Isithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane: Iqembu Elikhokhelwa yi-Koch Livikela I-Pesticide, Amafutha, Izimboni Zogwayi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

The Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele iyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo leyo abalingani neMonsanto, ivikela amakhemikhali anobuthi ekudleni nasemikhiqizweni yabathengi, futhi iphikisana nemithetho enganciphisa amandla ezinkampani. Ixhaswe kakhulu yizisekelo ezinamaphiko angakwesokudla eziphoqa ukuphika kwesayensi yezulu, IMF kwaqala ngo-1991 njengomzamo wokuvikela manje iNkantolo Ephakeme Yobulungiswa (nowayengummeli waseMonsanto) UClarence Thomas njengoba ayebhekene namacala okuhlukumeza ngokocansi. Ku-2018, iqembu futhi ivikelekile INkantolo Ephakeme iJustice Brett Kavanaugh ngesikhathi ebhekene nezinsolo zokuhlukumeza ngokocansi, futhi uchaze uKavanaugh njengo “Umpetha wabesifazane."

Bona: “Hlangana 'Nabesifazane' Abenza Umsebenzi Ongcolile Wabazalwane baseKoch, ” nguJoan Walsh, The Nation 

With isabelomali cishe ama- $ 2 million ngonyaka, i-Independent Women 's Forum manje ithi isebenzela izinqubomgomo “ezithuthukisa inkululeko.” Izinhlelo zayo zifaka phakathi ukunxenxa nokukhuthaza ukwesulwa kwemikhiqizo enobuthi, nokususa icala ekulimaleni kwezempilo nezemvelo kude nezinhlangano ezingcolisayo kanye nasezibophezelweni zomuntu siqu. Ngo-2017, iqembu i-gala yaminyaka yonke eWashington DC, ebigubha ilungu lebhodi le-IWF uKellyanne Conway njengompetha wabesifazane, ibixhaswe yizinkampani zamakhemikhali nezogwayi.

Funda kabanzi ngaleli gala nabaxhasi balo kuHuffPost, “Ipolitiki Yokungazali Nomdlavuza, ”NguStacy Malkan. 

Ukuxhaswa ngezimali ngamabhiliyoni ezinhlangano nezinkampani

Iningi labanikeli abaziwayo be-Independent Women Forum ngabesilisa, njengoLisa Graves kubikwe iCentre for Media and Democracy. I-IWF ithole ngaphezulu kwe- $ 15 million kusuka ezisekelweni ezinamaphiko angakwesokudla ezikhuthaza ukwehliswa kwemithetho kanye nokuzimela kwenkampani, ngokusho kuka idatha eqoqwe yiGreenpeace USA. Abanikeli abahamba phambili be-IWF, neminikelo engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5, yiDonors Trust kanye neDonors Capital Funds, izimali eziyimfihlo "zemali emnyama" ixhunywe namafutha kawoyela UCharles noDavid Koch. Lezi zimali zixhuma imali evela kubaxhasi abangaziwa, kufaka phakathi izinkampani, ukuze amaqembu avela eceleni alwela intshisekelo yebhizinisi.

Umxhasi ophezulu we-IWF: imali emnyama evela kubaxhasi abangadalulwanga

Izisekelo zomndeni wakwaKoch zinikele ngqo ngaphezu kwe- $ 844,115 kanti abanye abaxhasi abaphezulu bafaka iSarah ISchaife Foundation, lo Isisekelo seBradley, iRandolph Foundation (ihlumela le- Isisekelo seRichardson), Futhi ISearle Freedom Trust - bonke abaxhasi abahola phambili be- ukuphika kwesimo sezulu-nesayensi imizamo nemikhankaso yoku vikela izibulala-zinambuzane futhi uzigcine zingalawulwa. 

I-ExxonMobil futhi UFiliphu Morris futhi baxhase i-IWF, kanye nefemu kagwayi ebizwa nge-IWF ohlwini lwamagama “izinkomba ezivela eceleni"Futhi"labo abahlonipha imibono yethu. ” URush Limbaugh unikele okungenani ngekota yesigidi ku-IWF, okuyi "uyamvikela noma nini lapho engena ocansini lobulili, ”Ngokusho kwendatshana ka-Eli Clifton kuThe Nation.

Abaholi be-IWF

UHeather Richardson Higgins, Sihlalo weBhodi ye-IWF kanye ne-CEO yeZwi Elizimele Labesifazane, ingalo yokubungaza ye-IWF, ubambe izikhundla eziphezulu ezisekelweni eziningi ezinamaphiko okudla, kufaka phakathi IRandolph Foundation, lo USmith Richardson Foundation futhi Ubuhle obuyindilinga.

UKellyanne Conway, Umeluleki weWhite House nowayengumphathi womkhankaso kaTrump, uyi Ilungu lebhodi le-IWF. Abaqondisi I-Emeritae Faka ULynne V. Cheney, unkosikazi kaDick Cheney futhi UKimberly O. Dennis, umongameli webhodi labaqondisi be Abaxhasi Trust nomongameli kanye ne-CEO ye ISearle Freedom Trust.

UNancy M. Pfotenhauer, owayekade eyisishoshovu seKoch Industries, washiya amaKoch Industries ukuba abe umongameli we-IWF ngo-2001 futhi kamuva wasebenza njengeSekela likaSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi be-IWF. Unomlando omude we ukugqugquzela amandla angcolile nokuphokophela ukwehliswa kwemithetho yezimboni ezingcolisayo.

I-ajenda ye-IWF ilandela eduze uhlelo lokunxenxa nokuthumela imiyalezo ngezintshisekelo zemboni kagwayi, uwoyela kanye namakhemikhali. Okulandelayo ezinye zezibonelo:

Iphika isayensi yezulu

A 2019 i-tweet ne-athikili ovela kwi-Independent Women Forum uncoma uMengameli uTrump “ngobuhlakani” ngokungathathi izinyathelo ukunqanda ukuguquka kwesimo sezulu. 

Greenpeace ichaza i-IWF njenge- "Koch Industries Climate Denial Group" lokho “okusakaze ukwaziswa okungelona iqiniso ngesayensi yesimo sezulu futhi kuthinta nomsebenzi wabaphikisi besimo sezulu.” 

UJane Mayer ubike The New Yorker ngo-2010: “Abazalwane (bakaKoch) banikele ngemali emaqenjini angacacile, futhi, njenge-Independent Women Forum, ephikisana nokwethulwa kwesivuvujikelele njengeqiniso lesayensi ezikoleni zomphakathi zaseMelika. Kuze kube ngo-2008, leli qembu laliqhutshwa nguNancy Pfotenhauer, owayekade eyisishoshovu seKoch Industries. UMary Beth Jarvis, iphini likamongameli wenkampani ephethwe yiKoch, usebhodini laleli qembu. ”

Uphikisana nokufundiswa kwesayensi yezulu ezikoleni

The Denver Post yabika ngo-2010 ukuthi i-IWF “icabanga ukuthi ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke '' kuyisayensi engenamsebenzi 'nokuthi ukuyifundisa kusabisa izingane zesikole ngokungadingekile.” Ngomkhankaso obizwa nge- "Balanced Education for Everyone," i-IWF iphikisana nemfundo yesayensi yezulu ezikoleni, lelo qembu kuchazwe njengo "Ukwazisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke okwethusayo."

UMongameli we-IWF uCarrie Lucas ubhala ngakho “ukungabaza okwandayo ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu” futhi uthi “umphakathi ungakhokha kakhulu ngalokhu kuphazamiseka.”

Ozakwethu neMonsanto

Esiphakamisweni sika-Ephreli 21, 2016 esiya kuMonsanto, IWF icele iMonsanto ukuthi inikele ngama- $ 43,300 emicimbini ye- “Super Women of Science” eyenzelwe ukwehlisa ukwesekwa kwezepolitiki kweProposition 65, umthetho waseCalifornia ovimbela izinkampani ukuthi zikhiphe amakhemikhali ayingozi ezindleleni zamanzi futhi zidinga ukuthi zazise abathengi ngokutholakala kwamakhemikhali anobuthi. Imicimbi ehlongozwayo ibiyingxenye yephrojekthi ye-IWF ye- “Culture of Alarmism” eyasungulwa “ukuqeda ukuzwelana nabezindaba ngobungozi abaseMelika ababhekene nabo ngemikhiqizo esiyisebenzisayo, ukudla esikudlayo nemvelo ezungeze imindeni yethu.” 

NgoFebhuwari 2017, uMonsanto wabambisana ne-IWF emcimbini owawunesihloko esithi "Ukudla Nokwesaba: Ungawathola Kanjani Amaqiniso Ngempucuko Yanamuhla Ye-Alarmism," kanye ne I-podcast ye-IWF ngaleyo nyanga kwaxoxwa ngokuthi "I-Monsanto ivuselelwa kanjani yizishoshovu."

I-IWF iphusha amaphuzu okukhuluma eMonsanto kanye nemboni yamakhemikhali: ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ukuhlasela imboni engokwemvelo nomama abakhetha ukudla okuphilayo, nokuphikisana nokusobala kumalebula okudla. Izibonelo zifaka:

  • Umthetho wokulebula weVermont's GMO awubuwula. (Umbheki)
  • Ukufakwa ilebula kwe-Sinister GMO kuzodala ukuthi izindleko zokudla zikhuphuke kakhulu. (IMF)
  • Ukuxokozela kwe-anti-GMO kuyisongo sangempela enhlalakahleni yemindeni. (Buyekeza National)
  • Omama abanengqondo badinga ukubuyisela emuva kumama onamahloni nokuzizwa benecala ngokulandisa kokudla okuphilayo. (I-podcast ye-IWF)
  • Abagxeki be-GMO banonya, bayize, banesikhundla futhi bafuna ukuphika labo abaswele. (New York Post)

Iphrojekthi ye- "Culture of Alarmism", esethiwe kabusha i- "Project for Progress and Innovation," iphethwe nguJulie Gunlock, obhala amabhulogi amaningi aphikisana nokuvikelwa kwezempilo yomphakathi kanye ukuvikela izinkampani. Uchaze “ukwenqaba kwe-FDA ukukhuthaza ama-e-cigarettes” njengo “inkinga yezempilo yomphakathi.

Izimpikiswano 'zikaPhilips Morris PR'

Ngo-Agasti 2017, IWF kubanjwe i-FDA ukwamukela uPhilip Morris ' Ugwayi we-IQOS, bethi abesifazane badinga le mikhiqizo ngezizathu ezahlukahlukene zebhayoloji ukubasiza bayeke ukubhema ugwayi ojwayelekile.

“Kusobala ukuthi i-FDA ayihlosile ukujezisa abantu besifazane, ngenxa yobulili babo. Kodwa-ke, yilokho kanye okuzokwenzeka uma abesifazane bekhawulelwa ekubhemeni imikhiqizo yokuyeka leyo ngokwemvelo engakwazi ukubanikeza usizo abaludingayo lokuyeka ugwayi wendabuko, ”kubhala i-IWF.

Ephendula incwadi ye-IWF, uStanton Glantz, PhD, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-UCSF Centre for Tobacco Control Research and Education, uthe: “Leli yi-standard Philip Morris PR. Asikho isiqinisekiso esizimele sokuthi i-IQOS iphephe njengogwayi noma ukuthi isiza abantu bayeke ukubhema. ”

Ompetha “inkululeko yokudla” esebenzisana nezinhlangano

I-IWF ihlasela i-US Food and Drug Administration “njengonondindwa bakahulumeni,” ngokwesibonelo ichaza i-ejensi njenge “ukudla amaMarx"Futhi"kungalawuleki ngokuphelele”Yokukhipha ukuholwa ngokuzithandela kubakhiqizi bokudla ukusika amazinga e-sodium.

Umcimbi wangoJuni 2017 we-IWF uzame ukudambisa ukwesaba ngokuqondiswa kwezempilo yomphakathi

Ngo-2012, i-IWF yethule “Abesifazane Ngenkululeko YokudlaIphrojekthi "yokubuyisela emuva esimweni somzanyana futhi ikhuthaze ukuzibophezela komuntu siqu" kokukhetha ukudla. I-ajenda ibibandakanya "nemithetho yokudla, isoda kanye nentela yokudla okulula, isayensi engenamsoco nokudla kanye nokwethuka kwemikhiqizo yasekhaya, imininingwane engeyona mayelana nokukhuluphala nendlala, nezinye izinhlelo zokudla zikahulumeni, kubandakanya nezidlo zasemini zesikole."

Ngokukhuluphala ngokweqile, i-IWF izama ukususa ukunakwa ekuziphenduleni kwezinkampani nasezinkingeni zomuntu siqu. Kulokhu ingxoxo noT Thom Hartmann, UJulie Gunlock we-IWF uthi izinkampani akumele zisolwe ngenkinga yokukhuluphala yaseMelika kepha kunalokho “abantu benza izinqumo ezimbi futhi ngicabanga ukuthi abazali bayazihlola ngokuphelele.” Isixazululo, uthe, ukuthi abazali bapheke kakhulu, ikakhulukazi abazali abahlwempu kwazise banenkinga enkulu yokukhuluphala.

Ihlasela omama ngokuzama ukunciphisa ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane

I-IWF iphusha imiyalezo ngemboni, isebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha, ukuzama ukukhipha omama abakhathazekile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane; isibonelo esivelele yile New York Post ka-2014 esihlokweni, "Ubushiqela be-Organic Mommy Mafia" kaNaomi Schafer Riley. Ngaphansi kwengubo yokukhononda mayelana "nokuhlazeka komama," uRiley - ngubani Umuntu we-IWF kepha akazange akudalule lokho kubafundi - imizamo yokuhlazeka nokusola omama abakhetha ukudla okuphilayo. I-athikili kaRiley itholwe ngokuphelele ngamaqembu angaphambili embonini kanye nemithombo ayethule ngamanga njengezimele, kubandakanya Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto; the I-Alliance for Food and Farming kanye noJulie Gunlock we “I-Culture of Alarmism Project” ye-IWF, naye ongazange akhonjwe kule ndatshana njengomsebenzi we-IWF. Ukuthola okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona i- "Ukuhlaselwa kwe-Organic: Ukuziba isayensi ukwenza icala lokulima ngamakhemikhali”(I-FAIR, 2014).

Ozakwethu abanamaqembu angaphambili embonini yamakhemikhali

IWF ibambisana namanye amaqembu angaphambili ezinkampani njenge Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, umvikeli oholayo wamakhemikhali anobuthi obelokhu ekhona ixhaswe nguMonsanto futhi Syngenta, kanye nezinye amakhemikhali, okwelapha kanye nogwayi izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni.

Ukuze uqhubeke nokufunda

I-Intercept, ”AbakwaKoch Brothers Operatives Fill Top White House Positions,” nguLee Fang (4/4/2017)

The Nation, "Hlangana 'Nabesifazane' Abenza Umsebenzi Ongcolile Wabazalwane bakaKoch,” kaJoan Walsh (8/18/2016)

Isikhungo Sezindaba Nentando yeningi, "Abanikeli Abaziwa Kakhulu Benhlangano Ezimele Yabesifazane ngabesilisa," nguLisa Graves (8/24/2016)

Isikhungo Sezindaba Nentando yeningi, "Isiqinisekiso: Isithangami Sabesifazane Abangazimele Sazalelwa Ekuvikeleni uClarence Thomas kanye neFight Right," nguLisa Graves noCalvin Sloan (4/21/2016)

Slate, “Isiqiniseko Sokukhetha: Kwenzeka kanjani ukuthi 'Abesifazane beJaji uThomas' baphenduke amandla amakhulu,” nguBarbara Spindel (4/7/2016)

Iqiniso, "Iforamu Yabesifazane Ezimele Isebenzisa Uphawu Lokudukisa Ukududula I-Ajenda Yephiko Lakwesokudla," kaLisa Graves, uCalvin Sloan noKim Haddow (8/19/2016)

Ngaphakathi Ubuhle,"Imali Eseqenjini Lamaqembu Abesifazane Abalondolozayo Isalwela Impi Yamasiko," nguPhilip Rojc (9/13/2016)

The Nation, ”Qagela ukuthi Yiliphi Iqembu Labesifazane Rush Limbaugh elinikele ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaDola ku? Ukusikisela: iyona evikela yena noma nini lapho engena emsakazweni wobulili, ”ngu-Eli Clifton (6/12/2014)

The New Yorker, ”The Koch Brothers Covert Operations,” kaJane Mayer (8/30/2010)

I-Oxford University Press, "Righting Feminism: Conservative Women and American Politics," nguRonnee Schreiber (2008)

Ngaphakathi Ubuhle, ”Bheka Ubani Oxhasa Leli qembu Eliphezulu Labafazi Abalondolozayo,” nguJoan Shipps (11/26/2014)

Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni, “Abesifazane Abasadla ngoludala ba-Right for Media Mainstream; Abezindaba Ekugcineni Sebethole Abanye Besifazane Ukuba Babathande, ”nguLaura Flanders (3/1/1996)

ithunyelwe ekuqaleni ngo-Okthoba 6, 2018 futhi yavuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

Ikusasa Lezidingo Zokudla Ukucaca Nobuqotho

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Ibhizinisi Labatshalizimali Nsuku Zonke.

NguStacy Malkan noCarey Gillam

"Izinkampani zokudla azikwazi ukuthola ukuthi yini abantu baseMelika abafuna ukuyidla," ngokusho kukaJuni Indatshana yeWall Street Journal.

Abaphathi bemboni yezokudla “bashesha ukuphuma,” Kubike iWSJ ngo-Okthoba, nendawo yokwamukela izivakashi yokudla “iyaqhekeka,” Kuchaza uPolitico, njengoba izinkampani zokudla zingavumelani ngokuthi zingaphendula kanjani ekushintsheni kokuthandwa ngabathengi.

Kepha akuyona imfihlakalo abantu baseMelika abafuna ukuyidla - noma kungani imboni yokudla inzima.

Abathengi bafuna ukudla okungenayo imibala yokufakelwa, ukunambitheka okungamanga, izibulala-zinambuzane, izivimbelo, ama-hormone okukhula, ama-antibiotic nama-GMO, njengoba fortune lo magazini wabika ngo-2015 - lezi zitayela eholwa izinkulungwane zeminyaka baqhuba “inguquko eyizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 18 yokudla.”

Kepha kunokuba banikeze okufunwa ngamakhasimende, abanye abadlali bemboni yokudla balwela ukudida kunokuhambisana nezimfuno zemakethe.

Phakathi kwamaqhinga asebhokisini lamathuluzi, basebenzisa amaqembu angaphambili nezifundiswa ezinobungane ukusunduza inkulumo-ze yokuqhakambisa imikhiqizo yabo, nokujivaza labo abamele imininingwane ethembekile.

Isibonelo esisodwa sakamuva nesicacile sivele lapha kwiBusiness Daily yabatshalizimali, ezihlokweni ezimbili zemibono ezibhalwe nguHenry I. Miller, ozakwabo waseHoover Institution. Ukuqala kabusha kukaMiller kumenza abonakale enegunya futhi ehlaba umxhwele - othile abathengi abangamethemba.

Kepha ekusebenziseni isithangami se-IBD ukujikijela iqembu elincane elingenzi nzuzo esilisebenzelayo, i-US Right to Know, uveze ukwethembeka kwakhe kwizintshisekelo ezithile zemboni ezifuna ukugcina abathengi besebumnyameni.

Inhlangano yethu ikhuthaza iqiniso nokusobala ohlelweni lokudla. Sichitha isikhathi sethu esiningi sifaka izicelo zemininingwane nemibhalo evela ezinhlanganweni zombuso nezikahulumeni kanye nezikhungo ukuze sabelane nabathengi ngezindaba zenqubomgomo yokudla.

UMiller uye waziwa kahle ngokubeka isayensi nempilo yomphakathi endaweni yesibili kwezintshisekelo zebhizinisi. Wayebhalwe ohlwini lwe- Imemo ka-1994 “njengomsekeli obalulekile” womkhankaso kaPhilip Morris wokulwa nemithetho kagwayi.

Wabizwa futhi ku-an idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeNkampani yeMonsanto njengomthombo ongasiza ekuhlambalazeni iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation ngemuva kokuthi imemezele ukuthi i-herbicide eyisihluthulelo yeMonsanto iyi-carcinogen yabantu “okungenzeka”. Lowo mbulali wokhula, i-glyphosate, usetshenziswa kabanzi emhlabeni jikelele ekukhiqizweni kokudla kwezolimo.

