ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

Ukukhushulwa okungalungile, okukhohlisayo kukaMark Lynas kwe-ajenda yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UMark Lynas uyintatheli wangaphambilini waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane owenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngaleyo mikhiqizo esakhiweni sakhe IGates Foundation exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science. Izindlu eCornell University kusukela ngonyaka we-2014, ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso wobudlelwano nomphakathi eqeqesha abakhulumayo futhi yakhe amanethiwekhi wethonya, ikakhulukazi emazweni ase-Afrika, ukukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ososayensi, ongoti bezokudla bathi uLynas akalungile kwisayensi

Ososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza izitatimende ezinganembile nezingahambisani nesayensi emizamweni yakhe yokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, izifundiswa zangena ngoJulayi 2020 esihlokweni ULynas ubhalele iCornell Alliance for Science ethi i-agroecology "inobungozi bokulimaza abampofu." Abagxeki bachaza udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi”Kanye ne-“ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela”Ukuthi“ngephutha uhlanganisa ukongiwa kwe-agroecology bese enza iziphetho zasendle. "

Isazi sezolimo nomhlaba uMarc Corbeels, iphepha lakhe uLynas okwakuthiwa uzolichaza kule ndatshana, uthe uLynas wenza “ukwenziwa okwandile. ” UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezepolitiki eQueen's University, ucele ukuthi kuhoxiswe; “Into efanele ukuyenza kungaba khipha ucezu lwakho olunamaphutha kakhulu lokho kudida izinto eziyisisekelo ngamasu ezolimo, ”kusho uTaylor kuTwitter. Uchaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “Imibono emsulwa” kanye “nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza 'ngokwesayensi'. ”  

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo ngomsebenzi kaLynas (kugcizelela okwethu):

  • “Ngingasho ngokusobala ukuthi akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO nokuthi iningi lezitatimende (zikaLynas) zingamanga, ” ubhale uDavid Schubert, PhD, Head, Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory & Professor e-The Salk Institute, encwadini ayibhalele ISan Diego Union Tribune.
  • “Nayi eminye imikhakha ye- amaphuzu angalungile noma alahlekisayo uLynas akwenzayo mayelana nesayensi noma ukuthuthukiswa kwe-GE, ”kubhala uDoug Gurian-Sherman, PhD, owayengusosayensi omkhulu, Inyunyana Yososayensi Abakhathazekile. “Esikhundleni sokuphikisana noma ukuxoxa ngesayensi yangempela, uLynas uphonsa iziphakamiso futhi usebenzise ukuthembela egunyeni kunedatha noma ucwaningo. " 
  • Izimangalo zikaLynas mayelana nokuqiniseka kokuphepha kwe-GMO “akunasayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo, ” ngokusho kukaBelinda Martineau, PhD, unjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo owasiza ekwakheni ukudla kokuqala kwe-GMO (bheka incwadi eya ku-NYT futhi I-Biotech Salon).
  • Ekubuyekezweni Incwadi kaLynas Imbewu Yesayensi, isazi semvelaphi yabantu uGlenn Davis Stone uchaze le ncwadi njenge “ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwamaphuzu okuxoxa embonini evamile. ” 
  • "The Uhlu lokuhlanjwa kwezimpahla lwalokho uMark Lynas okungahambanga kahle ngakho kokubili ama-GMO nesayensi lubanzi, futhi iphikisiwe ngephuzu ngabathile abahola phambili emhlabeni izazi ngezolimo futhi izazi zezinto eziphilayo,”Kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, PhD, owayengumqondisi weFood First, ku I-Huffington Post.
  • UMark Lynas une “wenza umsebenzi ophume…" kubhale uThimothewu A. Wise, owayengumqondisi wocwaningo eGlobal Development and Environment Institute eTufts University.
  • "Ukulandisa kukaLynas kungamanga,”Ngokusho kuka- Ukukhishwa kwe-2018 kusuka e-African Centre for Biodiversity, iqembu elizinze eNingizimu Afrika. 
  • “Maka Izimangalo zikaLynas zibonisa ukungazi okujulile kwezesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. Kufanele ungamnaki, ” uthumele uPete Myers, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Environmental Health Sciences, umshicileli we-EHN.org.

Amaqhinga 'okukhohlisayo, adukisayo futhi angenasimiso' 

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika athi uLynas usemelele kabi amaqiniso amaningi ukuthuthukisa uhlelo lwezombusazwe. Ngokombiko wangoDisemba 2018 yi-African Centre for Biodiversity, Lynas kanye neCornell Alliance for Science basebenzise izithombe zabalimi base-Afrika ngaphandle kolwazi nemvume yabo, bexhaphaza izithombe ngezindlela ezidukisayo zokuthi abalimi badinga ama-GMO.

ULynas usebenzise lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle komongo futhi ngaphandle kwemvume yakhe.

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uLynas wabhala lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle kwemvume nangaphandle komongo, esikisela ukuthi uyisisulu “sokungabi nabulungisa emhlabeni wonke.” UNkk. R empeleni ungumlimi ophumelelayo futhi olwela izindlela zokulima kanye nokuziphilisa kahle, ngokusho kombiko we-ACBio. Ucele uLynas ukuthi asuse isithombe sakhe, kodwa uhlala kwi-feed yakhe ye-twitter. I-ACBio ithe embikweni wayo ukuthi amaqhinga kaLynas “eqe umugqa obomvu wokuziphatha futhi kumele ayeke.”  

