I-imeyili yozungu: “IARC iyasibulala!”

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengabacwaningi sivame ukubheka imibhalo ukukhanyisa okusha ngezinkinga ezibalulekile kunqubomgomo yokudla. Kwesinye isikhathi, zimane zibonise lokho esesivele sikwazi.

Lokho kunjalo ngentambo eyodwa entsha yezokuxhumana engeza ebufakazini becebo elifinyelela kude labadlali bemboni yezokudla ukwehlisa isithunzi nokunciphisa inkampani ehamba phambili yocwaningo lomdlavuza. Sesibonile imibhalo evela kwaMonsanto nezinye izintshisekelo zomkhakha wamakhemikhali ebeka amapulani ukuqeda ukuthembeka kwe-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ngenxa yokuhlukaniswa kwayo kwe-Monsanto's weed killer glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu.

Manje sibona ubufakazi bokuthi abanye abadlali bemboni yokudla bayingxenye yohlelo; ngisebenzela ukunqanda ukuhlolwa kwe-IARC okungalimaza izithasiselo zokudla njenge-aspartame, i-sucralose, nokuningi.

I-imeyili yozungu itholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi avulekile wombuso. Kukhombisa ukuxhumana phakathi kukaJames Coughlin, usosayensi wesikhathi esisodwa weKraft General Foods Inc. osebenza ngebhizinisi lokubonisana ngokudla kanye “nokudla okunomsoco”, noTimothy Pastoor, isazi sezobuthi esesathatha umhlalaphansi nesikhondlakhondla se-agrochemical Syngenta AG manje oseqhuba eyakhe “yezokuxhumana kwezesayensi ”Ibhizinisi. Futhi okufakwe engxenyeni yochungechunge lwe-imeyili yindoda yaseMonsanto PR uJay Byrne, ophethe "ukuphathwa kwedumela" futhi ibhizinisi lobudlelwano nomphakathi, noDouglas Wolf, owayengusosayensi we-Environmental Protection Agency manje oneSyngenta.

Ku-imeyili ka-Okthoba 2016, uCoughlin utshela uPastoor ukuthi ubelokhu “elwa kanjani no-IARC unomphela !!” esukela esikhathini sakhe eKraft. Ulandisa isikhathi asichitha egxeka i-ejensi yomdlavuza yamazwe omhlaba nomsebenzi wase-US House of Representatives owayehlanganisa umzamo qeda uxhaso lwe-US ku-IARC.

Bese kuthi, lapho ezwakalisa ukwesaba okujulile imboni yokudla ebambe i-ejensi yomdlavuza, ufika enyameni yalolu daba: "IARC iyasibulala!" Uyabhala. Intambo yamakhasi amabili ingatholakala lapha. Ingcaphuno ingezansi:

I-Grocery Manufacturers Association - amaqiniso asemqoka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isifinyezo


* I-GMA yiqembu elihola phambili lezokuhweba embonini yokudla okungenamsoco

* I-GMA ifihla uhlu lwamalungu ayo ezinkampani

I-GMA itholwe inecala lokushushumbisa imali

Umthetho ophikisayo wokulwa nobugqila bezingane

* Ngaphandle kokuthinta: Amaphesenti angama-93 amaMelika asekela ukufakwa ilebula kwe-GMO, kepha i-GMA iyaphikisana nakho

Simelana nokulebula okuyisibopho kokudla, sisekela ukulawulwa kokuzithandela

Izinkulumo ezihlanzekile zokuqeda ukukhuluphala kwengane

Ukusetshenziswa okusekelwayo kwe-rBST / rBGH obisini, i-hormone yokufakelwa evinjelwe e-EU / Canada

Uxhaswe umkhankaso wamanga wokulwa ne-ethanol

I-GMA Ifihla Uhlu Lwezinkampani ZamaLungu Wenkampani

IGMA ayisazibhalisi izinkampani ezingamalungu ayo kuwebhusayithi yayo. Nalu uhlu lwakamuva olutholakala esidlangalaleni lwe- [Amalungu e-GMA. Iwebhusayithi ye-GMA nge-archive.org, efakwe kungobo yomlando 12/23/13]

UMongameli we-GMA Wenza imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 2 Million ngonyaka

Kusukela ngoJanuwari 2009, uPamela Bailey usebenze njengoMongameli kanye ne-CEO yeGrocery Manufacturers Association. Kusukela ngo-Ephreli 2014, uBaley wenza amaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-2.06 ngonyaka. [Isiphathimandla sikahulumeni, 4/14] UBailey umemezele ngo-2018 ukuthi uzothatha umhlalaphansi ngemuva kweminyaka eyishumi elawulwa yiGMA. [I-Grocer eqhubekayo, 2 / 12 / 2018]

I-GMA Ithole Inecala Lokukhwabanisa Imali

Ngo-Okthoba 2013, uMmeli Jikelele waseWashington State uBob Ferguson wafaka icala elibhekisa kwi-GMA ngokutholakala kwemali ngokungemthetho. Leli cala lisola ukuthi i-GMA “iqoqe ngokungemthetho futhi yachitha imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyisikhombisa ngesikhathi ivikela abanikeli bayo.” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-Attorney General, 10 / 16 / 13]

Ngo-2016, i-GMA yatholwa inecala lokushushumbisa imali yayalelwa ukuthi ikhokhe u- $ 18 million, okukholakala ukuthi iyinhlawulo ephezulu kakhulu yokwephula umkhankaso wezezimali emlandweni wase-United States. [USeattle PI, 11/2/2016]

I-GMA Yembula Abanikeli Ngaphansi Kwengcindezi, Ibonisa Ngaphezu Kwemali Eyisigidi Esigidini ngasinye kusuka kwaPepsi, Nestle, naseCoca-Cola

Ngo-Okthoba 2013, i-GMA yakhipha uhlu lwayo lwabaxhasi ngaphansi kwengcindezi, ikhombisa ukuthi uPepsi, uNestle, noCoca-Cola ngamunye wanikela ngaphezu kwe- $ 1 million.

“IGrocery Manufacturers Association ngoLwesihlanu iveze ukuthi uPepsiCo, Nestle USA kanye neCoca-Cola ngamunye unikele ngeminikelo efihlekile engaphezulu kuka- $ 1 million emkhankasweni wokulwa nomkhankaso waseWashington ozodinga ukufakwa ilebula lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Usoseshini uvumile ukubeka emphakathini uhlu olude lwabanikeli emkhankasweni wabo wokulwa nokufakwa kophawu ngemuva kokumangalelwa kuleli sonto nguMmeli Jikelele waseWashington uBob Ferguson. ” [The Oregonian, 10 / 18 / 13]

I-GMA Isolwa Ngokufihla Izigidi Zamadola Ngaphezu Kokukholelwa Ekuqaleni

NgoNovemba 2013, uMmeli Jikelele uFerguson uchibiyele isikhalazo sokuqala ukuthi sikhuphuke sisuka ku- $ 7.2 million saya ku- $ 10.6 million isamba okusolwa ukuthi sasifihlwa yiGMA. [Times Seattle, 11 / 20 / 13; Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-Attorney General, 11/20/13]

I-Counter-Suit Egcwalisiwe Ifuna Ukungavumeli Imithetho Yomkhankaso Wezezimali Edinga Ukudalulwa Kwabaxhasi

NgoJanuwari 2014, i-GMA yaphendula enkantolo yaseWashington Attorney General ngecala elibhekene nokufuna ukwenza imithetho yezimali yomkhankaso wombuso ingasebenzi mayelana nokudalulwa kwabaxhasi.

“Ngemuva kokuzama ukuthonya ngasese imiphumela yevoti ku-Initiative 522, iGrocery Manufacturers Association manje isiphonsela inselelo imithetho yezimali yomkhankaso kahulumeni. NgoJanuwari 3, i-GMA yaphendula enkambisweni yokudalulwa komkhankaso weWashington State Attorney General emelene neGMA ngencwadi ephikisayo. I-GMA iphinde yafaka isikhalazo esihlukile samalungelo omphakathi ngokumelene noMmeli Jikelele waseWashington State uBob Ferguson. I-GMA ithi uFerguson uphoqelela umthetho waseWashington ngokungqubuzana nomthethosisekelo futhi uphonsela inselelo umthethosisekelo wokuthi iGMA ibhalise njengekomiti lezepolitiki ngaphambi kokucela nokwamukela iminikelo yokuphikisana ne-Initiative 522, okuyisinyathelo ebesizodinga ukuthi kubhalwe ukudla kokudla okunofuzo. ” [I-Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 1 / 13 / 14]

Umthetho Wezimangalo we-GMA Ofuna Ukudalulwa Kwabaxhasi kwakungavumelani noMthethosisekelo

Ukuphikiswa kweGMA kubanga ukuthi ukucelwa ukuthi udalule abanikeli bayo akuhambisani nomthethosisekelo.

“Kuleli cala eliphikisayo nelamalungelo omphakathi, i-GMA ithi lokhu okulandelayo akuhambisani nomthethosisekelo njengoba kusetshenzisiwe kuleli cala: Umthetho waseWashington ofuna iGMA ifake ikomidi lezepolitiki ngaphambi kokuqoqa izimali kumalungu ayo ukwenza umsebenzi othile wezepolitiki eWashington; Umthetho waseWashington odinga ukuthi i-GMA idalule izinhlangano ezinikele esikhwameni sayo sezombusazwe esikhethekile nokuthi zinikele ngamalini; nomthetho waseWashington odinga ukuthi i-GMA ivikele imali engu- $ 10 yeminikelo kubavoti abayi-10 abahlukene ababhalisiwe baseWashington njengengxenye yekomidi layo lezepolitiki ngaphambi kokunikela elinye ikomidi lezepolitiki. [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kweWashington State Office of the Attorney General, 1/13/14]

Ijaji Linqabe Umzamo Wokuchitha Icala NgoJuni 2014

NgoJuni 2014, iJaji laseThurston County uChristine Schiller wenqaba isiphakamiso esivela kwi-GMA sokuchitha icala elibhekene nokushintshana ngemali.

IJaji laseThurston County ngoLwesihlanu liyichithile imizamo yeGrocery Manufacturers Association yokuchitha icala lapho uMmeli Jikelele wombuso uBob Ferguson esola khona isigungu esizinze eWashington, DC ngokukhwabanisa izigidi zamadola emkhankasweni owedlule. … Ijaji uChristine Schaller usichithile isicelo sososeshini sokuchitha icala. "Isinqumo sanamuhla siyisinyathelo esibalulekile emsebenzini wethu wokubopha iGrocery Manufacturers Association ngecala lokufihla umkhankaso elikhulu kunawo wonke emlandweni waseWashington," kusho uFerguson. [I-Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 6 / 13 / 14]

Icala Lezinqumo Lommeli Jikelele we-Attorney Lizoqhubeka Lizame

Ngemuva kwesinqumo seJaji uSchaller, uMmeli Jikelele uBob Ferguson uthe icala le-GMA lizoqhubeka nokuqulwa kwecala "ngokufanele."

“[IJaji uChristina] Schaller usichithile isicelo sokuthi sichithwe, wanquma ukuthi imithetho yomkhankaso wezezimali yomkhankaso edinga ukuthi kusungulwe ikomidi lezepolitiki nokudalulwa okuhlobene nakho kusetshenziswe ngokomthethosisekelo kuleli cala. Icala manje lizoqhubekela phambili ngokufaneleka kwalo. ” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kweWashington State Office of the Attorney General, 6/13/14]

UMthethosivivinywa Ophikisayo Oveze Ukuqashwa Kwezingane Okufana Nezigqila Emasimini Okhokho

Ngokusho the Okhulumela iSpokane-Review, ngo-2001 i-GMA, kanye nomkhakha woshokoledi, baphoqelela umthetho we-US Congress owawuzodalula imikhuba efana nokugqilazwa kwezingane emasimini kakhokho e-Afrika. [Okhulumela iSpokane-Review, 8 / 1 / 01]

Umthetho ohlongozwayo ubuyimpendulo yophenyo lweKnight Ridder oluthola ukuthi abanye abafana abancane abaneminyaka eyi-11 bayathengiswa noma bakhohliswe ebugqilini bokuvuna ubhontshisi we-cocoa e-Ivory Coast, izwe laseNtshonalanga Afrika elinikezela ngamaphesenti angama-43 kakhokho wase-US. UMnyango Wezwe walinganisela ukuthi zingama-15,000 izingane eziyizigqila ezisebenza emapulazini kakhokho, kakotini nekhofi e-Ivory Coast. [Okhulumela iSpokane-Review, 8 / 1 / 01, Isevisi Yokucwaninga Nge-DRM, 7/13/05]

I-GMA iphelelwe yisikhathi: Amaphesenti angama-93 aseMelika asekela ilebula…

Ngokusho the New York Times ngo-2013, “abaseMelika bakusekela kakhulu ukufaka ilebula kokudla okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo noma okwenziwe, ngokusho kocwaningo olwenziwe yiNew York Times kulo nyaka, ngamaphesenti angama-93 abaphendulile abathi kufanele kudalulwe ukudla okunezithako ezinjalo.” [New York Times, 7 / 27 / 13]

… Kodwa i-GMA iphikisana nemithetho yokuphoqeleka yokuphawula

NgoJuni 2014, i-GMA nezinye izinhlangano ezintathu zomkhakha wezokudla baphonsela inselelo umthetho waseVermont odinga ukuthi amalebula okudla akhombe imikhiqizo enezithako ze-GMO.

“Namuhla, iGrocery Manufacturers Association (GMA), kanye neSnack Food Association, i-International Dairy Foods Association kanye neNational Association of Manufacturers, bafaka isimangalo enkantolo yesifunda eVermont bephikisana nomthetho ophoqelela ukufakwa kophawu lweGMO. I-GMA ikhiphe lesi sitatimende ngokuhlangana nokugcwaliswa okusemthethweni. ” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba ze-GMA, 6/13/14]

I-Federal Ban esekelwayo ku-State GMO Labeling Laws

Ngo-Ephreli 2014, i-GMA yakhuthaza ukuvinjelwa kombuso emithethweni yezwe ukuthi kudinge ukuphawulwa okuyimpoqo kwe-GMO.

“Imidondoshiya embonini yezokudla yaseMelika echithe izigidi zabantu ilwa nemizamo yombuso nezwe yokugunyaza amalebuli amasha ezinto ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo bathatha ikhasi kubaphikisi babo futhi bafuna umthetho wesifundazwe we-GMO. Kodwa iGrocery Manufacturers Association, emele abaholi bokudla neziphuzo abanjengoConAgra, uPepsiCo noKraft, ayihlangani ncamashi nenhlangano elwa ne-GMO. Kunconywa ukuthi kube nomthetho ovumela imboni, umthetho onezinga lokuzithandela - okuyisinyathelo izishoshovu zokudla ezikubona njengokuthathwa kwamandla yimboni eye yazama ukubulala imizamo yokufaka amalebuli e-GMO. ” [I-Politico, 1 / 7 / 14]

Umthethosivivinywa Wowezi-2014 Wethulwe Ukuvimbela Izwe Ekufuneni Amalebula E-GMO

Ngo-Ephreli 2014, kwafakwa umthethosivivinywa eCongress ozovimbela amazwe ukuthi enze imithetho yabo yokufaka ilebula ye-GMO.

“Umthethosivivinywa owethulwe ngoLwesithathu uzobeka uhulumeni wesifundazwe ekuphathweni kokwengamela ukufakwa kwelebheli lokudla ngezithako ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo, ukuvimbela amazwe ukuthi enze imigomo yawo yokulawula izithako ezinempikiswano. … Kodwa amaqembu abathengi athembisa ukuthi bazolwa nomthetho, abawubona njengomzamo wokubukela phansi imizamo yokudlulisa izinhlelo zokuvota zombuso ezigunyaza ukubhalwa kwemikhiqizo eminingi enezithako ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo. ” [USA Today, 4 / 9 / 14]

UMongameli we-GMA Ubizwa Ngokuthi Ukunqotshwa Kwesakhiwo 37 “Okubaluleke Kakhulu Kakhulu”

Ngo-2012, uMengameli we-GMA uPam Bailey wathi ukwehlula iProp 37 kwaba yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwi-GMA ngonyaka ka-2012.

"Enkulumweni yakamuva eya e-American Soybean Association (iningi lasoya elitshalwe e-US liguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo), uMongameli weGrocery Manufacturers Association uPamela Bailey uthe ukwehlula lolu hlelo 'yinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwi-GMA kulo nyaka.'” [Huffington Post, 7 / 30 / 12]

Isekela Ngokuzithandela, Akuphoqelekile, Ukulebula Kokudla

Ngo-2014: I-GMA ne-Food Marketing Institute Yethulwe Umkhankaso Wokulebula Ngokuzithandela wama- $ 50 Million

NgoMashi 2014, i-GMA kanye neFood Marketing Institute baqala umkhankaso wokumaketha ongu- $ 50 million wokuqhakambisa uhlelo lwamaqiniso lokudla okunomsoco lwemboni.

“Imboni yokudla ibonakala ilungele ukuhlanganyela ekuphathweni kuka-Obama ngokwethula umkhankaso wezindaba kuzwelonke wokuqhakambisa amalebula ayo okunomsoco ngaphambili kwamaphakeji okudla. IGrocery Manufacturers Association kanye neFood Marketing Institute, ezimele izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla nabathengisi, bazokhipha umkhankaso wokumaketha ohlangene, basebenzise imali engango- $ 50 million, ngoMsombuluko ukukhuthaza i-'Finance Up Front 'yabo, uhlelo lokuzithandela lomkhakha ngokunikeza imininingwane yokudla okunempilo ngaphambili kwamaphakeji okudla neziphuzo, I-POLITICO ufundile. ” [I-Politico, 3 / 1 / 14]

I-GMA icindezelwe i-Voluntary Federal GMO Labeling Standard

Ngo-2014, i-GMA, kanye nezinye izinhlangano zomkhakha wezokudla, yafuna ukuthi kube nelebuli ejwayelekile yokuzithandela yokuguqula ilebula lomzimba.

“Imidondoshiya embonini yezokudla yaseMelika echithe izigidi zabantu ilwa nemizamo yombuso nezwe yokugunyaza amalebuli amasha ezinto ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo bathatha ikhasi kubaphikisi babo futhi bafuna umthetho wesifundazwe we-GMO. Kodwa iGrocery Manufacturers Association, emele abaholi bokudla neziphuzo abanjengoConAgra, uPepsiCo noKraft, ayihlangani ncamashi nenhlangano elwa ne-GMO. Kunconywa ukuthi kube nomthetho ovumela imboni, umthetho onezinga lokuzithandela - okuyisinyathelo izishoshovu zokudla ezikubona njengokuthathwa kwamandla yimboni eye yazama ukubulala imizamo yokufaka amalebuli e-GMO. ” [I-Politico, 1 / 7 / 14]

I-Double Talk ye-GMA Yokuqeda Ukukhuluphala Kwezingane

I-Grocery Manufacturers Association izishaye isifuba ngokuthi "izibophezele ekwenzeni ingxenye yayo ekusizeni ukunciphisa ukukhuluphala eMelika - ikakhulukazi ukukhuluphala kwengane." [I-GMA Press Release, 12/16/09]

… Kepha Uphikisana Nemikhawulo Ekuthengisweni Kokudla Okungenamsoco, Isoda Ezikoleni

Ngokwencwadi kaMichele Simon Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, "I-GMA irekhodi eliphikisana cishe nayo yonke imali yombuso evimbela ukuthengiswa kokudla okungenamsoco noma isoda ezikoleni." [Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, ikhasi 223]

 … Futhi Wasebenzela Ukunqoba Imihlahlandlela Yesikole Yokunakekelwa Kwezikole EseCalifornia, Ithumela Umthethosivivinywa Wokunqotshwa Ngokuqokwa Kokugcina Kwemizuzu

Ngo-2004, imihlahlandlela yokudla okunomsoco ezikoleni zaseCalifornia yehlulekile ngokulandela ukunxenxa ngomzuzu wokugcina kusuka ku-GMA.

“Ngenyanga edlule nje, iCalifornia izamile ukusetha imihlahlandlela yokondleka kokudla okuthengiswa ngaphandle kohlelo lokudla lwenhlangano. Kepha sibonga ukunxenxwa ngomzuzu wokugcina ngabakwaGrocery Manufacturers of America (GMA), lowo mthetho wahluleka ngamavoti amahlanu nje, yize ubesekelwa yizinhlangano ezingama-80 ezingenzi nzuzo. Amaqembu amahlanu kuphela aphikisana nalesi silinganiso - wonke azuza ngokuthengisela izingane ukudla okungenamsoco. ” [UMichele Simon, Isevisi Yezindaba ZasePacific, 9 / 3 / 04]

… Futhi Kwaphikiswa Imihlahlandlela Yesikole Yokondliwa Kwezinye Izifundazwe

Ngokwencwadi Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, I-GMA iphikisana nemihlahlandlela yokudla esikoleni kwezinye izifundazwe, kufaka phakathi iTexas, i-Oregon neKentucky.

“Ukuseshwa kwegama elithi 'izikole' kwi-webhusayithi ye-GMA kuholele ekushayweni okungekho ngaphansi kwezingu-126, iningi lazo okulethwa kuzo ubufakazi noma incwadi efayelwe ephikisana nenqubomgomo yokudla okunempilo ehlobene nesikole. Nazi izibonelo ezimbalwa zezihloko zemibhalo: Incwadi ye-GMA ekuphikisweni kwe-Texas Food and Beverage Imikhawulo, i-GMA Letter ekuphikisweni kwe-Oregon School Restrictions Bills, i-GMA icela i-Veto ye-Kentucky School Restrictions Bill, ne-GMA Letter ekuphikisweni kwe-California School Nutrition Bill . ” [Ukulangazelela Inzuzo, Ikhasi 223]

… Futhi UnamaLobbyists Ezweni Lonke Enhloso Yokuhlulwa Komthetho

Ngaphezu kokunxenxwa kwayo nguhulumeni (okwakuma ku- $ 14 million ngo-2013), i-GMA inamalungu okubamba iqhaza kulo lonke izwe ehlose ukwehlula umthetho ovimbela imboni yezokudla. Ngezansi kunamanye ama-lobbyists wombuso wabo. [Isikhungo Sezombusazwe Esiphendulayo, opensecrets.org, ifinyelelwe ngomhla ka-12/22/14; Imithombo yombuso exhunywe ngezansi]

I-Lobbyist State
ULouis Finkel California
UKelsey Johnson Illinois
Ama-lobbyist ayi-7 aneRifkin, Livingston, Levitan & Silver Maryland
UKelsey Johnson Minnesota
AbakwaCapitol Group Inc. I-New York

I-GMA Ifune Ukwenza Kancane Ukuphoqelelwa Kwemithetho Yelebula

NgoDisemba 2011, i-GMA yacela abakwaFood and Drug Administration ukuthi bakhethe ngemithetho yokulebula mayelana namaqiniso ayisisekelo wokudla.

“Ucele ukuthi i-FDA isebenzise amandla ayo okuphoqelela maqondana nezici ezithile zemithethonqubo yokubeka ilebula yokudla ukuze kube lula ukuqaliswa kohlelo lwe-Nutrition Keys, okungukuthi: [1] Ukusetshenziswa kwezimpawu ezine ze-Nutrition Keys Basic (ama-calories, amafutha agcwele, i-sodium , noshukela ophelele), eyedwa noma ephelezelwa yizithonjana ezingafinyelela kwezimbili ze-Nutrition Keys Optional, ngaphandle kokumenyezelwa kwamafutha we-polyunsaturated nama-monounsaturated kuphaneli lamaNutrition Facts njengoba kudingwa yi-21 CFR 101.9 (c) (2) (iii) kanye (iv) . [2] Ukusetshenziswa kwezithonjana ezine ze-Nutrition Keys Basic, ezingahambisani nanoma iziphi izithonjana ze-Optional, ngaphandle kwesitatimende sokudalula esidingeka nge-§ 101.13 (h) lapho okuqukethwe kokudla okunomsoco kokudla kudlula amazinga athile wamafutha aphelele, amafutha agcwele, i-cholesterol, noma i-sodium . [3] Ukusetshenziswa kwezithonjana ezine ze-Nutrition Keys Basic, zodwa noma ezihambisana nezithonjana ze-Nutrition Keys Optional, ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwezinga lamafutha ne-cholesterol eseduze nesithonjana samafutha esigcwele njengoba kudingwa yi-§ 101.62 (c) . ” [Incwadi ye-FDA eya ku-GMA, 12/13/11]

Ukusetshenziswa KweHormone Okuvinjelwe eCanada, i-EU Ukukhuthaza Ukukhiqizwa Kwobisi Ezinkomeni

Ngo-1995, i-GMA yathi i-Food & Drug Administration ithole ukuthi i-hormone yokwenziwa i-rBST “iphephe ngokuphelele.” [Ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-GMA, 4/25/95]

I-rBST / rBGH Kuvinjelwe e-EU, Canada

I-rBST / rBGH ivinjelwe kwimikhiqizo yobisi e-European Union naseCanada.

“I-Recombinant bovine growth hormone (rBGH) iyi-hormone yokwenziwa (eyenziwe ngabantu) emakethwa kubalimi bezobisi ukuze kwandiswe ukukhiqizwa kobisi ezinkomeni. Isetshenziswe e-United States selokhu yamukelwa yi-Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ngo-1993, kodwa ukusetshenziswa kwayo akuvunyelwe e-European Union, eCanada nakwamanye amazwe. ” [Iwebhusayithi yeAmerican Cancer Society, umdlavuza.org]

Ummangali ku-Vermont Icala Lokumangalelwa Ngokubhalwa Kwe-rBST / rBGH

Ngokuya ngeThisLaw.com, uGMA wayengummangali osebenzisana ne-IDFA vs. Amnestoy, icala eliphathelene nokufakwa kophawu kwemikhiqizo yobisi ekhiqizwa ezinkomeni eziphathwe nge-rBST / rBGH. [TholaLaw.com, kufinyelelwe ku-12/17/14; INkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-United States, i-International Dairy Foods Ass'n v. Amestoy, Icala No. 876, Idokodo 95-7819, linqume umhla ka 8/8/96]

“'Umthetho ophoqayo wokufaka amalebuli eVermont undizela ekuzimiseleni kwe-FDA ukuthi i-rBST iphephe ngokuphelele nokuthi ukufakwa kwamalebula okuphoqelekile akufanele kudingeke,' kusho uJohn Cady, umongameli weNFPA. 'Umthetho kungenzeka udlulisele kubathengi umbono ongamanga futhi odukisayo maqondana nokuphepha nobumsulwa bobisi oluvela ezinkomeni ezenezelwe yi-rBST.' ”[Umbiko wezindaba we-GMA, 4/25/95]

Ubisi Lwelebula Oluphikisiwe Lukhiqizwa ngeHormone Growth

Ngokusho the St Louis Post-Dispatch, ngo-1993-94, i-GMA yaphikisana namalebula emikhiqizweni yobisi etholakala ezinkomeni ezijovwe ngeMonsanto eyimpikiswano yeBovine Growth Hormone (rBGH). [St Louis Post-Dispatch, 3/3/94]

I-GMA Iphikise Umthetho Welebula wase-Ohio owawushayeke phansi

Ngokuvumelana ne I-FoodNavigator-USA, I-GMA namanye amaqembu embonini yokudla aphikisana nomthetho wokulebula wase-Ohio owashaywa phansi yinkantolo yokudlulisa amacala. [I-FoodNavigator-USA, 4 / 25 / 08]

Umthetho wombuso wase-Ohio okukhulunywa ngawo uvimbele izitatimende ezinjenge- "rbGH Free," "rbST Free" kanye "ne-hormone yokufakelwa mahhala," okuhloswe ngayo ukunikeza abathengi ulwazi oludingekayo ukwenza izinqumo ezinolwazi. Isikhungo Sokuphepha Kokudla, 9 / 30 / 10

Umkhankaso Wokulwa ne-Ethanol Wenkohliso Oxhasiwe

NgoMeyi 2008, uSenenja Chuck Grassley waveza ukuthi umkhankaso wokulwa ne-ethanol okwakuthiwa "ungaphansi," empeleni wawusekelwa yinkampani ye-PR eyayiqashwe yi-GMA.

"Ngokwamaphepha amabili abhalwe kwi-website yenhlangano ka-Sen. Charles Grassley, i-R-IA, i-blitz 'anti-ethanol media blitz' ethinte amanani entengo okudla namuhla kuma-biofuel asekelwa ngabalimi iyimbumbulu njenge-astro-turf. Ngempela, uGrassley wachazela ozakwabo baseSenate ngesikhathi evuma umthethosivivinywa omusha wepulazi, 'Kuvela ukuthi imali engama- $ 15, eyizinyanga eziyisithupha yokugcina inkampani yaseBeltway yezobudlelwano nomphakathi yiyo ebambe iqhaza emkhankasweni wokugcona, oqashwe yiGrocery Manufacturers Association.' ” Izindaba ze-Aberdeen, 5 / 30 / 08

I-GMA Ifune Ukuthatha Inzuzo Yezintengo Zokudla Ezikhuphukayo

Ngokwesicelo sayo seziphakamiso, i-GMA ithe ikholelwa ukuthi ukunyuka kwamanani okudla kunikeze inhlangano ithuba lokushaya i-ethanol.

“I-GMA ibihola umkhankaso 'wobudlova' wobudlelwano bomphakathi ezinyangeni ezimbili ezedlule emzamweni wokubuyisela emuva igunya le-ethanol elaphasiswa kumthethosivivinywa wamandla nyakenye. Lo soseshini uqashe iGlover Park Group ukuthi iqhube umkhankaso wezinyanga eziyisithupha, ngokwesicelo seGMA sokuphakanyiswa kanye nempendulo yeGlover Park. 'I-GMA isiphethe ngokuthi ukukhuphuka kwentengo yokudla… kwakha iwindi lokushintsha imibono ngezinzuzo zama-bio-fuels kanye negunya,' kufundeka i-RFP enamakhasi amathathu, ikhophi yayo eyatholwa yiRoll Call. ” [I-Roll Call, 5 / 14 / 08]

ISayensi Media Center Ithuthukisa Ukubukwa Kwebhizinisi Lwesayensi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IScience Media Center (SMC) iyinhlangano ye-PR engenzi nzuzo eqale e-UK ethola indawo yayo enkulu kakhulu ye- imali evela embonini amaqembu. Abaxhasi bamanje nabangaphambilini kufaka phakathi iBayer, iDuPont, iMonsanto, iCoca-Cola kanye namaqembu okuhweba embonini yokudla namakhemikhali, kanye namaqembu ezindaba, izinhlaka zikahulumeni, izisekelo namanyuvesi. Imodeli ye-SMC isakazeka emhlabeni wonke futhi ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwemithombo yezindaba ngesayensi, kwesinye isikhathi ngezindlela ezehlisa ubungozi bemikhiqizo noma ubuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Leli phepha lichaza umlando we-SMC, ifilosofi, imodeli yezimali, amaqhinga nemibiko evela kubagxeki abathi i-SMC inikeza imibono yezesayensi yezimboni, isimilo i-SMC esiyiphikayo.

Related:

Amaqiniso asemqoka

I-Science Media Centre yethulwa ngo-2002 iphendula “imisindvo yabezindaba mayelana neMMR, izitshalo zeGM kanye nocwaningo lwezilwane” ukusiza abezindaba bamele kangcono isayensi enkulu, ngokusho kwe iphepha lamaqiniso leqembu.

Esikhathini sawo sokuphila umbiko wokusungulaIScience Media Center ichaza ukuthi yadalelwa ukubhekana kanjani:

  • “inkinga yenkinga” ekhulayo emibonweni yomphakathi ngesayensi
  • ukuwa kwenhlonipho ngegunya nobungoti
  • umphakathi onganaki ubungozi nokusakazwa kwabezindaba okwethusayo futhi
  • “amasu abezindaba abonakala sengathi aphakeme kakhulu” asetshenziswa ama-NGO ezemvelo njengeGreenpeace neFriends of the Earth.

Ama-SMC azimele abelana nge umqulu ofanayo njengoba okwangempela manje kusebenza eCanada, e-Australia, eNew Zealand, eJalimane naseJapane, futhi ama-SMC ahlelwa eBrussels nase I-united states.

Imodeli yeSMC ibe nomthelela omkhulu ekwakheni ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngesayensi. A ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba yamaphephandaba ase-UK ngo-2011 nango-2012 athola ukuthi iningi lezintatheli elisebenzisa izinsizakalo ze-SMC alifunanga imibono eyengeziwe ngezindaba zabo. Leli qembu futhi linethonya kwezepolitiki. Ngonyaka we-2007, iSMC yamisa ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwemibungu ehlanganisa abantu / yezilwane ngomkhankaso wayo wezindaba wokushintsha ukusabalala kokukhathazeka kokuziphatha kuye ezinzuzweni zemibungu njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho kwe ku-Nature.

Izifundiswa eziningana nabaphenyi bagxeke iSMC ngokuxosha imibono yenkampani yesayensi, nangokudlala phansi ubungozi bezemvelo nobempilo babantu bemikhiqizo nobuchwepheshe obunempikiswano. Imibiko ibhale ukuthambekela kwe-SMC yokuphusha imiyalezo ye-pro-industry futhi ngaphandle kwemibono ephikisanayo ngezihloko ezinjenge ukukhwabanisa, ukuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, Isifo sokukhathala okungamahlalakhona futhi I-GMO.

Ku-imeyili, uMqondisi weSMC uFiona Fox uthe iqembu lakhe alihambisani nomkhakha wezimboni: “Silalela ngokucophelela noma yikuphi ukugxekwa kweSMC emphakathini wezesayensi noma ezintatheli zezindaba ezisebenzela abezindaba base-UK kodwa asikutholi ukugxekwa ngokuchema komkhakha wezimboni kusuka kulaba ababambiqhaza. Siyakwenqaba ukusolwa ngokuchema kwemboni yezimboni futhi umsebenzi wethu ukhombisa ubufakazi kanye nemibono yabaphenyi besayensi abangama-3000 abaqavile kulwazi lwethu. Njengehhovisi labezindaba elizimele eligxile kwezinye zezindaba ezingundabuzekwayo zesayensi sikulindele ngokuphelele ukugxekwa ngamaqembu angaphandle kwesayensi ejwayelekile. ”

Izingcaphuno mayelana neSayensi Media Center

Izintatheli nabaphenyi ngethonya nobandlululo lweSayensi Media Center (ukugcizelelwa kufakwe kuzingcaphuno ezingezansi):

  • “Izikhungo zeSayensi Media ... seziphenduke abadlali abanethonya, kepha abanempikiswano emhlabeni wobuntatheli. Yize ezinye izintatheli zikuthola kuwusizo, ezinye zikholelwa ukuthi zithambekele kososayensi bakahulumeni nezimboni. ” Ukubuyekezwa kobuntatheli beColumbia
  • “Kuya ngokuthi ubuza kubani, (Umqondisi weSMC) UFiona Fox usindisa ubuntatheli besayensi noma ayibhubhise," U-Ewen Callway, Nature
  • “Ukwehla kwesibalo sezintatheli zesayensi zase-UK ezicindezeleke isikhathi asisayi emkhakheni wemba izindaba. Baya emihlanganweni ehlelwe kusengaphambili e-SMC… The ikhwalithi yokubika kwesayensi kanye nokwethembeka kolwazi olutholakala emphakathini konke lokhu kuhlupheke, kuhlanekezela ikhono lomphakathi lokwenza izinqumo ngengozi. ” UConnie St. Louis, iCity College yaseLondon, eCJR
  • “Inkinga akukhona ukuthi bathuthukisa isayensi, njengoba besho ukuthi benza, kodwa ukuthi bona khuthaza isayensi esebenza ngokuhlanganyela. " UDavid Miller, University of Bath, eSciDev
  • "Kulabo abangaphuphuthekiswanga yi-aura ekhangayo ye-SMC, kubonakala sengathi inhloso yayo ecashile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izintatheli nabezindaba babika izindaba zesayensi nezokwelapha kuphela ngendlela yokuthi kuvumelana 'nenqubomgomo' kahulumeni nezimboni ezindabeni okukhulunywa ngazo. " UMalcolm Hooper, iYunivesithi yaseSunderland, iphepha leCFS / ME
  • “Kuyabonakala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezihlangene ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK ukuthuthukisa ubuchwepheshe beBiotec kanye nezokuxhumana ngocingo. ” Iphepha likaDon Maisch kumaselula
  • "The Indima ye-SMC ibonakala ifaka umbono omncane of, ezimweni eziningi imibono emihle, yokuphepha kokuthwebula ama-fracking. ” UPaul Mobbs, Uphenyo Lwezemvelo lweMobbs
  • “Isikhungo sesayensi, esihlala singaziphethe kahle ngokwezepolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu inethiwekhi yezombangazwe eyinqaba neyenkolo. " UGeorge Monbiot, The Guardian

Uxhaso Lwamabhizinisi LweScience Media Center

Isabelo esikhulu sezimali se-SMC, cishe ama-30%, sivela ezinkampanini nakumaqembu ezohwebo. Abaxhasi kusukela ngo-Agasti 2016 kufaka phakathi inqwaba yamakhemikhali, i-biotechnology, inuzi, ukudla, ezokwelapha, ezokuxhumana kanye nezimboni zezimonyo. Abaxhasi bezimboni zezolimo bahlanganisa iBayer, iDuPont, iBASF, iCropLife International, iBioIndustry Association kanye neChemical Industries Association. Abaxhasi bangaphambilini zifake iMonsanto, ExxonMobile, Shell, Coca-Cola neKraft. I-SMC nayo ithola uxhaso oluvela ezinhlakeni eziningi zezindaba, uhulumeni kanye nezifundiswa.

SMC kusho yona inikela ngeminikelo evela kunkampani eyodwa noma isikhungo kuya ku-5% wemali engenayo yonyaka ngemizamo “yokuvikela ethonyeni elingalungile” - kukhishwa imali engaphandle yeminikelo emikhulu evela ku-Wellcome Trust nakuhulumeni wase-UK Umnyango Webhizinisi, Amandla Nezimboni Isu.

Umlando We-SMC: “UMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani”

Ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1990, ubudlelwano phakathi kwesayensi nabezindaba base busezingeni elichachambile, kuchaza iSMC ividiyo yephromoshini. "Ngesikhathi sokutshalwa kweBSE, MMR, GM, kwakukhona umqondo wangempela ngaleli gebe phakathi kososayensi nabezindaba," kusho uFox kule vidiyo. I-SMC yadalelwa “ukusiza ukuvuselela ukwethembana komphakathi kwezesayensi ngokusebenzela ukukhuthaza ukumbozwa okulinganiselayo, okunembile futhi okunengqondo kwezindaba eziyimpikiswano zesayensi,” ngokusho kwayo umbiko wokubonisana.

Imibhalo eyisisekelo ye-SMC ifaka:

  • February 2000 Umbiko wekomidi leNdlu YeNkosi ichaza “inhlekelele yokwethembana” ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi nesayensi, futhi yancoma uhlelo olusha lwesayensi nabezindaba.
  • Septhemba 2000 “Indlela Yokuziphatha / Imihlahlandlela Yezokuxhumana Kwezesayensi Nempilo, ”YiRoyal Society and Social Issues Research Center (SIRC) incoma imihlahlandlela yezintatheli nososayensi ukuze kuliwe“ nomthelela omubi walokho okubhekwa 'njengezindaba ezesabisayo' ezingenasisekelo kanye nalezo ezinikeza amathemba angamanga kulabo abagula kakhulu. ”
  • 2002 Umbiko Wokubonisana we-SMC ichaza inqubo yenhlolokhono nababambiqhaza abavela kuhulumeni, izimboni kanye nabezindaba abatshele ukuthi iSMC "izoyithatha kanjani i-gauntlet ephonswe phansi yiNkosi… yokuguqula isayensi ibe yizindaba eziphambili."

Umzamo weSMC waba nempikiswano ngokushesha. Umbhali uTom Wakeford wabikezela ngo-2001 ukuthi iSMC izoba “uMnyango Weqiniso Wokuqala waseBrithani lapho ababusi abaqanjiwe bakaGeorge Orwell bazoziqhenya ngabo.” Wabhala uMgcini, "Abantu abaphezulu kuHulumeni, iRoyal Society kanye neRoyal Institution bathathe isinqumo sokuthi ulwazi lwabo lomnotho olubaluleke kakhulu ludinga ukuthi kuncishiswe ukukhuluma ngokukhululeka." Uchaze i-Code of Practice: “Lo Mthetho uncoma ukuthi izintatheli zibonisane nochwepheshe abagunyaziwe, incwadi eyimfihlo okufanele inikezwe 'izintatheli ezibhalisiwe ezinemininingwane eqondile.'”

Iphrojekthi yokuqala ye-SMC - umzamo wokudicilela phansi ifilimu eqanjiwe le-BBC eliveza izitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngendlela engathandeki - liphakamise uchungechunge lwezihloko ezibucayi kwi-Guardian (umhleli we-Guardian wabhala nayo le filimu). Lezi zihloko zichaze iSMC njenge- “iqembu lokwamukela izivakashi zesayensi exhaswa izinkampani ezinkulu ezenza imithi namakhemikhali ”ebisebenza “Uhlobo lweyunithi yokuphika esheshayo yaseMandelsoni”Futhi ngisebenzisa“ ezinye amasu we-clumsiest spin weNew Labor ekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi (ifilimu) kusengaphambili. ”

UDick Taverne noSense Mayelana neSayensi

Umuzwa Ngezesayensi - umzamo wokucela ukwakhiwa kabusha kwemibono yesayensi - eyethulwa e-UK ngonyaka we-2002 kanye ne-SMC ngaphansi kobuholi buka-Lord Dick Taverne nabanye abanobudlelwano ne-SMC. U-Lord Taverne wayeyi-SMC Ilungu leBhodi Elilulekayo futhi yena kudalwe ngokubambisana ikhodi yokusebenza ye-SIRC.

Indaba ka-2016 ku-The Intercept nguLiza Gross uchaze i-Sense About Science nabaholi bayo “njengabaqaphi abazimele 'besayensi yomsindo'” abathi “balinganise izikali embonini.” UGross uchaze izibopho zomkhakha kagwayi zikaTaverne kanye nemizamo ye-PR yenkampani:

Ngokwamaphepha angaphakathi akhishwe ngamacala ngabakhiqizi bakagwayi, inkampani yababonisi bakaTaverne, iPRIMA Europe, isize iBritish American Tobacco ukuthuthukisa ubudlelwane nabatshalizimali bayo futhi shaya imithetho yaseYurophu ngogwayi ngawo-1990. UTaverne uqobo usebenze kuphrojekthi yabatshalizimali: Ku- imemo engenalo usuku, U-PRIMA uqinisekise inkampani kagwayi ukuthi "umsebenzi uzokwenziwa mathupha nguDick Taverne," ngoba ubekwazi ukubuza abaholi bezimboni futhi "uzofuna ukuqinisekisa ukuthi izidingo zomkhakha zibaluleke kakhulu ezingqondweni zabantu." Phakathi neminyaka eyishumi efanayo, uTaverne wayehleli ebhodini legatsha laseBrithani lenkampani yezokuxhumana yomphakathi iBurson-Marsteller, eyabiza uPhilip Morris njengekhasimende. Umqondo weqembu “lesayensi elizwakalayo”, elenziwe ngoxhaxha lososayensi ababezokhuluma bephikisana nemithethonqubo abantu bezimboni ababengenakho ukwethembeka ukuyiphikisa, kwakuyinkulumo uBurson-Marsteller ayenza kuPhilip Morris ku Imemorandamu yonyaka we-1994.

Phakathi kwamaphrojekthi ayo okuqala, iSense About Science ihlele incwadi evela ku- 114 ososayensi ukunxenxa uhulumeni waseBrithani ukuba "aphikisane nezimangalo ezingamanga" mayelana nama-GMO, futhi wenza inhlolovo ukugqamisa inkinga yokucekelwa phansi kwesivuno seGMO.

I-Sense About Science USA ivulwe ngo-2014 ngaphansi kobuholi besikhathi eside umlingani wemboni yamakhemikhali uTrevor Butterworth, kanye nabalingani be-Gates exhaswa ngemali yiCornell Alliance for Science, a Iqembu lephromoshini le-GMO.

Imisuka YamaKhomanisi Yezinguquko

Abaqondisi abasungula nabamanje beScience Media Center kanye neSense About Science - Umqondisi weSMC UFiona Fox kanye noMqondisi we-SAS UTracey Brown - nabanye ababandakanyeka nalawo maqembu, kubikwa ukuthi baxhunywe ngeRevolutionary Communist Party, iqembu leTrotskyist splinter elalihlelwe ngasekupheleni kweminyaka yama-1970 ngaphansi kobuholi besazi sezenhlalo UFrank Ferudi, ngokusho kwababhali UGeorge Monbiot, UJonathan Matthews, UZac Goldsmith futhi UDon Maisch.

Iqembu likaFerudi elihlukanise i-RCP lahlangana Ukuphila kweMarxism, Umagazini we-LM, I-Spiked Magazine futhi Isikhungo Semibono, owamukela ubungxiwankulu, ukuzimela futhi wakhuthaza umbono wezobuchwepheshe nokudelela abezemvelo, ngokusho kukaMonbiot. (UFerudi kuphendula kule ngcezu.) A Isihloko se-Guardian mayelana nomcimbi we-LM ngo-1999 uchaze inethiwekhi "njengempendulo ebhekiswe Kwesobunxele" (ngamazwi kaFuredi) enombono womhlaba wokuthi ukucabanga kwesokunxele "akuyona into yezepolitiki" futhi "ayikho enye indlela emakethe."

"Enye yezinto ezixakile kwezepolitiki yanamuhla wukubusa kwababengamaphiko kwesobunxele asebephendukele kwesokudla," kubhala uMonbiot ku Isihloko se-2003 Kuchazwa ubudlelwano phakathi kweSense About Science kanye neScience Media Center, abantu ababambe iqhaza kuleyo mizamo kanye nezixhumanisi zenethiwekhi ye-LM:

“Ngabe konke lokhu kwenzeke ngengozi? Angicabangi kanjalo. Kepha akulula ukuqonda ukuthi kungani kwenzeka. Ngabe sibheke iqembu elifuna amandla ngenxa yalo, noma elilandela ukwakheka kwezepolitiki, okuyisinyathelo esiphakathi kwalo? Engingakusho ukuthi isikhungo sezesayensi, esihlala singenapolitiki, sibonakala singahlosile ukuthi sivumele izintshisekelo zaso ukuba zimelwe emphakathini ngamalungu oxhumano lwezepolitiki oluyinqaba nolwehlukile. Esikhundleni sokwakha kabusha ukuthembela komphakathi kwezesayensi nakwezokwelapha, ifilosofi yaleli qembu enyanyekayo ekugcineni ingayiqeda. ”

amaqhinga

I-SMC e-UK ithi inakho i-database enezingcweti ezingama-2700 kanye nezikhulu ezingaphezu kwezingu-1200 zabezindaba, kanye nohlu lwamakheli olunezintatheli ezingaphezu kwezingama-300 ezimele yonke imibhalo emikhulu yase-UK. I-SMC isebenzisa amaqhinga amathathu amakhulu ukuthonya ukusabalala kwesayensi, ngokusho kwayo ividiyo yephromoshini:

  1. Impendulo esheshayo ezindabeni eziqhamuka nezingcaphuno zemibono: Lapho kuvela indaba yesayensi, “kungakapheli nemizuzu emingaki kukhona ama-imeyili e-SMC emabhokisini okungenayo awo wonke intatheli kazwelonke enikeza ochwepheshe,” kusho uFox.
  2. Ukuthola izintatheli kuqala ngocwaningo olusha. I-SMC "inelungelo lokufinyelela kumajenali esayensi angaba ngu-10-15 ngaphambi kokuphakanyiswa kwama-embargo" ukuze bakwazi ukulungiselela ukuphawula kusengaphambili kochwepheshe bezinkampani zangaphandle okukhombisa ukuthi izifundo ezintsha ziyakudinga ukunakekelwa nokuthi kufanele zihlelwe kanjani.
  3. Ukuhlela cishe i-100 press ngamafuphi unyaka "owabeka i-ajenda" ngokusobala ezihlokweni ezahlukahlukene zesayensi ezinempikiswano ezifana nodoti wenuzi, i-biotechnology kanye nezifo ezisafufusa.

Izibonelo zethonya nokuchema

Abaphenyi abaningana kanye nezifundiswa babike ukuthi bathi ukwenzelela kwe-SMC okuxhasa izimboni ngezihloko ezinempikiswano, kanye nokuthi izintatheli zithembele kangakanani emibonweni yochwepheshe be-SMC ukuhlela izindaba zesayensi.

Ukungabi nemibono ehlukahlukene

Uprofesa wobuntatheli uConnie St. Louis waseCity University, eLondon, uhlole umthelela weSMC ekubikeni kwesayensi emaphephandabeni kazwelonke ayi-12 ngo-2011 nango-2012, futhi wathola:

  • Ama-60% ama-athikili abika izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
  • Ama-54% okuphendula "kochwepheshe" anikezwe yi-SMC ekuqhamukeni kwezindaba ngalesi sikhathi esihlanganisiwe bekusezindabeni
    • Kulezi zindaba, ama-23% awasebenzisanga umthombo ozimele
    • Kulabo abakwenzile, kuphela ama-32% wemithombo yangaphandle enikeze umbono ophikisayo kulokho okunikezwa ngungoti ekuphenduleni kwe-SMC.

"Kunezintatheli eziningi kunokuba kufanele ngabe zisebenzisa kuphela ochwepheshe be-SMC hhayi ukuxhumana nemithombo ezimele," kuphetha uSt.

Ochwepheshe akubona njalo ososayensi

UDavid Miller, uprofesa wesayensi yezenhlalo evela e-University of Bath, e-UK, uhlaziye okuqukethwe kwe-SMC kuwebhusayithi kanye nezicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act, futhi wabika:

  • Abanye ochwepheshe be-SMC abangama-20 kwabangu-100 abacashunwe kakhulu kwakungebona ososayensi, njengoba kuchazwa ngokuba ne-PhD nokusebenza esikhungweni sokucwaninga noma emphakathini ophakeme kakhulu, kepha babengama-lobbyists kanye nama-CEO amaqembu amaqembu embonini.
  • Imithombo yezimali ibingadalulwa njalo ngokuphelele ngesikhathi esifanele ku-inthanethi.
  • Kwakungekho bufakazi bokuthi iSMC yayivuna umxhasi othile, kodwa yayithanda imikhakha ethile yezinkampani nezihloko ezazikhuluma ngazo “kukhombisa izinto eziza kuqala zabaxhasi bazo.”

“Uma uthi ucaphuna ososayensi bese ugcina usebenzisa ama-lobbyists kanye nama-NGO, umbuzo uthi: ngabe ukhetha kanjani ukuthi yiliphi ama-lobbyists noma ama-NGO okumele abe nawo? Kungani ungenawo ama-lobbyist aphikisana nokuhlolwa kofuzo noma amalungu e-Greenpeace aveza umbono wawo kunesikhundla se-bioindustry? Lokho kuveza ngempela uhlobo lokuchema olusebenzayo, ”kusho uMiller.

Strategic spin triumph emibungwini yabantu / yezilwane e-hybrid

Ngo-2006, lapho uhulumeni wase-UK ecabanga ukuvimbela ososayensi ekwakheni imibungu ehlanganiswa nabantu-yezilwane, iSMC yahlanganisa imizamo yokususa ukugxila ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kude nezinkinga zokuziphatha nokubheka ukubaluleka kwemibungu ehlanganisiwe njengethuluzi lokucwaninga, ngokusho ku-Nature.

Umkhankaso we-SMC "wawunqobe amasu ebudlelwaneni bezindaba" futhi "ububhekele kakhulu ukuguqula isimo sokutholakala kwemibungu eyizilwane ezingabantu," ngokusho kuka-Andy Williams, umcwaningi wezindaba e-University of Cardiff, e-UK, owenza ukuhlaziywa egameni le-SMC kanye nabasizi bomkhankaso.

UWilliams uthole:

  • Imithombo engaphezulu kwama-60% ezindabeni ezibhalwe yizintatheli zesayensi nezempilo - leyo okubhekiswe kuyo yi-SMC - isekele ucwaningo, futhi yingxenye eyodwa kuphela yekota yemithombo ephikisana nalokhu.
  • Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli ebezingakahlosiwe yi-SMC zikhulume nososayensi abambalwa abasekelayo kanye nabaphikisi abaningi.