Uhlelo lweMonsanto lokuvikela umbulali walo wokhula bekungeke lucace bha: "Zibandakanya noHenry Miller" kusho. Imibhalo ibikwe I-New York Times uveze ukuthi udaba oluthunyelwe nguMiller eForbes egxeka iphaneli lomdlavuza "ngokuyinhloko lufanekisela" uhlaka olunikezwe yisikhulu seMonsanto. IForbes yabunqamula ubudlelwano bayo noMiller ngenxa yalokho futhi ususe zonke izindatshana zakhe kusuka kusayithi.

Isinyathelo sikaMiller manje sokuhlazisa i-US Right to Know sibonakala siqhutshwa yizimboni ezifanayo ezamholela ekutheni azame ukudicilela phansi iqembu lesayensi yomdlavuza lomhlaba jikelele. Enganikezi bufakazi, wathi i-US Right to Know ngandlela thile ihlangana nohulumeni waseRussia.

Iziphambeko zokunyundela ziyindida, kubhekwa ukuthi inkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iqinile kuqashiwe ngemboni yezolimo ukusindisa isithunzi semikhiqizo yabo ese-GMO nemikhiqizo yokubulala izinambuzane kwakunguKetchum - inkampani kwaphoqa izintshisekelo zaseRussia eMelika iminyaka eyishumi kuze kube yi-2015.

Ngakho-ke kungani izintshisekelo ezithile zomkhakha wokudla ezihlanganayo zingafuna noma zidinge indoda yangaphambili ukuze ihlasele inzuzo yethu encane? Impendulo ilula: Uphenyo yi-US Right to Know ithole imibhalo efihliwe - iningi layo selithunyelwe ku- Ingobo yomlando Yemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF - lokho sekuqubule uphenyo oluningi lwabezindaba emisebenzini yokunxenxa nokusabalalisa inkulumo yezimboni zokudla nezolimo.

Kudicilelwe izindatshana mayelana namasu embonini yokudla eyimfihlo yokudukisa abathengi, abenzi bomthetho kanye nabatshalizimali New York Times, BMJ, i-Guardian, Okwezwe, Bloomberg, Boston Globe, CBC, omagazini bezempilo yomphakathi nezinye izindawo eziningi.

PR amaShenanigans

Kanye noMiller, uMonsanto wathinta ezinye eziningi "Abalingani bemboni" ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abebexwayisa ngemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kufaka phakathi i-Genetic Literacy Project, Grocery Manufacturers Association namanye amaqembu akhokhelwa izimboni zokudla.

Lezi yizinhlobo zobudlelwano bomphakathi ama-shenanigans okufanele imikhiqizo yokudla ikugweme uma benethemba lokuzuza abathengi.

Kwirekhodi, asinabo ubudlelwano nakancane neRussia. Siyiqembu elibheka imboni yezokudla. Sihlola ukuthi izimboni zokudla nezamakhemikhali ezolimo zisebenza kanjani ekusithekeni ukuthonya abenzi bomthetho, abalawuli, izifundiswa nabanye. Futhi sabelana ngalolo lwazi nomphakathi.

Iqiniso nokubekwa obala kuyimibono esabekayo yezinhloso ezithile zebhizinisi, ukuze uqiniseke. Kepha laba badlali bezinkampani kanye nabatshalizimali babo bangaba ukuhlakanipha ukulalela, futhi babonge, amakhasimende afuna izimemezelo zokukhangisa ezithembekile nolwazi oluvulekile mayelana nobungozi kanye nemivuzo eza nohlelo lokudla kwanamuhla.

Imibhalo kaDkt.Henry I. Miller okukhulunywe ngayo lapha ingatholakala ku:

I-Russia Yimbi Kakhulu Kunokungenela Okhethweni Lwethu - Iphazamisa Esayensi Yethu, Ingxenye I

I-Russia Yimbi Kakhulu Kunokungenela Okhethweni Lwethu - Iphazamisa Esayensi Yethu: Ingxenye II

Le ndaba ekuqaleni yabonakala Ibhizinisi Labatshalizimali Nsuku Zonke.

ISayensi Media Center Ithuthukisa Ukubukwa Kwebhizinisi Lwesayensi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IScience Media Center (SMC) iyinhlangano ye-PR engenzi nzuzo eqale e-UK ethola indawo yayo enkulu kakhulu ye- imali evela embonini amaqembu. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iBayer, iDuPont, iMonsanto, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye namaqembu ezindaba, izinhlaka zikahulumeni, izisekelo namanyuvesi. Imodeli ye-SMC isakazeka emhlabeni wonke futhi ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwemithombo yezindaba ngesayensi, kwesinye isikhathi ngezindlela ezehlisa ubungozi bemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Leli phepha lichaza umlando we-SMC, ifilosofi, imodeli yezimali, amaqhinga nemibiko evela kubagxeki abathi i-SMC inikeza imibono yezesayensi yezimboni, isimilo i-SMC esiyiphikayo.

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Amaqiniso asemqoka

I-Science Media Centre yethulwa ngo-2002 iphendula “imisindvo yabezindaba mayelana neMMR, izitshalo zeGM kanye nocwaningo lwezilwane” ukusiza abezindaba bamele kangcono isayensi enkulu, ngokusho kwe iphepha lamaqiniso leqembu.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko wokusungulaIScience Media Center ichaza ukuthi yadalelwa ukubhekana kanjani:

  • “inkinga yenkinga” ekhulayo emibonweni yomphakathi ngesayensi
  • ukuwa kwenhlonipho ngegunya nobungoti
  • umphakathi onganaki ubungozi nokusakazwa kwabezindaba okwethusayo futhi
  • “amasu abezindaba abonakala sengathi aphakeme kakhulu” asetshenziswa ama-NGO ezemvelo njengeGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth.

Ama-SMC azimele abelana nge umqulu ofanayo njengoba okwangempela manje kusebenza eCanada, e-Australia, eNew Zealand, eJalimane naseJapane, futhi ama-SMC ahlelwa eBrussels nase I-united states.

Imodeli yeSMC ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngesayensi. A ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba yamaphephandaba ase-UK ngo-2011 nango-2012 athola ukuthi iningi lezintatheli elisebenzisa izinsizakalo ze-SMC alifunanga imibono eyengeziwe ngezindaba zabo. Leli qembu futhi linethonya kwezepolitiki. Ngonyaka we-2007, iSMC yamisa ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwemibungu ehlanganisa abantu / yezilwane ngomkhankaso wayo wezindaba wokushintsha ukusabalala kokukhathazeka kokuziphatha kuye ezinzuzweni zemibungu njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho kwe ku-Nature.

Izifundiswa eziningana nabaphenyi bagxeke iSMC ngokuxosha imibono yenkampani yesayensi, nangokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo nobempilo babantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Imibiko ibhale ukuthambekela kwe-SMC yokuphusha imiyalezo ye-pro-industry futhi ngaphandle kwemibono ephikisanayo ngezihloko ezinjenge ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi I-GMO.

Ku-imeyili, uMqondisi weSMC uFiona Fox uthe iqembu lakhe alihambisani nomkhakha wezimboni: “Silalela ngokucophelela noma yikuphi ukugxekwa kweSMC emphakathini wezesayensi noma ezintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK kodwa asikutholi ukugxekwa ngokuchema komkhakha wezimboni kusuka kulaba ababambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokuchema kwemboni yezimboni futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi labezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba ezingundabuzekwayo zesayensi sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile. ”

Izingcaphuno mayelana neSayensi Media Center

Izintatheli nabaphenyi ngethonya nobandlululo lweSayensi Media Center (ukugcizelelwa kufakwe kuzingcaphuno ezingezansi):

  • “Izikhungo zeSayensi Media ... seziphenduke abadlali abanethonya, kepha abanempikiswano emhlabeni wobuntatheli. Yize ezinye izintatheli zikuthola kuwusizo, ezinye zikholelwa ukuthi zithambekele kososayensi bakahulumeni nezimboni. ” Ukubuyekezwa kobuntatheli beColumbia
  • “Kuya ngokuthi ubuza kubani, (Umqondisi weSMC) UFiona Fox usindisa ubuntatheli besayensi noma ayibhubhise," U-Ewen Callway, Nature
  • “Ukwehla kwesibalo sezintatheli zesayensi zase-UK ezicindezeleke isikhathi asisayi emkhakheni wemba izindaba. Baya emihlanganweni ehlelwe kusengaphambili e-SMC… The ikhwalithi yokubika kwesayensi kanye nokwethembeka kolwazi olutholakala emphakathini konke lokhu kuhlupheke, kuhlanekezela ikhono lomphakathi lokwenza izinqumo ngengozi. ” UConnie St. Louis, iCity College yaseLondon, eCJR
  • “Inkinga akukhona ukuthi bathuthukisa isayensi, njengoba besho ukuthi benza, kodwa ukuthi bona khuthaza isayensi esebenza ngokuhlanganyela. " UDavid Miller, University of Bath, eSciDev
  • "Kulabo abangaphuphuthekiswanga yi-aura ekhangayo ye-SMC, kubonakala sengathi inhloso yayo ecashile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izintatheli nabezindaba babika izindaba zesayensi nezokwelapha kuphela ngendlela yokuthi kuvumelana 'nenqubomgomo' kahulumeni nezimboni ezindabeni okukhulunywa ngazo. " UMalcolm Hooper, iYunivesithi yaseSunderland, iphepha leCFS / ME
  • “Kuyabonakala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezihlangene ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK ukuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe beBiotec kanye nezokuxhumana ngocingo. ” Iphepha likaDon Maisch kumaselula
  • "The Indima ye-SMC ibonakala ifaka umbono omncane of, ezimweni eziningi imibono emihle, yokuphepha kokuthwebula ama-fracking. ” UPaul Mobbs, Uphenyo Lwezemvelo lweMobbs
  • “Isikhungo sesayensi, esihlala singaziphethe kahle ngokwezepolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu inethiwekhi yezombangazwe eyinqaba neyenkolo. " UGeorge Monbiot, The Guardian

Uxhaso Lwamabhizinisi LweScience Media Center

Isabelo esikhulu sezimali se-SMC, cishe ama-30%, sivela ezinkampanini nakumaqembu ezohwebo. Abaxhasi kusukela ngo-Agasti 2016 kufaka phakathi inqwaba yamakhemikhali, i-biotechnology, inuzi, ukudla, ezokwelapha, ezokuxhumana kanye nezimboni zezimonyo. Abaxhasi bezimboni zezolimo bahlanganisa iBayer, iDuPont, iBASF, iCropLife International, iBioIndustry Association kanye neChemical Industries Association. Abaxhasi bangaphambilini zifake iMonsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola neKraft. I-SMC nayo ithola uxhaso oluvela ezinhlakeni eziningi zezindaba, uhulumeni kanye nezifundiswa.

SMC kusho yona inikela ngeminikelo evela kunkampani eyodwa noma isikhungo kuya ku-5% wemali engenayo yonyaka ngemizamo “yokuvikela ethonyeni elingalungile” - kukhishwa imali engaphandle yeminikelo emikhulu evela ku-Wellcome Trust nakuhulumeni wase-UK Umnyango Webhizinisi, Amandla Nezimboni Isu.

Umlando We-SMC: “UMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani”

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990, ubudlelwano phakathi kwesayensi nabezindaba base busezingeni elichachambile, kuchaza iSMC ividiyo yephromoshini. "Ngesikhathi sokutshalwa kweBSE, MMR, GM, kwakukhona umqondo wangempela ngaleli gebe phakathi kososayensi nabezindaba," kusho uFox kule vidiyo. I-SMC yadalelwa “ukusiza ukuvuselela ukwethembana komphakathi kwezesayensi ngokusebenzela ukukhuthaza ukumbozwa okulinganiselayo, okunembile futhi okunengqondo kwezindaba eziyimpikiswano zesayensi,” ngokusho kwayo umbiko wokubonisana.

Imibhalo eyisisekelo ye-SMC ifaka:

  • February 2000 Umbiko wekomidi leNdlu YeNkosi ichaza “inhlekelele yokwethembana” ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi nesayensi, futhi yancoma uhlelo olusha lwesayensi nabezindaba.
  • Septhemba 2000 “Indlela Yokuziphatha / Imihlahlandlela Yezokuxhumana Kwezesayensi Nempilo, ”YiRoyal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) incoma imihlahlandlela yezintatheli nososayensi ukuze kuliwe“ nomthelela omubi walokho okubhekwa 'njengezindaba ezesabisayo' ezingenasisekelo kanye nalezo ezinikeza amathemba angamanga kulabo abagula kakhulu. ”
  • 2002 Umbiko Wokubonisana we-SMC ichaza inqubo yenhlolokhono nababambiqhaza abavela kuhulumeni, izimboni kanye nabezindaba abatshele ukuthi iSMC "izoyithatha kanjani i-gauntlet ephonswe phansi yiNkosi… yokuguqula isayensi ibe yizindaba eziphambili."

Umzamo weSMC waba nempikiswano ngokushesha. Umbhali uTom Wakeford wabikezela ngo-2001 ukuthi iSMC izoba “uMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani lapho ababusi abaqanjiwe bakaGeorge Orwell bazoziqhenya ngabo.” Wabhala uMgcini, "Abantu abaphezulu kuHulumeni, iRoyal Society kanye neRoyal Institution bathathe isinqumo sokuthi ulwazi lwabo lomnotho olubaluleke kakhulu ludinga ukuthi kuncishiswe ukukhuluma ngokukhululeka." Uchaze i-Code of Practice: “Lo Mthetho uncoma ukuthi izintatheli zibonisane nochwepheshe abagunyaziwe, incwadi eyimfihlo okufanele inikezwe 'izintatheli ezibhalisiwe ezinemininingwane eqondile.'”

Iphrojekthi yokuqala ye-SMC - umzamo wokudicilela phansi ifilimu eqanjiwe le-BBC eliveza izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngendlela engathandeki - liphakamise uchungechunge lwezihloko ezibucayi kwi-Guardian (umhleli we-Guardian wabhala nayo le filimu). Lezi zihloko zichaze iSMC njenge- “iqembu lokwamukela izivakashi zesayensi exhaswa izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi namakhemikhali ”ebisebenza “Uhlobo lweyunithi yokuphika esheshayo yaseMandelsoni”Futhi ngisebenzisa“ ezinye amasu we-clumsiest spin weNew Labor ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi (ifilimu) kusengaphambili. ”

UDick Taverne noSense Mayelana neSayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi - umzamo wokucela ukwakhiwa kabusha kwemibono yesayensi - eyethulwa e-UK ngonyaka we-2002 kanye ne-SMC ngaphansi kobuholi buka-Lord Dick Taverne nabanye abanobudlelwano ne-SMC. U-Lord Taverne wayeyi-SMC Ilungu leBhodi Elilulekayo futhi yena kudalwe ngokubambisana ikhodi yokusebenza ye-SIRC.

Indaba ka-2016 ku-The Intercept nguLiza Gross uchaze i-Sense About Science nabaholi bayo “njengabaqaphi abazimele 'besayensi yomsindo'” abathi “balinganise izikali embonini.” UGross uchaze izibopho zomkhakha kagwayi zikaTaverne kanye nemizamo ye-PR yenkampani:

Ngokwamaphepha angaphakathi akhishwe ngamacala ngabakhiqizi bakagwayi, inkampani yababonisi bakaTaverne, iPRIMA Europe, isize iBritish American Tobacco ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwane nabatshalizimali bayo futhi shaya imithetho yaseYurophu ngogwayi ngawo-1990. UTaverne uqobo usebenze kuphrojekthi yabatshalizimali: Ku- imemo engenalo usuku, U-PRIMA uqinisekise inkampani kagwayi ukuthi "umsebenzi uzokwenziwa mathupha nguDick Taverne," ngoba ubekwazi ukubuza abaholi bezimboni futhi "uzofuna ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izidingo zomkhakha zibaluleke kakhulu ezingqondweni zabantu." Phakathi neminyaka eyishumi efanayo, uTaverne wayehleli ebhodini legatsha laseBrithani lenkampani yezokuxhumana yomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller, eyabiza uPhilip Morris njengekhasimende. Umqondo weqembu “lesayensi elizwakalayo”, elenziwe ngoxhaxha lososayensi ababezokhuluma bephikisana nemithethonqubo abantu bezimboni ababengenakho ukwethembeka ukuyiphikisa, kwakuyinkulumo uBurson-Marsteller ayenza kuPhilip Morris ku Imemorandamu yonyaka we-1994.

Phakathi kwamaphrojekthi ayo okuqala, iSense About Science ihlele incwadi evela ku- 114 ososayensi ukunxenxa uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuba "aphikisane nezimangalo ezingamanga" mayelana nama-GMO, futhi wenza inhlolovo ukugqamisa inkinga yokucekelwa phansi kwesivuno seGMO.

I-Sense About Science USA ivulwe ngo-2014 ngaphansi kobuholi besikhathi eside umlingani wemboni yamakhemikhali uTrevor Butterworth, kanye nabalingani be-Gates exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science, a Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO.

Imisuka YamaKhomanisi Yezinguquko

Abaqondisi abasungula nabamanje beScience Media Center kanye neSense About Science - Umqondisi weSMC UFiona Fox kanye noMqondisi we-SAS UTracey Brown - nabanye ababandakanyeka nalawo maqembu, kubikwa ukuthi baxhunywe ngeRevolutionary Communist Party, iqembu leTrotskyist splinter elalihlelwe ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1970 ngaphansi kobuholi besazi sezenhlalo UFrank Ferudi, ngokusho kwababhali UGeorge Monbiot, UJonathan Matthews, UZac Goldsmith futhi UDon Maisch.

Iqembu likaFerudi elihlukanise i-RCP lahlangana Ukuphila kweMarxism, Umagazini we-LM, I-Spiked Magazine futhi Isikhungo Semibono, owamukela ubungxiwankulu, ukuzimela futhi wakhuthaza umbono wezobuchwepheshe nokudelela abezemvelo, ngokusho kukaMonbiot. (UFerudi kuphendula kule ngcezu.) A Isihloko se-Guardian mayelana nomcimbi we-LM ngo-1999 uchaze inethiwekhi "njengempendulo ebhekiswe Kwesobunxele" (ngamazwi kaFuredi) enombono womhlaba wokuthi ukucabanga kwesokunxele "akuyona into yezepolitiki" futhi "ayikho enye indlela emakethe."

"Enye yezinto ezixakile kwezepolitiki yanamuhla wukubusa kwababengamaphiko kwesobunxele asebephendukele kwesokudla," kubhala uMonbiot ku Isihloko se-2003 Kuchazwa ubudlelwano phakathi kweSense About Science kanye neScience Media Center, abantu ababambe iqhaza kuleyo mizamo kanye nezixhumanisi zenethiwekhi ye-LM:

“Ngabe konke lokhu kwenzeke ngengozi? Angicabangi kanjalo. Kepha akulula ukuqonda ukuthi kungani kwenzeka. Ngabe sibheke iqembu elifuna amandla ngenxa yalo, noma elilandela ukwakheka kwezepolitiki, okuyisinyathelo esiphakathi kwalo? Engingakusho ukuthi isikhungo sezesayensi, esihlala singenapolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu oxhumano lwezepolitiki oluyinqaba nolwehlukile. Esikhundleni sokwakha kabusha ukuthembela komphakathi kwezesayensi nakwezokwelapha, ifilosofi yaleli qembu enyanyekayo ekugcineni ingayiqeda. ”

amaqhinga

I-SMC e-UK ithi inakho i-database enezingcweti ezingama-2700 kanye nezikhulu ezingaphezu kwezingu-1200 zabezindaba, kanye nohlu lwamakheli olunezintatheli ezingaphezu kwezingama-300 ezimele yonke imibhalo emikhulu yase-UK. I-SMC isebenzisa amaqhinga amathathu amakhulu ukuthonya ukusabalala kwesayensi, ngokusho kwayo ividiyo yephromoshini:

  1. Impendulo esheshayo ezindabeni eziqhamuka nezingcaphuno zemibono: Lapho kuvela indaba yesayensi, “kungakapheli nemizuzu emingaki kukhona ama-imeyili e-SMC emabhokisini okungenayo awo wonke intatheli kazwelonke enikeza ochwepheshe,” kusho uFox.
  2. Ukuthola izintatheli kuqala ngocwaningo olusha. I-SMC "inelungelo lokufinyelela kumajenali esayensi angaba ngu-10-15 ngaphambi kokuphakanyiswa kwama-embargo" ukuze bakwazi ukulungiselela ukuphawula kusengaphambili kochwepheshe bezinkampani zangaphandle okukhombisa ukuthi izifundo ezintsha ziyakudinga ukunakekelwa nokuthi kufanele zihlelwe kanjani.
  3. Ukuhlela cishe i-100 press ngamafuphi unyaka "owabeka i-ajenda" ngokusobala ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene zesayensi ezinempikiswano ezifana nodoti wenuzi, i-biotechnology kanye nezifo ezisafufusa.

Izibonelo zethonya nokuchema

Abaphenyi abaningana kanye nezifundiswa babike ukuthi bathi ukwenzelela kwe-SMC okuxhasa izimboni ngezihloko ezinempikiswano, kanye nokuthi izintatheli zithembele kangakanani emibonweni yochwepheshe be-SMC ukuhlela izindaba zesayensi.

Ukungabi nemibono ehlukahlukene

Uprofesa wobuntatheli uConnie St. Louis waseCity University, eLondon, uhlole umthelela weSMC ekubikeni kwesayensi emaphephandabeni kazwelonke ayi-12 ngo-2011 nango-2012, futhi wathola:

  • Ama-60% ama-athikili abika izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
  • Ama-54% okuphendula "kochwepheshe" anikezwe yi-SMC ekuqhamukeni kwezindaba ngalesi sikhathi esihlanganisiwe bekusezindabeni
    • Kulezi zindaba, ama-23% awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
    • Kulabo abakwenzile, kuphela ama-32% wemithombo yangaphandle enikeze umbono ophikisayo kulokho okunikezwa ngungoti ekuphenduleni kwe-SMC.

"Kunezintatheli eziningi kunokuba kufanele ngabe zisebenzisa kuphela ochwepheshe be-SMC hhayi ukuxhumana nemithombo ezimele," kuphetha uSt.

Ochwepheshe akubona njalo ososayensi

UDavid Miller, uprofesa wesayensi yezenhlalo evela e-University of Bath, e-UK, uhlaziye okuqukethwe kwe-SMC kuwebhusayithi kanye nezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act, futhi wabika:

  • Abanye ochwepheshe be-SMC abangama-20 kwabangu-100 abacashunwe kakhulu kwakungebona ososayensi, njengoba kuchazwa ngokuba ne-PhD nokusebenza esikhungweni sokucwaninga noma emphakathini ophakeme kakhulu, kepha babengama-lobbyists kanye nama-CEO amaqembu amaqembu embonini.
  • Imithombo yezimali ibingadalulwa njalo ngokuphelele ngesikhathi esifanele ku-inthanethi.
  • Kwakungekho bufakazi bokuthi iSMC yayivuna umxhasi othile, kodwa yayithanda imikhakha ethile yezinkampani nezihloko ezazikhuluma ngazo “kukhombisa izinto eziza kuqala zabaxhasi bazo.”

“Uma uthi ucaphuna ososayensi bese ugcina usebenzisa ama-lobbyists kanye nama-NGO, umbuzo uthi: ngabe ukhetha kanjani ukuthi yiliphi ama-lobbyists noma ama-NGO okumele abe nawo? Kungani ungenawo ama-lobbyist aphikisana nokuhlolwa kofuzo noma amalungu e-Greenpeace aveza umbono wawo kunesikhundla se-bioindustry? Lokho kuveza ngempela uhlobo lokuchema olusebenzayo, ”kusho uMiller.

Strategic spin triumph emibungwini yabantu / yezilwane e-hybrid

Ngo-2006, lapho uhulumeni wase-UK ecabanga ukuvimbela ososayensi ekwakheni imibungu ehlanganiswa nabantu-yezilwane, iSMC yahlanganisa imizamo yokususa ukugxila ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kude nezinkinga zokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwemibungu ehlanganisiwe njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho ku-Nature.

Umkhankaso we-SMC "wawunqobe amasu ebudlelwaneni bezindaba" futhi "ububhekele kakhulu ukuguqula isimo sokutholakala kwemibungu eyizilwane ezingabantu," ngokusho kuka-Andy Williams, umcwaningi wezindaba e-University of Cardiff, e-UK, owenza ukuhlaziywa egameni le-SMC kanye nabasizi bomkhankaso.

UWilliams uthole:

  • Imithombo engaphezulu kwama-60% ezindabeni ezibhalwe yizintatheli zesayensi nezempilo - leyo okubhekiswe kuyo yi-SMC - isekele ucwaningo, futhi yingxenye eyodwa kuphela yekota yemithombo ephikisana nalokhu.
  • Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli ebezingakahlosiwe yi-SMC zikhulume nososayensi abambalwa abasekelayo kanye nabaphikisi abaningi.

"UWilliams manje ukhathazekile ngokuthi imizamo ye-SMC iholele izintatheli ukuthi zinikeze isithunzi ososayensi ngokweqile, nokuthi zavimbela impikiswano," Indatshana Yemvelo ibikile. Ingxoxo noWilliams in SciDevNet kubika:

"Ulimi oluningi olusetshenzisiwe ukuchaza [izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC] kugcizelela ukuthi babeyithuba lokuthi ososayensi bachaze isayensi ngamagama abo, kodwa - okubaluleke kakhulu - ngendlela engathathi hlangothi futhi engenaxabiso," esho. Kepha lokhu akulinaki iqiniso lokuthi le micimbi ibiphethwe ngokuqinile icindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo, engeza, nokuthi isethelwe ukuvikela umthelela omkhulu kwabezindaba kososayensi ababandakanyekayo. Izintatheli ezingongoti bezesayensi zondliwe "yimixhaso yolwazi" yi-SMC futhi zinamathuba amaningi kakhulu kunezinye izintatheli ukucaphuna imithombo yokuvikela ukuxubana, kusho uWilliams.

Ikhuthaza ukubukwa kwemboni ku-fracking

Ngokombiko othile Februwari 2015 ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba olwenziwe nguPaul Mobbs we-Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, i-SMC yanikela ngamazwibela amaningi ochwepheshe mayelana ne-fracking phakathi kowezi-2012-2015, kepha idlanzana lososayensi ababephethe ukuphawula kwakusuka ezikhungweni ezinobudlelwano bezezimali nemboni kaphethiloli noma amaphrojekthi ocwaningo axhaswe imboni.

“Iqhaza le-SMC libukeka lifaka umbono omncane emibonweni emincane yezimvo zokuphepha kwe-fracking. Le mibono isuselwa esikhundleni sobungcweti salabo abathintekayo, futhi ayisekelwa ngezikhombo zobufakazi ukuqinisekisa ubuqiniso bayo. Ngenxa yalokho, le mibono iye yacashunwa kwabezindaba ngaphandle kokungabaza. ”

“Mayelana negesi ephuma emanzini, i-SMC ayinikezi umbono olinganiselayo ngobufakazi obutholakalayo, kanye nokungaqiniseki, ngemithelela kawoyela negesi engajwayelekile. Inikeza izingcaphuno ezivela ezifundweni ezimele kakhulu umbono 'wase-UK', ongabunaki bonke ubufakazi obutholakala kulolu daba obuvela e-USA, Australia naseCanada. ”

Ukwehlisa isineke ukukhathala okungamahlalakhona 

A Iphepha le-2013 nguMalcolm Hooper, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-Emeritus, e-University of Sunderland, e-UK, usole iSMC ngokuthuthukisa imibono yabanye abasebenza kwezokwelapha, ngokwehluleka ukubika ngesayensi yezinto eziphilayo kanye nokuphokophela "imibono kanye nenkulumo-ze yamaqembu anentshisekelo enamandla" emithonjeni yayo yezindaba sebenza ku-chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Iphepha likaHooper libika ngezixhumanisi eziphakathi kwe-SMC nabadlali abalulekile empikiswaneni yeCFS / ME nezixhumanisi zemboni yomshuwalense, futhi linikeza ubufakazi balokho uHooper akuchaze njengomkhankaso weSMC wokudicilela phansi abantu ngeCFS / ME, kanye nemizamo yayo yokudicilela phansi iPACE imiphumela yesivivinyo kwabezindaba. Uyaphetha, "Inhlangano eziphatha ngendlela engqubuzana nesayensi ngale ndlela ayinakuba nesicelo esisemthethweni sokumela isayensi."

Ukubukwa kwe-SMC, bheka Ishidi lamaqiniso lango-2018 ku-CFS / ME “ukugula nokuphikisana.”

Ukuphepha kwamaselula nabaxhasi bezingcingo

A Iphepha le-2006 nguDon Maisch, PhD, "kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokungakhethi kwemodeli yeSMC kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi lapho kunikezwa izeluleko zochwepheshe ezindabeni ezinengxabano lapho izintshisekelo ziyingxenye yohlaka lweSMC." Iphepha leMaisch lihlola ukuxhumana kwamaSMC ezindabeni ezibandakanya imisebe kagesi kagesi kanye nokuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, futhi linikeza lokho akubiza ngokuthi "umlando ongacwaningwa wemodeli yeSMC yokuxhumana kwesayensi."

“Kusobala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezisebenzisanayo ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK yokuqhakambisa ubuchwepheshe be-Biotec nobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana. Lokhu kungachaza ukuthi kungani abantu abangenazo iziqu zangempela kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi bekwazile ukufinyelela ezikhundleni ezaba ubuso bomphakathi bezikhungo zesayensi zaseBrithani. Ibuye ichaze ukuthi kungani isikhungo sezesayensi nezokwelapha sase-UK, sazi ukuthi ingxenye enkulu yemali yesayensi ivela emithonjeni yezimboni, ingabalingani abazimisele ukuvumela izinhlangano ze-PR ezine-ajenda enqunywe kusengaphambili ukuthi zibakhulumele futhi zisekele inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni kunentshisekelo yomphakathi . ”

Ukuvikela i-GMO

Njengokwehliswa ngenhla, bobabili iScience Media Center neqembu lodadewabo iSense About Science bethule ngamaphrojekthi avikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. I-SMC ivame ukunikeza ochwepheshe abagxeka izifundo eziveza ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ngo-2016, ososayensi baphindisela emuva ekuphenduleni kochwepheshe be-SMC abathi babekhuluma kabi ngomsebenzi wabo kuma-GMO. Ucwaningo oluholwa nguMichael Antoniou, PhD, iNhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group, eKing's College London School of Medicine, futhi lwashicilelwa ku Imibiko yeSayensi, wasebenzisa ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana ukuze aqhathanise ummbila we-GMO nozakwabo ongeyona i-GM futhi wabika ukuthi ummbila we-GM nowe-GM "awalingani kakhulu." I-SMC ikhiphe i- ukusabela kochwepheshe ukuhlambalaza isifundo, futhi bekungavumeli ababhali ukuthi baphendule noma balungise imininingwane enganembile ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, ngokusho kwabalobi bezocwaningo.

“Lawa mazwana [acashunwe ekukhishweni kweSMC] awanembile ngakho-ke asabalalisa ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngephepha lethu. Sazisiwe ukuthi akusiyo inqubomgomo yeScience Media Centre ukuthumela izimpendulo, ezifana nezethu, kumazwana okuphawula abawathumelayo / abawabeka kwiwebhusayithi yabo, ”kusho u-Antoniou. Ababhali bokufunda bathumele impendulo yabo lapha.

Intatheli uRebekah Wilce ibike kanjalo ku-PR Watch ngo-2014 ngezibonelo eziningana zokuchema kwe-pro-GMO kwezokuxhumana ze-SMC. Wabhala:

I-SMC izibiza ngesikhungo esizimele sokuxoxisana nabezindaba ngezindaba zesayensi. Abagxeki, nokho, bayakungabaza ukuzimela kwayo kusuka embonini ye-GMO - yize isitatimende seqembu ukuthi inkampani ngayinye noma omunye umxhasi anganikela kuphela ngamaphesenti amahlanu emholweni weqembu wonyaka - futhi axwayise ukuthi le nhlangano ibheke ngaphesheya kwechibi iye e-United States ukuhlinzeka nge-GMO spin lapha.

I-SMC kwahola impendulo ocwaningweni luka-2012 olubika ukuthi ukuthola izicubu ezilwaneni zaselebhu zondla ama-GMO esifundweni sesondlo sesikhathi eside. Ucwaningo luye lwahlazeka kakhulu emaphephandabeni, lwahoxiswa yilo magazini wokuqala futhi lwaphinde lwashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Imidiya

Uchungechunge lweColumbia Journalism Review olunezigaba ezintathu, ngoJuni 2013, “Science Media Centers and the Press”

Nature, ngu-Ewen Callaway, Julayi 2013, “Abezindaba zesayensi: Isikhungo sokunakwa; UFiona Fox neScience Media Center yakhe bazimisele ukuthuthukisa ezokunyathelisa zaseBrithani. Manje imodeli isakazeka emhlabeni wonke ”

Nature, nguColin Macilwain, “Izizwe ezimbili zihlukaniswe inhloso eyodwa: Izinhlelo zokuphindaphinda iScience Media Center yaseBrithani e-United States zigcwele ingozi”

I-FAIR, ngu-Stacy Malkan, ngoJulayi 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zenkampani Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwezesayensi?"

SciDevNet, nguMićo Tatalović, ngoMeyi 2014, “Isikhungo Sezindaba Sezindaba sase-UK sibhebhezela ukuphusha isayensi yezinkampani” Isikhungo semvu

Ukubuka kwe-PR, nguRebekah Wilke, ngo-Ephreli 2014, "IScience Media Center Spins Pro-GMO Line"

Kwiqembu elihlobene i-Sense About Science:

I-Intercept, ebhalwe nguLiza Gross, ngoNovemba 2016, “Seeding Doubt: Yeka indlela abazibeke ngayo abaqaphi 'besayensi ezwakalayo' befaka esikalini embonini.”

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: I-Sense About Science-USA Director uTrevor Butterworth Spins Science for Industry

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba 'Ozakwethu' Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza