Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

Izifundo ezintsha zokubulala ukhula ziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo yokuzala

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Njengoba iBayer AG ifuna ukwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngokuthi imithi yokubulala ukhula esuselwa eMonsanto eglyphosate ibangela umdlavuza, izifundo eziningana ezintsha ziphakamisa imibuzo mayelana nomthelela wamakhemikhali ongahle ube khona empilweni yokuzala.

Ukuhlanganiswa kwezifundo zezilwane okukhishwe kuleli hlobo kukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kunomthelela ezithweni zokuzala futhi kungasongela ukuzala, kungeze nobufakazi obusha bokuthi umenzeli wokubulala ukhula angaba ukuphazamiseka kwe-endocrine. Amakhemikhali aphazamisa i-Endocrine angalingisa noma aphazamise amahomoni omzimba futhi axhumene nezinkinga zokukhula nokuzala kanye nokungasebenzi kahle kobuchopho namasosha omzimba.

Phakathi ku iphepha elishicilelwe ngenyanga edlule in I-Endocrinology yamangqamuzana namaselula, Abaphenyi abane base-Argentina bathi izifundo ziphikisana nesiqinisekiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi i-glyphosate iphephile.

Ucwaningo olusha luza njengoba iBayer injalo ukuzama ukuxazulula izimangalo ezingaphezu kuka-100,000 ezilethwe e-United States ngabantu abasola ukutholakala kwe-Roundup kaMonsanto kanye neminye imikhiqizo ye-herbicide esuselwa e-glyphosate kubangele ukuthi bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Abamangali ecaleni lamacala ezweni lonke bathi iMonsanto kudala yafuna ukufihla izingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula.

UBayer uzuze ifa le-Roundup litigation lapho uthenge iMonsanto ku-2018, ngaphambi nje kokunqoba kwecala lokuqala kwabamangali.

Izifundo zibuye futhi njengoba amaqembu abathengi esebenza ukuqonda kangcono ukuthi angakunciphisa kanjani ukuvezwa kwabo yi-glyphosate ngokudla. Ucwaningo ishicilelwe ngo-Agasti 11 ithole ukuthi ngemuva kokushintshela ekudleni okuphilayo izinsuku ezimbalwa nje, abantu bangehlisa amazinga e-glyphosate atholakala emchameni wabo ngamaphesenti angaphezu kwama-70. Ngokuphawulekayo, abacwaningi bathola ukuthi izingane ezifundweni bezinamazinga aphakeme kakhulu e-glyphosate emchameni wazo kunabantu abadala. Bobabili abadala nezingane babone amaconsi amakhulu phambi kwe-pesticide kulandela ukuguqulwa kokudla.

IGlyphosate, isithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup, isibulali sokhula esisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni. IMonsanto yethule izitshalo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kuma-1990s ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze i-glyphosate ngqo kuzo zonke izinkambu zezitshalo, babulale ukhula kepha hhayi izitshalo ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo. Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-glyphosate, ngabalimi kanye nabaninikhaya, izinsiza kanye nezinhlangano zomphakathi, kudonse ukukhathazeka okukhulayo eminyakeni edlule ngenxa yokugcwala kwayo nokwesaba ukuthi ingahle yenzeni empilweni yabantu neyemvelo. Ikhemikhali manje selitholakala kakhulu ekudleni nasemanzini nasemchameni womuntu.

Ngokusho kososayensi base-Argentina, eminye imiphumela ebikiwe ye-glyphosate ebonwe ezifundweni ezintsha zezilwane kungenxa yokuchayeka emithamo ephezulu; kodwa kunobufakazi obusha obukhombisa ukuthi ngisho nokuvezwa komthamo ophansi nakho kungashintsha ukuthuthukiswa kwendlela yokuzala yabesifazane, kube nemiphumela ekuzaleni. Lapho izilwane zivezwa ku-glyphosate ngaphambi kokuthomba, izinguquko ziyabonakala ekukhuleni nasekuhlukaniseni ama-ovary follicles nesibeletho, ososayensi bathi. Ngokwengeziwe, ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula eyenziwe nge-glyphosate ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kungashintsha ukukhula kwenzalo. Konke kunezela ukukhombisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides yiziphazamisi ze-endocrine, abacwaningi baphetha kanjalo.

Usosayensi wezolimo uDon Huber, uprofesa osafufusa wasePurdue University, uthe ucwaningo olusha lukhulisa ulwazi mayelana nobukhulu bomonakalo ohambisana ne-glyphosate kanye ne-glyphosate-based herbicides futhi lunikeza "ukuqonda kangcono ukuqonda ubucayi bokuchayeka okukhona kuyo yonke indawo yethu isiko manje. ”

UHuber uxwayise iminyaka eminingi ukuthi i-Roundup kaMonsanto kungenzeka ibe nomthelela ezinkingeni zokuzala emfuyweni.

One ukutadisha okuphawulekayo eshicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi kumagazini Ukudla kanye Nezokwelapha Kwezolimo, inqume ukuthi i-glyphosate noma i-glyphosate-based herbicides iphazamise "okubalulekile kwe-hormonal kanye ne-uterine target molecular" kumagundane akhulelwe adaluliwe.

Isifundo esihlukile muva nje eshicilelwe encwadini I-Toxicology ne-Applied Pharmacology ngabaphenyi base-Iowa State University babheka ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate kumagundane. Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi ukuvezwa okungapheli okungapheli kwezinga eliphansi le-glyphosate "kuguqula i-ovarian proteome" (iqoqo lamaprotheni azwakalayo ohlobo oluthile lweseli noma lomzimba) futhi "ekugcineni kungathinta ukusebenza kwe-ovarian. Ephepheni elihlobene elivela kubaphenyi abafanayo be-Iowa State kanye nomlobi oyedwa owengeziwe, eshicilelwe ku I-Toxicology Yokuzala, abacwaningi bathi abatholanga imiphumela ephazamisa i-endocrine kumagundane adalulwe ku-glyphosate, noma kunjalo.  

Abaphenyi abavela e-University of Georgia kubikwe kulo magazini Isayensi Yezilwane Nezilwane ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwemfuyo okusanhlamvu okugcwele izinsalela ze-glyphosate kubonakale kuthwala ukulimala kwezilwane, ngokusho kokubuyekezwa kwezifundo ngesihloko. Ngokuya ngokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate abonakala esebenza "njengezidakamizwa ezinobuthi zokuzala, ezinemiphumela ehlukahlukene kuzinhlelo zokuzala zabesilisa nabesifazane," kusho abacwaningi.

Imiphumela eyethusayo ibikhona futhi kubonakala ezimvwini. Ucwaningo olushicilelwe kumagazini Ukungcola kwemvelo ibheke imithelela yokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate ekukhuleni kwesibeletho kumawundlu ezinsikazi. Bathola ushintsho abathi lungathinta impilo yokuzala yezimvu futhi lukhombise ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate asebenza njengesiphazamisi se-endocrine.

Futhi kushicilelwe ku- Ukungcola kwemvelo, ososayensi baseFinland naseSpain bathi ku iphepha elisha ukuthi benze ukuhlolwa kokuqala kwesikhathi eside kwemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe- "sub-toxic" glyphosate ezinkukhu. Bazama ukudalula izigwaca zabesifazane nabesilisa emithini ye-glyphosate-based herbicides kusukela eminyakeni eyi-10 kuye emavikini angama-52.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate herbicides ingakwazi "ukuguqula izindlela ezibalulekile zomzimba, isimo se-antioxidant, i-testosterone, kanye ne-microbiome" kepha ababonanga imiphumela ekukhiqizeni. Bathe imiphumela ye-glyphosate ingahle ingabonakali njalo “ngokuhlolwa kwendabuko, ikakhulukazi okwesikhashana, ikakhulukazi okunobuthi, futhi lokho kuhlola kungenzeka kungabuboni ngokugcwele ubungozi…”

IGlyphosate neNeonicotinoids

Omunye izifundo ezintsha sha ukubheka imithelela ye-glyphosate kwezempilo kushicilelwe kule nyanga ku- Ijenali Yomhlaba Wonke Yocwaningo Lwezemvelo Nempilo Yomphakathi.  Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi i-glyphosate kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane i-thiacloprid ne-imidacloprid, kungenzeka kube ngabaphazamisi be-endocrine.