"UWilliams manje ukhathazekile ngokuthi imizamo ye-SMC iholele izintatheli ukuthi zinikeze isithunzi ososayensi ngokweqile, nokuthi zavimbela impikiswano," Indatshana Yemvelo ibikile. Ingxoxo noWilliams in SciDevNet kubika:

"Ulimi oluningi olusetshenzisiwe ukuchaza [izithangami zabezindaba ze-SMC] kugcizelela ukuthi babeyithuba lokuthi ososayensi bachaze isayensi ngamagama abo, kodwa - okubaluleke kakhulu - ngendlela engathathi hlangothi futhi engenaxabiso," esho. Kepha lokhu akulinaki iqiniso lokuthi le micimbi ibiphethwe ngokuqinile icindezela ukulandisa okukholisayo, engeza, nokuthi isethelwe ukuvikela umthelela omkhulu kwabezindaba kososayensi ababandakanyekayo. Izintatheli ezingongoti bezesayensi zondliwe "yimixhaso yolwazi" yi-SMC futhi zinamathuba amaningi kakhulu kunezinye izintatheli ukucaphuna imithombo yokuvikela ukuxubana, kusho uWilliams.

Ikhuthaza ukubukwa kwemboni ku-fracking

Ngokombiko othile Februwari 2015 ukuhlaziywa kwezindaba olwenziwe nguPaul Mobbs we-Mobbs 'Environmental Investigations, i-SMC yanikela ngamazwibela amaningi ochwepheshe mayelana ne-fracking phakathi kowezi-2012-2015, kepha idlanzana lososayensi ababephethe ukuphawula kwakusuka ezikhungweni ezinobudlelwano bezezimali nemboni kaphethiloli noma amaphrojekthi ocwaningo axhaswe imboni.

“Iqhaza le-SMC libukeka lifaka umbono omncane emibonweni emincane yezimvo zokuphepha kwe-fracking. Le mibono isuselwa esikhundleni sobungcweti salabo abathintekayo, futhi ayisekelwa ngezikhombo zobufakazi ukuqinisekisa ubuqiniso bayo. Ngenxa yalokho, le mibono iye yacashunwa kwabezindaba ngaphandle kokungabaza. ”

“Mayelana negesi ephuma emanzini, i-SMC ayinikezi umbono olinganiselayo ngobufakazi obutholakalayo, kanye nokungaqiniseki, ngemithelela kawoyela negesi engajwayelekile. Inikeza izingcaphuno ezivela ezifundweni ezimele kakhulu umbono 'wase-UK', ongabunaki bonke ubufakazi obutholakala kulolu daba obuvela e-USA, Australia naseCanada. ”

Ukwehlisa isineke ukukhathala okungamahlalakhona 

A Iphepha le-2013 nguMalcolm Hooper, uProfesa Wezokwelapha e-Emeritus, e-University of Sunderland, e-UK, usole iSMC ngokuthuthukisa imibono yabanye abasebenza kwezokwelapha, ngokwehluleka ukubika ngesayensi yezinto eziphilayo kanye nokuphokophela "imibono kanye nenkulumo-ze yamaqembu anentshisekelo enamandla" emithonjeni yayo yezindaba sebenza ku-chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS / ME).

Iphepha likaHooper libika ngezixhumanisi eziphakathi kwe-SMC nabadlali abalulekile empikiswaneni yeCFS / ME nezixhumanisi zemboni yomshuwalense, futhi linikeza ubufakazi balokho uHooper akuchaze njengomkhankaso weSMC wokudicilela phansi abantu ngeCFS / ME, kanye nemizamo yayo yokudicilela phansi iPACE imiphumela yesivivinyo kwabezindaba. Uyaphetha, "Inhlangano eziphatha ngendlela engqubuzana nesayensi ngale ndlela ayinakuba nesicelo esisemthethweni sokumela isayensi."

Ukubukwa kwe-SMC, bheka Ishidi lamaqiniso lango-2018 ku-CFS / ME “ukugula nokuphikisana.”

Ukuphepha kwamaselula nabaxhasi bezingcingo

A Iphepha le-2006 nguDon Maisch, PhD, "kuphakamisa ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokungakhethi kwemodeli yeSMC kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi lapho kunikezwa izeluleko zochwepheshe ezindabeni ezinengxabano lapho izintshisekelo ziyingxenye yohlaka lweSMC." Iphepha leMaisch lihlola ukuxhumana kwamaSMC ezindabeni ezibandakanya imisebe kagesi kagesi kanye nokuphepha komakhalekhukhwini, futhi linikeza lokho akubiza ngokuthi "umlando ongacwaningwa wemodeli yeSMC yokuxhumana kwesayensi."

“Kusobala ukuthi i-ajenda ye-SIRC, i-SMC nezinhlangano ezisebenzisanayo ukuxhasa inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni wase-UK yokuqhakambisa ubuchwepheshe be-Biotec nobuchwepheshe bezokuxhumana. Lokhu kungachaza ukuthi kungani abantu abangenazo iziqu zangempela kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi bekwazile ukufinyelela ezikhundleni ezaba ubuso bomphakathi bezikhungo zesayensi zaseBrithani. Ibuye ichaze ukuthi kungani isikhungo sezesayensi nezokwelapha sase-UK, sazi ukuthi ingxenye enkulu yemali yesayensi ivela emithonjeni yezimboni, ingabalingani abazimisele ukuvumela izinhlangano ze-PR ezine-ajenda enqunywe kusengaphambili ukuthi zibakhulumele futhi zisekele inqubomgomo yezomnotho kahulumeni kunentshisekelo yomphakathi . ”

Ukuvikela i-GMO

Njengokwehliswa ngenhla, bobabili iScience Media Center neqembu lodadewabo iSense About Science bethule ngamaphrojekthi avikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. I-SMC ivame ukunikeza ochwepheshe abagxeka izifundo eziveza ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ngo-2016, ososayensi baphindisela emuva ekuphenduleni kochwepheshe be-SMC abathi babekhuluma kabi ngomsebenzi wabo kuma-GMO. Ucwaningo oluholwa nguMichael Antoniou, PhD, iNhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group, eKing's College London School of Medicine, futhi lwashicilelwa ku Imibiko yeSayensi, wasebenzisa ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana ukuze aqhathanise ummbila we-GMO nozakwabo ongeyona i-GM futhi wabika ukuthi ummbila we-GM nowe-GM "awalingani kakhulu." I-SMC ikhiphe i- ukusabela kochwepheshe ukuhlambalaza isifundo, futhi bekungavumeli ababhali ukuthi baphendule noma balungise imininingwane enganembile ekukhishweni kwe-SMC, ngokusho kwabalobi bezocwaningo.

“Lawa mazwana [acashunwe ekukhishweni kweSMC] awanembile ngakho-ke asabalalisa ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngephepha lethu. Sazisiwe ukuthi akusiyo inqubomgomo yeScience Media Centre ukuthumela izimpendulo, ezifana nezethu, kumazwana okuphawula abawathumelayo / abawabeka kwiwebhusayithi yabo, ”kusho u-Antoniou. Ababhali bokufunda bathumele impendulo yabo lapha.

Intatheli uRebekah Wilce ibike kanjalo ku-PR Watch ngo-2014 ngezibonelo eziningana zokuchema kwe-pro-GMO kwezokuxhumana ze-SMC. Wabhala:

I-SMC izibiza ngesikhungo esizimele sokuxoxisana nabezindaba ngezindaba zesayensi. Abagxeki, nokho, bayakungabaza ukuzimela kwayo kusuka embonini ye-GMO - yize isitatimende seqembu ukuthi inkampani ngayinye noma omunye umxhasi anganikela kuphela ngamaphesenti amahlanu emholweni weqembu wonyaka - futhi axwayise ukuthi le nhlangano ibheke ngaphesheya kwechibi iye e-United States ukuhlinzeka nge-GMO spin lapha.

I-SMC kwahola impendulo ocwaningweni luka-2012 olubika ukuthi ukuthola izicubu ezilwaneni zaselebhu zondla ama-GMO esifundweni sesondlo sesikhathi eside. Ucwaningo luye lwahlazeka kakhulu emaphephandabeni, lwahoxiswa yilo magazini wokuqala futhi lwaphinde lwashicilelwa komunye umagazini.

Imidiya

Uchungechunge lweColumbia Journalism Review olunezigaba ezintathu, ngoJuni 2013, “Science Media Centers and the Press”

Nature, ngu-Ewen Callaway, Julayi 2013, “Abezindaba zesayensi: Isikhungo sokunakwa; UFiona Fox neScience Media Center yakhe bazimisele ukuthuthukisa ezokunyathelisa zaseBrithani. Manje imodeli isakazeka emhlabeni wonke ”

Nature, nguColin Macilwain, “Izizwe ezimbili zihlukaniswe inhloso eyodwa: Izinhlelo zokuphindaphinda iScience Media Center yaseBrithani e-United States zigcwele ingozi”

I-FAIR, ngu-Stacy Malkan, ngoJulayi 24, 2017, "Reuters vs. Un Cancer Agency: Ingabe Izibopho Zenkampani Zithonya Ukutholakala Kwezesayensi?"

SciDevNet, nguMićo Tatalović, ngoMeyi 2014, “Isikhungo Sezindaba Sezindaba sase-UK sibhebhezela ukuphusha isayensi yezinkampani” Isikhungo semvu

Ukubuka kwe-PR, nguRebekah Wilke, ngo-Ephreli 2014, "IScience Media Center Spins Pro-GMO Line"

Kwiqembu elihlobene i-Sense About Science:

I-Intercept, ebhalwe nguLiza Gross, ngoNovemba 2016, “Seeding Doubt: Yeka indlela abazibeke ngayo abaqaphi 'besayensi ezwakalayo' befaka esikalini embonini.”

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: I-Sense About Science-USA Director uTrevor Butterworth Spins Science for Industry

Ishidi Leqiniso le-USRTK: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba 'Ozakwethu' Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Izibopho ze-CDC Pick Boosts Agency entsha kaTrump eCoca Cola

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bona futhi:

  • New York Times, nguSheila Kaplan, 7/22/2017: "Inkosi entsha ye-CDC uSaw Coca-Cola njengo-Ally ku-Obesity Fight"
  • IForbes, Ingxenye 2 nguRob Waters, "Inethiwekhi yeCoca-Cola: Ukuxhunyaniswa Kwemigodi Yama-Soda Giant Neziphathimandla Nososayensi ku-Wield Influence"

NguRob Waters

Ingxenye 1 yezindaba ezi-2 

Sekuyiminyaka eminingi i-Coca-Cola Company, okuyiwona othengisa iziphuzo ezinoshukela emhlabeni, ibilokhu ifuna ukuthonya inqubomgomo yezempilo kanye nemibono yomphakathi ngokwakha ubudlelwano nososayensi kanye nezikhulu ezinamandla, kufaka phakathi isikhungo sezempilo somphakathi esiphezulu, iCenters for Disease Control. kanye Nokuvimbela (CDC).

Manje ukuphathwa kukaTrump sekukhona waqoka umphathi omusha we-CDC, UDkt. Brenda Fitzgerald, owaba ngukhomishani wezempilo yomphakathi eGeorgia kule minyaka eyisithupha edlule, wabambisana noCoke ukwenza uhlelo lokulwa nokukhuluphala kwezingane. Coca-Cola I-KO + 0.00% unikeze u- $ 1 million IGAMA laseGeorgia, efuna ukwandisa ukuvivinya umzimba ezikoleni kepha ithule ngokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa kwesoda, yize ucwaningo luthole ukuthi ukudla kakhulu ushukela, ikakhulukazi oketshezi, kungukushayela ukukhuluphala nesifo sikashukela, kanye nomdlavuza nesifo senhliziyo.

Engqungqutheleni yabezindaba ka-2013, uFitzgerald uncome uCoke ngokuthi “umklomelo ophanayo. ” Ubhale i- ukuhlaziya mayelana nobhadane lokukhuluphala ngokweqile kwiwebhusayithi yeCoca-Cola ememezela isidingo sokuthi "abafundi bethu bahambe." Futhi engxoxweni ne isiteshi se-TV sendawo, wakwenza kwacaca ukuthi yini eza kuqala kuye. UGeorgia SHAPE, uthe, "uzogxila kokufanele ukudle" - kanti angasho lutho ngalokho okungafanele ukwenze.

I-ejensi iFitzgerald manje isizosebenza inobuhlobo obumnandi neCoca-Cola. Lokhu kuxhumana kungabonakala kuma-imeyili abesakazeka phakathi kwezikhulu zeCoke, izikhulu ze-CDC kanye nenethiwekhi yabantu abavela emanyuvesi nasezinhlanganweni ezisekelwa izimboni ezixhaswe yizinkampani ezibandakanya iCoke, Nestlé, Mars Inc. neMondelez, eyayaziwa ngeKraft phambilini. Ama-imeyili, akhishwe yi-CDC ephendula izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ezithunyelwe yi-US Right to Know, ayaxoxa, kwesinye isikhathi ayakhombisa, ayathandeka futhi kwesinye isikhathi athukuthele futhi ayaphuthuma.

Ku-an Okthoba 2015 i-imeyili, UBarbara Bowman, isikhulu se-CDC esesulile emsebenzini, unikeza ukubonga kwakhe kulowo owayengumphathi weCoca-Cola u-Alex Malaspina ngesidlo sakusihlwa sakamuva. “Sibe nesikhathi esihle kakhulu ngoMgqibelo ebusuku, sibonga kakhulu, Alex, ngokungenisa izihambi.”

Kwenye i-imeyili ka-2015 eya eqenjini lososayensi, bonke abathole uxhaso lwezocwaningo kwaCoca-Cola noma ezinye izinhlangano ezisekelwa yimboni, iMalaspina icela "noma yimiphi imibono yokuthi singalwa kanjani" nezincomo ezivela ekomidini lochwepheshe eleluleka uhulumeni wase-US . Leli komiti lifuna uhulumeni anxenxe abantu baseMelika ukuthi banciphise ukuphuza kwabo ushukela, inyama ne-sodium. Ku-imeyili yakhe, iMalaspina ichitha lezi ziphakamiso ngokuthi "azisuselwa kusayensi."

Futhi ku enye inothi, Isikhulu seCoca-Cola uRhona Applebaum sibhalela isikhulu seCDC nomcwaningi waseLouisiana State University ohola ucwaningo olukhulu ngokukhuluphala kwezingane. Usanda kuthola ukuthi iMexico iyenqaba ukubamba iqhaza ocwaningweni ngoba uCoke uyayixhasa, futhi uyaxolisa. "Ngakho-ke uma ososayensi abenza kahle bethatha i- $$$ ku-Coke – yini - bonakalisiwe?" Uyabhala.

'Kungani uCoke ekhuluma neCDC?'

Ama-imeyili ahlinzeka amazwibela ezindlela iCoca-Cola esebenzisa ngayo ukuxhumana okwenziwe nezikhulu zezempilo nososayensi ukuthonya abenzi bomgomo nezintatheli. Imizamo ize ngokulimaza impilo yomphakathi, ngokusho kwabaphenyi bezemfundo ababuza ukufaneleka kokuxhumana phakathi kweCoke neCDC.

“Kungani uCoke ekhuluma neCDC nakancane? Kungani kunendlela ethile yokuxhumana? ” kubuza uRobert Lustig, isazi sezingane endocrinologist e-University of California San Francisco ocwaninga ngemiphumela yokusetshenziswa koshukela ezinganeni nakubantu abadala. "Oxhumana naye akalungile futhi kusobala ukuthi bazama ukukusebenzisa ukuze babe nomthelela ezinhlanganweni zikahulumeni."

Ama-imeyili amaningi awazange abhekiswe ngqo kunoma ngubani oku-CDC, kepha aphendulwa yi-ejensi ukuhambisana nezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi. Lokhu kusikisela ukuthi ezinye izikhulu ze-CDC zathunyelwa ama-bcc: noma amakhophi angaboni.

Ama-imeyili abheka inethiwekhi yomhlaba eyenziwe nguMalaspina, owayeyiphini likamongameli omkhulu wezangaphandle kwaCoca-Cola. Inethiwekhi ifaka phakathi:

  • I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), inhlangano yomhlaba wonke enamalungu ayo, ngokusho kwe- iwebhusayithi yayo "Yizinkampani ezivela ezimbonini zokudla, ezolimo, amakhemikhali, ezemithi, kanye ne-biotechnology kanye nezimboni ezisekelayo." ICoca-Cola ibiphakathi kwabaxhasi bokuqala be-ILSI kanti iMalaspina ibingumongameli wayo oyisunguli. A umqulu wesabelomali okutholwe yi-US Right to Know kusikisela ukuthi uCoca-Cola unikeze i-ILSI $ 167,000 ngo-2012 nango-2013.
  • I-International Food Information Council (IFIC), engenzi-nzuzo eseWashington esekelwa izinkampani zokudla nezinhlangano zabasebenzi ezibandakanya iCoca-Cola, i-American Beverage Association, iHershey Company kanye neCargill Inc. Ngokwe-website yayo, i-IFIC isebenza “ukuxhumana ngempumelelo nesayensi imininingwane esekwe "ngokudla futhi" isiza izintatheli nama-blogger ukubhala ngempilo, ukudla okunomsoco nokuphepha kokudla. "
  • Ukuhlanganiswa kososayensi bezemfundo abanomlando wokwenza ucwaningo oluxhaswe yiCoca-Cola noma i-ILSI.

UMalaspina, owaqhubeka nokuzibandakanya neCoca-Cola ne-ILSI ngemuva kokushiya inkampani kasoda, uvela kuma-imeyili njengendawo eyinhloko yokuxhuma kwinethiwekhi. Isibonelo, ngemuva kokucela izeluleko zendlela yokuhlambalaza igama le- Izincomo ze-2015 weDiary Guidelines Advisory Committee, uyayincoma imizamo yoMkhandlu Wokudla ukuthi ibe nomthelela ezintathelini ezibhala ngazo.

'Ukuza Ngemboni'

UMkhandlu usanda kubamba abezindaba nezintatheli ezingama-40 ukugxeka izincomo zekomidi, i-IFIC eyithathe “njengokwenza idimoni” ushukela, inyama namazambane. Ngemuva kocingo lwabezindaba, abamele i-IFIC baziqhayisa ngememo yangaphakathi ukuthi babe nomthelela ekusakazweni kwezintatheli eziningi. IMalaspina ithola ikhophi yale memo bese iyithumela kozakwabo eCoke nakubantu ebixhumana nabo eCDC.

"I-IFIC iza ngomkhakha," kubhala uMalaspina.

Okhulumela i-CDC, uKathy Harben, uthe nge-imeyili ukuthi i-ejensi yakhe "isebenza nezinkampani ezizimele ngoba ubudlelwano phakathi kukahulumeni nabazimele buqhubekisela phambili inhloso ye-CDC yokuvikela abaseMelika. I-CDC iqinisekisa ukuthi, lapho sihlanganyela nomkhakha ozimele, singabaphathi abahle bezimali esiziphathisiwe futhi sigcina ubuqotho bethu besayensi ngokubamba iqhaza inqubo yokushayisana kwezinhloso zenzuzo lokho kuhloswe ukuba kube lukhuni futhi kungafihli lutho. ”

Ukuxhumana kwezezimali nokuxhumana okungabazekayo phakathi kweCoca-Cola, abacwaningi bezemfundo kanye neCDC kudalulwe emibikweni eminingi eminyakeni emibili edlule.

'I-Energy Balance Network'

Ngo-2015, i-New York Times kwathi kamuva i-Associated Press yabika ukuthi uRhona Applebaum, isikhulu sezempilo nesayensi eCoke, babehlele izibonelelo eNyuvesi yaseColorado naseYunivesithi yaseNingizimu Carolina ukuqala iqembu elingenzi nzuzo, iGlobal Energy Balance Network, lokho "kungafaka ukuhleleka kwengqondo nokucabanga" ezingxoxweni mayelana nokukhuluphala.

Inhloso bekuwukucindezela umbono wokuthi ukuzuza kwesisindo kuhlobene kakhulu nomsebenzi onganele womzimba womuntu ngokusetshenziswa kwabo ushukela nama-calories. Ngemuva kokudalulwa kwezimali zikaCoca-Cola, inethiwekhi yokulinganisa amandla yahlakazwa kwathi iNyuvesi yaseColorado yamemezela ukuthi izobuyisa u- $ 1 million eCoke. U-Applebaum uthathe umhlalaphansi ezinyangeni ezintathu ngemuva kwendaba ye-Times.

Ngonyaka odlule, uBarbara Bowman umemezele ukuthi usethathe umhlalaphansi ovela kwi-CDC ngemuva kwezinsuku ezimbili i-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi weluleke iMalaspina ngezindlela zokuthonya i-World Health Organisation kanye noMqondisi-Jikelele wayo uMargaret Chan. I-WHO ibisanda kukhipha imihlahlandlela incoma ukunciphisa ushukela kakhulu, futhi iMalaspina ibheka lokhu “njengosongo ebhizinisini lethu.”

Amanye amarekhodi atholwe ngonyaka owedlule yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi uMichael Pratt, umeluleki omkhulu wezempilo yomhlaba kwi-CDC's National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, wayenze ucwaningo olwaluxhaswe yiCoca-Cola futhi waba ngumeluleki we-ILSI.

'Sizokwenza Ngcono'

Ngo-Agasti 2015, emasontweni amabili ngemuva kwendaba ye-Times, uSihlalo weCoca-Cola kanye noMphathi Omkhulu uMuhtar Kent kuvunyelwe ku-Wall Street Journal op-ed enesihloko esithi “Sizokwenza Ngcono” ukuthi imali yenkampani yocwaningo lwesayensi, ezimeni eziningi, "isebenze kuphela ukudala ukudideka nokungathembani." Le nkampani yabuye yadalula ukuthi kusuka ngo-2010 kuze kube sekupheleni konyaka odlule, yayisebenzise imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 138 yokuxhasa abangaphandle kwabacwaningi nezinhlelo zezempilo futhi yakha “obala”Ukufakwa kuhlu kwamawebhusayithi abemukeli bezimali zayo.

AbakwaCoca-Cola bathi manje bayazisekela izincomo ze-WHO iMalaspina efuna ukuzihlambalaza - ukuthi abantu banciphise ushukela abanawo ube ngu-10% wama-calories abawadlayo usuku ngalunye. "Siluqalile uhambo lwethu lokuya kuleyo njongo njengoba siguqula amasu ethu ebhizinisi abe yinkampani ephelele yeziphuzo," kusho okhulumela iCoca-Cola uKatherine Schermerhorn nge-imeyili.

UCoca-Cola uphinde wathembisa ukuthi uzohlinzeka ngezindleko ezingekho ngaphezu kuka-50% kwanoma yiluphi ucwaningo lwesayensi. Ngabe lokho kuzokwenza umehluko emphumeleni wezifundo? Abagxeki beCoca-Cola bayangabaza, bephawula ukuthi izifundo zangaphambilini ebezixhaswa yiCoke zinciphise imithelela emibi yezempilo yeziphuzo ezinoshukela noma ezinoshukela. Ngizobhekisisa kahle kusasa ezinye zezifundo ezaxhaswa nguCoke - bese ngizidlulisela koxhumana nabo eCDC.

URob Waters ungumbhali wezempilo nesayensi ozinze eBerkeley, eCalifornia futhi uyintatheli ephenya nge-US Right to Know. Le ndaba ivele ekuqaleni Forbes ngoJulayi 10.

Ngabe iSenate Democrats Izophanga Ukuhlulwa Emihlathini Yokunqoba ku-GMO Labeling?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Vuselela ngoJuni 27: Umthethosivivinywa omusha "wokuyekethisa" omenyezelwe yiSenator Stabenow "awamukeleki ngokuphelele" futhi mubi ukwedlula owokuqala, kusho abameli babathengi. Funda i- izindaba zakamuva lapha.

NguStacy Malkan

Cishe ama-90% aseMelika athi ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kufanele kufakwe ilebula, ngokusekelwa okuphezulu kuyo yonke iminyaka, izinhlanga kanye nokuzibandakanya kwezepolitiki, ngokusho kukaDisemba 2015 Ukuvota kweMellman Group. Kunzima ukucabanga ngodaba lwezepolitiki olwabelana ngesikhalazo esibanzi. Ukukholelwa kwilungelo lethu lokwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni kwethu kunjengeMelika njengophaya we-apula.

Manje, ngemuva kwempi elwelwe kanzima eholwa yizigidi zabathengi kanye namaqembu ezwe ngobukhulu kwezemvelo, ezempilo kanye nabathengi, siyalinqoba lelo lungelo. Izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla ezivela I-General Mills kuya I-Kellogg kuya UCampbell bathe bafaka amalebula kwimikhiqizo yokudla ukukhombisa ukuthi akhiqizwa ngobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo.

Kungenzeka yini ukuhlehlisa le nqubekela phambili? Kungenzeka yini ukuthi amalebula amasha okudla abuyele emafektri afakwe esikhundleni sokungaqondakali ama-black blobs abizwa ngamakhodi we-QR?

Ngabe amaSenate Democrats, aholwa yiDemocrat yaseMichigan uDebbie Stabenow, asezokwenza isivumelwano esizomisa ukufakwa kwelebula le-GMO emikhondweni yalo?

ama-spaghettiosImboni yezolimo igubuzela iSenate yase-US njengamanje ngomzamo wokugcina wokufuna ukwedlulisa UMNYAMA (Waphika amaMelika Ilungelo Lokwazi) Umthetho, futhi ngaleyo ndlela ichithe imizamo yokulebula yombuso. Kusele amasonto ambalwa nje ukwenza lokhu ngaphambi kokuba iVermont isebenzise umthetho wokuqala ophoqelela ukubekwa uphawu kweGMO wesizwe ngoJulayi 1.

Indlu Yomele yaphasisa UMTHETHO WOBUMNYAMA ngonyaka odlule. Ummeli uJohn Conyers (D-MI) uthe ngaleso sikhathi ku I-CNN op ed, "Ukuthi iCongress icubungula ngisho nesiphakamiso sokwenqabela abantu baseMelika imininingwane eyisisekelo ngokudla kwabo kukhuluma ngamandla amakhulu alawa malungu ezinkampani ngenxa yomphakathi."

Wonke amehlo manje asethe njo kuSenen Stabenow, okungukuthi, ngokusho kuka Umbiko kaHagstrom, ngisanda kuphakamisa ulimi olusha "lokuvumelana." Lokhu kungafaka noma kungafaki amakhodi we-QR, inombolo engu-800, noma enye indlela yokufuna ilebula "ephoqelekile" ngenkathi kuvunyelwa izinkampani zokudla ukuthi zisuse amagama athi "genetic engineering" kumalebula amasha asendleleni eya esitolo esiseduze nawe .

Imininingwane ekulesi sivumelwano ayifani. Kodwa into eyodwa icacile: njengoba i-Democrat esezingeni eliphezulu eKomidini Lezolimo Lezigele, uSen.Stabenow ephethe okhiye bokunquma ukuthi ngabe abaseMelika bazogcina becaciselekile yini, bazofaka amalebula e-GMO asevele edingeka kwamanye amazwe angama-64 emhlabeni jikelele.

Zombili izinhlangothi zenza konke okusemandleni ukumthonya. Njengoba I-Politico ibike, Abaholi bemboni yezimboni babamba ukuqoqwa kwesikhwama sikaSen.Stabenow ngoMashi, ezinsukwini ezimbalwa ngaphambi kokuvota kokugcina kuMthetho WAMANGQAMA, futhi abaholi bezimboni zemvelo banikele ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi emkhankasweni wakhe ngo-2015 nango-2016.

Ukubuyekezwa kokufakwa kweFederal Election Commission yeminikelo emkhankasweni kaSen.Stabenow ovela ezinkampanini nakumaqembu ezentengiselwano eminyakeni emihlanu edlule kutholile okuncane embonini yezinto eziphilayo - umnikelo owodwa nje ovela kwi-Organic Trade Association ngo-2012 ngama- $ 2,500.

Amaqembu amakhulu okudla, amakhemikhali kanye nezolimo, okwamanje, anikele ngaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 emkhankasweni wakhe ngaleso sikhathi, kufaka phakathi ama- $ 60,000 ahlanganisiwe avela eMonsanto, DuPont, Pepsi, Coca-Cola, Dow, Kraft, Bayer naseConAgra.

Lezo zinhlangano beziphakathi kwabanikeli abaphezulu abayi-10 emikhankasweni yokulwa nokulebula okuchithiwe ngaphezulu kwezingu-$ 100 million ukunqoba izinhlelo zokuvota ze-GMO eCalifornia, Washington, Oregon naseCalifornia - besebenzisa amaqhinga angcolile ukwenza kanjalo, njengama-mail avela amaqembu angaphambili angamanga, izimangalo ezingamanga ku izikhangiso nemihlahlandlela yokuvota, futhi enkulu kunazo zonke ukusebenza kwemali ngokungemthetho emlandweni wokhetho lwaseWashington State.

Kungani lezi zinkampani zesaba ukunika abaseMelika ukukhetha okunolwazi ngama-GMO ekudleni kwethu?

Amaqembu amakhulu amabhizinisi ezolimo athumela umyalezo wokuthi akulona ibhizinisi lethu ukuthi yini ekudleni kwethu nokuthi ikhiqizwa kanjani. Umdwebi wekhathuni wezepolitiki uRick Friday ufunde leso sifundo kabuhlungu ngesikhathi esanda kuba khona uxoshwe emsebenzini seminyaka engama-21 e-Iowa's Farm News ngokukhomba kukhathuni labo baphathi abaphezulu eMonsanto, eDuPont Pioneer naseJohn Deere benza imali eningi ngonyaka odlule kunabalimi abangu-2,129 base-Iowa.

Yini enye lezi zinkampani ezingafuni sazi ngokudla kwethu?

Iqiniso liwukuthi, izitshalo eziningi ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo zenzelwe ukusindisa ama-herbicides, okulungele inzuzo yenkampani yamakhemikhali kepha hhayi okuhle kubalimi nemindeni emiphakathini ekhula nge-GMO efana IHawaii, i-Argentina ne-Iowa - noma abanye bethu okungenzeka ukuthi badla ukudla nsuku zonke lokho iqukethe i-glyphosate, ebisanda kubekwa njenge- mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu yiphaneli yomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation.

Izindaba ezimnandi ukuthi, ukufunwa komthengi ngokusobala manje sekukhulu kakhulu ukuthi singakunaki.

Izindlela zombuso zokufaka ilebula le-GMO ziphumelele ekufundiseni izigidi zabantu ukuthi izitshalo zethu ezibaluleke kakhulu zokudla zenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngaphandle kokusebenza obala. Umthetho welebuli kaVermont uyimpumelelo esizweni futhi izinkampani zokudla sezivele zisendleleni yokufaka amalebuli e-GMO okokuqala ngqa emlandweni wase-US.

Uma i-agrichemical lobby iphumelela ekucindezeleni amaDemocrats ukuthi amukele isivumelwano se-Dark Act esifaka noma yini engaphansi kwesibopho sokuphawulwa kwiphakeji, uSen.Stabenow uzokhunjulwa unomphela ngokuhlwitha ukuhlulwa emihlathini yokunqoba ngelungelo lethu lokwazi ukuthi yini ekudleni kwethu.

Le ndaba ekuqaleni yabonakala Huffington Post. Ufuna ukudla okwengeziwe komcabango? Bhalisela i- Incwajana ye-USRTK.