IGates Foundation iphinda kabili emkhankasweni wokwaziswa okungelona iqiniso eCornell njengoba abaholi base-Afrika befuna i-agroecology 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubika okuhlobene: Ukuguquka okuluhlaza okwehlulekayo kweGates Foundation e-Afrika (7.29.20)

I-Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation unikeze omunye u- $ 10 million ngesonto eledlule kwiCornell Alliance for Science eyimpikiswano, a umkhankaso wezokuxhumana obuseCornell ukuthi izitimela abafo e-Afrika nakwezinye izindawo ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izitshalo kanye nezolimo. Isibonelelo esisha siletha izibonelelo zeBMGF eqenjini zifike ku- $ 22 million.

Utshalomali lwe-PR luza ngesikhathi lapho iGates Foundation isolwa ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika abagxeki abathi zigxilisa izindlela zokulima ezisiza izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Abaholi bezenkolo banxusa iGates Foundation 

NgoSepthemba 10, abaholi bezenkolo e-Afrika bathumela i- incwadi evulekile eya eGates Foundation ukuyicela ukuthi ibuyekeze amasu ayo okwenza izibonelelo e-Afrika. 

“Yize sibonga iBill and Melinda Gates Foundation ngokuzinikela kwayo ekunqobeni ukungabi nokudla, kanye nokwamukela usizo lwezingqalasizinda olunikezwa ohulumeni bezwekazi lethu, sibhala ngokukhathazeka okukhulu ukuthi ukwesekwa yiGates Foundation ekwandiseni ezolimo ezinamandla zezimboni zijulisa inkinga yezenhlalakahle, ”kusho incwadi yokusayinwa eqondiswa yi- Isikhungo Sezemvelo SaseNingizimu Afrika Sokholo (SAFCEI).  

Incwadi ibalula i-Alliance eholwa yiGates Alliance for a Green Revolution (AGRA) ngokusekelwa kwayo "okuyinkinga kakhulu" kwezinhlelo zembewu ezentengiselwano ezilawulwa izinkampani ezinkulu, ukusekelwa kwayo kwemithetho yokuhlwanyela kabusha imbewu ukuvikela imbewu eqinisekisiwe nokwenza ubugebengu imbewu engaqinisekisiwe, kanye ukwesekwa kwabathengisi bezimbewu abanikeza izeluleko ezincanyana mayelana nemikhiqizo yezinkampani ngezinsizakalo zokwandiswa komkhakha womphakathi ezidingeka kakhulu 

Iphephandaba laseUganda eliphuma nsuku zonke libike ngokungaphumeleli kwephrojekthi ye-AGRA

"Sinxusa iGates Foundation ne-AGRA ukuthi bayeke ukukhuthaza ubuchwepheshe obuhlulekile nezindlela zokuphelelwa yisikhathi futhi baqale ukulalela abalimi abathuthukisa izixazululo ezifanele zezimo zabo," kusho abaholi bezenkolo.

Yize kusetshenziswe izigidigidi zamaRandi neminyaka engu-14 yezethembiso, i-AGRA yehlulekile ukufeza izinhloso zayo zokunciphisa ububha nokukhuphula imali yabalimi abancane, ngokusho NgoJulayi kubika Izithembiso Zamanga. Ucwaningo lwenziwe umfelandawonye wamaqembu ase-Afrika nawaseJalimane kanti lubandakanya nemininingwane evela ku- iphepha elimhlophe lakamuva enyatheliswa yiTufts Global Development and Environment Institute. 

IGates Foundation ayikaphenduli ezicelweni zokuphawula ngale ndatshana kodwa yathi nge-imeyili yangaphambilini, "Siyazeseka izinhlangano ezifana ne-AGRA ngoba zisebenzisana namazwe ukuwasiza ukuthi asebenzise izinto eziseqhulwini nezinqubomgomo eziqukethwe kumasu abo kazwelonke wokuthuthukisa ezolimo."

Ukushabalala kwezithembiso zenguquko eluhlaza 

Yethulwe ngo-2006 yiGates and Rockefeller Foundations, i-AGRA sekuyisikhathi eside ithembise ukuphinda kabili isivuno nemali engenayo emindenini yokulima eyizigidi ezingama-30 e-Afrika ngo-2020. Kepha iqembu lisuse ngokuthula lezo zinhloso kuwebhusayithi yalo esikhathini esithile ngonyaka odlule. UMphathi Wezabasebenzi we-AGRA u-Andrew Cox uthe nge-imeyili ukuthi leli qembu alisinciphisanga isifiso sakhe kodwa liyalungisa izindlela zalo nokucabanga kwalo ngamamethrikhi. Uthe i-AGRA izokwenza ukuhlolwa okuphelele ngemiphumela yayo ngonyaka ozayo. 

I-AGRA yenqabile ukuhlinzeka ngemininingwane noma ukuphendula imibuzo ebalulekile evela kubaphenyi bombiko Wezithembiso Zamanga, kusho ababhali bayo. Abamele iBIBA Kenya, PELUM Zambia neHOMEF Nigeria bathumele i- incwadi eya kuCox Septhemba 7 becela impendulo kulokho abakutholile ocwaningweni. I-Cox kuphendule uSepthemba 15 ngalokho omunye umcwaningi akuchaze ngokuthi “ngokuyisisekelo amakhasi amathathu e-PR.” (Bheka ngokugcwele izincwadi lapha kufaka impendulo ye-BIBA ka-Okthoba 7.)

"Abalimi base-Afrika bafanelwe yimpendulo evela ku-AGRA," kusho incwadi eya ku-Cox ivela ku-Anne Maina, Mutketoi Wamunyima noNgimmo Bassay.  “Kanjalo nabaxhasi bomkhakha kahulumeni be-AGRA, ababonakala sengathi bathola imbuyiselo embi kakhulu kutshalomali lwabo. Ohulumeni base-Afrika nabo kudingeka banikeze ukubalwa kwezimali okucacile ngemithelela yesabelomali sabo esisekela izinhlelo zeGreen Revolution. ”

Ohulumeni base-Afrika basebenzisa cishe u- $ 1 billion ngonyaka kwizibonelelo zokuxhasa imbewu yokuhweba kanye nezolimo. Ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu kuzuzo lokukhiqiza kwezolimo, indlala inyuke ngamaphesenti angamashumi amathathu phakathi neminyaka ye-AGRA, ngokusho kombiko weFalse Promises.

Ukutshalwa kwezimali kweGates Foundation kunomthelela omkhulu ekutheni izinhlelo zokudla zakhiwe kanjani e-Afrika, ngokusho kukaJuni umbiko ovela kwi-International Panel of Experts on Sustainable Food Systems (IPES). Iqembu libike ukuthi izigidigidi zamaRandi kwizibonelelo zeGates Foundation zikhuthaze ezolimo zezimboni e-Afrika futhi zabuyisa notshalomali ezinhlelweni zokudla ezizinzile, ezilinganayo.  

"IBMGF ibheka izimbuyiselo ezisheshayo nezibonakalayo kutshalo-mali, ngaleyo ndlela ithande izixazululo ezihlosiwe," kusho i-IPES.

Abakhiqizi bendawo namaketanga okudla amafushane 

Indlela yokuthuthukisa ezolimo yeGates Foundation yokwakha izimakethe zezitshalo ezinkulu, ezinokufakwa okuphezulu kuyibeka ekuphikisaneni nokucabanga okuvelayo ngokuthi ungabhekana kanjani kangcono nezimo eziguquguqukayo ezibangelwa izingqinamba ezimbili zokuguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nobhadane lweCovid-19.

NgoSepthemba, I-UN Food and Agriculture Organisation ithe kubalulekile ukwakha amasistimu okudla asendaweni aqinile njengoba lolu bhubhane “lubeke izinhlelo zokudla zasendaweni engcupheni yokuphazamiseka kulo lonke uchungechunge lokudla.” Umbiko ubhala izingqinamba ezihlobene nobhubhane nezifundo ezivela ocwaningweni lomhlaba wonke olwenziwe ngo-Ephreli nangoMeyi ezadonsa izimpendulo ezingama-860. 

“Umyalezo ocacile ngukuthi, ukuze sikwazi ukubhekana nokwethuka okufana ne-COVID-19, amadolobha anezimo ezifanele zenhlalo-mnotho nezomnotho kufanele amukele izinqubomgomo nezinhlelo zokunika amandla abakhiqizi bendawo ukuthi batshale ukudla, futhi bakhuthaze amaketanga okudla amafushane ukuze bakwazi ukwenza izakhamizi ezisemadolobheni ukuthola imikhiqizo yokudla, ”kuphetha lo mbiko. "Amadolobha kufanele ahlukanise ukudla kwawo kanye nemithombo yawo yokudla, aqinise imithombo yendawo lapho kungenzeka khona, kodwa ngaphandle kokuvala ukunikezwa kukazwelonke nasemhlabeni jikelele."

Njengoba ubhadane lusongela imiphakathi yabalimi esivele inenkinga yokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, i-Afrika isesiphambanweni, kubhala uMillion Belay, umxhumanisi we-African Food Ubukhosi Alliance, noTimothy Wise, ongumcwaningi oholayo wokuhlaziywa kweTufts kwe-AGRA, ku Septhemba 23 ivuliwe. “Ngabe abantu bayo kanye nohulumeni babo bazoqhubeka nokuzama ukuphindaphinda izindlela zokulima zezimboni ezithuthukiswa amazwe athuthukile? Noma bazongena ngesibindi esikhathini esizayo esingaqinisekile, bamukele ezolimo nemvelo? ”

UBelay noWise bachaze ezinye izindaba ezinhle ezivela ocwaningweni lwakamuva; "Amazwe amabili e-AGRA anciphise isibalo nesabelo sabantu abangondlekile - i-Ethiopia neMali - bakwenze lokhu ngenxa yezinqubomgomo ezisekela ezolimo."

Indaba enkulu kakhulu yempumelelo, iMali, ibone ukuthi indlala yehle isuka ku-14% yaya ku-5% kusukela ngo-2006. Ngokocwaningo lwamacala ku Umbiko wezithembiso ezingamanga, “Inqubekela phambili ayivelanga ngenxa ye-AGRA kepha yingoba uhulumeni nezinhlangano zabalimi bakuphikisile ukusebenza kwayo,” kubhala uBelay noWise, bekhomba imithetho yomhlaba kanye nembewu eqinisekisa amalungelo abalimi okuzikhethela izilimo zabo kanye nemikhuba yabo yokulima, nezinhlelo zikahulumeni ukuthi gqugquzela hhayi nje ummbila kepha izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezitshalo zokudla.

"Isikhathi sokuthi ohulumeni base-Afrika babuyele emuva ku-Green Revolution ehlulekayo futhi bahlele uhlelo olusha lokudla oluhlonipha amasiko nemiphakathi yasendaweni ngokugqugquzela ezolimo ezingabizi kakhulu, ezinomthelela ophansi kwezolimo," babhala. 

Ukuphinda kabili umkhankaso we-PR obuseCornell 

Ngokuphikisana nalokhu okwenzeka ngemuva, iGates Foundation iphinda kabili ekutshalweni kwayo kuCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), umkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi owasungulwa ngonyaka we-2014 ngesibonelelo seGates futhi uthembisa "ukudicilela phansi impikiswano" ezungeze ama-GMO. Ngama- $ 10 million amasha, I-CAS ihlela ukukhulisa ukugxila kwayo "Ukulwa nemibono yozungu kanye nemikhankaso yokukhipha imininingwane engavimbeli inqubekela phambili ekuguqukeni kwesimo sezulu, i-synthetic biology, ezolimo." 

Kepha iCornell Alliance for Science isiphenduke amandla okuqhakambisa nomthombo wolwazi okungelona njengoba iqeqesha abafo emhlabeni wonke ukukhuthaza nokunxenxa izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo, iningi labo e-Afrika. 

Izitshudeni eziningi, amaqembu okudla kanye nochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo bamemeze iqembu imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo. Amaqembu omphakathi asebenzela ukulawula ama-pesticides kanye ne-biosafety asole i-CAS ngokuthi usebenzisa amaqhinga okuhlukumeza eHawaii futhi ukuxhaphaza abalimi e-Afrika emikhankasweni yalo yokuphromotha neyokungenisa izivakashi.  

A Isihloko se-July 30 nguMark Lynas, umuntu ovakashele eCornell osebenzela i-CAS, ukhanyisa impikiswano mayelana nemiyalezo yeqembu. Icaphuna okwakamuva ukuhlaziywa kwemeta kwezolimo lokongiwa kwemvelo, kusho uLynas,  "I-agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu futhi yenze kube nokulingana ngokobulili e-Afrika." Ukuhlaziywa kwakhe kwakukhathalelwe kabanzi ngochwepheshe kulo mkhakha.

UMarc Corbeels, isazi sezolimo nomhlaba owabhala ukuhlaziywa kwe-meta, uthe lo mbhalo wenza "ukwenziwa okwandile. ” Ezinye izifundiswa zichaze udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “inamaphutha ngempela, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""demagogic futhi okungezona ezesayensi, ”Ukungqubuzana okuyiphutha okugxumela ku“iziphetho zasendle, ”Kanye no “Okuyihlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi. ”

Lesi sihloko kufanele ihoxiswe, kusho uMarci Branski, owayenguchwepheshe kwezokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu e-USDA futhi UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezombangazwe eQueen's University.

Impikiswano mayelana i-agroecology uyafudumala

Impikiswano iphinde yavela kuleli sonto nge-webinar CAS ibamba NgoLwesine uMfumfu 1 ngesihloko se-agroecology. Ukucaphuna ukukhathazeka ukuthi iqembu elizinze eCornell "alizimisele ngokwanele ukuthi lingabamba iqhaza engxoxweni evulekile, engachemile", ochwepheshe ababili bohlelo lokudla bahoxile kwi-webinar ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto.

Ososayensi ababili bathi bavumile ukubamba iqhaza kwi-webinar ngemuva kokubona amagama abo phakathi kwama-panelists; "Lokho kwanele ukuthi sobabili sithembe nenhlangano eyenze lo mcimbi," kubhala UPablo Tittonell, PhD, Principal Research Scientist eMkhandlwini Kazwelonke Wezesayensi Nobuchwepheshe e-Argentina (CONICET) kanye USieglinde Snapp, I-PhD, uProfesa Wezomhlaba kanye Nezinqubo Zokutshalwa Kwezitshalo eMichigan State University, ukuze abe ngumongameli wephaneli uJoan Conrow, umhleli we-CAS. 

“Kepha ngifunda amanye ama-blogs nemibono ekhishwe yi-Alliance, okushicilelwe ngamanye ama-panelists, ngifunda ngezinsolo zokuchema nezingazi ngokumelene ne-agroecology, i-push-ideated technologies yezobuchwepheshe obuthile, njll. safika esiphethweni sokuthi le ndawo ayifanele ngokwanele ukuba ihlanganyele engxoxweni evulekile, engakhethi, eyakhayo futhi, okubaluleke kakhulu, ingxoxo yesayensi enolwazi, ”uTittonell noSnapp babhalela IConrow.

"Ngakho-ke siyazihoxisa kule mpikiswano." UConrow akaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono.

 I-webinar izoqhubeka phambili ne- Nassib Mugwanya, ongumfundi ofunda nobudokotela emhlabeni wonke we-CAS ka-2015 eNorth Carolina State University, naye osolwa ngokuhlasela ngokungafanele i-agroecology. Kwi Isihloko se-2019 we-Breakthrough Institute, uMugwanya wathi, "imikhuba yendabuko yezolimo ayikwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika." 

Lo mbhalo ukhombisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile yomkhakha we-biotech: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla “se-pro-science” ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge- 'anti-science,' engenasisekelo futhi eyingozi,” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

“Okuphawuleka kakhulu esihlokweni,” kusho leli qembu, “ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezifenqo (isib. I-agroecology ifaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokungalungi okuningana okuyiqiniso.”

Njengoba uTittonell noSnapp besusiwe ohlwini lwewebhu ngoLwesine, uMugwanya uzojoyina uPamela Ronald, uprofesa wezifo zezitshalo e-University of California, eDavis, izibopho embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu angaphambili, Futhi UFrédéric Baudron, usosayensi omkhulu e-International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), iGates Iqembu elixhaswe yisisekelo. 

Ukucela 'ukulwa okulungile'

UMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Center for Biodiversity, ubheka imikhankaso ye-PR eshubile "njengobufakazi bokuphelelwa yithemba" lokuthi "abakwazi ukuyithola kahle ezwenikazi." 

Iqembu lakhe linayo iminyaka ibhala “Imizamo yokusabalalisa i-Green Revolution e-Afrika, neziphetho zayo kuzoholela kulokhu: ukuncipha kwempilo yomhlaba, ukulahleka kwemvelo yezolimo, ukulahleka kobukhosi babalimi, nokuvalelwa kwabalimi base-Afrika ohlelweni olungakhelwanga inzuzo yabo , kodwa inzuzo yabantu abaningi baseNyakatho yamazwe ngamazwe. ”

ICornell Alliance for Science kumele ibuse, kusho uMayet ku-webinar ka-Agasti mayelana negalelo leGates Foundation e-Afrika, “ngenxa yolwazi olungelona iqiniso (nangendlela) abangahloniphi ngokweqile futhi abangenalo iqiniso.” Wabuza, “Kungani ungalwi nathi?”

UStacy Malkan ungumsunguli nentatheli ye-US Right to Know, iqembu labacwaningi elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ezindabeni zezempilo zomphakathi. Ungumbhali wencwadi yango-2007 ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.” Mlandele ku-Twitter @StacyMalkan 

ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

Ukukhushulwa okungalungile, okukhohlisayo kukaMark Lynas kwe-ajenda yezolimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UMark Lynas uyintatheli wangaphambilini waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane owenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngaleyo mikhiqizo esakhiweni sakhe IGates Foundation exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science. Izindlu eCornell University kusukela ngonyaka we-2014, ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso wobudlelwano nomphakathi eqeqesha abakhulumayo futhi yakhe amanethiwekhi wethonya, ikakhulukazi emazweni ase-Afrika, ukukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ososayensi, ongoti bezokudla bathi uLynas akalungile kwisayensi

Ososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza izitatimende ezinganembile nezingahambisani nesayensi emizamweni yakhe yokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, izifundiswa zangena ngoJulayi 2020 esihlokweni ULynas ubhalele iCornell Alliance for Science ethi i-agroecology "inobungozi bokulimaza abampofu." Abagxeki bachaza udaba lukaLynas ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi”Kanye ne-“ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela”Ukuthi“ngephutha uhlanganisa ukongiwa kwe-agroecology bese enza iziphetho zasendle. "

Isazi sezolimo nomhlaba uMarc Corbeels, iphepha lakhe uLynas okwakuthiwa uzolichaza kule ndatshana, uthe uLynas wenza “ukwenziwa okwandile. ” UMarcus Taylor, isazi semvelo sezepolitiki eQueen's University, ucele ukuthi kuhoxiswe; “Into efanele ukuyenza kungaba khipha ucezu lwakho olunamaphutha kakhulu lokho kudida izinto eziyisisekelo ngamasu ezolimo, ”kusho uTaylor kuTwitter. Uchaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “Imibono emsulwa” kanye “nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza 'ngokwesayensi'. ”  

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kososayensi nabachwepheshe bezinqubomgomo ngomsebenzi kaLynas (kugcizelela okwethu):

  • “Ngingasho ngokusobala ukuthi akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO nokuthi iningi lezitatimende (zikaLynas) zingamanga, ” ubhale uDavid Schubert, PhD, Head, Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory & Professor e-The Salk Institute, encwadini ayibhalele ISan Diego Union Tribune.
  • “Nayi eminye imikhakha ye- amaphuzu angalungile noma alahlekisayo uLynas akwenzayo mayelana nesayensi noma ukuthuthukiswa kwe-GE, ”kubhala uDoug Gurian-Sherman, PhD, owayengusosayensi omkhulu, Inyunyana Yososayensi Abakhathazekile. “Esikhundleni sokuphikisana noma ukuxoxa ngesayensi yangempela, uLynas uphonsa iziphakamiso futhi usebenzise ukuthembela egunyeni kunedatha noma ucwaningo. " 
  • Izimangalo zikaLynas mayelana nokuqiniseka kokuphepha kwe-GMO “akunasayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo, ” ngokusho kukaBelinda Martineau, PhD, unjiniyela wezakhi zofuzo owasiza ekwakheni ukudla kokuqala kwe-GMO (bheka incwadi eya ku-NYT futhi I-Biotech Salon).
  • Ekubuyekezweni Incwadi kaLynas Imbewu Yesayensi, isazi semvelaphi yabantu uGlenn Davis Stone uchaze le ncwadi njenge “ukuvuselelwa kabusha kwamaphuzu okuxoxa embonini evamile. ” 
  • "The Uhlu lokuhlanjwa kwezimpahla lwalokho uMark Lynas okungahambanga kahle ngakho kokubili ama-GMO nesayensi lubanzi, futhi iphikisiwe ngephuzu ngabathile abahola phambili emhlabeni izazi ngezolimo futhi izazi zezinto eziphilayo,”Kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, PhD, owayengumqondisi weFood First, ku I-Huffington Post.
  • UMark Lynas une “wenza umsebenzi ophume…" kubhale uThimothewu A. Wise, owayengumqondisi wocwaningo eGlobal Development and Environment Institute eTufts University.
  • "Ukulandisa kukaLynas kungamanga,”Ngokusho kuka- Ukukhishwa kwe-2018 kusuka e-African Centre for Biodiversity, iqembu elizinze eNingizimu Afrika. 
  • “Maka Izimangalo zikaLynas zibonisa ukungazi okujulile kwezesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. Kufanele ungamnaki, ” uthumele uPete Myers, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Environmental Health Sciences, umshicileli we-EHN.org.

Amaqhinga 'okukhohlisayo, adukisayo futhi angenasimiso' 

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika athi uLynas usemelele kabi amaqiniso amaningi ukuthuthukisa uhlelo lwezombusazwe. Ngokombiko wangoDisemba 2018 yi-African Centre for Biodiversity, Lynas kanye neCornell Alliance for Science basebenzise izithombe zabalimi base-Afrika ngaphandle kolwazi nemvume yabo, bexhaphaza izithombe ngezindlela ezidukisayo zokuthi abalimi badinga ama-GMO.

ULynas usebenzise lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle komongo futhi ngaphandle kwemvume yakhe.

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uLynas wabhala lesi sithombe somlimi waseTanzania, uNkk. R, ngaphandle kwemvume nangaphandle komongo, esikisela ukuthi uyisisulu “sokungabi nabulungisa emhlabeni wonke.” UNkk. R empeleni ungumlimi ophumelelayo futhi olwela izindlela zokulima kanye nokuziphilisa kahle, ngokusho kombiko we-ACBio. Ucele uLynas ukuthi asuse isithombe sakhe, kodwa uhlala kwi-feed yakhe ye-twitter. I-ACBio ithe embikweni wayo ukuthi amaqhinga kaLynas “eqe umugqa obomvu wokuziphatha futhi kumele ayeke.”  

Iqembu elibusa ukudla nalo kusho ekukhululweni kwezindaba ukuthi uLynas "unomlando wokwenza ububi eTanzania" ngomkhakha wezokuvikela imboni ye-biotech. “Ukuhambela kwakhe kuleli kuhlelwe kahle yindawo yokwamukela izivakashi, esebenzisa izinkundla ezifana nemihlangano ejwayelekile ye-Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology in Africa (OFAB), lapho abezindaba bekhona khona bezobika ngezinkulumo zakhe. Ukuhlasela kwakhe bekuqondiswe kakhulu emithethweni yezwe yokuvikela ukuphepha, ikakhulukazi indlela yayo yokuvikela kanye nemibandela eqinile yezikweletu. ”

I-Alliance for Food Ubukhosi (i-AFSA), umfelandawonye omele amaqembu abalimi angama-35 nabathengi e-Afrika yonkana, nayo isole uLynas ngokugqugquzela “izethembiso ezingamanga, ukumelwa kabi, namanye amaqiniso. ” Kundatshana ka-2018, bachaze uLynas "njengongqondongqondo" ongahloniphi abantu base-Afrika, amasiko namasiko abo. "

Imiyalezo yokubulala izinambuzane isuselwa kumaphoyinti okukhuluma embonini, hhayi isayensi

Esinye isibonelo sokubika okunganembile kukaLynas ngesakhe Isihloko se-2017 i-Cornell Alliance for Science ehlasela i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-World Health Organisation ngokubika i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. U-Lynas wathi lo mbiko wophiko lochwepheshe "kwakuwukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" kanye "nokuhlanekezelwa okusobala kwezesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo," okwakuhlelwe abantu abanqotshwe "ukuthukuthela nemizwelo." Uthe i-glyphosate "iyikhemikhali elibi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni." 

A hlola iqiniso yi-US Right to Know uthole ukuthi uLynas wenza izimpikiswano ezifanayo ezidukisayo nezinamaphutha futhi wathembela emithonjeni efanayo emibili enamaphutha njengebhulogi eyathunyelwa ngenyanga edlule yi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu iMonsanto lalikhokha ukusiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate neminye imikhiqizo yezolimo. 

Ekuphakamiseni icala lakhe ukuthi "amaqembu ezishoshovu ahlukumeza isayensi futhi abeka eceleni inqubomgomo esuselwa ebufakazini ku-glyphosate saga," u-Lynas akagcinanga ngokuthembela ezimpikiswaneni nasezimbonini, kodwa futhi wabushaya indiva ubufakazi obuningi, obabikwa kabanzi kwabezindaba, ukuthi iMonsanto ilawula ukubuyekezwa kwesayensi nokulawula ku-glyphosate amashumi eminyaka usebenzisa amaqhinga okucasha kufaka phakathi izifundo zokubhala ghost futhi izihloko, izifundo zokubulala, ukucindezela isayensi engabazisayo, ukuhlasela ososayensi futhi izinhlangano zokulawula ezinamandla ngenhloso yokuvikela inzuzo yayo kumikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate. 

Kukhuthazwe, kuxhumene nenethiwekhi yezimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane

Izinkampani zezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yazo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi zivame ukukhuthaza uMark Lynas nomsebenzi wakhe. Bona isibonelo Iwebhusayithi kaMonsanto, ama-tweets amaningi wokuphromotha ngomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane amaqembu okuhweba, amaqembu okubungaza, pro-umkhakha izifundiswa futhi abalobi, Futhi various Monsanto abasebenzi, kanye nenqwaba yama-athikili kaLynas kukhuthazwe ngu Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo, a iqembu le-propaganda ababambisana neMonsanto.

ILynas neCornell Alliance for Science nabo bayasebenzisana nabanye ababambe iqhaza kwinethiwekhi yezokuphepha kanye nenkulumo-ze yomkhakha wezolimo.

Iluleka iqembu labalingani beMonsanto i-Sense About Science

Imfihlo Uhlelo lweMonsanto PR yangomhla kaFebhuwari 2015 yaphakamisa Umuzwa Ngezesayensi njengeqembu elingasiza ekuholeni impendulo yomkhakha kwabezindaba ukudicilela phansi umbiko womdlavuza we-WHO nge-glyphosate. ULynas ukhonza ku- umkhandlu wokweluleka ye-Sense Mayelana neSayensi. I-Intercept ibikile ngo-2016 lokho "I-Sense About Science ayivezi ngaso sonke isikhathi lapho imithombo yayo yezindaba eziyimpikiswano ingososayensi abanobudlelwano nezimboni ezihlolwayo," futhi "kwaziwa ukuthi bathatha izikhundla ezingavumelani nesayensi noma ezichithe ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala." Umuzwa Ngezesayensi abambisene neCornell Alliance for Science ukunikeza "ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli" ngomqondisi weqembu UTrevor Butterworth, ochazwe yizintatheli njengo “imboni yamakhemikhali umbhali wobudlelwano bomphakathi.

Related: IMonsanto ithembele kulaba "abalingani" ukuhlasela ososayensi abaphezulu bomdlavuza

Kuhlanganiswe nesayensi yezulu ukugxeka ukuqalisa i-pro-fracking, pro-nuke, GMO “movement”

U-Lynas uzibiza ngomunye wabasunguli “bokunyakaza” “kwe-ecomodernism,” uhlobo oluhambisanayo lwenkampani “lwezemvelo” umlobi waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot aluchaza ngokuthi “aluthathi zinyathelo zepolitiki ukuvikela umhlaba wemvelo.” Abakwa-eco-modernists bakhuthaza ukuthosiwe, amandla enuzi nemikhiqizo yezolimo njengezixazululo zemvelo. Ngokusho kwabaholi be-eco-modernist UTed Nordhaus noMichael Shellenberger we-Breakthrough Institute, ubuchwepheshe bamandla obuthandwa ngabazalwane besigidigidi samafutha uKoch “benza okungaphezulu kakhulu ekunciphiseni ukukhishwa kwegesi ebamba ukushisa kunalabo abathandwa yiLeft-apocalyptic Left.” 

Ku-a wehlulekile umcimbi wokuqalisa kwe-ecomodernism ngoSepthemba 2015, uLynas wazihlanganisa no-Owen Paterson, ovelele ophika isayensi yezulu e-UK ngubani kunciphise imali ngemizamo yokulungiselela izwe ukufudumala komhlaba ngesikhathi esengunobhala wezemvelo. Ngenyanga efanayo, uPaterson ukhulume eCornell Alliance for Science, lapho ephakamisa khona ama-GMO nge-hyperbolic inkulumo igcwaliswe nge izimangalo ezingasekelwa, futhi wasola abezemvelo ngokuvumela izingane ukuba zife e-Afrika. "Imikhankaso eluhlaza eyizigidigidi ibulala izingane ezihlwempu," kusho u-a isihloko ukubika ngenkulumo kaPaterson's Cornell evela eMkhandlwini WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto lalikhokha ukuvikela imikhiqizo yayo. 

Isendlalelo sikaMark Lynas

ULynas wabhala izincwadi eziningana ngokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu (enye yazo yamukelwa yiRoyal Society) ngaphambi kokuba akhange umhlaba wonke "Ukuguqulwa" kusuka kwisishoshovu se-anti-GMO kumgqugquzeli wobuchwepheshe ngenkulumo ekhuthazwa kabanzi yango-2013 e-Oxford ethi abagxekayo babe kuchazwe njengo ukudukisa. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi ngalowo nyaka uLynas waba ngumuntu eCornell University Office of International Programs eKolishi Lezolimo neLife Sciences, waqala usebenzela iCornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso wezokuxhumana owenziwe ngonyaka we-2014 wokukhuthaza ama-GMO nge imali evela eGates Foundation.

Bheka: Kungani iCornell University ibamba umkhankaso we-GMO propaganda?

ULynas wazibiza ngokuthi "ungumqondisi wezepolitiki" weCornell Alliance for Science kwiNew York Times yango-2015 i-op-ed. ICornell Alliance for Science ayichazi ukuthi luyini uhlelo lwayo lwezepolitiki, kepha imiyalezo kanye nezinhloso zeqembu zilandelela eduze uhlelo lwezohwebo lomkhakha wezolimo: ukukhulisa ukwamukelwa kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emhlabeni jikelele, ikakhulukazi e-Afrika.

I-Mysterious Lynas PR push, futhi yavuza imemo ye-EuropaBio

Ukusatshalaliswa okukhulu kwabezindaba ngokuguqulwa kukaLynas 'pro-GMO ngo-2013 kwaphakamisa izinsolo zokuthi umkhankaso we-PR wemboni wawusiza ukumphakamisa ekusithekeni. A idalulwe imemo ka-2011 okuvela enkampanini yePR yomkhakha - echaza ngezinhlelo zokuqasha “amanxusa” asezingeni eliphakeme ukunxenxa ukwamukelwa kweGMO - kwandisa izinsolo zokusekelwa kwezimboni ngoba lo mbhalo uqambe igama elithi Lynas. Uthe iqembu akakaze asondele kuye.

Ngokombiko othile Umbiko Guardian, I-EuropaBio, iqembu lezokuhweba elinamalungu alo afaka phakathi iMonsanto neBayer, lihlele ukuqasha amanxusa e-PR ukusiza abenzi bezinqumo "ukucabanga kabusha ngesimo seYurophu ngezitshalo zeGM." Amanxusa abengeke akhokhelwe ngqo kodwa azothola izindleko zokuhamba kanye "nokuxhaswa kokuxhumana okuzinikele" okuvela embonini yezimali. Isikhulu senkampani i-PR sathi "sinentshisekelo" kuLynas, phakathi kwabanye, endimeni yenxusa. ULynas uphikile ukuthi unokuxhumana nabo. "Angikaze ngicelwe ukuthi ngibe yinxusa, futhi angizokwamukela isicelo esinjalo uma ngicelwa," etshela iGuardian.

IGates Foundation, ama-GMO neMonsanto

IBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, umxhasi oyinhloko weCornell Alliance for Science no $ 12 wezigidi kwizibonelelo, igxekiwe ngamasu ayo oxhaso lokuthuthukisa ezolimo axhasa ama-ajenda ebhizinisi lezolimo. A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 okuvela eqenjini locwaningo IGRAIN ithole ukuthi iGates Foundation ichithe iningi lezimali zayo zokuthuthukisa ezolimo “ukondla abampofu e-Afrika” - cishe ama- $ 3 billion asetshenziswe ngaphezu kweminyaka eyishumi - fundisa ososayensi nabaphenyi emazweni acebile. Le mali isiza nasekuthengeni ithonya lezepolitiki kulo lonke elase-Afrika, kubika i-GRAIN. A Umbiko we-2016 weqembu lokukhuthaza i-Global Justice Now uphethe ngokuthi amasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo eGates Foundation “abhebhethekisa ukungalingani komhlaba wonke futhi agxilisa amandla ezinkampani emhlabeni jikelele.”

IGates Foundation inwebe kakhulu imali yayo yamaphrojekthi wezolimo eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule lapho uRob Horsch, Inhloko yangaphambili kaMonsanto yentuthuko yamazwe omhlaba ijoyine ukuthuthukiswa kwezolimo kwesisekelo ithimba lobuholi. Incwadi entsha kaLynas ethi “Seeds of Science” ichitha isahluko (“The True History of Monsanto”) izama ukuchaza ezinye zezono zenkampani edlule nokudumisa uRob Horsch isikhathi eside. Sichitha esinye isahluko (“i-Afrika: Bayeke Badle Ummbila Wezingane Oyingqayizivele”) siphikisa ngokuthi abantu base-Afrika badinga imikhiqizo yezimboni zezolimo ukuze bazondle.

Ukugxekwa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yekoloniyalizim e-Afrika

  • Imbewu Ye-Neo-Colonialism: Kungani Abagqugquzeli be-GMO Bakuthola Kubi Kangaka Nge-Afrika, isitatimende ngu Umbutho Wobumbano Lokudla e-Afrika, 5/7/2018
  • Ngabe amaGates noRockefeller basebenzisa ithonya labo ukusetha i-ajenda emazweni ampofu?"Ucwaningo lukhomba izisekelo zikaBill noMelinda Gates kanye neRockefeller phakathi kwabanikeli abacebile abasondelene nohulumeni futhi okungenzeka ukuthi bathanda izinto eziseqhulwini," nguJohn Vidal, Tyena Guardian, 1/15/2016
  • Amandla Wentuthuko Nokuthuthuka. Ngubani owenza i-ajenda? nguJens Martens noKarolin Seitz, Umbiko ka-2015 (ikhasi 48).
  • I-Philanthrocapitalism: Izinhlelo ze-Gates Foundation zase-Afrika aziwona usizo, nguPhilip L Bereano, uSolwazi Emeritus e-University of Washington, Ukuvuselelwa Komhlaba Kwesithathu, 2017
  • IBill Gates Isiza KFC Ukuthatha i-Afrika, ngu-Alex Park, Umama Jones, 1/10/2014
  • IGates Foundation's Agenda Agenda e-Afrika 'Olunye Uhlobo Lobukoloniyali,' Kuxwayisa Ababhikishi, nguLauren McCauley, Amaphupho ajwayelekile, 3/23/2015
  • IGates Foundation ihola phambili ekuphangweni kwezolimo e-Afrika, nguColin Todhunter, Isazi Semvelo, 1/21/2016
  • Ngabe iGates Foundation iyisebenzisa kanjani imali yayo ukondla umhlaba?Umbiko wokusanhlamvu, 2014
  • UBill Gates usemkhankasweni wokuthengisa ama-GMO e-Afrika, kepha akalikhulumi lonke iqiniso, nguStacy Malkan, Okunye, 3/24/2016

Ukulandelela Inethiwekhi Yezimboni Yezimboni Eziphathelene Nezibulala-zinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izinkampani ezine kuphela manje ezilawula ngaphezu kuka-60% wokuphakelwa komhlaba wembewu nezibulala-zinambuzane. Ukwengamela umphakathi ngemisebenzi yabo kubalulekile ekutholeni ukudla okuphephile nokunempilo. Kodwa-ke zonke lezi zinkampani - iMonsanto / Bayer, iDowDuPont, iSyngenta, i-BASF - zinde imilando yokufihla ingozi kwemikhiqizo yabo. Njengoba amarekhodi abo engakhuthazi ukwethenjwa, bathembele kubalingani benkampani yangaphandle ukukhuthaza nokuvikela imikhiqizo yabo.

Amashidi eqiniso ngezansi akhanya kule nethiwekhi ye-propaganda efihliwe: amaqembu angaphambili, izifundiswa, izintatheli kanye nabalawuli abasebenza ekusithekeni nezinkampani zokubulala izinambuzane ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane. 

Imininingwane esiyibika lapha isuselwa kuphenyo lwe-US Right to Know oluthole amashumi ezinkulungwane zamakhasi emibhalo yangaphakathi yezinkampani nezomthetho kusukela ngonyaka wezi-2015. Uphenyo lwethu lukhuthaze umkhankaso wokuphikisana nomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ozame ukudicilela phansi umsebenzi wethu. Ngokuvumelana ne Imibhalo yeMonsanto ivezwe ngo-2019,  "Uphenyo lwe-USRTK luzoba nomthelela kuyo yonke imboni." 

Sicela wabelane ngalawa maqiniso, futhi bhalisa lapha ukwamukela izindaba ezivela ekuphenyweni kwethu. 

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: ukwenziwa kweqembu langaphambili leMonsanto

I-AgBioChatter: lapho izinkampani nezifundiswa behlela isu kuma-GMO kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane

U-Alison Van Eenennaam: isikhulumi sangaphandle esingukhiye kanye nommeli wezokuvikela embonini yezolimo kanye neye GMO

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo iyiqembu eliphambili lenkampani

Izinkampani zeBayer's Shady PR: UHillard noKetchum PR

Kwenziwe kabusha isiza imboni yamakhemikhali i-PR nemizamo yokunxenxa

Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla ukudla kanye nemboni yezolimo abalingani be-PR

ICornell Alliance yeSayensi is a umkhankaso wobudlelwano bomphakathi eCornell ukukhuthaza ama-GMO

Umkhandlu Wezokwazisa nge-Biotechnology, Izimpendulo ze-GMO, iCropLife: Imboni yokubulala izinambuzane imizamo ye-PR 

UDrew Kershen: umkhakha weqembu lezolimo ngaphambili ongumholi

I-Food Evolution GMO Idokhumentari ifilimu esakaza inkulumo-ze, kusho izifundiswa eziningi

UGeoffrey Kabat: izibopho zamaqembu ezimboni zikagwayi namakhemikhali

Ukuhlola kweGlyphosate Spin: ukulandelela izimangalo mayelana ne-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu

Izimpendulo ze-GMO is a Ukuphathwa kwezinkinga Ithuluzi le-PR lama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides

UHank Campbell i-maze yamabhulogi esayensi athanda iMonsanto

UHenry I. Miller kwehliswe yiForbes ngehlazo lokubhala ngemiphefumulo leMonsanto

Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele: Iqembu elixhaswa ngemali nguKoch livikela izibulala-zinambuzane, uwoyela, izimboni zikagwayi

I-International Food Information Council (IFIC): Ukuthi iBig Food iziphotha kanjani izindaba ezimbi

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiqembu lokwamukela izimboni zokudla, imibhalo ikhombisa

UJay Byrne: hlangana nendoda engemuva komshini weMonsanto PR

UJon Entine, Iphrojekthi Yokufunda Ngofuzo: izithunywa ezibalulekile zeMonsanto, iBayer kanye nemboni yamakhemikhali

UKeith Kloor: ukuthi intatheli yesayensi isebenze kanjani nabalingani bemboni ekusithekeni

UKevin Folta izimangalo ezilahlekisayo nezikhohlisayo

UMark Lynas weCornell Alliance weSayensi amaphromoshini akhohlisayo futhi anganembile nge-ajenda yezentengiselwano yomkhakha wezolimo

IMonsanto yaqamba laba "abalingani bemboni" kuyo Uhlelo lwe-PR lokubhekana nesinqumo somdlavuza we-glyphosate (2015)

UNina Federoff yagqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukusekela iMonsanto

UPamela Ronald's izibopho emaqenjini angaphambili embonini yamakhemikhali

UPeter Phillips kanye nezihlobo zakhe uchungechunge oluyimfihlo "lwelungelo lokwazi" e-University of Saskatchewan

SciBabe uthi udle izibulala-zinambuzane zakho, kepha ngubani omkhokhelayo?