Iqembu elibusa ukudla nalo kusho ekukhululweni kwezindaba ukuthi uLynas "unomlando wokwenza ububi eTanzania" ngomkhakha wezokuvikela imboni ye-biotech. “Ukuhambela kwakhe kuleli kuhlelwe kahle yindawo yokwamukela izivakashi, esebenzisa izinkundla ezifana nemihlangano ejwayelekile ye-Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa (OFAB), lapho abezindaba bekhona khona bezobika ngezinkulumo zakhe. Ukuhlasela kwakhe bekuqondiswe kakhulu emithethweni yezwe yokuvikela ukuphepha, ikakhulukazi indlela yayo yokuvikela kanye nemibandela eqinile yezikweletu. ”

I-Alliance for Food Ubukhosi (i-AFSA), umfelandawonye omele amaqembu abalimi angama-35 nabathengi e-Afrika yonkana, nayo isole uLynas ngokugqugquzela “izethembiso ezingamanga, ukumelwa kabi, namanye amaqiniso. ” Kundatshana ka-2018, bachaze uLynas "njengongqondongqondo" ongahloniphi abantu base-Afrika, amasiko namasiko abo. "

Imiyalezo yokubulala izinambuzane isuselwa kumaphoyinti okukhuluma embonini, hhayi isayensi

Esinye isibonelo sokubika okunganembile kukaLynas ngesakhe Isihloko se-2017 i-Cornell Alliance for Science ehlasela i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-World Health Organisation ngokubika i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. U-Lynas wathi lo mbiko wophiko lochwepheshe "kwakuwukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" kanye "nokuhlanekezelwa okusobala kwezesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo," okwakuhlelwe abantu abanqotshwe "ukuthukuthela nemizwelo." Uthe i-glyphosate "iyikhemikhali elibi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni." 

A hlola iqiniso yi-US Right to Know uthole ukuthi uLynas wenza izimpikiswano ezifanayo ezidukisayo nezinamaphutha futhi wathembela emithonjeni efanayo emibili enamaphutha njengebhulogi eyathunyelwa ngenyanga edlule yi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu iMonsanto lalikhokha ukusiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate neminye imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ekuphakamiseni icala lakhe ukuthi "amaqembu ezishoshovu ahlukumeza isayensi futhi abeka eceleni inqubomgomo esuselwa ebufakazini ku-glyphosate saga," u-Lynas akagcinanga ngokuthembela ezimpikiswaneni nasezimbonini, kodwa futhi wabushaya indiva ubufakazi obuningi, obabikwa kabanzi kwabezindaba, ukuthi iMonsanto ilawula ukubuyekezwa kwesayensi nokulawula ku-glyphosate amashumi eminyaka usebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha kufaka phakathi izifundo zokubhala ghost futhi izihloko, izifundo zokubulala, ukucindezela isayensi engabazisayo, ukuhlasela ososayensi futhi izinhlangano zokulawula ezinamandla ngenhloso yokuvikela inzuzo yayo kumikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate. 

Kukhuthazwe, kuxhumene nenethiwekhi yezimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane

Izinkampani zezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yazo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi zivame ukukhuthaza uMark Lynas nomsebenzi wakhe. Bona isibonelo Iwebhusayithi kaMonsanto, ama-tweets amaningi wokuphromotha ngomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu okuhweba, amaqembu okubungaza, pro-umkhakha izifundiswa futhi abalobi, Futhi various Monsanto abasebenzi, kanye nenqwaba yama-athikili kaLynas kukhuthazwe ngu Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo, a iqembu le-propaganda ababambisana neMonsanto.

ILynas neCornell Alliance for Science nabo bayasebenzisana nabanye ababambe iqhaza kwinethiwekhi yezokuphepha kanye nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha wezolimo.

Iluleka iqembu labalingani beMonsanto i-Sense About Science

Imfihlo Uhlelo lweMonsanto PR yangomhla kaFebhuwari 2015 yaphakamisa Umuzwa Ngezesayensi njengeqembu elingasiza ekuholeni impendulo yomkhakha kwabezindaba ukudicilela phansi umbiko womdlavuza we-WHO nge-glyphosate. ULynas ukhonza ku- umkhandlu wokweluleka ye-Sense Mayelana neSayensi. I-Intercept ibikile ngo-2016 lokho "I-Sense About Science ayivezi ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho imithombo yayo yezindaba eziyimpikiswano ingososayensi abanobudlelwano nezimboni ezihlolwayo," futhi "kwaziwa ukuthi bathatha izikhundla ezingavumelani nesayensi noma ezichithe ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala." Umuzwa Ngezesayensi abambisene neCornell Alliance for Science ukunikeza "ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli" ngomqondisi weqembu UTrevor Butterworth, ochazwe yizintatheli njengo “imboni yamakhemikhali umbhali wobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Related: IMonsanto ithembele kulaba "abalingani" ukuhlasela ososayensi abaphezulu bomdlavuza

Kuhlanganiswe nesayensi yezulu ukugxeka ukuqalisa i-pro-fracking, pro-nuke, GMO “movement”

U-Lynas uzibiza ngomunye wabasunguli “bokunyakaza” “kwe-ecomodernism,” uhlobo oluhambisanayo lwenkampani “lwezemvelo” umlobi waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot aluchaza ngokuthi “aluthathi zinyathelo zepolitiki ukuvikela umhlaba wemvelo.” Abakwa-eco-modernists bakhuthaza ukuthosiwe, amandla enuzi nemikhiqizo yezolimo njengezixazululo zemvelo. Ngokusho kwabaholi be-eco-modernist UTed Nordhaus noMichael Shellenberger we-Breakthrough Institute, ubuchwepheshe bamandla obuthandwa ngabazalwane besigidigidi samafutha uKoch “benza okungaphezulu kakhulu ekunciphiseni ukukhishwa kwegesi ebamba ukushisa kunalabo abathandwa yiLeft-apocalyptic Left.” 

Ku-a wehlulekile umcimbi wokuqalisa kwe-ecomodernism ngoSepthemba 2015, uLynas wazihlanganisa no-Owen Paterson, ovelele ophika isayensi yezulu e-UK ngubani kunciphise imali ngemizamo yokulungiselela izwe ukufudumala komhlaba ngesikhathi esengunobhala wezemvelo. Ngenyanga efanayo, uPaterson ukhulume eCornell Alliance for Science, lapho ephakamisa khona ama-GMO nge-hyperbolic inkulumo igcwaliswe nge izimangalo ezingasekelwa, futhi wasola abezemvelo ngokuvumela izingane ukuba zife e-Afrika. "Imikhankaso eluhlaza eyizigidigidi ibulala izingane ezihlwempu," kusho u-a isihloko ukubika ngenkulumo kaPaterson's Cornell evela eMkhandlwini WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto lalikhokha ukuvikela imikhiqizo yayo. 

Isendlalelo sikaMark Lynas

ULynas wabhala izincwadi eziningana ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu (enye yazo yamukelwa yiRoyal Society) ngaphambi kokuba akhange umhlaba wonke "Ukuguqulwa" kusuka kwisishoshovu se-anti-GMO kumgqugquzeli wobuchwepheshe ngenkulumo ekhuthazwa kabanzi yango-2013 e-Oxford ethi abagxekayo babe kuchazwe njengo ukudukisa. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngalowo nyaka uLynas waba ngumuntu eCornell University Office of International Programs eKolishi Lezolimo neLife Sciences, waqala usebenzela iCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso wezokuxhumana owenziwe ngonyaka we-2014 wokukhuthaza ama-GMO nge imali evela eGates Foundation.

Bheka: Kungani iCornell University ibamba umkhankaso we-GMO propaganda?

ULynas wazibiza ngokuthi "ungumqondisi wezepolitiki" weCornell Alliance for Science kwiNew York Times yango-2015 i-op-ed. ICornell Alliance for Science ayichazi ukuthi luyini uhlelo lwayo lwezepolitiki, kepha imiyalezo kanye nezinhloso zeqembu zilandelela eduze uhlelo lwezohwebo lomkhakha wezolimo: ukukhulisa ukwamukelwa kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emhlabeni jikelele, ikakhulukazi e-Afrika.

I-Mysterious Lynas PR push, futhi yavuza imemo ye-EuropaBio

Ukusatshalaliswa okukhulu kwabezindaba ngokuguqulwa kukaLynas 'pro-GMO ngo-2013 kwaphakamisa izinsolo zokuthi umkhankaso we-PR wemboni wawusiza ukumphakamisa ekusithekeni. A idalulwe imemo ka-2011 okuvela enkampanini yePR yomkhakha - echaza ngezinhlelo zokuqasha “amanxusa” asezingeni eliphakeme ukunxenxa ukwamukelwa kweGMO - kwandisa izinsolo zokusekelwa kwezimboni ngoba lo mbhalo uqambe igama elithi Lynas. Uthe iqembu akakaze asondele kuye.

Ngokombiko othile Umbiko Guardian, I-EuropaBio, iqembu lezokuhweba elinamalungu alo afaka phakathi iMonsanto neBayer, lihlele ukuqasha amanxusa e-PR ukusiza abenzi bezinqumo "ukucabanga kabusha ngesimo seYurophu ngezitshalo zeGM." Amanxusa abengeke akhokhelwe ngqo kodwa azothola izindleko zokuhamba kanye "nokuxhaswa kokuxhumana okuzinikele" okuvela embonini yezimali. Isikhulu senkampani i-PR sathi "sinentshisekelo" kuLynas, phakathi kwabanye, endimeni yenxusa. ULynas uphikile ukuthi unokuxhumana nabo. "Angikaze ngicelwe ukuthi ngibe yinxusa, futhi angizokwamukela isicelo esinjalo uma ngicelwa," etshela iGuardian.

IGates Foundation, ama-GMO neMonsanto

IBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, umxhasi oyinhloko weCornell Alliance for Science no $ 12 wezigidi kwizibonelelo, igxekiwe ngamasu ayo oxhaso lokuthuthukisa ezolimo axhasa ama-ajenda ebhizinisi lezolimo. A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 okuvela eqenjini locwaningo IGRAIN ithole ukuthi iGates Foundation ichithe iningi lezimali zayo zokuthuthukisa ezolimo “ukondla abampofu e-Afrika” - cishe ama- $ 3 billion asetshenziswe ngaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi - fundisa ososayensi nabaphenyi emazweni acebile. Le mali isiza nasekuthengeni ithonya lezepolitiki kulo lonke elase-Afrika, kubika i-GRAIN. A Umbiko we-2016 weqembu lokukhuthaza i-Global Justice Now uphethe ngokuthi amasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo eGates Foundation “abhebhethekisa ukungalingani komhlaba wonke futhi agxilisa amandla ezinkampani emhlabeni jikelele.”

IGates Foundation inwebe kakhulu imali yayo yamaphrojekthi wezolimo eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule lapho uRob Horsch, Inhloko yangaphambili kaMonsanto yentuthuko yamazwe omhlaba ijoyine ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kwesisekelo ithimba lobuholi. Incwadi entsha kaLynas ethi “Seeds of Science” ichitha isahluko (“The True History of Monsanto”) izama ukuchaza ezinye zezono zenkampani edlule nokudumisa uRob Horsch isikhathi eside. Sichitha esinye isahluko (“i-Afrika: Bayeke Badle Ummbila Wezingane Oyingqayizivele”) siphikisa ngokuthi abantu base-Afrika badinga imikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo ukuze bazondle.

Ukugxekwa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yekoloniyalizim e-Afrika

  • Imbewu Ye-Neo-Colonialism: Kungani Abagqugquzeli be-GMO Bakuthola Kubi Kangaka Nge-Afrika, isitatimende ngu Umbutho Wobumbano Lokudla e-Afrika, 5/7/2018
  • Ngabe amaGates noRockefeller basebenzisa ithonya labo ukusetha i-ajenda emazweni ampofu?"Ucwaningo lukhomba izisekelo zikaBill noMelinda Gates kanye neRockefeller phakathi kwabanikeli abacebile abasondelene nohulumeni futhi okungenzeka ukuthi bathanda izinto eziseqhulwini," nguJohn Vidal, Tyena Guardian, 1/15/2016
  • Amandla Wentuthuko Nokuthuthuka. Ngubani owenza i-ajenda? nguJens Martens noKarolin Seitz, Umbiko ka-2015 (ikhasi 48).
  • I-Philanthrocapitalism: Izinhlelo ze-Gates Foundation zase-Afrika aziwona usizo, nguPhilip L Bereano, uSolwazi Emeritus e-University of Washington, Ukuvuselelwa Komhlaba Kwesithathu, 2017
  • IBill Gates Isiza KFC Ukuthatha i-Afrika, ngu-Alex Park, Umama Jones, 1/10/2014
  • IGates Foundation's Agenda Agenda e-Afrika 'Olunye Uhlobo Lobukoloniyali,' Kuxwayisa Ababhikishi, nguLauren McCauley, Amaphupho ajwayelekile, 3/23/2015
  • IGates Foundation ihola phambili ekuphangweni kwezolimo e-Afrika, nguColin Todhunter, Isazi Semvelo, 1/21/2016
  • Ngabe iGates Foundation iyisebenzisa kanjani imali yayo ukondla umhlaba?Umbiko wokusanhlamvu, 2014
  • UBill Gates usemkhankasweni wokuthengisa ama-GMO e-Afrika, kepha akalikhulumi lonke iqiniso, nguStacy Malkan, Okunye, 3/24/2016

Kungani iCornell University Ibamba Umkhankaso We-GMO Propaganda?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Lo mbhalo ka-Stacy Malkan wasekuqaleni uvele ku- Isazi sezinto eziphilayo

Abasunguli beCornell University, u-Andrew D. White no-Ezra Cornell, baphupha ngokwakha inyuvesi enkulu ethatha indlela ebucayi yokufunda. Umoya wabo wenguquko, nesithembiso sokuphishekela ulwazi ngokuzuzisa okukhulu, ngu wathi enhliziyweni yesikole i-Ivy League iphupho labo laba.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuthi le mibono isetshenziswa kanjani yiyunithi yaseCornell esebenza njengengalo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yezolimo.

Nokho yilokho okubonakala kuqhubeka eCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), uhlelo umkhankaso ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela ku-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation kanye nomgomo “wokudicilela phansi inkulumo-mpikiswano ekhokhisiwe” mayelana nama-GMO.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezinto zokwenziwa nezinhlelo zeqembu kusikisela ukuthi ngaphansi kwesithembiso salo “sokubuyisa ukubaluleka kobufakazi besayensi ekuthathweni kwezinqumo,” i-CAS ithuthukisa ama-GMO isebenzisa imiyalezo engathembekile namasu we-PR akhiwa izinkampani zezolimo ezinomlando omude wokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi .

Ukuxhumana nesayensi noma inkulumo-ze?

I-CAS umkhankaso wezokuxhumana ozinikele ekukhuthazeni ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo (okwaziwa nangokuthi ama-GMO) emhlabeni jikelele. Lokhu kucaciswa kweqembu ividiyo yephromoshini.

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uchaza iqembu lakhe "njengenhlangano engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana emelwe ososayensi, abalimi, ama-NGO, izintatheli kanye nezakhamizi ezikhathazekile" ezizosebenzisa "amapulatifomu asebenzisanayo e-inthanethi, izinsizakusebenza zemultimedia nezinhlelo zokuqeqesha ezokuxhumana ukwakha inhlangano yomhlaba wonke yokukhuthaza ukufinyelela kwi-biotechnology . ”

Ngale ndlela, bathi bazosiza ekunciphiseni ukungondleki nendlala emazweni asathuthuka, ngokusho kwevidiyo.

UDkt Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe alinakho ukuxhumana nezimboni futhi alitholi izinsiza ezivela embonini. "Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni," ubhale kanje iposi blog enesihloko esithi “Ilungelo Lokwaziwa (Ngokunembile) lapho ebephindisela khona emuva ekugxekeni eqenjini lami, i-US Right to Know.

Noma kunjalo izinhlelo ezihamba phambili ze-CAS - isifundo samasonto ayi-12 se- Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kanye nezinsuku ezimbili izifundo zokuxhumana - fundisa amakhono okuxhumana nabantu "abazibophezele ekukhuthazeni ukufinyelela okwandisiwe kwe-biotechnology" ikakhulukazi ukuze bakwazi "ukuhola imizamo yokukhuthaza ezimeni zabo zendawo."

Leli qembu futhi linokusebenzisana okungajwayelekile nezintatheli. Kusho ukuthini, njengoba ividiyo ye-CAS isho, ukuthi "imelwe" yizintatheli?

Ukunikezwa kwe-CAS ubudlelwane bobuntathelis ngemiklomelo yemali yezintatheli ezikhethiwe ukuze “zithuthukise ukubika okunemibandela ejulile” mayelana nezinkinga eziphathelene nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, ubuchwepheshe be-biotechnology kanye nezolimo ezisimeme.

Ngabe lezi zintatheli nazo zingabameli beGMO? Kulungile kanjani ukuthi izintatheli zimelele izikhundla zenqubomgomo yeqembu elisekela ezolimo nemboni?

Imilayezo yezintshisekelo zebhizinisi

Into eyodwa icacile emyalezweni we-CAS otholakala esidlangalaleni: umongo abawunikeza ngesihloko sokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo awunabunzulu futhi ubanzi kepha ukhetha kakhulu futhi uhlose ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Isibonelo, ividiyo: Egcwele ithemba ngamathuba ama-GMO wokuxazulula indlala emhlabeni ngokuzayo, ayishayi indiva inqwaba yocwaningo lwezesayensi olubhale izinkinga ezihlobene nama-GMO - izitshalo ze-GMO ezibekezelela ukhula kuqhutshwa phezulu ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-herbicide kuxhumene nomdlavuza ngochwepheshe abaphambili bomdlavuza emhlabeni; futhi yashesha ukumelana nokhula ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-US, elenza ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo kube nzima kubalimi, kungabi lula.

Akukho lapho kushiwo khona ukwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ezenzelwe gwema izinambuzane eziyingozi, noma ukukhathazeka okukhulayo kodokotela bamaphethini ngokugula ezindaweni ezinjenge Hawaii futhi Argentina lapho ukuvezwa kusinda kakhulu kumakhemikhali ahambisana nama-GMO.

Akukho ukuqashelwa ukuthi abaningi ososayensi futhi ukudla abaholi bathe ama-GMO awabalulekile ekuphakeleni umhlaba, impikiswano okuyisona sizathu esenza izitshalo ze-GMO zingamukelwa kabanzi ngaphandle kwase-United States naseLatin America.

Zonke lezi zinto zifanele engxoxweni yokuthi amazwe asathuthuka kufanele yini amukele izitshalo nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kepha i-CAS ishiya eceleni le mininingwane futhi ikhulise umbono ongelona iqiniso wokuthi isayensi ixazululwe ekuphepheni nasekudingekeni kwama-GMO.

Ukusabalalisa imininingwane ekhethiwe yohlobo oluchemile noma oludukisayo ukuthuthukisa i-ajenda ethile kwaziwa njengomkhuba wenkulumo-ze.

Ukusebenza encwadini yokudlala ye-PR yomkhakha

 ICornell Alliance for Science bekufanele samanje “Umbono omusha wezokuxhumana kwe-biotechnology,” kepha iqembu lithembele kusethi yemilayezo namasu wokuxhumana ajwayelekile kunoma ngubani olandela imikhankaso ye-PR embonini yamabhizinisi ezolimo.

Umbiko Ukuphalaza ukudla, engibhalile ngokubambisana noKari Hamerschlag no-Anna Lappé, ibhala ukuthi amaqembu axhaswa ngezimboni zezolimo nezimboni asebenzisa kanjani amashumi ezigidi zamaRandi ngonyaka ukukhuthaza imiyalezo edukisayo maqondana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo sezolimo esisebenza ngezimboni, esisebenza ngamakhemikhali, nofuzo.

Izinkampani ezizuza kakhulu kulolu hlelo - iMonsanto, iDow, iDuPont nezinye iziqhwaga zezolimo - ziphambanise kaningi ukuthembela ngokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi, njengoba uGary Ruskin akhombisile embikweni wakhe Ibhizinisi Lokusiza. Ngakho bathembele amaqembu angaphambili futhi ababambisene nabangaphandle njengososayensi noprofesa ukusabalalisa imiyalezo yabo.

Indaba esemqoka embonini ukuthi isayensi yezokuphepha kwe-GMO ixazululiwe. Izithunywa ze-pro-industry zigxila ekusetshenzisweni kobuchwepheshe esikhathini esizayo ngenkathi zilulaza, zinganaki noma ziphika ubungozi; yenza izimangalo ezinganembile mayelana nezinga lesivumelwano sesayensi kuma-GMO; futhi bahlasele abagxeki abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka njenge- "anti-science."

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uMark Lynas, umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS, wabhala i-New York Times i-op-ed esola amazwe ayi-17 e-European Union avimbela ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ze-GMO ngokuthi “kuphendulwa isayensi.” Wababiza ngokuthi “umfelandawonye wabangazi.”

I-athikili inzima ekuhlaselweni nasekukhanyeni kwesayensi, ibhulasha phezu kwesihloko ngesimangalo esingalungile mayelana nokuvumelana kokuphepha okuthi ososayensi abaningi baphikisile.

Njengesazi sezakhi zofuzo uBelinda Martineau, PhD, wabhala ku impendulo kuLynas, "Ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo… (akukhona) ngokwesayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo."

I-World Health Organization uthi, "Akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kwakho konke ukudla okuphathelene ne-GM."

Kodwa-ke, ngenkathi bethi bayimele isayensi, i-CAS ijwayele ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile - nokungajwayelekile - mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Kusuka kweqembu Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa:

  • "Kungenzeka ukuthi ushayiswe yi-asteroid kunokulimazwa ukudla kwe-GE - futhi lokho akulona ihaba."
  • “Izilimo ze-GE ezitholakalela umphakathi njengamanje azinabungozi obukhulu kwezempilo noma ukukhathazeka ngezemvelo kunezinye zazo ezingezona izakhi. Lona akuwona umbono wami. ”

Eqinisweni, kuyinkulumo-ze.

Ukulwa nokuba sobala kwezesayensi

Ngentwasahlobo ka-2014, i-CAS yethule i- isikhalazo ngihlasela iqembu lami lase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngokufaka izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuthola ama-imeyili oprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni njengengxenye yethu uphenyo ezimbonini zokudla nezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yabo ye-PR.

I-CAS ibize i-FOIA ukuthi icele "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi," kepha imibhalo etholwe ngalezi zicelo ze-FOIA iveze izindaba ezindabeni emithonjeni yezindaba ephezulu emayelana nezifundiswa ezazisebenza nezinhlangano zezimboni ze-PR emikhankasweni yokukhuthaza ama-GMO ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho emphakathini.

Indaba yagqashuka ekhasini lokuqala leNew York Times esihlokweni ngu-Eric Lipton owaphumelela kabili umklomelo wePulitzer Prize, owachaza ukuthi iMonsanto, lapho ibhekene nokungaqiniseki kwabathengi ngama-GMO, “ibuyise kabusha isu labo lokunxenxa nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukuze kubonakale iqembu labameli abangavamile: izifundiswa, ezilethwe ekukhanyeni okungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eza nozalo loprofesa. ”

Kokunye, kubika nguLaura Krantz eBoston Globe, isikhulu seMonsanto sitshele uprofesa waseHarvard uCalestous Juma ukuthi abhale iphepha mayelana nokuthi adingeka kanjani ama-GMO ukondla i-Afrika.

“IMonsanto ayigcinanga nje ngokusikisela lesi sihloko kusolwazi uCalestous Juma. Kufike lapho kuze kwanikezwa isifinyezo sokuthi iphepha lingathini kanye nesihloko esiphakanyisiwe. Le nkampani bese ixhuma lo profesa nenkampani yezokumaketha ukuyipompa nge-Internet njengengxenye yecebo likaMonsanto lokunqoba umphakathi nabomthetho, ”kubhala uKrantz.

UJuma uthe akayithathanga mali eMonsanto kodwa uqaphele ukuthi uthole uxhaso kwiGates Foundation, ebibambisene neMonsanto iminyaka eminingi kumaphrojekthi we-GMO ngemuva URob Horsch, Isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto ekuthuthukisweni kwamazwe omhlaba, wajoyina iSisekelo ngo-2006. IHorsch manje kuhola Ithimba lezocwaningo nezentuthuko zikaGates. (A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 yiqembu locwaningo iGrain lithole ukuthi cishe ama-90% ama- $ 3 billion iGates Foundation ayisebenzisile ukondla abampofu e-Afrika waya ezizweni ezicebile, ikakhulukazi amanyuvesi nezikhungo zocwaningo.)

Umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi ngabe izifundiswa ezenza imithombo ezimele zisebenza ngasese nezinkampani kanye namafemu abo e-PR emikhankasweni yemiyalezo ehlanganisiwe ukuze baqhube i-ajenda yenkampani.

I-CAS ithatha isikhundla esicelweni sayo sokuthi umphakathi awunalo ilungelo lokwazi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kwabasebenzi bezimboni ze-PR nososayensi bomphakathi abayi-14 "abafake isandla ekuvumelaneni kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO."

Isicelo sikaCornell sihambisana nemontage yezithombe equkethe uCarl Sagan, Madame Curie, Albert Einstein nabanye ososayensi abangasekho abangasayinisanga isicelo, bagxivizwa ngesiqubulo esithi, “Ngima ne- # Science14” - okuncane okukhangayo kwe-PR okubukisa i inkulumo-ze yokungathembeki kujwayele ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.

Ukuqondanisa nabalobi bezimboni ze-PR

Esikhungweni esihlonishwayo njengoCornell, ungalindela ukuthola ochwepheshe kwizifundo zesayensi noma zokuziphatha ezifundisa izifundo zokuxhumana ezithembisa ukubuyisa ubuqotho besayensi enkulumweni yomphakathi. Esikhundleni salokho, ku-CAS, uzothola ochwepheshe kwezokuxhumana kwezinhlekelele abagxile ekuphikiseni imithetho yezempilo yomphakathi.

Isibonelo, uTrevor Butterworth, umuntu ovakashele eCornell kanye nomqondisi weSense About Science ("inhlangano engathathi hlangothi, engenzi nzuzo ekhuthaza ukuqonda ngesayensi!") ukubambisana nge-CAS ukufundisa abafundi nososayensi ukuthi bangaxhumana kanjani nezintatheli mayelana nama-GMO.

IButterworth inomlando omude wokuxhumana nesayensi ukuze kuhlomule izinkampani ezifisa ukugcina imikhiqizo yazo ingalawulwa. I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ka-2009 esihlokweni nguMeg Kissinger noSusanne Rust mayelana nemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni kwi-bisphenol A (BPA) emkhombe "njengombhali wezobudlelwano embonini yamakhemikhali."

Njengomhleli we-STATS eGeorge Mason University, uButterworth wayengumvikeli omkhulu we-BPA "ohlanganisa njalo i-Intanethi ezindabeni ze-BPA futhi anikeze imibono ngaphandle kokuveza obudlelwano bakhe nezimboni," kubhala uKissinger noRust.

“I-STATS ithi izimele futhi ayithathi hlangothi. Kepha ukubuyekezwa kwemibiko yayo yezezimali kukhombisa ukuthi igatsha leCentre for Media and Public Affairs. Leli qembu lakhokhelwa imboni kagwayi ukuze liqaphe izindaba ezithinta ubungozi bukagwayi. ” (Imboni kagwayi, baphawula ukuthi, yayinxenxa nemboni yamakhemikhali ukugcina i-BPA ingalawulwa.)

IButterworth iphinde yathuthukisa nezikhundla ezimbonini eziphikisana nemithetho ye-vinyl plastic kanye phthalates, ukukhwabanisa, i-fructose ephezulu isiraphu yengqolowa futhi ama-sodas anoshukela.

Manje usebenzisana neCAS ukufundisa abafundi indlela yokuxhumana ngama-GMO, kanti umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS uLynas uhlala ebhodini lezeluleko leSense About Science.

Umsebenzi kaLynas uphakamisa imibuzo eminingi: Kungani iqembu lesayensi lidinga umqondisi wezepolitiki? Futhi kungani iCAS ikhetha uLynas ngendima? ULynas akayena usosayensi kepha ungumbhali wezemvelo owasukuma udumo olungazelelwe ngemuva kokwamukela ama-GMO, futhi isayensi yakhe iye yagxilwa isikhathi eside ngu ososayensi, Izintatheli futhi oprofesa.

Ukwehlisa impikiswano ye-GMO?

Izinkampani zaziwa ngokusabalalisa imiyalezo ethusayo lapho imikhiqizo yazo ingena enkingeni; izibonelo kufaka phakathi i- "DDT ilungele mina," "Odokotela abaningi bayabhema amaKamela" kanye nomkhankaso weDutch Boy wokukhuthaza upende wokuhola ezinganeni.

Iphuzu eliphansi lokuthumela imiyalezo embonini yamakhemikhali bekungokwalo Umkhankaso we-PR ukudweba umbhali “weSilent Spring” uRachel Carson (kanye nezazi zemvelo ngokujwayelekile) njengababulali bezigidi zezingane e-Afrika ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lolo hlobo lwemiyalezo lubuyela emuva empikiswaneni ye-GMO.

NgoSepthemba 2015, i-CAS Speakers Series yabamba u-Owen Paterson, iLungu lePhalamende lase-UK, ngo-a inkulumo enesihloko esithi, “Bheka Ilungelo Lakho Eliluhlaza: Akusona Isimo Sezulu Ukuvumela Izigidi Zife.”

EzikaPaterson inkulumo kwagcwala izimangalo ze-hyperbolic mayelana nama-GMO angenakho ukuqina kwesayensi (ama-GMOs) empeleni iphephe kunezilimo ezijwayelwe ... enye yezintuthuko ezigcina imvelo emhlabeni ingakaze ibonwe… kungasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi ezisaphazwa namuhla yimibono yamaqembu omkhankaso wezemvelo asekelwa kakhulu. ”)

Le nkulumo ithole indumiso evela ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni, ku blog nguDkt. Gil Ross onesihloko esithi, "Imikhankaso Eluhlaza Yezigidigidi Eziyizigidi Ezimbili Ibulala Izingane Ezimpofu."

URoss uchaze kubhulogi ukuthi iCAS Speakers Series yadalwa, “ukusebenzisa amaqiniso ukumelana nokuthambekela okubonakalayo kwabafundi basekolishi ukulandela imantra yezemvelo ngaphandle kokucabanga kakhulu… umqondo wokwesaba ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ufana nokubheka ngaphansi kombhede ngenxa yama-hobgoblins afana no-Godzilla, avuswa ukuhlolwa kwe-athomu kwempi yomshoshaphansi. ”

UPaterson noRoss abasizi ngomfanekiso wobuqotho besayensi i-CAS izama ukuveza lokho. URoss uyisigebengu esilahlwe yicala esachitha isikhathi ejele ngokukhwabanisa kweMedicaid. UPaterson, owayengunobhala wezemvelo e-UK, ubonakala kabanzi njenge- ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kuyabazeka imibono kabani akuhambisani nesayensi.

Ngabe ama-blogger aseHawaii asiza kanjani ukondla abampofu e-Afrika?

 Ngenkathi yokukhula konyaka, iziQhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo ebalulekile yokuhlola ama-GMO. Futhi ayiziro yomhlabathi ye- ukukhathazeka mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane ezihlotshaniswa nama-GMO, kanye nokugxila okuyinhloko kwemikhankaso yenkulumo-ze ye-pro-GMO yomkhakha nabalingani bayo njenge-CAS.

Elif Bealle, umqondisi omkhulu we IHawaii Alliance Yezenzo Eziqhubekayo, ubesebenza emizamweni engaphansi ye ukubikwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, banns futhi izindawo zokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane cishe izitshalo ze-GMO. Ubuye futhi wabheka i-CAS, athe ibilanda ama-blogger endawo futhi inabalingani eziQhingini eziningana.

“Baziveza 'njengezakhamuzi zendawo ezikhathazekile' noma 'njengezintatheli ezingathathi hlangothi.' Cishe basebenza isikhathi esigcwele bephawula ngama-athikili ephephandaba aku-inthanethi, bethumela, i-Community Voice Op-Eds, njll. Okuthunyelwe kwabo kubhulogi kuthathwa njalo kusatshalaliswe yiwebhusayithi yeqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech eHawaii, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association, ”kusho uBealle.

Isibonelo, uJoni Kamiya, i-CAS Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke, usebenzisa blog yakhe, Indodakazi kaMlimi waseHawaii, ukugqugquzela “ukuphepha nesayensi” yama-GMO ngemiyalezo ecwebezela isayensi futhi ehlazisa abagxeki be-GMO.

UKamiya futhi "uchwepheshe ozimele" we-GMO Answers, a GMO PR iwebhusayithi eyenziwe yinkampani yeKetchum PR futhi ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo. Izindatshana zakhe zibhalwe ku KaJon Entine I-Genetic Literacy Project, nayo eyathwetshelwa ukushicilela amaphepha okuphakanyiswa kweGMO anikezwe abakwaMonsanto futhi abhalwa ngosolwazi.

Ukubhalwa kukaKamiya kuvela ekhasini lasekhaya le- IKauai Farming and Jobs Coalition, iqembu elinemali engaziwa elithi "limele abantu kanye nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene emphakathini wethu" futhi lithuthukisa izindatshana zeMonsanto, i-Genetic Literacy Project kanye neminye imboni yokudla amaqembu angaphambili njengesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi.

Abanye ababambisene ne-CAS eziqhingini bahlanganisa uLorie Farrell, a Umlingani we-CAS obhalela izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi wasiza ukuxhumanisa ukuphikisana nokuvinjelwa kokulinywa kwe-GMO esiQhingini Esikhulu sabaFuyi baseHawaii nabaseRanchers United; noJoan Conrow, obonisana nabantu isivumelwano noCornell bese ebhala i- ibhulogi elibhekene IKauai Eclectic.

Imiyalezo yabo ilandela iphethini ejwayelekile: bathi ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO futhi bahlasela abantu abafuna ukubekwa obala nokuphepha njengabantu bangaphandle ababulala "umoya we-Aloha" weziQhingi.

Ukuhlomisa ingxabano

Kuye esihlokweni, "The War on Genetically Modified Food Critics," uTufts uProfesa Timothy Wise uthatha abezindaba abenze iphutha ngokulahla amaqhinga embonini ye-PR futhi ngokungafanele abike isayensi ku-GMO "njengelungisiwe."

"Esikubonayo wumkhankaso ohlangene wokuthi… kupendwe abagxeki be-GMO njengabaphikisana nesayensi ekubeni benganiki ngxoxo ebucayi ngempikiswano yesayensi esathukuthele," kubhala uWise.

Esinye isikhombisi salowo mkhankaso, uthe, kwakuwumnikelo weGates Foundation eya kuCornell ukuze "adicilele phansi" impikiswano ngokudla okuyi-GM.

"IGates Foundation ikhokhela ososayensi nabameli baseCornell ukubasiza bakholwe umphakathi ongenalwazi nongavunyelwe ingqondo, 'okungenzeka ukuthi abanolwazi olwanele,' ukuthi abanalwazi futhi badidekile engqondweni ... Kufana nokudicilela phansi isifuba ngokulwa nohlangothi olulodwa izikhali eziningi, ”kubhala uWise.

Esikhundleni sokuhlomisa izimpi ze-PR ngenhloso yokusebenzela imboni, iCornell University kufanele imele isayensi ngokubiza ingxoxo ethembekile ngama-GMO - evuma ubungozi kanye nezinzuzo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Lowo ogwema ukuhlasela futhi afune indawo esivumelana ngayo namaqembu afuna ukubekwa obala kanye namazinga ezempilo nezokuphepha.

Umqondisi we-CAS uDkt. Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe linamanani afanayo azungeze ilungelo lokwazi nokufinyelela olwazini, futhi uphikisana nombono wokuthi i-CAS yasungulwa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO.

“Lokho okubizwa ngokuthi 'ama-GMOs' akuyona into e-monolithic,” kubhala uDkt. Evanega kuye blog. “Isibonelo, akunangqondo ukuhlanganisa ndawonye ubuchwepheshe obuhlukahlukene njengamabhaktheriya akhiqizelwe ukukhiqiza i-insulin nopopo okwenzelwe ukumelana negciwane. Sisekela ukufinyelela - emisha kanye nolwazi oluzosiza abantu benze izinqumo ezizwakalayo ezisuselwa kwisayensi nobufakazi - hhayi ukwesaba, imizwa. ”

Impela ama-GMO akuyona into e-monolithic. Yingakho kungalungile futhi kungathembeki ukusho ukuthi abantu banamathuba amaningi okushaywa yi-asteroid kunokulimala ngama-GMO.

Ubumbano lwesayensi olumayelana nokubuyisa ubuqotho kwisayensi kufanele lukhanyise irekhodi eliphelele locwaningo, hhayi ukuphalaza amaphuzu okukhuluma amafemu e-PR nabadlali bezinkampani.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabasunguli nomqondisi-co weqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” (New Society Publishing, 2007). UStacy wayeyintatheli futhi engummemezeli wephephandaba futhi esengummeli wesikhathi eside wezempilo yezemvelo. Ubuye wasungula iCampaign for Safe Cosmetics ngo-2002 wasebenza njengomqondisi wezokuxhumana kwi-Health Care Without Harm iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili.