisuka kozigidigidi abangamasiko amakhulu, abanjengoCharles noDavid Koch nababambisene nabo, nezinkampani eziba ngamaqembu angaphambili akhuthaza imibono yezimakethe ezikhululekile ngokweqile - ngokwesibonelo, izimpi ezilwa nezikole zomphakathi, izinyunyana, ukuvikelwa kwemvelo, izinqubomgomo zokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nesayensi esongela inzuzo yebhizinisi.

"Asinathemba lokuthi sizokuqonda okuzayo size siqonde ukuthi isebenza kanjani imali emnyama."

Ababhali abaphenyayo UJane Mayer, UNaomi Oreskes, u-Erik Conway kanti abanye badalule ukuthi “indaba yemali emnyama nendaba yokwenqatshwa kwesimo sezulu iyindaba efanayo: izinhlangothi ezimbili zemali eyodwa,” njengoba uSenator wase-United States uSheldon Whitehouse ayichaza ngonyaka odlule inkulumo.

Amasu "okuholwa nguKoch, umsebenzi wokuthenga umthelela" - kufaka phakathi imisebenzi yenkulumo-ze ejikeleza isayensi ngaphandle kokubheka iqiniso - "mhlawumbe yisona sizathu esikhulu esingenayo umthetho-mali ophelele wesimo sezulu eCongress," kusho uWhitehouse.

Ngenkathi la maqhinga elandelelwe kahle emkhakheni wesimo sezulu, okungaxhunywanga kangako iqiniso lokuthi abaxhasi abalandela ukuphika kwesayensi yesimo sezulu baphinde babhalise inethiwekhi yabasebenzi be-PR abakhe imisebenzi yokuphotha isayensi ukuphika ubungozi bezempilo bamakhemikhali anobuthi ekudleni esikudingayo sidle nemikhiqizo esiyisebenzisa nsuku zonke.

Izigxobo ziphakeme empilweni yesizwe sethu. Amanani we- umdlavuza wezingane manje seziphezulu ngama-50% kunangesikhathi lapho “impi yomdlavuza” yaqala emashumini eminyaka adlule, futhi isikhali esihle kunazo zonke asisisebenzisi neze: izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukutholakala kwamakhemikhali abangela umdlavuza.

"Uma sifuna ukunqoba impi yomdlavuza, sidinga ukuqala ngamanxusa ayizinkulungwane omzimba namakhemikhali ahlolwe ngangokunokwenzeka, okungenzeka noma aziwa ngama-carcinogens ngabantu yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation" kubhala usosayensi nomlobi uDevra U-Lee Davis, PhD, MPH, ku The Hill.

Ukunciphisa amanxusa aziwayo "akuhlangene neze nesayensi, futhi kuningi okuphathelene namandla ezimboni ezinenzuzo enkulu ethembele ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi ukuphikisana nemibiko yesayensi ngobungozi," kusho uDavis.

Ukuvikela amakhemikhali anobuthi nokudla okungenamsoco 

Lapho imikhiqizo ebalulekile embonini yokudla kwamakhemikhali nokudla okungenamsoco ingena enkingeni ngesayensi, kuvela abalingiswa namaqembu abikezelwayo endaweni yesehlakalo, besebenzisa amasu abezindaba agugile ukukhipha izinkampani ezidinga ukukhuthazwa yi-PR.

Amagama abo namasu abawasebenzisayo - izindatshana ezinde eziphikisayo, ezivame ukwenziwa ukuhlaselwa ngabantu - zizokwaziwa ososayensi abaningi, izintatheli kanye nabameli babathengi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemikhiqizo enobuthi kule minyaka eyi-15 edlule.

Izicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi ngu I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ezivundulule izinkulungwane zemibhalo, kanye nemibiko yakamuva eyenziwe ngu Greenpeace, The Ngenisa nabanye, bakhanyisa ukukhanya okusha kule nethiwekhi yenkulumo-ze.

Abadlali ababalulekile kubalwa uJon Entine, uTrevor Butterworth, uHenry I. Miller namaqembu axhumene nabo: STATS, Centre for Media and Public Affairs, Genetic Literacy Project, Sense About Science neHoover Institute.

Yize kunemilando ebhalwe kahle njenge-PR operatives, i-Entine, iButterworth neMiller yethulwa njengemithombo yesayensi ebucayi ezinkundleni zokuxhumana eziningi, ezivela Wall Street Journal, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Newsweek, I-Philadelphia Enquirer, I-Harvard Business Review futhi, bridge ngokuvamile, Forbes - ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwemithombo yabo yezimali noma i-ajenda yokususa umthetho ezimbonini ezingcolisayo ezizikhuthazayo.

Izindatshana zabo zibeka phezulu ekusesheni kweGoogle izinto eziningi eziseqhulwini embonini yamakhemikhali nokudla okungenamsoco - okucindezela ukulandisa kokuthi ama-GMO, izibulala-zinambuzane, amakhemikhali epulasitiki, abashukela esikhundleni sikashukela baphephile, futhi noma ngubani osho okwahlukile ukuthi “uphikisana nesayensi.”

Kwezinye izimo, bathola ithonya njengoba behambisana nezikhungo zokusungula ezifana neBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, iCornell University kanye neYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis.

Kodwa-ke imithombo yabo yezimali ibuyela emuva emibonweni efanayo "yemakethe yamahhala" evela emafutheni kawoyela, ezemithi namakhemikhali axhasa ukwenqaba kwesayensi yezulu - ISearle Freedom Trust, Izisekelo zeScaife, IJohn Templeton Foundation nabanye bahlonzwa njengabaxhasi abakhulu nabangaguquguquki bamaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu, ngokusho kuka Ucwaningo lwe-2013 nguDrexel University isazi sezenhlalo uRobert Brulle, PhD.

Labo abafuna ukuqonda imigomo yenqubomgomo yenethiwekhi yemali emnyama yokuqaqa ukuvikelwa kwezempilo kohlelo lwethu lokudla benza kahle ukubheka lokhu abasakaza inkulumo-ze banamuhla nemiyalezo yabo.

UJon Entine - Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy / STATS

UJon Entine, owayekade eyintatheli, uzibonakalisa njengegunya lokulawula isayensi. Noma kunjalo ubufakazi obanele busikisela ungumsebenzi wobudlelwano bomphakathi obunesikhathi eside enobudlelwano obujulile nezinkampani zamakhemikhali ezihlushwa imibuzo ngezingcuphe zezempilo.

Eminyakeni edlule, u-Entine unakho ehlaselwa Lokhu ososayensi, oprofesa, abaxhasi, abameli futhi izintatheli ngubani ophakamise ukukhathazeka mayelana ukukhwabanisa, amandla enuzi, izibulala-zinambuzane futhi Amakhemikhali esetshenzisiwe amabhodlela ezingane futhi amathoyizi ezingane. Indaba kaMama Jones ka-2012 kaTom Philpott ichaza u-Entine njengo “Umxolisi webhizinisi lezolimo, ”Futhi uGreenpeace uchaza umlando wakhe ku Iwebhusayithi yokubuka iPolluter.

U-Entine manje ungumqondisi we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, iqembu eligqugquzela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Isiza sithi asithathi hlangothi, kepha “sakhiwe ngokusobala ukukhuthaza isikhundla semboni futhi asizami ukubheka ukungathathi hlangothi ezindabeni,” kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union.

"Umyalezo uthi ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo muhle futhi noma ngubani okugxekayo uyimbono esabekayo, kepha lokho akusho ukuthi impikiswano yesayensi ikuphi ngempela."

Faka izimangalo, isibonelo, ukuthi "ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO kunamandla ukwedlula ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke" - isimangalo esiphikiswa yi-World Health Organisation, esithi akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile ngokuphepha kwe-GMO, nangamakhulu ososayensi abathi kukhona akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi kwezokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project nayo ayizange iveze obala mayelana nokuxhumana kwayo neMonsanto. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, isayithi lishicilele amaphepha amaningi ezifundo ze-pro-GMO ama-imeyili adalula kamuva ukuthi ayenjalo abelwe osolwazi yisiphathimandla seMonsanto esihlinzeke ngezindawo zokukhulumela amaphepha futhi sathembisa ukuthi bampompe baphume yonke indawo i-Internet.

Esinye isibonelo: Abalingani be-Genetic Literacy Project babambisana ne-Academics Review ku- Iphrojekthi Ye-Biotechnology Literacy, izingqungquthela ezisekela izimboni eziqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ngokuthi "zingayifaka kanjani kangcono impikiswano ye-GMO nomphakathi ongabazayo."

"Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi."

Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo, okushicilele i- umbiko ngo-2014 behlasela imboni ephilayo, baziveza njengeqembu elizimele, kodwa ama-imeyili embuliwe yasungulwa ngosizo lwesikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto esathembisa ukuthola imali "kuyilapho iMonsanto igcina ngemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi." Ama-imeyili futhi wabonisa owayengumsunguli we-Academics Review uBruce Chassy wayekade ethola Izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto nge-University of Illinois Foundation.

Ngakho-ke ngubani oxhasa iPhrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy and Entine?

Ngokusho kwabo iwebhusayithi, inqwaba yemali ivela ezisekelweni ezimbili - iSearle neTempleton - ekhonjwe ku- Ucwaningo lwe-Drexel njengabaxhasi abaphambili bokuphika isayensi yezulu Lesi siza siphinde sibhale uxhaso lweWinkler Family Foundation futhi "sidlule sisekela i-University of California-Davis Biotech Literacy Bootcamp" esivela kwi-Academics Review Charitable Association.

Imithombo yezimali yangaphambilini ibuye ifake abasekeli bokuphika isayensi yezulu kanye nokudluliswa kwemali okungadalulwanga.

IGenetic Literacy Project ne-Entine phambilini bezisebenza ngaphansi kwesambulela seStatistical Assessment Services (STATS), iqembu eliseGeorge Mason University, lapho u-Entine ayengumuntu khona eCentre for Health and Risk Communication kusuka ngo-2011-2014.

I-STATS ixhaswe kakhulu yi-Scaife Foundation neSearle Freedom Trust phakathi kuka-2005 no-2014, ngokusho kophenyo lweGreenpeace Uxhaso lwe-STATS.

UKimberly Dennis, umongameli kanye ne-CEO yeSearle Freedom Trust, futhi ungusihlalo webhodi leDonors Trust, elidume kabi Isikhwama semali esimnyama esixhunywe nguKoch abanikeli babo abangalandelelwa. Ngaphansi kobuholi bukaDennis, iSearle neDonors Trust yathumela imali engama- $ 290,000 ku-STATS ngo-2010, kubika iGreenpeace.

In 2012 futhi 2013, I-STATS ithole izimali ezibolekwe ngenhlangano engudadewabo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs, okuyi wathola Iminikelo ngaleyo minyaka evela eGeorge Mason University Foundation, okuyi ayivezi imithombo yezimali.

U-Entine uke wazama ukuziqhelelanisa kwesinye isikhathi ne-GLP okuvela kula maqembu; kodwa, amarekhodi entela i-Entine ikhokhelwe u- $ 173,100 yiCentre for Media and Public Affairs ngonyaka ophela ngoJuni 30, 2015.

Nge-2014, ama-imeyili ayabonisa, U-Entine wayezama ukuthola ikhaya elisha le-Genetic Literacy Project, futhi wayefuna ukusungula “ubudlelwano obusemthethweni” ne-University of California, Davis, World Food Centre. Ube ngumuntu oMdala eSikoleni se-Institute for Food and Agricultural Literacy futhi manje ukhomba njengomuntu owayekade esebenza naye. I-GLP manje isingaphansi kwesambulela seqembu elibizwa ngeSayensi Literacy Project.

U-Entine uthe ngeke aphendule imibuzo ngale ndaba.

UTrevor Butterworth - Umuzwa NgeSayensi USA / STATS

UTrevor Butterworth ubethembekile imboni isithunywa iminyaka eminingi, ukuvikela ukuphepha kwemikhiqizo ehlukahlukene eyingozi ebalulekile ezimbonini zamakhemikhali nezokudla okungenamsoco, njenge phthalates, BPA, i-vinyl plastic, isiraphu yengqolowa, ama-sodas anoshukela futhi ubumnandi bokufakelwa. Ungumnikeli wangaphambili ku Newsweek futhi ubhale ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi ze- Wall Street Journal.

Kusukela ngo-2003 kuya ku-2014, iButterworth ibingumhleli kwa-STATS, ixhaswe kakhulu yi-Scaife Foundation neSearle Freedom Trust. Ngo-2014, waba ngumqondisi wokusungula we Inzwa Mayelana neSayensi USA bese ngigoqa ama-STATS kulelo qembu.

Ukudalulwa kwakamuva kukaLiza Gross ku I-Intercept ichaze iSense About Science, umqondisi wayo uTracey Brown, uButterworth, i-STATS kanye nabasunguli balawo maqembu “njengabaqokiwe abazimele besayensi yomsindo” “abalinganisa izikali embonini.”

I-Sense About Science "izama ukusiza umphakathi onolwazi olungelona iqiniso ukuthi ihlunge izimangalo ezethusayo ngempilo nemvelo" kepha "inomlando ophazamisayo wokuqhakambisa ochwepheshe okuvele ukuthi banezibopho nezimboni ezilawulwayo," kubhala uGross.

"Uma izintatheli zibuza ngokufanele ukuthi ngubani oxhasa ucwaningo ngobungozi be-asbestos, noma amakhemikhali okwenziwa, bazokwelulekwa ukuba bangabaze nobufakazi obuvezwa yiSense About Science kulezi zingxoxo."

I-Sense About Science USA ithunyelwe le mpendulo uButterworth uthe nge-imeyili "udumele ngendaba edukisayo ka-Intercept, ebikhanyisela abantu nezinhlangano ezingaxhumananga neSense About Science USA ndawonye." Uthe iqembu lakhe alithathi mali yezinkampani futhi lizimele ngokusemthethweni kwi-UK Sense About Science.

Uthe futhi, "Angikaze ngihlanganyele emkhankasweni wokuthumela imiyalezo embonini - kunoma yikuphi, ngikhokhelwe noma cha."

Ezinye izintatheli ziphethe ngenye indlela. 

Abathelisi ku I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Atlantic futhi I-Consumer Reports uveze uButterworth njengomdlali ophambili emizameni ye-PR enonya embonini yamakhemikhali yokuvikela ikhemikhali iBPA.

Ngo-2009, izintatheli uSusanne Rust noMeg Kissinger be-Journal Sentinel kuchaze iButterworth njengomvikeli we-BPA "othanda kakhulu", kanye nesibonelo "sababhali bezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yamakhemikhali" abangakudaluli ukusebenzisana kwabo.

 "Ukuvikelwa kweBPA kumablogi kuvela kuTrevor Butterworth."

STATS, babhala, "Izisholo ukuthi iyinhlangano yabezindaba ezimele" kodwa "ixhaswe izinhlangano zezinqubomgomo zomphakathi ezikhuthaza ukupheliswa komthetho." Inhlangano engudadewabo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs, "inomlando wokusebenzela izinkampani ezizama ukudlulisa ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwemikhiqizo yazo." UButterworth uthe ukubika kwakhe ngeBPA kukhombisa ubufakazi ngaleso sikhathi obuvela emithonjeni egunyaziwe, kanti abakwa STATS bathumele izimpendulo lapha futhi lapha ekubikeni okubucayi.

Isibonelo sakamuva sendlela imibhalo kaButterworth eyadlala ngayo indima enkulu emizamweni yokubambela ezinkampanini yokuhlambalaza isayensi enenkinga ingabonakala emsebenzini wakhe we-sweetener yokufakelwa eyimpikiswano.

Ngo-2012, iButterworth yabhala i- Isihloko seForbes ukugxeka isifundo esiphakamise ukukhathazeka ngengozi yomdlavuza ye-sucralose. Uchaze abacwaningi, uDkt. Morando Soffritti kanye neRamazzini Institute, “njengento yokuhlekisa.”

Ngo-2016, iqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla lalinendatshana kaButterworth yango-2012 kanye “nento ehlaya” ehlaziya isitatimende sephephandaba ukuhlasela iSoffritti entsha "yokufunda ukwethuka" okuphakamise ukukhathazeka nge-sucralose. Izintatheli ku- The IndependentThe Daily MailTelegraph futhi Deseret News wacosha izingcaphuno zaseButterworth ehlazisa abacwaningi, wamkhomba kuphela njengentatheli yaseForbes.

Ngokunjalo, ngo-2011, iButterworth ibingungoti ovelele kwi-International Sweeteners Association Conference, futhi yafaka isicelo sayo kweyabo isitatimende sephephandaba abukho "ubufakazi bokuba yingozi empilweni" kusuka ku-sucralose. Ukhonjwe "njengentatheli evame ukufaka isandla kwi-Financial Times naseWall Street Journal."

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-USRTK akhombisa ukuthi i-Coca Cola VP URona Applebaum uchaze iButterworth kubaholi beGlobal Energy Balance Network - a Iqembu eliphambili leCoca-Cola sisebenzela ukuphotha isayensi ngokukhuluphala - njengo “umngane wethu”Kanye nentatheli obekade“ukulungele futhi uyakwazi”Ukusebenza nabo. IButterworth ithe ayikaze isebenze nalelo qembu.

IButterworth manje isihlangene neCornell University njenge ovakashele esikanye naye eCornell Alliance for Science, iqembu elasungulwa ngonyaka we-2014 linemali eyisibonelelo esingu- $ 5.6 million yeGates Foundation ukuze khuthaza ama-GMO. Iqembu elixhaswe ngabakwaGates manje selihlanganyela ne-Sense About Science USA kwi-workshop yokufundisa ososayensi abasebasha ukuthi “Yimela iSayensi. "

I-Sense About Science USA nayo isebenza ngokuzibandakanya komphakathi imihlangano yokucobelelana ngolwazi yososayensi ezindaweni ezifana ne-University of Washington, University of Pittsburg, Carnegie Melon, Rockefeller University, Caltech kanye ne-University of Massachusetts, Boston.

UHenry I. Miller - Isikhungo seHoover

UHenry I. Miller, MD, ozakwabo eHoover Institution, ungomunye wabavikeli abanamandla kakhulu wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nabaphikisi abanonya bokukufaka amalebuli. Ubhale ukuhlaselwa okuningi embonini yezinto eziphilayo, kufaka phakathi i- "The Colossal Hoax of Organic Agriculture" (Forbes), "Ukulima Ngokwemvelo Akusimeme" (Wall Street Journal) kanye ne "Iqiniso elingcolile Mayelana Nemikhiqizo Engokwemvelo" (Newsweek).

UMiller ubhale futhi evikela i- izibulala-zinambuzane ezilimaza izinyosi, amakhemikhali epulasitiki futhi imisebe evela ezikhungweni zamandla enuzi, futhi ubelokhu ephikisana ne ukwenziwa kabusha kwe-DDT. Akaphendulanga ezicelweni zokuphawula ngale ndaba.

Ngokungafani neButterworth ne-Entine, uMiller unesizinda sesayensi kanye nezimpawu zikahulumeni; ungudokotela wezokwelapha futhi wayengumqondisi osungula ihhovisi le-FDA le-biotechnology.

NjengoButterworth no-Entine, uxhaso lukaMiller luvela emaqenjini axhasa ukwenqaba kwesayensi yezulu - iHoover Institute's umxhasi ophezulu yiSarah Scaife Foundation, kanti leli qembu selithathe nemali kwaSearle Freedom Trust, Exxon Mobile, American Chemistry Council, Charles Koch Foundation naseDonors Trust.

Njengabasunguli be I-STATS ne-Sense Mayelana neSayensi, UMiller ubuye abe nobudlelwano nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini kagwayi. Ngonyaka we-1994 Imemo yeqhinga le-PR lenkampani kagwayi uPhillip Morris, UMiller wabizwa ngokuthi "umsekeli oqavile" womkhankaso womhlaba wonke wokulwa nemithetho kagwayi. Ngo-2012, UMiller wabhala leyo nicotine “akukubi kangako kuwe ngamanani ahanjiswa ngogwayi noma imikhiqizo engenantuthu.”

UMiller ubuye abe yilungu "lebhodi lokweluleka ngokwesayensi" le IGeorge C. Marshall Institute, edume kakhulu ngomkhakha wayo kawoyela negesi okhokhela ukwenqabela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, nowayengumphathiswa we Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, “okuxhomeke kakhulu ekuxhasweni yizinkampani ezinesabelo sezezimali ezingxoxweni zesayensi okuhlose ukubunjwa,” ngokusho kuka umama Jones.

Mhlawumbe ngokubona ukuthi amadoda akhombisayo akuyona imithombo engcono kakhulu yokuthonya abesifazane abathenga ukudla, uMiller usanda kwabelana ngama-byline nabesifazane abasifazane abajoyine ukuhlasela kwakhe abameli bezempilo kanye nabalimi abaphilayo.

Izibonelo zifaka isiqeshana esibhalwe ngokuhlanganyela noKavin Senapathy, umsunguli we- iqembu lokho kuzama phazamisa imicimbi yokukhuluma kwabagxeki be-GMO, isihloko esithi “Shala Izishoshovu; ” futhi eyodwa nge UJulie Kelly, uthisha wokupheka onomyeni wakhe olwela amalungelo enkampani enkulu yezolimo i-ADM, echaza ezolimo eziphilayo njenge “umbuso omubi. "

Umsebenzi wakamuva kaKelly ufaka isiqeshana ku- Buyekeza National kufaka ukungabaza kubaphenyi besayensi yesimo sezulu, nendatshana eku- The Hill enxenxa iCongress ukuthi ibuyisele imali i-International Agency for Research on Cancer, ayisola "ngokuhlanganiswa komdlavuza" kanye "nokusebenzisa isayensi engaqondakali ukuthuthukisa uhlelo oluthinta ezepolitiki."

Njengoba singena eshumini leminyaka lesihlanu lokulahlekelwa yimpi yomdlavuza, futhi njengoba ukungazinzi kwesimo sezulu kusongela imvelo kanye nohlelo lwethu lokudla, sekuyisikhathi sokuqaqa inethiwekhi yabaphikisi besayensi abathi babanga isembatho sesayensi futhi sibadalule ukuthi bayini: abasabalalisi bezindaba abenza lokho umsebenzi ongcolile wemboni.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Isazi sezinto eziphilayo.

UStacy Malkan ungumsunguli futhi ungumqondisi obambisene weqembu elingenzi nzuzo lomqapha womphakathi Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” ongomunye wabasunguli bomkhankaso kazwelonke we-Safe Cosmetics nowake waba ngumshicileli wephephandaba.