Isayensi Media Center ithuthukisa imibono yenkampani yesayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi / IZITATIMENDE spin isayensi embonini

UStuart Smyth imboni yezolimo izibopho kanye nezimali 

UTamar Haspel idukisa abafundi beWashington Post kumakholamu akhe okudla

I-Val Giddings: i-BIO VP yangaphambili iyinkampani esebenza kakhulu embonini yezolimo

Amashidi eqiniso angaphezulu ngamaqembu aphambili angaphambili, amaqembu ezohwebo nababhali be-PR:

I-BIO: iqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha we-biotech

Isikhungo Senkululeko Yabathengi

Izitshalo Zokuphila Zomhlaba Wonke

I-International Life Sciences Institute

UJulie Kelly

UKavin Senapathy / MAMIzinganekwane

I-Ketchum PR

I-US Farmers and Ranchers Alliance

Izinsiza Ezengeziwe ezivela e-US Right to Know

Izifundo zezifundo ezibhalwe kabusha yi-US Right to Know 

Amaphepha eMonsanto: Ingobo yomlando wedokhumenti ye-Roundup / Glyphosate 

Ingobo yomlando wedokhumenti ye-Dicamba

I-Roundup ne-Dicamba Trial Tracker blog olusha njalo 

Ishidi lamaqiniso leGlyphosate: Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo Mayelana ne-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu

Ishidi lamaqiniso lakwaDicamba

Ukusabalala kwezindaba zomhlaba wonke ze Ukutholwa kwe-US Right to Know 

Uma uthanda umsebenzi wethu, sicela QHAFAZA LAPHA ukusisiza sikhuphule ukushisa kuphenyo lwe-USRTK.

I-Glyphosate Spin Check: Izimangalo Zokulandelela Mayelana Nokubulala Ukhula Okusetshenziswa Kakhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Phakathi kwempikiswano yomhlaba jikelele mayelana nokuphepha kwe-herbicides esekwe ku-glyphosate efana neMonsanto's Roundup, kwenziwa izimangalo eziningi ukuvikela ukuphepha komkhiqizo. Ekuvukeni kwe- izinqumo ezimbili zakamuva zamajaji othole ukuthi i-Roundup iyinto ebaluleke kakhulu ekudaleni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, sihlole ezinye zalezi zimangalo futhi sazihlola ukuthi zinembile yini.

Uma unezibonelo eziningi ze-glyphosate spin ongathanda sizihlole, sicela ubathumele i-imeyili ku-stacy@usrtk.org noma tweet kithi @USRighttoKnow.

UMark Lynas, uCornell Alliance weSayensi

ICornell Alliance yeSayensi iwebhusayithi (Novemba. 2017)

Lo mbhalo kaMark Lynas uqukethe izitatimende eziningi ezinganembile nezidukisayo. Njengabaningi abagqugquzela imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate, izimangalo lapha zigxile ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ebeka i-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen yabantu ngo-2015.

FAKA ISICELO: I-IARC "yigatsha elincane elaziwayo futhi elincanyana le-World Health Organisation" "elithola cishe yonke into ebanga umdlavuza"

IQINISO: I-IARC yisikhungo esikhethekile sokucwaninga ngomdlavuza se-WHO esinamaphaneli ochwepheshe aqukethe ososayensi abazimele abavela emikhakheni ehlukahlukene yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Eminyakeni yayo engama-50 umlando, IARC inayo kuhlolwe izinto eziyi-1,013 futhi kutholakale ama-49% alabo "bengahlukaniswa ngokuya komzimba wayo kubantu"; Ama-20% ahlukaniswa njengaziwa noma mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic kubantu.

FAKA ISICELO: "Okusalungiswa kokuqala kokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kuguqulwe kakhulu ngesikhathi sekwephuzile ukukhomba ekutholeni umdlavuza - noma ngabe isayensi abebeyihlola ikhomba kude nalokhu"

IQINISO: Lesi simangalo sitholwe ngombiko weReuters onamaphutha kaKate Kelland wokuthi washiya amaqiniso abalulekile, kuhlanganise iqiniso lokuthi iningi lemininingwane i-IARC engazange iluthathe kusuka “kokungakapheli kokuqala” kwakusuka esihlokweni sokubuyekeza esabhalwa ngokubambisana ngusosayensi waseMonsanto. I-athikili yokubukeza "ayizange inikeze imininingwane eyanele yokuhlola okuzimele iziphetho ezafinyelelwa ngusosayensi waseMonsanto nabanye ababhali," Kusho IARC. UKelland ubhalile izindaba eziningana ukugxeka i-IARC; imibhalo ekhishwe ngo-2019 qinisekisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayenesandla ngasese kokunye ukubika kwakhe.

U-Lynas usebenzise omunye umthombo ukuvikela izimangalo zakhe ngokungalungile e-IARC: UDavid Zaruk, owake waba khona umkhakha wamakhemikhali wemboni yamakhemikhali owake wasebenzela inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller.

FAKA ISICELO: IGlyphosate “iyikhemikhali eliyingozi kakhulu kwezolimo emhlabeni”

IQINISO: Lesi sitatimende asisekelwe kusayensi. Izifundo zixhuma i-glyphosate ku-a uhla lwezinkinga zezempilo kufaka phakathi umdlavuza, ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine, isifo sesibindi, ukukhulelwa okufushane, ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa kanye nokulimala kwamabhaktheriya amathumbu azuzisayo. Ukukhathazeka kwezemvelo kufaka nemithelela emibi ku inhlabathi, izinyosi futhi izimvemvane.

SOURCE: UMark Lynas uyi owayeyintatheli waphenduka ummeli wokuphromotha ngemikhiqizo yezolimo. Usebenzela i- ICornell Alliance for Science, umkhankaso we-PR ebekwe eCornell University exhaswa yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

ACSH iwebhusayithi (Okthoba 2017)

FAKA ISICELO: Umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity we-glyphosate wawuyicala "lokukhwabanisa kwesayensi"

IQINISO: I-ACSH isekele izimangalo zayo "zokukhwabanisa" emithonjeni emibili efanayo uMark Lynas weCornell Alliance for Science osetshenziswe ngenyanga eyodwa kamuva ukuhlasela i-IARC kuwebhusayithi yeCornell: eyokuqala umkhakha wamakhemikhali wemboni yamakhemikhali UDavid Zaruk kanye ne alungile ku-Reuters ukuthi kulandele amaphuzu okukhuluma ukuthi UMonsanto unikeze intatheli.

SOURCE: Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo a iqembu langaphambili ethola uxhaso kusuka amakhemikhali, okwelapha kanye nogwayi izinkampani, futhi ifaka izinsizakalo zayo kumaqembu ezimboni ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo, ngokusho kwe- kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi. Ama-imeyili asuka ku-2015 asungula lokho IMonsanto yayixhasa i-ACSH futhi ngacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Umsebenzi we-ACSH uphendule ngokuthi bese bevele bebandakanyekile emkhakheni wokushicilelwa wenkantolo ephelele mayelana ne-agrichemicals, phthalates kanye ne-diesel.

UYvette d'Entremont, owaziwa nge- "Sci Babe"

I-Self Magazine esihlokweni (Okthoba 2018)

IZIMANGALO: “Ngezifundo ezingaphezu kuka-800 kuyo, alukho ucwaningo oluye lwabonisa izingxenye ze-Roundup ezidala umdlavuza”… “akuzange kube nezifundo ezinkulu ezithembekile ezibonisa ukuxhumana okuyimbangela phakathi kweRoundup nomdlavuza.”

IQINISO: Izifundo eziningi ezithembekile zixhumanisa iRoundup noma ingxenye yayo eyinhloko yeglyphosate nomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olwethulwe ku-EPA ngawo-1980s ukuthi ososayensi be-EPA ngaleso sikhathi bathi kwakuwubufakazi bokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza. Kunezifundo eziningi kakhulu ongazibala, kepha izingcaphuno zingatholakala ku-2015 I-International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph eGlyphosate.

Ngokwengeziwe, i- wide ukuhlaziywa kwesayensi wamandla okubanga umdlavuza we-glyphosate herbicides eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 2019 athola ukuthi abantu abanokuchayeka okuphezulu baba nengozi eyengeziwe yokuthola uhlobo lomdlavuza obizwa nge-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

SOURCE: U-Yvette d'Entremont "ungumhleli onikelayo" kuSelf Magazine onekholamu ebizwa nge- “SciBabe Explains.” ISelf Magazine ayivezi kubafundi bayo ukuthi iSciBabe abalingani nezinkampani ezikhiqiza imikhiqizo yazo. Ngo-2017, inkampani enandisa yokufakelwa iSplenda ihlangene neSciBabe ukusiza "ukunika amandla abalandeli be-SPLENDA® Brand ukuthi babambe iqhaza elibonakalayo ekuqhakambiseni izinganekwane mayelana ne-sucralose." Izinkampani zamakhemikhali zixhase ezinye zezingxoxo zakhe zokukhuluma ezingqungqutheleni zokulima.

UGeoffrey Kabat, udokotela wezifo zezifo

Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project iwebhusayithi (Okthoba 2018)

FAKA ISICELO: IGlyphosate “icwaningisiswe kahle kakhulu ngobuthi kanti ukugxila okutholakala kubantu kuphansi kakhulu kangangoba asikho isidingo sokuqhubeka nokufunda… akukho lutho olusele ukufakazela olunye ucwaningo!”

IQINISO: Ebufakazini obufungelwe bufakazelwa ubufakazi obubhekene namacala aqhubekayo abhekene noMonsanto nomnikazi wayo uBayer AG, owayeyi-CEO yeMonsanto UHugh Grant wavuma inkampani ayikaze yenze ucwaningo lwe-epidemiology lwe-glyphosate-based herbicide formulations inkampani ethengisa. Le nkampani iphinde yafuna ukuvimba i- Ukuhlola ubuthi yokwakheka kwe-glyphosate yi-Agency for Toxic Substances and Registry Registry.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, lawa mazwana, uDkt Kabat awasho njengomthombo ongaziwa, awawanaki amaqiniso amabili abalulekile: izifundo ezizimele zixhuma i-glyphosate ezinhlotsheni eziningi izinkinga zezempilo nokukhathazeka kwemvelo, kanye nobufakazi obuvela emafayilini enkantolo buveza ukuthi iMonsanto iphazamise ukuhlolwa kwesayensi nokulawulwa kwe-glyphosate (bona izibonelo nemithombo lapha, lapha, lapha, Futhi lapha).

Ngokusho kweJaji uVince Chhabria, owengamele icala lakamuva lombuso elaphumela ekulimaleni kweMonsanto, amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-80, abamangali baveze ubufakazi obukhulu ukuthi iMonsanto ayisebenzisanga ngendlela efanelekile nokuphephile ekuphepheni komkhiqizo wayo. ” Ijaji wabhala futhi:

Mayelana nezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kubantu, isayensi yakamuva ikhulisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi imithethonqubo yamanje ayinikeli ngokuvikelwa kwezempilo okwanele. Bheka ukubikwa nguCarey Gillam, "Amakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu: Uma 'kuphephe' kungenzeka kungaphephi ngempela,”Nezincazelo zososayensi lapha, lapha futhi lapha.

SOURCE: UDkt Geoffrey Kabat ubuhlobo obude embonini kagwayi futhi ushicilele amaphepha avuna umkhakha kagwayi oxhaswe imboni kagwayi. Usebenza ebhodini labaqondisi benhlangano yabazali yeGenetic Literacy Project, okuyiyona isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR. UKabat ubuye ebhodini lokweluleka leqembu langaphambili Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo.

UPatrick Moore, umxhumanisi we-PR

Ukuxoxwa ngevidiyo neCanal + (Mashi 2015)

FAKA ISICELO: "Ungaphuza ingxenye eyodwa kwezine ye- [glyphosate] futhi ngeke ikulimaze."

IQINISO: Ngisho neMonsanto ithi akufanele uphuze i-glyphosate. Ngokusho kwale nkampani iwebhusayithi, “I-glyphosate ayisona isiphuzo futhi akumele ifakwe - njengoba nje ubungeke uphuze imoto yokugeza imoto. Kuhlale kubalulekile ukusebenzisa imikhiqizo ngenhloso ehlosiwe futhi njengoba kuqondiswe kwilebula. ” (Okuthunyelwe kuphinde kucacise ukuthi uMoore “akayena umuntu olwela amalungelo abantu waseMonsanto noma umsebenzi.”)

SOURCE: UMorell uvezwe njengomunye wabasunguli beGreenpeace "obiza iqembu lakhe langaphambili" njengoba ephikisana nokususwa kwemikhiqizo enobuthi noma izimboni ezingcolisayo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, "Kwasukasukela, UDkt. Patrick Moore wayeyilungu laseGreenpeace lokuqala. Manje usengumxhumanisi wobudlelwano nomphakathi ezinkampanini ezingcolisa iGreenpeace esebenza ukuzishintsha. ” Ngo-2014, uMorey wafakaza ekomitini Lezigele laseMelika ukuthi abukho ubufakazi besayensi bokuthi imisebenzi yabantu ibangela ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke.

UKevin Folta, PhD, uprofesa e-University of Florida

Tweets 2015 futhi 2013

FAKA ISICELO: “Ngake ngaphuza i- [glyphosate] phambilini ukukhombisa ukungabi nabungozi”… “Ngikwenze bukhoma futhi ngizokwenza futhi. Kumele ixutshwe w / coke noma c-berry juice. Kunambitheka insipho. Ayikho i-buzz ”

IQINISO: Ngenkathi uDkt Folta kungenzeka ukuthi wayidla i-glyphosate, lesi iseluleko esibi esivela kumthombo ongathembekile. Njengoba kuchaziwe ngenhla, ngisho neMonsanto ithi akufanele uphuze i-glyphosate.

SOURCE: USolwazi Folta uke udukise umphakathi ezikhathini eziningi mayelana nezixhumanisi zakhe zomkhakha wezolimo. Ku-2017, uDkt Folta wamangalela intatheli ephumelele i-New York Times nePulitzer-Prize u-Eric Lipton ngokubika Ukusebenzisana kukaFolta okungadalulwanga neMonsanto ukusiza ukunqoba ilebula ye-GMO. Icala lalikhona ixoshiwe.

U-Alison van Eenennaam, PhD, isazi sezakhi zofuzo, u-UC Davis 

ingxoxo yevidiyo kwiReal News Network (Meyi 2015)

FAKA ISICELO: “Ngicabanga ukuthi kunezihlaziyo eziningana eziphelele kakhulu ze-meta eziye zenziwa muva nje ezibonisa ukuthi ayikho imiphumela eyingqayizivele yobuthi noma ye-carcinogenicity ehambisana nokusetshenziswa kwe-Roundup. Kwakukhona i-German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment esanda kubuyekeza amakhulukhulu ezifundo zobuthi kanye nemibiko ecishe ibe yinkulungwane eshicilelwe, futhi yaphetha ngokuthi idatha ayikhombisanga i-carcinogenic noma i-mutagentic properties ye-glyphosate, futhi nokuthi i-glyphosate ayinabuthi ekuzaleni, ekuzaliseni, noma embryonic ukukhula kombungu ezilwaneni zaselebhu ... Futhi angizukubiza iJalimane njengezwe lapho ungalindela ukuthi benze khona ukuhlolwa kobungozi okungabhekanga ukuthi ithini imininingwane. ”

IQINISO: A Umbiko we-2019 ethunywe ngamaLungu ePhalamende e-European Union athola ukuthi i-ejensi yokuhlola ubungozi yaseJalimane "ikopisha futhi inamathisele amapheshana avela ezifundweni zeMonsanto." Bheka ukubika ku-Guardian ngu-Arthur Neslen, "Ukuvunyelwa kwe-EU glyphosate kwakususelwa embhalweni obhalwe uMonsanto, umbiko uthola."

SOURCE: UDkt van Eenennaam ungumgqugquzeli ohamba phambili wezilwane nezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo, futhi ungummeli oshisekayo wokwehliswa komthetho. Imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi uxhumanisile nezinkampani zezolimo kanye namafemu abo obudlelwano bomphakathi ku-PR nokuthumela imiyalezo.

Ifilimu eliyi-Food Evolution 

Le documentary yobude besici ka-2017 ikhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo njengesixazululo sendlala emhlabeni kepha icwebezela impikiswano ebalulekile enkabeni yenkulumompikiswano ye-GMO: ukuthi ngabe i-Roundup, umuthi wokubulala ukhula izitshalo eziningi ze-GM ezenzelwe ukumelana nawo, ubangela umdlavuza. Le filimu ayikhulumi ngisho nangombiko we-IARC othole ukuthi i-glyphosate iyinto engaba ngumdlavuza womuntu, futhi ithembele emithonjeni emibili kuphela yokuthi i-glyphosate ayiyona inkinga.

FAKA ISICELO: Le filimu ikhombisa izithombe zikaMonsanto uRobb Fraley enikeza inkulumo; lapho ilungu lezilaleli limbuza ngezifundo ezixhumanisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza noma ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, uFraley waqhweba isandla sakhe ngokunganaki wathi zonke lezo zifundo "zingumbumbulu wesayensi."

IQINISO: Ubufakazi obuvela ezifundweni zezilwane kanye nemininingwane ye-epidemiological eshicilelwe emaphephabhukwini ahloniphekile axhumanisa i-glyphosate nemithelela emibi eminingi efaka umdlavuza kanye nezinkinga zokuzalwa.

FAKA ISICELO: Umlimi uthi i-glyphosate “inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti. ”

IQINISO: Ukuqhathanisa ubuthi bokuvezwa kwesikhashana kwe-glyphosate ezintweni ezifana nekhofi noma usawoti akubalulekile futhi kuyadukisa; Ukukhathazeka ngezixhumanisi zomdlavuza kususelwa ekuvezweni okungapheli, okuhlala isikhathi eside ku-glyphosate.

SOURCE: IFood Evolution yakhiqizwa nguScott Hamilton Kennedy, elandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson futhi yaxhaswa yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu lezebhizinisi lezimboni. Izitshudeni eziningi ziyibize ngo ifilimu ye-propaganda, futhi abantu abaningana okwaxoxwa nabo ngefilimu bachaza i- inqubo yokuqopha ngobuqili nenenkohliso. UProfesa we-NYU uMarion Nestle ucele ukukhishwa kule filimu, kodwa umqondisi wenqaba.

Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele

IMF iwebhusayithi (Agasti 2018)

FAKA ISICELO: "Iqiniso liwukuthi, i-glyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic."

IQINISO: Lo mbhalo kaJulie Gunlock awunikeli usekelo lwesayensi ngezimangalo zawo; okuwukuphela kwezixhumanisi okuholela kumabhulogi e-IWF angaphambilini asola amaqembu ezemvelo ngokuqamba amanga futhi "esabisa omama ngokungadingekile."

SOURCEIsithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane ithuthukisa imikhiqizo kagwayi, iphika isayensi yezulu kanye nabalingani neMonsanto emicimbini yokuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane. I-IWF ixhaswa kakhulu yizisekelo zamaphiko angakwesokudla ezikhuthaza ukwehliswa kwemithetho yezimboni ezingcolisa.

I-International Food Information Council

IFIC iwebhusayithi  (Janawari 2016)

FAKA ISICELO: "Ukuzimisela kwe-IARC [ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yomuntu okungenzeka] kutholakale ngochwepheshe abaningi ukuthi bakhiphe ngaphandle inqwaba yezifundo ezingatholanga bufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate iyicancer. Ochwepheshe baphinde bathola ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC kususelwa kusayensi enamaphutha nengenalusizo, abanye baze bafika ngisho ekutheni isiphetho 'besingalungile neze.' ”

IQINISO: I-IFIC incike emithonjeni yezimboni ngalezi zimangalo, exhumanisa nezindatshana zikaVal Giddings, PhD, owayengumphathi weqembu lezokuhweba waphenduka Umxhumanisi we-PR embonini yezolimo; noKeith Solomon, isazi sezobuthi owaye kuqashwe uMonsanto ukuhlola umbiko we-IARC.

SOURCE: The Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Wokudla Womhlaba Wonke, exhaswa yizinkampani ezinkulu zokudla namakhemikhali, ithuthukisa futhi ivikele ushukela, okokunandisa okokuzenzela, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane, ukudla okusetshenzwe nama-GMO. Uhlelo lwe-Monsanto PR lukhonjwe i-IFIC njengomunye "wabalingani bemboni" lokho kungasiza ukuvikela i-glyphosate ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza.

Lesi sithombe esithunyelwe ekhasini le-IFIC glyphosate (bese sisuswa ngemuva kokuthi sisinakile) siyisibonelo sohlobo lwemiyalezo umkhakha wezokudla oyisebenzisayo ukuzama ukukholisa abesifazane ukuthi bathembe “ochwepheshe” babo. 

I-Burger Engenakwenzeka Yehluleka Ukugqugquzela Ukuthembela Embonini ye-GMO

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan

Noma ngubani ozibuza ukuthi kungani abathengi bengaphefumulelwe ukuthi bathembe imboni ye-GMO, cabanga ngalokhu Ukuxokozela okuyinqaba kusuka ku-Impossible Foods Chief Officer wezokuXhumana uRachel Konrad ukuvikela i-Impossible Burger, i-veggie burger yenza inyama eningi nge-yeast genered genered. UKonrad kwamcasula lokho indaba eBloomberg yaphakamisa ukukhathazeka maqondana nocwaningo olunganele, ukungabi bikho kwemithethonqubo kanye nokubekwa obala obala kobuchwepheshe bokudla obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Umphathi wezokukhangisa we-Impossible we-Burger “walungisa umlando” ngolwazi olutholakala emaqenjini aphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nezinye izithunywa ezingathembekile ezihlala zidlulisa imininingwane enganembile.

Ngakho-ke uKonrad uthathe iMedium, egxeka abagxeki be-Impossible Burger njengabantu "abaphikisana nesayensi" futhi "ebeka irekhodi ngqo" ngolwazi aluthola emaqenjini angaphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nakwezinye izithunywa ezingathembeki eziphikisana nabathengi abaxhumana njalo nemininingwane enganembile ngesayensi.

IBloomberg ayiwona umthombo othembekile wokubika ngesayensi, ngokusho kukaKonrad, ngoba i-American Council on Science and Health (ACSH) usho njalo. I-ACSH iyi- iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi ukuthi ucela imali ezinkampanini zikagwayi, zamakhemikhali nezemithi ukuvikela ama-pesticides, ama-e-cigs, izimonyo neminye imikhiqizo enobuthi okungenzeka ukuthi iwine isixuku se-vegan.

Esikhundleni sokubekezelela ukwenzelela kweBloomberg, uKonrad uyasitshela, kufanele siqine ekukhuleni kwe- UMark Lynas, umgqugquzeli wama-GMO nezibulala-zinambuzane ezikhulumayo imininingwane enganembile mayelana nesayensi, ngokuvumelana ne ososayensi futhi ochwepheshe bezokudla. UMark Lynas usebenzela iCornell Alliance for Science, a umkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi wokukhuthaza ama-GMO uxhaswe ngokuyinhloko yiGates Foundation. (Amasango nawo umtshalizimali ku-Impossible Burger.)

The imiyalezo edukisayo la maqembu asebenzisa ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane, ukungazinaki izingozi zezempilo nezemvelo nokuthula abathengi kanye nabameli bezemvelo kuhamba ibanga elide ekuchazeni ukuthi kungani imboni ye-GMO ingazuzi ukwethenjwa kwabathengi.

I-Impossible Foods yaba nethuba lokuvula ikhasi elisha. Kuze kube manje, ukudla okuningi kwe-GMO kusungulwe ukuze kusinde ukufafazwa kwamakhemikhali okubulala ukhula: glyphosate, manje futhi dicamba, njalo njalo futhi i-2,4-D, lapho amaqembu ezemvelo abiza khona ngokuthi I-GMO yokubulala izinambuzane. Kepha Imboni ye-GMO iyashintsha ngokuvela kwamasu amasha njenge-CRISPR kanye ne-biology yokwenziwa.

Njengenye yezinkampani zokudla zokuqala eziphuma nomkhiqizo wokudla we-GM onganikela ngezinzuzo zabathengi (uma umuntu ethanda ama-burger we-veggie "opha"), i-Impossible Foods ibe nethuba lokubhala indaba entsha, nokwakha ukwethembana ngenqubo evulekile, esobala lokho kuhlonipha ukukhathazeka kwabathengi. Bayivuthele.

Kufanele sethembe umenzi ukuthi afakazele ukuphepha kweprotheni entsha eyenziwe ngofuzo ye-Impossible Burger, nokusha ekunikezelweni kokudla kwabantu. Kepha inqubo yenkampani ayikukhuthazi ukwethenjwa.

Isithako sabo se-GMO “heme” “siphephe kakhulu,” ngokusho kwe-Impossible Foods iwebhusayithi. UKonrad uyachaza kwiMedium, "Inhloso, iqembu leqembu lesithathu labaphenyi abaphezulu bezokudla kuleli ngazwilinye baphetha ngazwi linye ngo-2014 ukuthi isithako esiyinhloko se-Impossible Burger, i-soy leghemoglobin (ekhiqizwa yimvubelo yezakhi zofuzo), 'ngokuvamile saziwa njengephephile.' Iphaneli lenze lesi siphetho ngo-2014, ngaphambi kokuba siqale ukuthengisa i-Impossible Burger emakethe ngo-2016. ”

Ushiye amanye amaqiniso abalulekile. Njengoba i- I-New York Times ibike ngo-Agasti odlule, lapho i-US Food and Drug Administration iphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi izifundo i-Impossible Foods ezethulwe kwisaziso sayo se-GRAS zazikhona akwenele ukusungula ukuphepha, inkampani ihoxise isicelo sayo kodwa yabeka i-burger emakethe noma kunjalo.

Lokho bekuphakathi kwamalungelo abo, kepha akuyona indlela yokwakha ukuzethemba kumkhiqizo wabo.

"Lezi yizindawo ezimi ezimbonini eziqashiwe."

Elinye ifulegi: Abacwaningi bokudla abathathu ababhala i- umbiko wepaneli yesazi ukuthi Ukudla Okungenakwenzeka okulethwe ku-FDA — uJoseph Borzelleca, uMichael Pariza noSteve Taylor — basohlwini olufushane lososayensi “imboni yokudla iphendukela kaninginingi” ukuthola isimo se-GRAS, futhi bobathathu basebenzela UPhillip Morris IBhodi Eliluleka Ngezesayensi, ngokophenyo olwenziwe ngo-2015 yiCentre for Public Integrity, "Imboni Yemininingwane Engafanele: Ososayensi bokuphepha kokudla banobudlelwano neGwayi Elikhulu. "

IBorzelleca, iCentre for Public Investigation ibike, iyona ebisebenza kakhulu ososayensi, njengoba isetshenziselwe amaphesenti angama-41 wamaphaneli angama-379 ahlanganisiwe eminyakeni eyi-17 edlule ukubuyekeza ukuphepha kwezithako ezintsha zokudla.

"Phezu kokuhlangenwe nakho kwakhe kwamashumi eminyaka nokudunyiswa kwakhe ngozakwabo-omunye ambiza ngokuthi 'isimangaliso'-abagxeki bohlelo lwe-GRAS bathi iBorzelleca iwuphawu lohlelo olugcwele ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo," kubika i-CPI. "Uma ososayensi bethembela embonini yokudla ukuze bathole imali, bangase babe mancane amathuba okuthi baphikisane nokuphepha kwezinkampani zezithako ezinethemba lokuzithengisa, kusho abagxeki."

"Lawa ngamaphaneli amile ezimboni aqashe izibhamu," kusho uLaura MacCleery, ongummeli weCentre for Science in the Public Interest, etshela i-CPI. "Ixhasa ukuchema nge-steroids."

Kodwa imibono yabagxeki abanezinkinga ezisemthethweni ayemukelekile emhlabeni we-Impossible Burger, ngokusho kukaRachel Konrad.

Esikhundleni sokushisa indlela entsha yobuqotho ngobuchwepheshe bayo bokudla obusha, i-Impossible Foods ithathe isinqumo sokulandela indlela egqokwe kahle ngabaningi abakhipha izithasiselo zokudla kanye nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo: ukusheshisa imikhiqizo emisha ukuyimaketha ngaphandle kwenqubo esobala noma ukubuyekeza okuphelele kokuphepha, bese umemeza phansi noma ngubani ophakamisa ukukhathazeka. Esizweni sonke sethu, abantu abafuna ukwazi ukuthi yini esekudleni kwabo bakuthola kukubi ukuziqhenya okunjalo.

Lo mbhalo ekuqaleni ivele ku-EcoWatch

Ifilimu ye-Food Evolution GMO Ikhonza I-Ajenda Yezimboni Zamakhemikhali

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Lokhu okuthunyelwe kubuyekezwe ngezibuyekezo ze-Food Evolution: 

NguStacy Malkan, 6/19/2017 

Eminye imizamo yokuthumela imiyalezo embonini inzima kakhulu bagcina beqhakambisa amaqhinga abo we-PR ukwedlula umyalezo abazama ukuwudlulisa. Leyo yinkinga nge Ukuvela Kokudla, idokhumentari entsha yomqondisi oqokwe yi-Academy Award uScott Hamilton Kennedy futhi ilandiswa nguNeil deGrasse Tyson.

Le filimu, evulwa emashashalazini ngoJuni 23, ithi inombono oqondile ngempikiswano mayelana nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kepha ngesethulo sayo esinefilosofi yesayensi nedatha, iphuma ibukeka njengecala lezincwadi lenkulumo-ze yenkampani embonini yezolimo kanye izitshalo zayo ze-GMO.

Ukuthi inhloso yefilimu okuhloswe ngayo ukuthi isebenze njengemoto ethuthela imiyalezo embonini akuyona imfihlo. Ukudla Evolution kwaba kuhlelwe ngo-2014 futhi ixhaswe yi-Institute for Food Technologists, iqembu labahwebi, ukuqeda umzamo wokuthumela imiyalezo iminyaka eminingi.

I-IFT ixhaswe ngokwengxenye ngu izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla, kanye neqembu umongameli ngaleso sikhathi kwakunguJanet Collins, owayengumphathi weDuPont noMonsanto ngubani manje kuyasebenzela ICropLife America, inhlangano yokuhweba ngezibulala-zinambuzane. UMongameli Okhethiwe we-IFT USindi Stewart usebenzela iDuPont.

I-IFT ikhethe uKennedy ukuthi aqondise ifilimu, kodwa yena nomkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan bathi babenakho ukulawula ngokuphelele ifilimu abayichaza njengophenyo oluzimele ngokuphelele ngesihloko sama-GMO kubandakanya yonke imibono.

Ukwethembeka kwefilimu kunenkinga yokuzikhethela kwabo ukwamukela kuphela isayensi nososayensi abahambisana nabadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abazuza kuma-GMO kanye namakhemikhali asetshenziswa kuwo, kuyilapho benganaki isayensi nedatha engahambelani naleyo ajenda.

Ukwelashwa kweMonsanto Science

Isibonelo esisobala sokungathembeki kwesayensi kuFood Evolution yindlela ifilimu esebenza ngayo ne-glyphosate. Ikhemikhali yokubulala ukhula isenhliziyweni yendaba ye-GMO, kusukela Ama-80-90% wezitshalo ze-GMO zenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-glyphosate.

IFood Evolution ibika ukuthi ukwanda kokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate ngenxa yama-GMO akuyona inkinga, ngoba i-glyphosate iphephile. Imithombo emibili isungula lesi simangalo kwifilimu: umlimi uthi i-glyphosate "inobuthi obuncane kakhulu; iphansi kunekhofi, iphansi kunosawoti, ”noRobb Fraley kaMonsanto - ephendula owesifazane ezilalelini ombuza ngesayensi exhumanisa i-glyphosate nezinkinga zokuzalwa nomdlavuza - umtshela ukuthi konke lokho kuyisayensi embi," yi-pseudoscience. "

Yonke isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka nge-glyphosate "yi-pseudoscience," kusho uMonsanto.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngokukhathazeka kwe-carcinogenicity okugubuzele iMonsanto ku International isayensi ukukhwabanisa, noma abalimi abaningi Bamangalela iMonsanto esola ukuthi bathole umdlavuza ovela enkomishini ye-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide.

Akukho lapho kukhulunywa khona ngombiko wango-2015 wenhlangano yomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ebeka i-glyphosate njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu, noma Isinqumo saseCalifornia ukufaka i-glyphosate ohlwini lweProp 65 lwamakhemikhali aziwa ukudala umdlavuza, noma izifundo ezibuyekezwa kontanga ezixhumene imiphumela engemihle yezempilo ukuze glyphosate futhi Roundup.

Esikhundleni sokubuka ubufakazi, i-Food Evolution inikeza ababukeli ukwelashwa okuphelele kwesayensi yeMonsanto: noma yisiphi isayensi esiphakamisa ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zezempilo zemikhiqizo yezolimo kufanele zinganakwa, kuyilapho izifundo ezibeka leyo mikhiqizo ekukhanyeni okuwukuphela kwesayensi kufanele kuxoxwe ngakho.

Amazinga aphindwe kabili kuSayensi kanye nasekubonakaliseni izinto obala

Ukuphathwa ngokulinganayo kwezihloko zokuxoxwa ngemibono ehlukene bekuzosiza ukwethembeka kweFood Evolution. Esikhundleni salokho, ifilimu ipenda abagxeki be-GMO ebabonisa ngokungathembeki noma ukuzenzela inzuzo ngomkhakha wezinto eziphilayo, ngenkathi ishiya imininingwane ebalulekile ngemithombo yayo yezimboni.

Kwesinye isigcawu, umlingiswa ophambili wefilimu, uprofesa we-UC Davis u-Alison van Eenennaam, ukhulula ukuthi ukubonakala kwesiteji nomphathi weMonsanto empikiswaneni kungangcolisa igama lakhe lokuzimela. Ababukeli abakaze bafunde ukuthi wayejwayele sebenzela iMonsanto, noma ukuthi uphethe amalungelo obunikazi amaningi we-GE eziphakamisa intshisekelo yezezimali esihlokweni esiseduze.

Usosayensi we-Pro-industry Pamela Ronald, omunye umthombo oyinhloko wesayensi, uthola ukwelashwa kweqhawe ngaphandle kokusho lokho ezimbili zezifundo zakhe zihoxisiwe. Yize kunjalo ababukeli bashaywa ngesando ngezindaba zokuthi ucwaningo olwenziwe ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Eric Séralini - oluthola izinkinga zezinso nezicubu kumagundane afunzwa ummbila weGMO - "luhoxisiwe, lwahoxiswa, lwahoxiswa!"

Ifilimu ishiya iqiniso lokuthi isifundo bekuyi yaphinde yashicilelwa, futhi wahoxiswa endaweni yokuqala ngemuva kwesisebenzi sangaphambili seMonsanto uthathe isikhundla sokuhlela nephephabhuku lapho lashicilelwa khona ekuqaleni.

Ukulandisa kwe- “Africa Needs GMOs”

Kokunye ukulandisa okuphindwe kahle, iFood Evolution ithatha ababukeli ohambweni lomzwelo oluya ezweni elisathuthuka, nakwenye ithrekhi yemiyalezo yomkhakha oyintandokazi: kunokugxila ekutheni ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo busetshenziswa kanjani ohlelweni lwethu lokudla manje - ikakhulukazi ukudlulisa ukubekezelelana kwe-herbicide - kufanele gxila ekutheni ingasetshenziswa kanjani ngokuzayo.

Njengoba kunesikhathi esiningi se-air and tension eshubile, le filimu ihlola inkinga ye-banana wilt, isifo esibulala izitshalo eziyisisekelo e-Afrika, futhi iholela ababukeli ukuthi bakholelwe ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bezakhi zofuzo buzosindisa isivuno, abalimi kanye nomphakathi.

Kungenzeka. Kepha ifilimu ayikunaki ukusho ukuthi ubuchwepheshe bomsindisi we-GE abukatholakali futhi kungenzeka bungasebenzi. Ngokusho kwephepha ku- Isitshalo se-Biotechnology Journal, ukumelana okuboniswa kulebhu kunamandla kepha kungahle kungahlali isikhathi eside ezindaweni ezivulekile.

Le filimu “iwukungathembeki okuyisisekelo.”

Okwamanje, isixazululo se-low-tech sisebenza kahle futhi kubukeka sengathi singasebenzisa imali ethile. Ngokusho kwephepha lika-2012 kwi Ijenali Yezentuthuko Nezomnotho Wezolimo, izikole zabalimi, ezisiza abalimi ukuthola ulwazi lwezandla ngamasu okuvimbela ukubola kwebhanana, kwaholela ekwehliseni amazinga okutheleleka nokubuyiswa kwezitshalo okuphezulu e-Uganda. Imiphumela yezikole zabalimi “iye yaphawuleka,” ngokwe-UN.

Isixazululo asidingi ukuthi kukhulunywe ngakho ku-Food Evolution.

"Ngokuyisisekelo ukungathembeki kwefilimu ukuthola isisombululo se-GE esingahle singasebenzi, njengoba ososayensi uqobo bevuma," kusho uMichael Hansen, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, "ngenkathi ehluleka ukukhomba enye indlela yokulawula inkinga esebenza kakhulu kahle, kepha akubandakanyi ukuthengisa umkhiqizo ukuze wenze imali. ”

Ngabe iMonsanto yayihlangene ne-Food Evolution?

IMonsanto nabalingani bayo bebekhuluma ngezinhlelo zedokhumentari ngasekupheleni kuka-2013, ngokusho kuka ama-imeyili atholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ama-imeyili awanabo ubufakazi obuxhumanisa lezo zingxoxo ne-Food Evolution, kepha basungula isifiso sikaMonsanto ngefilimu esizwakala sifana kakhulu naleso esidalwe nguKennedy.

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto yabhala ngoDisemba 2013 eqenjini labeluleki be-PR, “kusobala ukuthi intshisekelo enkulu yokulandela ifilimu eliyi-documentary. Okubaluleke kakhulu, ukuvumelana ngukuthi ukubamba iqhaza kukaMonsanto kwamukelekile, ikakhulukazi esigabeni sokuhlela. ”

Wancoma ukubizwa kocingo lokuhlela lukaJanuwari 2014. UJon Entine we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project wakhuphuka wahola, futhi wathi "uthole isibambiso sakhe esingu- $ 100,000 kumuntu ongusomabhizinisi ozimele uma singathola" (wonke umugqa unqanyuliwe). I-Entine futhi inokuxhumana ne-Institute for Food Technologists; ukhulume ngo “ubushoshovu bokulwa nokudla”Emhlanganweni wonyaka we-IFT wango-2012.

Omunye umuntu okukhulunywe ngaye kuma-imeyili eMonsanto, UKarl Haro von Mogel - ngubani owayexoxile nge-Sachs "Ukwehla kwefilimu exhaswe yi-'Big 6 '” futhi kwaphakanyiswa ukuthi "okungabaluleke ngaphezu kwemali yabo ukubamba iqhaza kwabo" - kwaxoxwa nabo kuFood Evolution, futhi wabandakanyeka nasekuqopheni isigcawu esisodwa, esikisela abanye ekusithekeni ukuxhumana nabenzi bamafilimu.

Ephendula ama-imeyili, uKennedy ubhale on Twitter: “@Foodevomovie has had ZERO $ or INPUT from #Imonsanto. Sisobala ngokuphelele futhi sijabule 2 sinengxoxo esekelwe eqinisweni. ”

Uthe enkulumweni yakhe, "lokho kushintshaniswa kwama-imeyili bekungahlangene nakancane nephrojekthi yethu ...

Abantu ekushintshaneni nge-imeyili bebengabandakanyeki ekuqopheni nasekululekeni, usho kanjalo, kanti uKarl Haro von Mogel “ubeyisihloko kule filimu futhi ebengenaqhaza noma ithonya kunoma yiziphi izinqumo zokudala / zokuhlela ngale filimu nganoma yisiphi isikhathi embonisweni . Futhi kungasiza ukuveza ukuthi ingxoxo ye-imeyili obhekise kuyo yenzeka kudala singakaze sazi uKarl noma omunye walaba bantu. ”

Sneak Peek Behind the Scene

Okunye ukushintshaniswa kwe-imeyili okutholwe yi-US Right to Know inikeza ukubonwa ngemuva kwezigcawu ekuthuthukisweni kokulandisa ku-Food Evolution. Ukushintshisana kubonisa ukufuna kukaKennedy izibonelo azofaka “thina / izwe elisathuthuka sidinga i-GMO.”

“Noma yimuphi omunye umhlaba 'wethu / osathuthuka udinga i-GMO' unganginika amagama eceleni kwamawolintshi? Ulethisi weShintakus? ” Kubuza uKennedy. Umkhiqizi uTrace Sheehan uphendule ngohlu lwemikhiqizo ye-GMO kubandakanya irayisi elibekezelela isomiso, amakinati angenalo igciwane, amazambane angenayo i-carcinogen… “bese ufaka inkinobho yeGolden Rice.”

Ngenkathi uKennedy efuna "izitshalo eziphezulu ze-GMO ezisetshenziswayo njengamanje, nokuthi imaphi amazwe," uMark Lynas we ICornell Alliance yeSayensi ubhale wathi, "Ngempela iBt brinjal eBangladesh iyona kuphela eyi-GMO futhi esebenza kabanzi."

Ukubikwa kwefilimu okuqhutshwa ifreyimu kuyishaya indiva leyo mininingwane ngokungabi bikho kwezixazululo ze-GMO ezisebenzayo, futhi akusho ukuthi isibonelo esisondelene kakhulu, i-Vitamin-A ethuthukisiwe yeGold Rice, namanje ayitholakali ngaphandle kokutshalwa kwemali okukhulu neminyaka yokulingwa, ngoba akusebenzi kahle ensimini njengama-rice akhona manje.

Yini inkulumo-ze?

Esigcawini okufanele sidlulise ukwethembeka kwesayensi, iFood Evolution ikhanyisa uphawu lwe-American Council on Science and Health okwamanje uNeil deGrasse Tyson uthi kukhona ukuvumelana komhlaba wonke mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO. Isiliphu esifanelekayo. ASCH kuyinto iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi kuhambelana eduze neMonsanto.

Indawo ye-logo ye-ACSH nayo iyavela ngemuva kulokhu Isiqeshana semizuzu engu-2 kusuka enkulumweni yakamuva yeClimate One, njengoba uKennedy ephikisana nesiphakamiso sokuthi ifilimu yakhe iyinkulumo-ze.

“Sinquma kanjani ukuthi yini inkulumo-ze?” Kubuza uKennedy. “Ngithi enye yezindlela esikwenza ngayo (ukubuza), ingabe imiphumela iyacelwa, noma imiphumela ithenjisiwe? Angibuzwanga ngemiphumela futhi angithembisanga imiphumela. Uma unenkinga ngefilimu, inkinga ikimi. ”

Lokhu kubuyekezwa kwavela ekuqaleni Huffington Post futhi bekulokhu liphinde lanyatheliswa ku-Alternet. 

Bona futhi: I-athikili yokulandelela kaStacy Malkan, Abalandeli bakaNeil deGrasse Tyson Owes Ingxoxo Ethembekile Ngama-GMO kune-Food Evolution. "Ukuxoxisana nabanye abahlaziyi beGMO abambalwa abavela kule filimu, noma bacelwa ukuba babe kuyo, kufakazela isithombe senqubo engajwayelekile ebandakanya ukuqoshwa ngokunyenya, ukuhlelwa kokukhetha, ukumelwa ngendlela engeyiyo nokungadalulwa mayelana nokuxhaswa kwefilimu."

Kungani iCornell University Ibamba Umkhankaso We-GMO Propaganda?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Lo mbhalo ka-Stacy Malkan wasekuqaleni uvele ku- Isazi sezinto eziphilayo

Abasunguli beCornell University, u-Andrew D. White no-Ezra Cornell, baphupha ngokwakha inyuvesi enkulu ethatha indlela ebucayi yokufunda. Umoya wabo wenguquko, nesithembiso sokuphishekela ulwazi ngokuzuzisa okukhulu, ngu wathi enhliziyweni yesikole i-Ivy League iphupho labo laba.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuthi le mibono isetshenziswa kanjani yiyunithi yaseCornell esebenza njengengalo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yezolimo.

Nokho yilokho okubonakala kuqhubeka eCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), uhlelo umkhankaso ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela ku-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation kanye nomgomo “wokudicilela phansi inkulumo-mpikiswano ekhokhisiwe” mayelana nama-GMO.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezinto zokwenziwa nezinhlelo zeqembu kusikisela ukuthi ngaphansi kwesithembiso salo “sokubuyisa ukubaluleka kobufakazi besayensi ekuthathweni kwezinqumo,” i-CAS ithuthukisa ama-GMO isebenzisa imiyalezo engathembekile namasu we-PR akhiwa izinkampani zezolimo ezinomlando omude wokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi .

Ukuxhumana nesayensi noma inkulumo-ze?

I-CAS umkhankaso wezokuxhumana ozinikele ekukhuthazeni ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo (okwaziwa nangokuthi ama-GMO) emhlabeni jikelele. Lokhu kucaciswa kweqembu ividiyo yephromoshini.

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uchaza iqembu lakhe "njengenhlangano engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana emelwe ososayensi, abalimi, ama-NGO, izintatheli kanye nezakhamizi ezikhathazekile" ezizosebenzisa "amapulatifomu asebenzisanayo e-inthanethi, izinsizakusebenza zemultimedia nezinhlelo zokuqeqesha ezokuxhumana ukwakha inhlangano yomhlaba wonke yokukhuthaza ukufinyelela kwi-biotechnology . ”

Ngale ndlela, bathi bazosiza ekunciphiseni ukungondleki nendlala emazweni asathuthuka, ngokusho kwevidiyo.

UDkt Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe alinakho ukuxhumana nezimboni futhi alitholi izinsiza ezivela embonini. "Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni," ubhale kanje iposi blog enesihloko esithi “Ilungelo Lokwaziwa (Ngokunembile) lapho ebephindisela khona emuva ekugxekeni eqenjini lami, i-US Right to Know.

Noma kunjalo izinhlelo ezihamba phambili ze-CAS - isifundo samasonto ayi-12 se- Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kanye nezinsuku ezimbili izifundo zokuxhumana - fundisa amakhono okuxhumana nabantu "abazibophezele ekukhuthazeni ukufinyelela okwandisiwe kwe-biotechnology" ikakhulukazi ukuze bakwazi "ukuhola imizamo yokukhuthaza ezimeni zabo zendawo."

Leli qembu futhi linokusebenzisana okungajwayelekile nezintatheli. Kusho ukuthini, njengoba ividiyo ye-CAS isho, ukuthi "imelwe" yizintatheli?

Ukunikezwa kwe-CAS ubudlelwane bobuntathelis ngemiklomelo yemali yezintatheli ezikhethiwe ukuze “zithuthukise ukubika okunemibandela ejulile” mayelana nezinkinga eziphathelene nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, ubuchwepheshe be-biotechnology kanye nezolimo ezisimeme.

Ngabe lezi zintatheli nazo zingabameli beGMO? Kulungile kanjani ukuthi izintatheli zimelele izikhundla zenqubomgomo yeqembu elisekela ezolimo nemboni?

Imilayezo yezintshisekelo zebhizinisi

Into eyodwa icacile emyalezweni we-CAS otholakala esidlangalaleni: umongo abawunikeza ngesihloko sokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo awunabunzulu futhi ubanzi kepha ukhetha kakhulu futhi uhlose ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Isibonelo, ividiyo: Egcwele ithemba ngamathuba ama-GMO wokuxazulula indlala emhlabeni ngokuzayo, ayishayi indiva inqwaba yocwaningo lwezesayensi olubhale izinkinga ezihlobene nama-GMO - izitshalo ze-GMO ezibekezelela ukhula kuqhutshwa phezulu ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-herbicide kuxhumene nomdlavuza ngochwepheshe abaphambili bomdlavuza emhlabeni; futhi yashesha ukumelana nokhula ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-US, elenza ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo kube nzima kubalimi, kungabi lula.

Akukho lapho kushiwo khona ukwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ezenzelwe gwema izinambuzane eziyingozi, noma ukukhathazeka okukhulayo kodokotela bamaphethini ngokugula ezindaweni ezinjenge Hawaii futhi Argentina lapho ukuvezwa kusinda kakhulu kumakhemikhali ahambisana nama-GMO.

Akukho ukuqashelwa ukuthi abaningi ososayensi futhi ukudla abaholi bathe ama-GMO awabalulekile ekuphakeleni umhlaba, impikiswano okuyisona sizathu esenza izitshalo ze-GMO zingamukelwa kabanzi ngaphandle kwase-United States naseLatin America.

Zonke lezi zinto zifanele engxoxweni yokuthi amazwe asathuthuka kufanele yini amukele izitshalo nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kepha i-CAS ishiya eceleni le mininingwane futhi ikhulise umbono ongelona iqiniso wokuthi isayensi ixazululwe ekuphepheni nasekudingekeni kwama-GMO.

Ukusabalalisa imininingwane ekhethiwe yohlobo oluchemile noma oludukisayo ukuthuthukisa i-ajenda ethile kwaziwa njengomkhuba wenkulumo-ze.

Ukusebenza encwadini yokudlala ye-PR yomkhakha

 ICornell Alliance for Science bekufanele samanje “Umbono omusha wezokuxhumana kwe-biotechnology,” kepha iqembu lithembele kusethi yemilayezo namasu wokuxhumana ajwayelekile kunoma ngubani olandela imikhankaso ye-PR embonini yamabhizinisi ezolimo.

Umbiko Ukuphalaza ukudla, engibhalile ngokubambisana noKari Hamerschlag no-Anna Lappé, ibhala ukuthi amaqembu axhaswa ngezimboni zezolimo nezimboni asebenzisa kanjani amashumi ezigidi zamaRandi ngonyaka ukukhuthaza imiyalezo edukisayo maqondana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo sezolimo esisebenza ngezimboni, esisebenza ngamakhemikhali, nofuzo.

Izinkampani ezizuza kakhulu kulolu hlelo - iMonsanto, iDow, iDuPont nezinye iziqhwaga zezolimo - ziphambanise kaningi ukuthembela ngokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi, njengoba uGary Ruskin akhombisile embikweni wakhe Ibhizinisi Lokusiza. Ngakho bathembele amaqembu angaphambili futhi ababambisene nabangaphandle njengososayensi noprofesa ukusabalalisa imiyalezo yabo.

Indaba esemqoka embonini ukuthi isayensi yezokuphepha kwe-GMO ixazululiwe. Izithunywa ze-pro-industry zigxila ekusetshenzisweni kobuchwepheshe esikhathini esizayo ngenkathi zilulaza, zinganaki noma ziphika ubungozi; yenza izimangalo ezinganembile mayelana nezinga lesivumelwano sesayensi kuma-GMO; futhi bahlasele abagxeki abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka njenge- "anti-science."

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uMark Lynas, umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS, wabhala i-New York Times i-op-ed esola amazwe ayi-17 e-European Union avimbela ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ze-GMO ngokuthi “kuphendulwa isayensi.” Wababiza ngokuthi “umfelandawonye wabangazi.”

I-athikili inzima ekuhlaselweni nasekukhanyeni kwesayensi, ibhulasha phezu kwesihloko ngesimangalo esingalungile mayelana nokuvumelana kokuphepha okuthi ososayensi abaningi baphikisile.

Njengesazi sezakhi zofuzo uBelinda Martineau, PhD, wabhala ku impendulo kuLynas, "Ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo… (akukhona) ngokwesayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo."

I-World Health Organization uthi, "Akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kwakho konke ukudla okuphathelene ne-GM."

Kodwa-ke, ngenkathi bethi bayimele isayensi, i-CAS ijwayele ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile - nokungajwayelekile - mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Kusuka kweqembu Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa:

  • "Kungenzeka ukuthi ushayiswe yi-asteroid kunokulimazwa ukudla kwe-GE - futhi lokho akulona ihaba."
  • “Izilimo ze-GE ezitholakalela umphakathi njengamanje azinabungozi obukhulu kwezempilo noma ukukhathazeka ngezemvelo kunezinye zazo ezingezona izakhi. Lona akuwona umbono wami. ”

Eqinisweni, kuyinkulumo-ze.

Ukulwa nokuba sobala kwezesayensi

Ngentwasahlobo ka-2014, i-CAS yethule i- isikhalazo ngihlasela iqembu lami lase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngokufaka izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuthola ama-imeyili oprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni njengengxenye yethu uphenyo ezimbonini zokudla nezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yabo ye-PR.

I-CAS ibize i-FOIA ukuthi icele "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi," kepha imibhalo etholwe ngalezi zicelo ze-FOIA iveze izindaba ezindabeni emithonjeni yezindaba ephezulu emayelana nezifundiswa ezazisebenza nezinhlangano zezimboni ze-PR emikhankasweni yokukhuthaza ama-GMO ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho emphakathini.

Indaba yagqashuka ekhasini lokuqala leNew York Times esihlokweni ngu-Eric Lipton owaphumelela kabili umklomelo wePulitzer Prize, owachaza ukuthi iMonsanto, lapho ibhekene nokungaqiniseki kwabathengi ngama-GMO, “ibuyise kabusha isu labo lokunxenxa nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukuze kubonakale iqembu labameli abangavamile: izifundiswa, ezilethwe ekukhanyeni okungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eza nozalo loprofesa. ”

Kokunye, kubika nguLaura Krantz eBoston Globe, isikhulu seMonsanto sitshele uprofesa waseHarvard uCalestous Juma ukuthi abhale iphepha mayelana nokuthi adingeka kanjani ama-GMO ukondla i-Afrika.

“IMonsanto ayigcinanga nje ngokusikisela lesi sihloko kusolwazi uCalestous Juma. Kufike lapho kuze kwanikezwa isifinyezo sokuthi iphepha lingathini kanye nesihloko esiphakanyisiwe. Le nkampani bese ixhuma lo profesa nenkampani yezokumaketha ukuyipompa nge-Internet njengengxenye yecebo likaMonsanto lokunqoba umphakathi nabomthetho, ”kubhala uKrantz.

UJuma uthe akayithathanga mali eMonsanto kodwa uqaphele ukuthi uthole uxhaso kwiGates Foundation, ebibambisene neMonsanto iminyaka eminingi kumaphrojekthi we-GMO ngemuva URob Horsch, Isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto ekuthuthukisweni kwamazwe omhlaba, wajoyina iSisekelo ngo-2006. IHorsch manje kuhola Ithimba lezocwaningo nezentuthuko zikaGates. (A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 yiqembu locwaningo iGrain lithole ukuthi cishe ama-90% ama- $ 3 billion iGates Foundation ayisebenzisile ukondla abampofu e-Afrika waya ezizweni ezicebile, ikakhulukazi amanyuvesi nezikhungo zocwaningo.)

Umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi ngabe izifundiswa ezenza imithombo ezimele zisebenza ngasese nezinkampani kanye namafemu abo e-PR emikhankasweni yemiyalezo ehlanganisiwe ukuze baqhube i-ajenda yenkampani.

I-CAS ithatha isikhundla esicelweni sayo sokuthi umphakathi awunalo ilungelo lokwazi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kwabasebenzi bezimboni ze-PR nososayensi bomphakathi abayi-14 "abafake isandla ekuvumelaneni kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO."

Isicelo sikaCornell sihambisana nemontage yezithombe equkethe uCarl Sagan, Madame Curie, Albert Einstein nabanye ososayensi abangasekho abangasayinisanga isicelo, bagxivizwa ngesiqubulo esithi, “Ngima ne- # Science14” - okuncane okukhangayo kwe-PR okubukisa i inkulumo-ze yokungathembeki kujwayele ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.

Ukuqondanisa nabalobi bezimboni ze-PR

Esikhungweni esihlonishwayo njengoCornell, ungalindela ukuthola ochwepheshe kwizifundo zesayensi noma zokuziphatha ezifundisa izifundo zokuxhumana ezithembisa ukubuyisa ubuqotho besayensi enkulumweni yomphakathi. Esikhundleni salokho, ku-CAS, uzothola ochwepheshe kwezokuxhumana kwezinhlekelele abagxile ekuphikiseni imithetho yezempilo yomphakathi.

Isibonelo, uTrevor Butterworth, umuntu ovakashele eCornell kanye nomqondisi weSense About Science ("inhlangano engathathi hlangothi, engenzi nzuzo ekhuthaza ukuqonda ngesayensi!") ukubambisana nge-CAS ukufundisa abafundi nososayensi ukuthi bangaxhumana kanjani nezintatheli mayelana nama-GMO.

IButterworth inomlando omude wokuxhumana nesayensi ukuze kuhlomule izinkampani ezifisa ukugcina imikhiqizo yazo ingalawulwa. I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ka-2009 esihlokweni nguMeg Kissinger noSusanne Rust mayelana nemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni kwi-bisphenol A (BPA) emkhombe "njengombhali wezobudlelwano embonini yamakhemikhali."

Njengomhleli we-STATS eGeorge Mason University, uButterworth wayengumvikeli omkhulu we-BPA "ohlanganisa njalo i-Intanethi ezindabeni ze-BPA futhi anikeze imibono ngaphandle kokuveza obudlelwano bakhe nezimboni," kubhala uKissinger noRust.

“I-STATS ithi izimele futhi ayithathi hlangothi. Kepha ukubuyekezwa kwemibiko yayo yezezimali kukhombisa ukuthi igatsha leCentre for Media and Public Affairs. Leli qembu lakhokhelwa imboni kagwayi ukuze liqaphe izindaba ezithinta ubungozi bukagwayi. ” (Imboni kagwayi, baphawula ukuthi, yayinxenxa nemboni yamakhemikhali ukugcina i-BPA ingalawulwa.)

IButterworth iphinde yathuthukisa nezikhundla ezimbonini eziphikisana nemithetho ye-vinyl plastic kanye phthalates, ukukhwabanisa, i-fructose ephezulu isiraphu yengqolowa futhi ama-sodas anoshukela.

Manje usebenzisana neCAS ukufundisa abafundi indlela yokuxhumana ngama-GMO, kanti umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS uLynas uhlala ebhodini lezeluleko leSense About Science.

Umsebenzi kaLynas uphakamisa imibuzo eminingi: Kungani iqembu lesayensi lidinga umqondisi wezepolitiki? Futhi kungani iCAS ikhetha uLynas ngendima? ULynas akayena usosayensi kepha ungumbhali wezemvelo owasukuma udumo olungazelelwe ngemuva kokwamukela ama-GMO, futhi isayensi yakhe iye yagxilwa isikhathi eside ngu ososayensi, Izintatheli futhi oprofesa.

Ukwehlisa impikiswano ye-GMO?

Izinkampani zaziwa ngokusabalalisa imiyalezo ethusayo lapho imikhiqizo yazo ingena enkingeni; izibonelo kufaka phakathi i- "DDT ilungele mina," "Odokotela abaningi bayabhema amaKamela" kanye nomkhankaso weDutch Boy wokukhuthaza upende wokuhola ezinganeni.

Iphuzu eliphansi lokuthumela imiyalezo embonini yamakhemikhali bekungokwalo Umkhankaso we-PR ukudweba umbhali “weSilent Spring” uRachel Carson (kanye nezazi zemvelo ngokujwayelekile) njengababulali bezigidi zezingane e-Afrika ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lolo hlobo lwemiyalezo lubuyela emuva empikiswaneni ye-GMO.

NgoSepthemba 2015, i-CAS Speakers Series yabamba u-Owen Paterson, iLungu lePhalamende lase-UK, ngo-a inkulumo enesihloko esithi, “Bheka Ilungelo Lakho Eliluhlaza: Akusona Isimo Sezulu Ukuvumela Izigidi Zife.”

EzikaPaterson inkulumo kwagcwala izimangalo ze-hyperbolic mayelana nama-GMO angenakho ukuqina kwesayensi (ama-GMOs) empeleni iphephe kunezilimo ezijwayelwe ... enye yezintuthuko ezigcina imvelo emhlabeni ingakaze ibonwe… kungasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi ezisaphazwa namuhla yimibono yamaqembu omkhankaso wezemvelo asekelwa kakhulu. ”)

Le nkulumo ithole indumiso evela ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni, ku blog nguDkt. Gil Ross onesihloko esithi, "Imikhankaso Eluhlaza Yezigidigidi Eziyizigidi Ezimbili Ibulala Izingane Ezimpofu."

URoss uchaze kubhulogi ukuthi iCAS Speakers Series yadalwa, “ukusebenzisa amaqiniso ukumelana nokuthambekela okubonakalayo kwabafundi basekolishi ukulandela imantra yezemvelo ngaphandle kokucabanga kakhulu… umqondo wokwesaba ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ufana nokubheka ngaphansi kombhede ngenxa yama-hobgoblins afana no-Godzilla, avuswa ukuhlolwa kwe-athomu kwempi yomshoshaphansi. ”

UPaterson noRoss abasizi ngomfanekiso wobuqotho besayensi i-CAS izama ukuveza lokho. URoss uyisigebengu esilahlwe yicala esachitha isikhathi ejele ngokukhwabanisa kweMedicaid. UPaterson, owayengunobhala wezemvelo e-UK, ubonakala kabanzi njenge- ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kuyabazeka imibono kabani akuhambisani nesayensi.

Ngabe ama-blogger aseHawaii asiza kanjani ukondla abampofu e-Afrika?

 Ngenkathi yokukhula konyaka, iziQhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo ebalulekile yokuhlola ama-GMO. Futhi ayiziro yomhlabathi ye- ukukhathazeka mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane ezihlotshaniswa nama-GMO, kanye nokugxila okuyinhloko kwemikhankaso yenkulumo-ze ye-pro-GMO yomkhakha nabalingani bayo njenge-CAS.

Elif Bealle, umqondisi omkhulu we IHawaii Alliance Yezenzo Eziqhubekayo, ubesebenza emizamweni engaphansi ye ukubikwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, banns futhi izindawo zokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane cishe izitshalo ze-GMO. Ubuye futhi wabheka i-CAS, athe ibilanda ama-blogger endawo futhi inabalingani eziQhingini eziningana.

“Baziveza 'njengezakhamuzi zendawo ezikhathazekile' noma 'njengezintatheli ezingathathi hlangothi.' Cishe basebenza isikhathi esigcwele bephawula ngama-athikili ephephandaba aku-inthanethi, bethumela, i-Community Voice Op-Eds, njll. Okuthunyelwe kwabo kubhulogi kuthathwa njalo kusatshalaliswe yiwebhusayithi yeqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech eHawaii, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association, ”kusho uBealle.

Isibonelo, uJoni Kamiya, i-CAS Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke, usebenzisa blog yakhe, Indodakazi kaMlimi waseHawaii, ukugqugquzela “ukuphepha nesayensi” yama-GMO ngemiyalezo ecwebezela isayensi futhi ehlazisa abagxeki be-GMO.

UKamiya futhi "uchwepheshe ozimele" we-GMO Answers, a GMO PR iwebhusayithi eyenziwe yinkampani yeKetchum PR futhi ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo. Izindatshana zakhe zibhalwe ku KaJon Entine I-Genetic Literacy Project, nayo eyathwetshelwa ukushicilela amaphepha okuphakanyiswa kweGMO anikezwe abakwaMonsanto futhi abhalwa ngosolwazi.

Ukubhalwa kukaKamiya kuvela ekhasini lasekhaya le- IKauai Farming and Jobs Coalition, iqembu elinemali engaziwa elithi "limele abantu kanye nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene emphakathini wethu" futhi lithuthukisa izindatshana zeMonsanto, i-Genetic Literacy Project kanye neminye imboni yokudla amaqembu angaphambili njengesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi.

Abanye ababambisene ne-CAS eziqhingini bahlanganisa uLorie Farrell, a Umlingani we-CAS obhalela izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi wasiza ukuxhumanisa ukuphikisana nokuvinjelwa kokulinywa kwe-GMO esiQhingini Esikhulu sabaFuyi baseHawaii nabaseRanchers United; noJoan Conrow, obonisana nabantu isivumelwano noCornell bese ebhala i- ibhulogi elibhekene IKauai Eclectic.

Imiyalezo yabo ilandela iphethini ejwayelekile: bathi ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO futhi bahlasela abantu abafuna ukubekwa obala nokuphepha njengabantu bangaphandle ababulala "umoya we-Aloha" weziQhingi.

Ukuhlomisa ingxabano

Kuye esihlokweni, "The War on Genetically Modified Food Critics," uTufts uProfesa Timothy Wise uthatha abezindaba abenze iphutha ngokulahla amaqhinga embonini ye-PR futhi ngokungafanele abike isayensi ku-GMO "njengelungisiwe."

"Esikubonayo wumkhankaso ohlangene wokuthi… kupendwe abagxeki be-GMO njengabaphikisana nesayensi ekubeni benganiki ngxoxo ebucayi ngempikiswano yesayensi esathukuthele," kubhala uWise.

Esinye isikhombisi salowo mkhankaso, uthe, kwakuwumnikelo weGates Foundation eya kuCornell ukuze "adicilele phansi" impikiswano ngokudla okuyi-GM.

"IGates Foundation ikhokhela ososayensi nabameli baseCornell ukubasiza bakholwe umphakathi ongenalwazi nongavunyelwe ingqondo, 'okungenzeka ukuthi abanolwazi olwanele,' ukuthi abanalwazi futhi badidekile engqondweni ... Kufana nokudicilela phansi isifuba ngokulwa nohlangothi olulodwa izikhali eziningi, ”kubhala uWise.

Esikhundleni sokuhlomisa izimpi ze-PR ngenhloso yokusebenzela imboni, iCornell University kufanele imele isayensi ngokubiza ingxoxo ethembekile ngama-GMO - evuma ubungozi kanye nezinzuzo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Lowo ogwema ukuhlasela futhi afune indawo esivumelana ngayo namaqembu afuna ukubekwa obala kanye namazinga ezempilo nezokuphepha.

Umqondisi we-CAS uDkt. Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe linamanani afanayo azungeze ilungelo lokwazi nokufinyelela olwazini, futhi uphikisana nombono wokuthi i-CAS yasungulwa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO.

“Lokho okubizwa ngokuthi 'ama-GMOs' akuyona into e-monolithic,” kubhala uDkt. Evanega kuye blog. “Isibonelo, akunangqondo ukuhlanganisa ndawonye ubuchwepheshe obuhlukahlukene njengamabhaktheriya akhiqizelwe ukukhiqiza i-insulin nopopo okwenzelwe ukumelana negciwane. Sisekela ukufinyelela - emisha kanye nolwazi oluzosiza abantu benze izinqumo ezizwakalayo ezisuselwa kwisayensi nobufakazi - hhayi ukwesaba, imizwa. ”

Impela ama-GMO akuyona into e-monolithic. Yingakho kungalungile futhi kungathembeki ukusho ukuthi abantu banamathuba amaningi okushaywa yi-asteroid kunokulimala ngama-GMO.

Ubumbano lwesayensi olumayelana nokubuyisa ubuqotho kwisayensi kufanele lukhanyise irekhodi eliphelele locwaningo, hhayi ukuphalaza amaphuzu okukhuluma amafemu e-PR nabadlali bezinkampani.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabasunguli nomqondisi-co weqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” (New Society Publishing, 2007). UStacy wayeyintatheli futhi engummemezeli wephephandaba futhi esengummeli wesikhathi eside wezempilo yezemvelo. Ubuye wasungula iCampaign for Safe Cosmetics ngo-2002 wasebenza njengomqondisi wezokuxhumana kwi-Health Care Without Harm iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili.