Olunye ucwaningo lwe-Roundup luthola izixhumanisi ezingaba nezinkinga zempilo yabantu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Kubuyekezwe uFebhuwari 17, kungeza ukugxekwa kokufunda)

A iphepha elisha lesayensi Ukuhlola imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ye-Roundup herbicides kutholakale ukuxhumana phakathi kokuchayeka kumakhemikhali okubulala ukhula i-glyphosate nokwanda kohlobo lwe-amino acid olwaziwa njengengozi yesifo senhliziyo.

Abaphenyi benza izinqumo zabo ngemuva kokudalula amagundane akhulelwe kanye namazinyane abo asanda kuzalwa ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup ngamanzi okuphuza. Bathe babheke ngqo imiphumela ye-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kuma-metabolites we-urinary nokuxhumana ne-gut microbiome ezilwaneni.

Abaphenyi bathi bathole ukwanda okukhulu kwe-amino acid ebizwa nge-homocysteine ​​emidlwane yamaduna evezwe ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup.

"Ucwaningo lwethu lunikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokuthi ukuvezwa kwe-GBH esetshenziswa kakhulu, kumthamo wokuvezwa komuntu owamukelekayo njengamanje, uyakwazi ukuguqula imetabolites yomchamo kubo bobabili abantu abadala bamagundane namazinyane," kusho abaphenyi.

Leli phepha elinesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa komthamo ophansi wemithi yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo nokusebenzisana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” kubhalwe ngabaphenyi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York kanti abane baphuma eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy. Ishicilelwe kumagazini iScientific Reports ngoFebhuwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile ukulinganiselwa okuningi esifundweni sabo, kufaka phakathi usayizi omncane wesampula, kepha bathi umsebenzi wabo ukhombisile ukuthi "ukutholakala komthamo ophansi wokukhulelwa kanye nobuncane be-glyphosate noma i-Roundup kushintshe kakhulu ama-biomarker amaningi womchamo, emadamini nasenzalweni."

Lolu cwaningo lungolokuqala ngoshintsho lwe-metabolomic ye-urinary olwenziwe ngama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate emithamo njengamanje ebhekwa njengephephile kubantu, kusho abacwaningi.

Leli phepha lilandela ukushicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ka isifundo emaphephandabeni Impilo Yemvelo ethola i-glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo we-Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute nabo babambe iqhaza kulolo cwaningo.

URobin Mesnage, ongomunye wababhali bephepha elashicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ku-Environmental Health Perspectives, wakuphikisa ukuba semthethweni kwephepha elisha. Uthe ukuhlaziywa kwedatha kukhombisa umehluko otholakele phakathi kwezilwane ezivezwe ku-glyphosate nalezo ezingadalulwanga - izilwane ezilawulayo - nazo bezingatholakala ngokufanayo ngemininingwane ekhiqizwe ngokungahleliwe.

“Sekukonke, ukuhlaziywa kwedatha akusekeli isiphetho sokuthi i-glyphosate iphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kanye ne-gut microbiota yezilwane eziveziwe,” kusho uMesnage. "Lolu cwaningo luzoqhubeka nokudida kancane impikiswano ngobuthi be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezimbalwa zakamuva ku-glyphosate naku-Roundup bathole ukukhathazeka okuningi.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

IBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe abantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-11 ukukhokha izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000 XNUMX.

 

 

Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

INkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia iphika ukubuyekezwa kokulahleka kwecala leMonsanto Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

INkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia ayizukubuyekeza ukunqoba kwecala lowesilisa waseCalifornia elanqoba iMonsanto, laphinde lahlasela umnikazi waseMonsanto waseGerman, uBayer AG.

The isinqumo sokwenqaba ukubuyekezwa ecaleni likaDewayne “Lee” Johnson umaka okwakamuva ochungechungeni lokulahlekelwa yinkantolo ngenxa Bayer njengoba izama ukuqeda izindawo zokuhlala nabamangali ababalelwa ku-100,000 XNUMX abathi ngamunye noma abathandekayo bakhe bathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma kusukela ekuchayekeni kwe-Roundup nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto. Amajaji ekuhlolweni ngakunye kwezintathu okubanjwe kuze kube manje awatholanga lokho kuphela kwenkampani ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

“Sidumele ngesinqumo seNkantolo sokungabuyekezi isinqumo senkantolo yokudlulisa enkantolo ephakathi Johnson sizobheka nezinqumo zethu zomthetho ukuze siqhubeke nokubuyekeza leli cala, ”kusho uBayer esitatimendeni.  

Inkampani kaMiller, Inkampani yabameli bakaJohnson eseVirginia, ithe isinqumo seNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia siphikile “umzamo kaMonsanto wakamuva wokweqa umthwalo” ngokudala umdlavuza kaJohnson.

“Amajaji amaningi manje asekuqinisekisile ukuvumelana ngazwi linye kwejaji ukuthi iMonsanto ifihle ngenhloso ingozi yomdlavuza kaRoundup futhi yabangela uMnu. Johnson ukuba abe nomdlavuza obulalayo. Isikhathi sesifikile sokuthi iMonsanto iqede izicelo zayo ezingenasisekelo futhi ikhokhele uMnu Johnson imali emukweleta yona, ”kusho le nkampani.

Ijaji elavumelana ngazwi linye elatholakala ngo-Agasti 2018 lokuthi ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto kwabangela ukuthi uJohnson athuthukise uhlobo olubulalayo lwe-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ijaji labuye lathola ukuthi iMonsanto yenza ukufihla ubungozi bemikhiqizo yayo ngokuziphatha ngendlela emangazayo kangangokuba inkampani kufanele ikhokhele uJohnson $ 250 million ngokulimala kokujezisa ngaphezu kuka- $ 39 wezigidi kumonakalo odlule nowesikhathi esizayo.

Ngemuva kokudluliswa kwesinqumo esivela eMonsanto, ijaji lecala lanciphisa imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 289 kuya ku- $ 78 million. Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ibe isinqamula lo mklomelo waba ngu- $ 20.5 million, icaphuna iqiniso lokuthi uJohnson kwakulindeleke ukuthi aphile isikhashana nje.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala ithe yehlise indondo yomonakalo ngaphandle kokuthola kwakukhona ubufakazi "obuningi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kanye nezinye izithako emikhiqizweni yakwaRoundup, yabangela umdlavuza kaJohnson nokuthi "kwakukhona ubufakazi obuqand 'ikhanda bokuthi uJohnson wahlupheka, futhi usazoqhubeka nokuhlupheka impilo yakhe yonke, ubuhlungu obukhulu nokuhlupheka. ”

Bobabili uMonsanto noJohnson bafuna ukubuyekezwa yiNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia, uJohnson ecela ukubuyiselwa umklomelo omkhulu wokulimala kanti uMonsanto ufuna ukuguqula isinqumo senkantolo.

IBayer ifinyelele ezindaweni zokuhlala nezinkampani ezimbalwa ezihola phambili zabameli ezimele isabelo esikhulu sezimangalo ezilethwe iMonsanto. NgoJuni, iBayer yathi izonikeza u- $ 8.8 billion kuya ku- $ 9.6 billion ukuxazulula icala.

Ucwaningo lwase-US lubonisa ukuthi ukushintshela ekudleni okuphilayo kungasula ngokushesha i-pesticide emizimbeni yethu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha kushicilelwe ngoLwesibili ithole ukuthi ngemuva kokushintshela ekudleni okungokwemvelo izinsuku ezimbalwa nje, abantu bangehlisa amazinga e-pesticides exhumene nomdlavuza otholakala emchameni wabo ngamaphesenti angaphezu kwama-70.

Abaphenyi baqoqa amasampula womchamo ayi-158 emindenini emine - abantu abadala abayisikhombisa nezingane eziyisishiyagalolunye - base behlola amasampula okuba khona kwe-weed killer glyphosate, okuyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup nakwamanye ama-herbicides athandwayo. Ababambiqhaza bachitha izinsuku ezinhlanu ekudleni okungekhona okwemvelo ngokuphelele nezinsuku ezinhlanu ekudleni okuphelele ngokuphelele.

"Lolu cwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi ukushintshela ekudleni okuphilayo kuyindlela ephumelelayo yokunciphisa umthwalo womzimba we-glyphosate ... Lolu cwaningo lunezela enqwelweni yezincwadi ekhulayo ekhombisa ukuthi ukudla okune-organic kunganciphisa ukuvezwa kohlu lwezinambuzane ezinganeni nakubantu abadala," kusho isifundo, esashicilelwa ephephabhukwini Ucwaningo Lwemvelo.

Ngokuphawulekile, abacwaningi bathole ukuthi izingane ezisocwaningweni zazinamazinga aphezulu kakhulu e-glyphosate emchameni wazo kunabantu abadala. Bobabili abadala nezingane babone amaconsi amakhulu phambi kwe-pesticide kulandela ukuguqulwa kokudla. Amazinga we-urinary glyphosate azo zonke izifundo ehle ngamaphesenti angama-70.93.

Yize lincane kangako, lolu cwaningo lubalulekile ngoba lukhombisa ukuthi abantu banganciphisa ngokuphawulekayo ukuvezwa kwabo emithini yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni ngisho nangaphandle komthetho, kusho uBruce Lanphear, uSolwazi Wezempilo eSimon Fraser University.

ULanphear uqaphele ukuthi lolu cwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi izingane zibonakala zivezwe kakhulu kunabantu abadala, yize isizathu singacaci. "Uma ukudla kungcoliswe yimithi yokubulala izinambuzane, bazoba nomthwalo omkhulu womzimba," kusho uLanphear.

I-Roundup namanye ama-herbicides e-glyphosate ajwayele ukufuthwa ngqo ngaphezulu kwezinsimu ezikhulayo zommbila, ubhontshisi, isithombo sebhitrudi, i-canola, ukolweni, i-oats nezinye izitshalo eziningi ezisetshenziselwa ukwenza ukudla, kushiya imikhondo emikhiqizweni yokudla eseqedile edliwe ngabantu nezilwane.

Ukuphathwa Kwezokudla Nezidakamizwa kuthole i-glyphosate ngisho ku-oatmeal  futhi sithandwa, phakathi kweminye imikhiqizo. Futhi amaqembu abathengi anemibhalo yezinsalela ze-glyphosate kuhlu lokudla okulula namabele.

Kodwa i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides efana ne-Roundup ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nokunye ukugula nezifo ezifundweni eziningana kule minyaka edlule nokuqwashisa ngocwaningo kuholele ekukhuleni kokwesaba mayelana nokuchayeka ku-pesticide ngokudla.

Amaqembu amaningi aqophe ubukhona be-glyphosate emchameni womuntu eminyakeni yamuva. Kepha kube nezifundo ezimbalwa eziqhathanisa amazinga e-glyphosate kubantu abadla ukudla okujwayelekile kuqhathaniswa nokudla okwenziwe kuphela ngokudla okulinywe ngokwemvelo, ngaphandle kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane efana ne-glyphosate.

"Imiphumela yalolu cwaningo iqinisekisa ucwaningo lwangaphambilini lapho izidlo eziphilayo zinganciphisa ukutholakala kwama-agrochemicals, njenge-glyphosate," kusho uChensheng Lu, uprofesa ohlanganyele we-University of Washington School of Public Health kanye noprofesa ohloniphekile, iSouthwest University, iChongqing China .

“Ngokubona kwami, umyalezo oyisisekelo waleli phepha ukukhuthaza ukukhiqiza ukudla okungokwemvelo okuningi kwabantu abafuna ukuzivikela ekuvezweni yimishanguzo yezolimo. Leli phepha liyifakazile futhi le ndlela efanelekile yokuvikela nokuvikela, ”kusho uLu.

Isifundo yabhalwa nguJohn Fagan noLarry Bohlen, bobabili be-Health Research Institute e-Iowa, kanye noSharyle Patton, umqondisi weCommonweal Biomonitoring Resource Center eCalifornia noKendra Klein, ongusosayensi osebenza kwaFriends of the Earth, iqembu elimele abathengi.

The imindeni ebambe iqhaza esifundweni uhlala e-Oakland, California, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Baltimore, Maryland nase-Atlanta, Georgia.

Ucwaningo olwesibili lwephrojekthi yocwaningo olunezingxenye ezimbili. Eyokuqala, amazinga wezibulala-zinambuzane ezihlukene eziyi-14 alinganiswa emchameni wabahlanganyeli.

IGlyphosate ikhathaza ngokukhethekile ngoba iyona herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi ifuthwa ngezilimo eziningi zokudla. I-International Agency for Research on Cancer, eyingxenye yeWorld Health Organisation, ithe ngonyaka wezi-2015 lokho kucwaninga kukhombise i-glyphosate ku ube yi-carcinogen yabantu.

Amashumi ezinkulungwane zabantu afake isimangalo eMonsanto esithi ukutholakala kwe-Roundup kubangele ukuthi bahlakulele i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, futhi amazwe amaningi nezindawo emhlabeni wonke muva nje kukhawulele noma kwavimbela ama-glyphosate herbicides noma bacabanga ukwenza kanjalo.

IBayer, eyathenga iMonsanto e2018, iyi- ukuzama ukuxazulula ezingaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX zezimangalo ezinjalo zilethwe e-United States. Abamangali ecaleni lamacala ezweni lonke bathi iMonsanto sekuyisikhathi eside ifuna ukufihla izingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula.

Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala eCalifornia ubuse ngenyanga edlule ukuthi kunobufakazi "obuningi" bokuthi i-glyphosate, kanye nezinye izithako kumikhiqizo ye-Roundup, idale umdlavuza.

Ijaji laseSt. Louis Liphika Isicelo SikaMonsanto Sokubambezela Olunye Uvivinyo Lomdlavuza Olwahlanganayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isifiso sikaMonsanto sokuhlehlisa olunye uvivinyo oluzayo lomdlavuza weRoundup eSt. Louis sehlulekile - okungenani okwamanje - njengejaji uyalile ukuthi ukuqulwa kwecala elibekelwe u-Okthoba kuzoqhubeka.

Ngemuva kokuzwa impikiswano kaMonsanto ngesonto eledlule efuna ukuqhubeka ecaleni likaWalter Winston v. Monsanto, iJaji leNkantolo Yesifunda saseSt. Louis uMichael Mullen wasiphika isicelo sikaMonsanto wathi icala lizoqala ngo-Okthoba 15. IJaji uMullen lathi ukufakwa nokutholwa kuleli cala kufanele iqhubeke kuze kube nguSepthemba 16 ngenqubo yokukhetha amajaji ezoqala ngo-Okthoba 10.

Ukuqulwa kwecala, uma kwenzeka, kuzobe kungokwesine uMonsanto kufanele abhekane neziguli ezinomdlavuza enkantolo ukuphendula izinsolo zokuthi imikhiqizo yayo yokubulala ukhula iRoundup ibanga i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma nokuthi inkampani ifune ukufihla imininingwane ngobungozi. IMonsanto ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu zokuqala namajaji anikeze ngaphezu kuka- $ 2 billion kumonakalo, yize umklomelo ngamunye wamajaji amathathu wehlisiwe ngamajaji okuqulwa kwamacala.

Icala likaWinston lizoba futhi icala lokuqala ukwenzeka edolobheni lakudala laseMonsanto eSt. Ngaphambi kokuthengisa enkampanini yaseJalimane iBayer AG ngonyaka odlule, uMonsanto wayengomunye wabaqashi abakhulu baseSt.

Icala ebelilindeleke ukuba liqale eSt. Louis ngo-Agasti 19 labanjezelwa ngumyalelo wenkantolo ngesonto eledlule, kanti necala ebelizoqala ukuqulwa ngoSepthemba nalo liyaqhubeka.

Ngemuva kokumenyezelwa kokuqhubeka kwecala ngesonto eledlule, imithombo ithe inkampani nabameli babamangali babengena ezingxoxweni ezibucayi mayelana ukukhokhelwa komhlaba wonke okungahle kwenzeke. Njengamanje, abantu abangaphezu kwe-18,000 bamangalela iMonsanto, bonke bethi bakhulisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngenxa yokuchayeka kweRoundup kanti iMonsanto ifihle ubufakazi bengozi. Othile entanta ngamanga umnikelo wokukhokhelwa ongaba ngu- $ 8 billion, okwenza amasheya eBayer akhule kakhulu.

UBayer ubelokhu ebhekene nentengo yamasheya ecindezelekile nabatshalizimali abanganelisekanga selokhu kwathathwa isinqumo se-Aug. 10, 2018 ecaleni lokuqala lomdlavuza weRoundup. Ijaji linikeze umgcini wezinkundla zaseCalifornia UDewayne “Lee” Johnson $ 289 million futhi bathola ukuthi iMonsanto yenze ngobubi ekucindezeleni ulwazi mayelana nezingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula.

Monsanto wadlulisa isinqumo Ezinkantolo Zokudlulisa Amacala eCalifornia, kanti uJohnson udlulise isicelo wafuna ukubuyisa umklomelo wakhe oyizigidi ezingama- $ 289 kusuka kumklomelo owehlisiwe ka- $ 78 million owabekwa yijaji lecala. Leso sikhalo kuyaqhubeka nezimpikiswano zomlomo kulindeleke ngoSepthemba noma ngo-Okthoba.

Ngokuqondene nesimo saseSt. Louis, icala likaWinston lalisengaphanjukiswa. Leli cala linabamangali abaningi, kufaka phakathi abanye abavela ngaphandle kwendawo, futhi lelo qiniso lingabeka leli cala ezinhlokweni zombono okhishwe ekuqaleni konyaka yiNkantolo Ephakeme yaseMissouri, okungenzeka ukuthi ibophele leli cala likaWinston unomphela, ngokusho kwezingqapheli zomthetho .

I-EPA kaTrump "Inemuva leMonsanto"

Ezindabeni ezihlukile, i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ngesonto eledlule yakhipha isitatimende sephephandaba ukumemezela ukuthi ngeke kuvume amalebula okuxwayisa ngomdlavuza adingwa izwe laseCalifornia ngemikhiqizo ethile ye-herbicide esekwe ku-glyphosate. I-EPA ithe ilebula ethi i-glyphosate "yaziwa ngokubanga umdlavuza," ingamanga futhi ayikho emthethweni, futhi ngeke ivunyelwe yize isenzo somthetho saseCalifornia siyala ilebuli enjalo.

“Kuwukungakhathali ukufuna amalebuli emikhiqizweni engelona iqiniso uma i-EPA yazi ukuthi umkhiqizo awubeki ingozi yomdlavuza. Ngeke sivumele uhlelo olunamaphutha lwaseCalifornia ukuthi lucindezele inqubomgomo yenhlangano, ”kusho uMphathi we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler.

Uhlu lwaseCalifornia lwe-glyphosate njengento eyaziwa ngokudala umdlavuza lwenzeka ngemuva kokuthi i-World Health Organisation's International Agency on the Research for Cancer (IARC) ihlukanise i-glyphosate ngonyaka ka-2015 ngokuthi “mhlawumbe ibanga umdlavuza kubantu.”

Iqiniso lokuthi i-EPA ithatha lesi simo, futhi yabona kunesidingo sokuthi ikhiphe abezindaba, kubonakala kuqinisekisa imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto etholwe ngokutholakala kwamacala abonisa ukuthi i-EPA kukholakala ukuthi "Unomhlane kaMonsanto”Uma kukhulunywa nge-glyphosate.

Phakathi ku umbiko inamathiselwe ku-imeyili kaJulayi 2018 kumphathi wamasu omhlaba wonke weMonsanto uTodd Rands, inkampani yezobunhloli nezeluleko I-Hakluyt  ibike kuMonsanto okulandelayo:

"Umeluleki wezinqubomgomo zasekhaya e-White House uthe, ngokwesibonelo: 'Sinomlando kaMonsanto emthethweni wokulawulwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane. Sikulungele ukuhamba ngezwane kunoma yiziphi izingxabano abangaba nazo, isibonelo, i-EU. IMonsanto akudingeki yesabe noma imuphi umthethonqubo owengeziwe ovela kulo mbuso. ”