Ama-insecticide ayingxenye yesigaba samakhemikhali se-neonicotinoid futhi aphakathi kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni.

Abaphenyi bathi babheke umphumela we-glyphosate nama-neonicotinoid amabili kuzinhloso ezimbili ezibucayi zohlelo lwe-endocrine: i-Aromatase, i-enzyme ebhekele i-estrogen biosynthesis, ne-estrogen receptor alpha, iphrotheni enkulu ekhuthaza ukusayinda kwe-estrogen.

Imiphumela yabo ibixubile. Abaphenyi bathi maqondana ne-glyphosate, umbulali wokhula uvimbela umsebenzi we-aromatase kodwa ukuvimbela "bekuyingxenye futhi kubuthakathaka." Okubalulekile ukuthi abacwaningi bathi i-glyphosate ayizange idale umsebenzi we-estrogenic. Imiphumela "ibingahambisani" nohlelo lokuhlola olwenziwe yi-US Environmental Protection Agency, oluphethe ngokuthi “abukho ubufakazi obukholisayo bokusebenzisana okungaba khona nendlela ye-estrogen ye-glyphosate,” kusho bona.

Abaphenyi babone umsebenzi we-estrogenic nge-imidacloprid ne-thiacloprid, kepha ekugxilweni okuphezulu kunamazinga okubulala izinambuzane alinganiswa kumasampula womuntu. Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi “imithamo ephansi yalezi zinambuzane akumele ibhekwe njengengozi,” kodwa, ngoba le mibulala-zinambuzane, kanye namanye amakhemikhali aphazamisa i-endocrine, “kungadala umphumela we-estrogenic.”

Okutholakele okuhlukahlukene kuza njengoba amazwe amaningi nezindawo emhlabeni wonke zihlola ukuthi kufanele kukhawulwe noma kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate herbicides.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ubuse ngenyanga edlule ukuthi kunobufakazi "obuningi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kanye nezinye izithako kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup, idale umdlavuza.

Abalawuli baseMelika bathembele iminyaka emininingwaneni yezibulala-zinambuzane enamaphutha enikezwe yiDow Chemical

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Sekuyiminyaka, abalawuli baseMelika bethembele kwimininingwane engeyona ehlinzekwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos amakhemikhali emakhaya aseMelika, ngokusho ukuhlaziywa okusha kusuka kubacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Ukuhlaziywa kuphinda kuhlolisise ukusebenza okuvela kuma-1970 axhaswe yi-Dow futhi athunyelwa kwi-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuqondisa i-ejensi ekusunguleni lokho ososayensi abakubiza ngokuthi yi "no-seen-adverse-effect-level" noma i-NOAEL. Leyo mibundu isetshenziselwa ukuthola ukuthi iziphi izinhlobo zokusetshenziswa nokuthi ukuvezwa ngamakhemikhali kungavunyelwa futhi kubhekwe kanjani “njengokuphephile”.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okusha, okushicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi 3 kumagazini I-Environmental International, ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ngumcwaningi uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo abavela e-Albany Medical College ekuqaleni kwawo-1970 kweDow.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baphinde bahlola ukuthi umsebenzi wangaphambilini nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske woMnyango Wezemvelo Nezemisebenzi Yezesayensi Yezempilo, Isikole Sezempilo Yomphakathi e-University of Washington.

Ngenkathi isifundo sibhalwa yiqembu laseCoulston, ukuhlaziywa kwaqedwa yisazi sezibalo seDow futhi kwaphetha ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli le-NOAEL lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha okwenziwe ngabaphenyi beYunivesithi yaseWashington kutholile ukuthi kweqise ngokweqile umkhawulo wezokuphepha. Ukube imininingwane ihlaziywe kahle i-NOAEL engezansi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ibizotholakala, kusho bona.

Ucwaningo lwaseCoulston aluzange lubuyekezwe ontanga kepha lusasetshenziswa yi-EPA ekuhloleni ubungozi phakathi nawo wonke ama-1980's kanye nawo-1990, kubike abacwaningi be-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa ezindaweni eziningi okwathi kamuva kwahoxiswa ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ”

Kusetshenziswe Kahle

Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo egameni lomkhiqizo iLorsban, ama-insepideides e-chlorpyrifos afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Imakethe yezolimo enkulu kunazo zonke yama-chlorpyrifos ummbila kepha isibulala-zinambuzane sisetshenziswa futhi ngabalimi abatshala ubhontshisi, izihlahla zezithelo namantongomane, amahlumela eBrussels, ama-cranberries, no-cauliflower, kanye nezinye izitshalo ezilandelanayo. Izinsalela zamakhemikhali zivame ukutholakala ekudleni. Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ephakanyiswe yi-Dow, ucwaningo oluzimele lwesayensi luye lwabonisa ubufakazi obandayo bezingozi ze-chlorpyrifos, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezincane. Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kwentuthuko yezimoto.

I-American Academy for Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane nodokotela abahlinzayo abangaphezu kwama-66,000, isixwayise ngokuthi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kwaleli khemikhali kubeka engozini enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane kanye nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority isho ukuthi ikhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile.

I-EPA yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow ngo-2000 sokuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwaleli khemikhali ngenxa yocwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Ngo-2012, ama-chlorpyrifos ayevinjelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience, okuyinhlangano eyalandela ukuhlangana kweDow neDuPont, kusho yona izophela ukukhiqizwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Leli khemikhali, noma kunjalo, lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Izifundo ezingabantu

Ucwaningo oluyisihloko sephepha elisha labaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseWashington lwenganyelwa ngo-1971 yi-Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology ye-Albany Medical College. Ucwaningo lubandakanya iziboshwa zesilisa esezikhulile ezinempilo eziphakeme ezivela echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, ejele elinokuphepha okuphezulu eDannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ahlelwa ngamaqembu amane okuhlola, kufaka phakathi iqembu elilodwa lokulawula, amalungu alo athola i-placebo yansuku zonke. Amalungu amanye amaqembu amathathu athola ukwelashwa nsuku zonke ngama-chlorpyrifos ngemithamo emithathu ehlukene. Ucwaningo lwenzeke ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezingama-63.

Ukuhlaziywa okusha kuthole izinkinga eziningana ngocwaningo, kufaka phakathi ukushiywa kwezilinganiso eziyisisekelo eziyisishiyagalombili ezivumelekile zeqembu elilodwa lezokwelapha.

"Ukushiywa okunjalo kwemininingwane evumelekile ngaphandle kwesizathu kuyindlela yokwenziwa kwedatha okwephula wonke amakhodi ajwayelekile womkhuba wokucwaninga ngokuziphatha futhi okuchazwa njengokuziphatha okungahambi kahle kocwaningo," kuphetha abacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi bathi ama-chlorpyrifos "adlula enkambisweni yokulawula ngaphandle kwempikiswano enkulu," noma ngabe kukhona "ubufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi bungaba yingozi yezempilo ezindaweni zokuhlala."

"UCoulston Study udukise abalawuli ngokushiya imininingwane evumelekile," futhi "kungenzeka kube nomthelela omubi empilweni yomphakathi" iminyaka eminingana, kuphetha iphepha le-University of Washington.

Abalawuli baseMelika bathembele iminyaka emininingwaneni yezibulala-zinambuzane enamaphutha enikezwe yiDow Chemical

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Sekuyiminyaka, abalawuli baseMelika bethembele kwimininingwane engeyona ehlinzekwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos amakhemikhali emakhaya aseMelika, ngokusho ukuhlaziywa okusha kusuka kubacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Ukuhlaziywa kuphinda kuhlolisise ukusebenza okuvela kuma-1970 axhaswe yi-Dow futhi athunyelwa kwi-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuqondisa i-ejensi ekusunguleni lokho ososayensi abakubiza ngokuthi yi "no-seen-adverse-effect-level" noma i-NOAEL. Leyo mibundu isetshenziselwa ukuthola ukuthi iziphi izinhlobo zokusetshenziswa nokuthi ukuvezwa ngamakhemikhali kungavunyelwa futhi kubhekwe kanjani “njengokuphephile”.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okusha, okushicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi 3 kumagazini I-Environmental International, ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ngumcwaningi uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo abavela e-Albany Medical College ekuqaleni kwawo-1970 kweDow.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baphinde bahlola ukuthi umsebenzi wangaphambilini nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske woMnyango Wezemvelo Nezemisebenzi Yezesayensi Yezempilo, Isikole Sezempilo Yomphakathi e-University of Washington.

Ngenkathi isifundo sibhalwa yiqembu laseCoulston, ukuhlaziywa kwaqedwa yisazi sezibalo seDow futhi kwaphetha ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli le-NOAEL lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha okwenziwe ngabaphenyi beYunivesithi yaseWashington kutholile ukuthi kweqise ngokweqile umkhawulo wezokuphepha. Ukube imininingwane ihlaziywe kahle i-NOAEL engezansi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ibizotholakala, kusho bona.

Ucwaningo lwaseCoulston aluzange lubuyekezwe ontanga kepha lusasetshenziswa yi-EPA ekuhloleni ubungozi phakathi nawo wonke ama-1980's kanye nawo-1990, kubike abacwaningi be-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa ezindaweni eziningi okwathi kamuva kwahoxiswa ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ”

Kusetshenziswe Kahle

Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo egameni lomkhiqizo iLorsban, ama-insepideides e-chlorpyrifos afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Imakethe yezolimo enkulu kunazo zonke yama-chlorpyrifos ummbila kepha isibulala-zinambuzane sisetshenziswa futhi ngabalimi abatshala ubhontshisi, izihlahla zezithelo namantongomane, amahlumela eBrussels, ama-cranberries, no-cauliflower, kanye nezinye izitshalo ezilandelanayo. Izinsalela zamakhemikhali zivame ukutholakala ekudleni. Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ephakanyiswe yi-Dow, ucwaningo oluzimele lwesayensi luye lwabonisa ubufakazi obandayo bezingozi ze-chlorpyrifos, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezincane. Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kwentuthuko yezimoto.

I-American Academy for Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane nodokotela abahlinzayo abangaphezu kwama-66,000, isixwayise ngokuthi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kwaleli khemikhali kubeka engozini enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane kanye nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority isho ukuthi ikhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile.

I-EPA yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow ngo-2000 sokuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwaleli khemikhali ngenxa yocwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Ngo-2012, ama-chlorpyrifos ayevinjelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience, okuyinhlangano eyalandela ukuhlangana kweDow neDuPont, kusho yona izophela ukukhiqizwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Leli khemikhali, noma kunjalo, lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Izifundo ezingabantu

Ucwaningo oluyisihloko sephepha elisha labaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseWashington lwenganyelwa ngo-1971 yi-Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology ye-Albany Medical College. Ucwaningo lubandakanya iziboshwa zesilisa esezikhulile ezinempilo eziphakeme ezivela echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, ejele elinokuphepha okuphezulu eDannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ahlelwa ngamaqembu amane okuhlola, kufaka phakathi iqembu elilodwa lokulawula, amalungu alo athola i-placebo yansuku zonke. Amalungu amanye amaqembu amathathu athola ukwelashwa nsuku zonke ngama-chlorpyrifos ngemithamo emithathu ehlukene. Ucwaningo lwenzeke ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezingama-63.

Ukuhlaziywa okusha kuthole izinkinga eziningana ngocwaningo, kufaka phakathi ukushiywa kwezilinganiso eziyisisekelo eziyisishiyagalombili ezivumelekile zeqembu elilodwa lezokwelapha.

"Ukushiywa okunjalo kwemininingwane evumelekile ngaphandle kwesizathu kuyindlela yokwenziwa kwedatha okwephula wonke amakhodi ajwayelekile womkhuba wokucwaninga ngokuziphatha futhi okuchazwa njengokuziphatha okungahambi kahle kocwaningo," kuphetha abacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi bathi ama-chlorpyrifos "adlula enkambisweni yokulawula ngaphandle kwempikiswano enkulu," noma ngabe kukhona "ubufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi bungaba yingozi yezempilo ezindaweni zokuhlala."

"UCoulston Study udukise abalawuli ngokushiya imininingwane evumelekile," futhi "kungenzeka kube nomthelela omubi empilweni yomphakathi" iminyaka eminingana, kuphetha iphepha le-University of Washington.

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva 

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo.