Ukuphishekela iqiniso nokwenza izinto obala kwezempilo yomphakathi

Uhlelo lukaBayer lokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup zesikhathi esizayo lubhekene nokuphikiswa okukhulu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Dozens of U.S. law firms have formed a coalition to fight a new $2 billion settlement proposal by Monsanto owner Bayer AG that aims to contain the company’s ongoing liability related to claims that Roundup herbicides cause a type of cancer known as non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

The settlement is designed to compensate people who have been exposed to Roundup products and either already have NHL or may develop NHL in the future, but who have not yet taken steps to file a lawsuit.

The small group of lawyers who put the plan together with Bayer say it will “save lives” and provide substantial benefits to people who believe they developed cancer from exposure to the company’s herbicide products.

But many lawyers criticizing the plan say if it is approved it would set a dangerous precedent for other types of litigation involving large numbers of people injured by the products or practices of powerful corporations.

“This is not the direction we want the civil justice system to go,” said attorney Gerald Singleton, whose firm has joined with more than 60 other law firms to oppose Bayer’s plan. “There is no scenario under which this is good for plaintiffs.”

Bayer’s settlement plan was filed with the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of California on Feb. 3, and must be approved by U.S. District Judge Vince Chhabria in order to become effective. A prior settlement plan submitted last year was scorned by Chhabria and then withdrawn. The judge has been overseeing the federal multidistrict Roundup litigation involving thousands of plaintiffs from around the United States.

Responses to the settlement plan are due March 3 and a hearing on the matter is set for March 31.

A key concern is that current Roundup users who may develop cancer and want to sue in the future will automatically be subject to terms of the class settlement unless they officially opt out of the settlement within a specific time period. One of the terms they would be subject to would bar them from seeking punitive damages in any future lawsuit.

Those terms and others laid out are wholly unfair to farm workers and others who are expected to develop cancer in the future from exposure to the company’s herbicide products, according to Singleton. The plan benefits Bayer and provides “blood money” to the four law firms that worked with Bayer to design the plan, he said.

Those firms working with Bayer to draft and administer the plan would receive a proposed $170 million if the plan takes effect.

Elizabeth Cabraser, one of the lawyers who crafted the new proposed settlement, said the criticism is not a fair description of the settlement. In truth, she said, the plan “provides significant and urgently-needed outreach, education, healthcare access, and compensation benefits” for people who have been exposed to Monsanto’s Roundup herbicides but have not yet developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

“We seek approval of this settlement because it will save lives and enhance quality of life through early diagnosis, assist people… inform them and raise public awareness about the link between Roundup and NHL…” she said.

A spokesman for Bayer did not respond to a request for comment.

The new proposed settlement is aimed at future cases and is separate from the $11 billion Bayer has earmarked to settle existing U.S. Roundup cancer claims. The people impacted by the class settlement proposal are only individuals who have been exposed to Roundup but are not yet in litigation and have taken no steps toward any litigation.

IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.

Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Though the proposed settlement states that it “addresses the four concerns the Court raised regarding the prior, withdrawn settlement,” Singleton and other lawyers involved in the opposition said the new settlement proposal is just as bad as the first.

In addition to the concerns that class members would not have the right to seek claims for punitive damages, the critics also object to the four-year “standstill” period blocking the filing of new lawsuits. The critics also say the plan for notifying people of the class settlement is not sufficient. Individuals would have 150 days following the notification to “opt out” of the class. If they do not opt out, they are automatically in the class.

Critics also object to the proposed formation of a science panel that would act as a “guidepost” for an “extension of compensation options into the future” and to provide evidence about the carcinogenicity – or not – of Bayer’s herbicides.  Given Monsanto’s documented history of manipulating scientific findings, the science panel work would be suspect, said Singleton.

The initial settlement period would run for at least four years and could be extended after that period.  If Bayer elects not to continue the compensation fund after the initial settlement period, it will pay an additional $200 million as an “end payment” into the compensation fund, the settlement summary states.

“Substantial compensation” offered

The law firms that drafted the agreement with Bayer said in their filing to the court that the settlement is structured to provide potential future plaintiffs with “what most serves their interests,” including an option for “substantial compensation” if they develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

The plan calls for the establishment of a compensation fund to make awards of between $10,000 and $200,000 per individual class member. “Accelerated Payment Awards” of $5,000 would be available on an expedited basis, requiring just a showing of exposure and diagnosis.

Those people first exposed to Roundup products at least 12 months prior to their diagnosis would be qualified for awards. Awards of  more than $200,000 could be made for “extraordinary circumstances.” Those qualified class members who were diagnosed with NHL before January 1, 2015, would not receive awards more than $10,000, according to the plan. 

The settlement would provide free legal advice and provide ”support to assist class members in navigating, registering, and applying for Settlement benefits.”

Additionally, the proposal states that the settlement will fund medical and scientific research into the diagnosis and treatment of NHL.

Notably, the plan states that no one will lose their right to sue unless they choose to accept compensation from the compensation fund, and no one needs to make that choice until that individual class member is diagnosed with NHL. They would not be able to seek punitive damages but could seek other compensation.

“Any class members who do not file a claim and accept individual compensation retain their right to sue Monsanto for compensatory damages on any legal theory, including personal injury, fraud, misrepresentation, negligence, fraudulent concealment, negligent misrepresentation, breach of warranty, false advertising, and violation of any consumer protection or unfair and deceptive acts or practices statute,” the plan states.

To alert people to the class action settlement, notices would be mailed/emailed to 266,000 farms, businesses and organizations and government entities where the company’s herbicides could have been used as well as to 41,000 people who have non-Hodgkin lymphoma and asked to receive information about their disease. Additionally posters would be mailed to 2,700 stores asking them to post notices of the class action settlement.

As part of the proposed settlement, Bayer said it would seek permission from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to add information on the labels of its glyphosate-based products such as Roundup that would provide links to access to scientific studies and other information about glyphosate safety. But critics say providing a website links is inadequate and Bayer needs to put a straightforward warning of cancer risk on the weed killing products.

The proposed class action settlement threatens to affect “hundreds of thousands or even millions” of people who have been exposed to Roundup and “raises ‘unique’ and profound questions” under the U.S. Constitution, according to inkantolo yokugcwalisa in opposition to the Bayer plan made by plaintiffs’ lawyer Elizabeth Graham.

Graham told the court that if the plan is approved it could have a “dramatic effect not only on this litigation, but on the future of mass tort litigation.”

Black farmers

 The National Black Farmers Association (NBFA) weighed in on the issue on Wednesday, submitting a lengthy filing with Chhabria’s court that states a “substantial proportion” of its more than 100,000 members “have been exposed to and potentially injured by Roundup, and its active ingredient glyphosate.”

Many of the farmers have already developed non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma they blame on Roundup use, and “an even larger proportion fear that they will soon develop symptoms,” the NBFA filing states.

The NBFA wants to see Roundup products removed from commerce or other changes made to protect farmers, the filing states.

The concerns of the NBFA need to be addressed by the court, particularly as Bayer looks to “settle a class action with a set of attorneys who purport to be representing the future interests of all farmers who have been exposed to Roundup but are yet to develop the cancers it causes.”

Lawsuits in Australia

As Bayer works to bring an end to Roundup litigation in the United States, the company is also dealing with similar claims by farmers and others in Australia. A class action filed against Monsanto is underway, and the lead plaintiff John Fenton, who applied Roundup as part of farm work. Fenton was diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 2008.

A series of key dates have been established: Monsanto has until March 1 to provide discovery documents to plaintiffs’ lawyers and June 4 is the deadline set for the exchange of expert evidence.  The parties are to enter into mediation by July 30 and if nothing is resolved the case would go to trial in March 2022.

Fenton said while he would “love the opportunity” to go to trial and tell his story, he hopes mediation will resolve the matter. “I think the consensus is starting to change thanks to what has been happening in the US. Farmers are more aware and I believe they do take more precautions than they used to.

Fenton said he hopes that Bayer ultimately will put a warning label on Monsanto’s glyphosate herbicides.

“At least with a warning the user can make up their own mind about what PPE (personal protective equipment) they choose to wear.”

Ukuhlolwa kwe-EPA kwamakhemikhali kudonsa ukugxekwa kososayensi bayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ososayensi abaningi baseMelika abasebenzela i-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) bathi ababethembi abaholi abaphezulu balesi sikhungo ukuthi bazothembeka futhi bayesaba ukuziphindiselela uma bezobika ukwephulwa komthetho, ngokocwaningo lwabasebenzi olwenziwe ngo-2020.

Ngokusho the I-Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey yango-2020, okwenziwe yi-US Office of Personnel Management, amaphesenti angama-75 abasebenzi be-EPA ophikweni lweNational Program Chemicals Division abaphendule kulolu cwaningo bakhombisa ukuthi abacabangi ukuthi ubuholi obuphezulu bale nhlangano bugcine “amazinga aphezulu okuthembeka nobuqotho.” Amaphesenti angamashumi ayisithupha nanhlanu abasebenzi abaphendula oPhikweni Lokuhlola Ubungozi baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Okushaqisayo futhi, amaphesenti angama-53 abaphenduli ophikweni lwe-EPA's Risk Assessment Division athe abakwazi ukudalula ukusolwa kokwephula umthetho noma umthethonqubo ngaphandle kokwesaba ukujeziswa. Amaphesenti angamashumi amane nantathu abaphendula abasebenzi be-EPA e-Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) baphendule ngendlela efanayo.

Imizwa engemihle ekhonjiswe emiphumeleni yocwaningo ihambisana nemibiko ekhulayo yokungalungi ngaphakathi kwezinhlelo zokuhlolwa kwamakhemikhali ze-EPA, ngokusho kwePublic Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER).

"Kufanele kube nokukhathazeka okukhulu ukuthi ngaphezu kwengxenye yamakhemikhali e-EPA kanye nabanye ochwepheshe abasebenza ngezinkinga ezibalulekile zezempilo yomphakathi abazizwa bekhululekile ukubika izinkinga noma ukwephulwa kwefulegi," kusho uMqondisi Omkhulu we-PEER uTim Whitehouse, owayengummeli we-EPA. isitatimende.

Ekuqaleni kwale nyanga, iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine kusho i-EPAImikhuba yokuhlola ubungozi ngaphakathi kohlaka loMthetho Wokulawulwa Kwezinto Eziyingozi "ibiphansi kakhulu."

"Ubuholi obusha be-EPA buzosebenza ngokugcwele ekulungiseni lo mkhumbi ocwilayo," kusho uWhitehouse.

Ngemuva kokuthatha izintambo ngoJanuwari, uMongameli uJoe Biden wakhipha umyalelo omkhulu wokuthi i-EPA ngaphansi kweBiden ingaphambukela esimweni sayo kumakhemikhali amaningana ezinqumweni ezenziwa yile nhlangano ngaphansi kukamongameli wangaphambilini uDonald Trump.

In izincwadi yangomhla kaJanuwari 21, i-EPA Office of General Counsell yathi okulandelayo:

“Ngokuhambisana ne-Executive Order kaMongameli Biden Yokuvikela Impilo Yomphakathi kanye Nezemvelo kanye Nokubuyisela Isayensi Ukubhekana Nesimo Sezulu esikhishwe ngoJanuwari 20, 2021, (Health and Environment EO), lokhu kuzoqinisekisa isicelo sami egameni le-US Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA) ukuthi uMnyango Wezobulungiswa wase-US (i-DOJ) ufune futhi uthole ama-abeyance noma ukuhlala kwezinqubo zamacala okulindelwe enkantolo afuna ukubuyekezwa kokwahlulela kwanoma imuphi umthethonqubo we-EPA owakhishwa phakathi kukaJanuwari 20, 2017, noJanuwari 20, 2021, noma ufuna ukusungula umnqamulajuqu we-EPA ukumemezela umthethonqubo maqondana nesihloko sanoma yikuphi okunjalo

Olunye ucwaningo lwe-Roundup luthola izixhumanisi ezingaba nezinkinga zempilo yabantu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Kubuyekezwe uFebhuwari 17, kungeza ukugxekwa kokufunda)

A iphepha elisha lesayensi Ukuhlola imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ye-Roundup herbicides kutholakale ukuxhumana phakathi kokuchayeka kumakhemikhali okubulala ukhula i-glyphosate nokwanda kohlobo lwe-amino acid olwaziwa njengengozi yesifo senhliziyo.

Abaphenyi benza izinqumo zabo ngemuva kokudalula amagundane akhulelwe kanye namazinyane abo asanda kuzalwa ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup ngamanzi okuphuza. Bathe babheke ngqo imiphumela ye-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kuma-metabolites we-urinary nokuxhumana ne-gut microbiome ezilwaneni.

Abaphenyi bathi bathole ukwanda okukhulu kwe-amino acid ebizwa nge-homocysteine ​​emidlwane yamaduna evezwe ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup.

"Ucwaningo lwethu lunikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokuthi ukuvezwa kwe-GBH esetshenziswa kakhulu, kumthamo wokuvezwa komuntu owamukelekayo njengamanje, uyakwazi ukuguqula imetabolites yomchamo kubo bobabili abantu abadala bamagundane namazinyane," kusho abaphenyi.

Leli phepha elinesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa komthamo ophansi wemithi yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo nokusebenzisana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” kubhalwe ngabaphenyi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York kanti abane baphuma eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy. Ishicilelwe kumagazini iScientific Reports ngoFebhuwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile ukulinganiselwa okuningi esifundweni sabo, kufaka phakathi usayizi omncane wesampula, kepha bathi umsebenzi wabo ukhombisile ukuthi "ukutholakala komthamo ophansi wokukhulelwa kanye nobuncane be-glyphosate noma i-Roundup kushintshe kakhulu ama-biomarker amaningi womchamo, emadamini nasenzalweni."

Lolu cwaningo lungolokuqala ngoshintsho lwe-metabolomic ye-urinary olwenziwe ngama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate emithamo njengamanje ebhekwa njengephephile kubantu, kusho abacwaningi.

Leli phepha lilandela ukushicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ka isifundo emaphephandabeni Impilo Yemvelo ethola i-glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo we-Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute nabo babambe iqhaza kulolo cwaningo.

URobin Mesnage, ongomunye wababhali bephepha elashicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ku-Environmental Health Perspectives, wakuphikisa ukuba semthethweni kwephepha elisha. Uthe ukuhlaziywa kwedatha kukhombisa umehluko otholakele phakathi kwezilwane ezivezwe ku-glyphosate nalezo ezingadalulwanga - izilwane ezilawulayo - nazo bezingatholakala ngokufanayo ngemininingwane ekhiqizwe ngokungahleliwe.

“Sekukonke, ukuhlaziywa kwedatha akusekeli isiphetho sokuthi i-glyphosate iphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kanye ne-gut microbiota yezilwane eziveziwe,” kusho uMesnage. "Lolu cwaningo luzoqhubeka nokudida kancane impikiswano ngobuthi be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezimbalwa zakamuva ku-glyphosate naku-Roundup bathole ukukhathazeka okuningi.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

IBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe abantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-11 ukukhokha izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000 XNUMX.



IBayer yenza uhlelo olusha lwama- $ 2 billion lokuqeda izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG uthe ngoLwesithathu ubesazama futhi ukuphatha nokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza zeRoundup ezizayo, kubekwa eceleni isivumelwano esingu- $ 2 billion neqembu labammeli bommangali uBayer athemba ukuthi bazothola ukuvunywa yijaji likahulumeni ngubani wenqaba uhlelo lwangaphambilini Ihlobo elidlule.

Ngokuphawulekile, lesi sivumelwano sidinga iBayer ukuthi ifune imvume kwa-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukufaka imininingwane kumalebula emikhiqizo yayo esekwe ku-glyphosate efana ne-Roundup ezonikeza izixhumanisi zokufinyelela ezifundweni zesayensi kanye nolunye ulwazi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate.

Ukwengeza, ngokusho kukaBayer, lolu hlelo ludinga ukusungulwa kwesikhwama esizonxephezela "abafaka izicelo ezifanelekile" ohlelweni lweminyaka emine; ukusungula iphaneli lesayensi elelulekayo okutholakele kwalo kungasetshenziswa njengobufakazi kumacala angahle abe khona esikhathini esizayo; kanye nokuthuthukiswa kwezinhlelo zokucwaninga nokuxilonga zocwaningo lwezokwelapha kanye / noma lwesayensi ekuhloleni nasekwelapheni i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Uhlelo kumele luvunyelwe yiJaji Lesifunda sase-US uVince Chhabria weNkantolo yesiFunda sase-US esiFundeni saseNyakatho saseCalifornia. UChhabria ubengamele ukubekwa kwamacala amaningi eRoundup multidistrict.

UBayer uthe amalungu amakilasi afanelekayo eminyakeni emine ezayo azokwazi ukuthola amazinga wemiklomelo ekhokhelwayo ngokuya ngemikhombandlela ebekwe esivumelwaneni. “Isigaba sokuhlala” sibhekise kubantu ababekade bevezwa yimikhiqizo ye-Roundup kepha bengakafaki icala enkantolo abathi balimalekile ngenxa yalokho kuvezwa.

Amalungu ekilasi lezokuhlala azokwazi ukuthola isinxephezelo phakathi kuka- $ 10,000 kuya ku- $ 200,000, kusho uBayer.
Ngokwesivumelwano, ukusatshalaliswa kwesikhwama sokuhlala kuzokwenzeka kanjena:
* Isikhwama Sesinxephezelo - Okungenani ama- $ 1.325 billion
* Uhlelo Lokuhlinzeka Ngokutholakala Kokuxilonga - $ 210 million
* Uhlelo Lwezimali Zocwaningo - $ 40 million
* Izindleko Zokulawulwa Kwezokuhlala, Izindleko Zokweluleka KwePhaneli Yesayensi, Izindleko Zesigaba Sokuhlala, Izintela,
kanye nezimali nezindleko ze-Ecrow Agent - Kuze kube yizigidi ezingama- $ 55
Uhlelo lokuhlongozwa oluhlongozwayo lwamacala ezenzo zesigaba esizayo luhlukile ku- isivumelwano sokukhokha IBayer yenziwa nabameli bamangali angamashumi ezinkulungwane asebevele baletha izimangalo ezithi ukutholakala kweRoundup nabanye ababulali bokhula baseMonsanto glyphosate kubenze ukuthi bathuthukise i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
IBayer ibinenkinga yokuthola ukuthi ingaqedwa kanjani amacala omdlavuza weRoundup selokhu ithenge iMonsanto ngo-2018. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izilingo ezintathu ebezibanjiwe kuze kube manje futhi yalahlekelwa yizikhalazo zokuqala ezazifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala.
Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo akatholanga lokho kukaMonsanto kuphela ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza kepha nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ucwaningo olusha luthola izinguquko ezihlobene ne-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ucwaningo olusha lwezilwane olwenziwe iqembu labaphenyi baseYurophu lithole ukuthi amazinga aphansi okhula olubulala ukhula amakhemikhali glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo osuselwa ku-glyphosate-based Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo.

Leli phepha, ishicilelwe ngoLwesithathu kulo magazini Impilo Yemvelo, ibhalwe ngabaphenyi abayi-13, kubandakanya nomholi oqhuba izifundo uDkt.Michael Antoniou, oyinhloko yeGene Expression and Therapy Group eMnyangweni Wezokwelapha Nemolekyuli Yezakhi zofuzo eKing's College eLondon, noDkt. iqembu elifanayo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy, babambe iqhaza ocwaningweni njengoba kwenza ososayensi baseFrance nabaseNetherlands.

Imiphumela ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome itholwe ukuthi ibangelwe yindlela efanayo yokusebenza lapho i-glyphosate isebenza ukubulala ukhula nezinye izitshalo, kusho abacwaningi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta esinomthelela emisebenzini yokuzivikela ezifweni nakwezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile, nokuphazamiseka kwalolo hlelo kungaba nomthelela ezigulini zezifo, kusho abacwaningi.

"Kokubili i-glyphosate ne-Roundup kube nomthelela ekubunjweni kwenani lamagciwane," kusho u-Antoniou kusho engxoxweni. “Siyazi ukuthi amathumbu ethu ahlala ezinkulungwaneni zezinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nokulinganisela ekwakhekeni kwawo, futhi okubaluleke kakhulu ekusebenzeni kwawo, kubalulekile empilweni yethu. Ngakho-ke noma yini ephazamisayo, ephazamisa kabi, i-gut microbiome… inamandla okudala impilo ebuthaka ngoba sisuka ekusebenzeni okulinganiselayo okulungele impilo kuya ekusebenzeni okungalingani okungaholela ezinhlotsheni eziningi zezifo ezahlukahlukene. ”

Bona ingxoxo kaCarey Gillam uDkt. Michael Antonoiu noDkt. Robin Mesnage ngocwaningo lwabo olusha olubheka umthelela we-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome.

Ababhali bephepha elisha bathe banqume ukuthi, ngokungahambisani nokunye okushiwo ngabagxeki bokusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-glyphosate ayisebenzi njenge-antibiotic, ibulala amagciwane adingekayo emathunjini.

Esikhundleni salokho, bathola - okokuqala ngqa, bathi - ukuthi isibulala-zinambuzane siphazamise ngendlela engaba yingozi kakhulu emzileni wamakhemikhali wamakhemikhali wamathumbu amabhaktheriya ezilwane ezisetshenziswe ekuhlolweni. Lokho kuphazamiseka kwaqokonyiswa ngoshintsho ezintweni ezithile esiswini. Ukuhlaziywa kwamathumbu negazi biochemistry kuveze ubufakazi bokuthi lezi zilwane zingaphansi kwengcindezi ye-oxidative, isimo esihambisana nokulimala kwe-DNA nomdlavuza.

Abaphenyi bathi akucaci ukuthi ukuphazamiseka okuphakathi kwegciwane le-microbiome kuthinte kanjani ukucindezela komzimba.

Inkomba yengcindezi ye-oxidative yacaca kakhulu ekuhlolweni kusetshenziswa i-herbicide esekwe eglyphosate ebizwa ngeRoundup BioFlow, umkhiqizo womnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG, kusho ososayensi.

Ababhali bokucwaninga bathi benza izifundo eziningi ukuzama ukucacisa ukuthi ngabe ingcindezi ye-oxidative abayibonayo nayo ilimaza i-DNA, ezonyusa ingozi yomdlavuza.

Ababhali bathe kudingeka ucwaningo olwengeziwe ukuqonda kahle imithelela yempilo ye-glyphosate inhibition yendlela ekhazimulayo nokunye ukuphazamiseka kwemethambo ku-gut microbiome nasegazini kepha ukutholwa kokuqala kungasetshenziswa ekwakhiweni kwama-bio-markers wezifundo ze-epidemiological kanye nokuqonda uma i-glyphosate herbicides ingaba nemiphumela yezinto eziphilayo kubantu.

Ocwaningweni, amagundane abesifazane anikezwa i-glyphosate nomkhiqizo we-Roundup. Amanani ahanjiswa ngamanzi okuphuza ahlinzekwa izilwane futhi anikezwa emazingeni amele ukungena nsuku zonke okwamukelekayo okubhekwa njengokuvikelekile ngabalawuli baseYurophu nabaseMelika.

U-Antoniou uthe imiphumela yocwaningo yakhela kolunye ucwaningo olwenza kucace ukuthi izilawuli zithembele ezindleleni eseziphelelwe yisikhathi lapho kunqunywa ukuthi yimaphi amazinga “aphephile” e-glyphosate namanye ama-pesticides ekudleni nasemanzini. Izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kwezolimo zivame ukutholakala ebangeni lokudla okusetshenziswa njalo.

"Abalawuli kumele bangene ekhulwini lama-XNUMX leminyaka, bayeke ukuhudula izinyawo zabo… bamukele izinhlobo zokuhlaziya esikwenzile kulolu cwaningo," kusho u-Antoniou. Uthe ukwenziwa kwamangqamuzana, okuyingxenye yegatsha lesayensi eyaziwa ngokuthi “OMICS,” kuguqula isisekelo solwazi mayelana nemithelela ukuchayeka kwamakhemikhali okunayo empilweni.

Isifundo segundane kodwa esakamuva ochungechungeni lwezivivinyo zesayensi ezihlose ukunquma ukuthi ngabe i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate-based herbicides - kufaka phakathi i-Roundup - ingaba yingozi kubantu, ngisho nasemazingeni abalawuli be-exposure bathi baphephile.

Izifundo eziningi ezinjalo zithole ukukhathazeka okuningi, kufaka phakathi eyodwa eyanyatheliswa ngoNovemba  ngabaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland abathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate.

Njengoba abacwaningi banda bheka ukuqonda i-microbiome yomuntu neqhaza eliyidlalayo empilweni yethu, imibuzo mayelana nemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate kwi-gut microbiome bekungeyona nje impikiswano emibuthanweni yesayensi, kodwa futhi nasezinkantolo.

Ngonyaka odlule, iBayer bavuma ukukhokha u- $ 39.5 million ukuxazulula izimangalo zokuthi iMonsanto inezikhangiso ezidukisayo eziqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate yenze kuphela i-enzyme ezitshalweni futhi ayinakuba nomthelela ofanayo ezifuyweni nakubantu. Abamangali kuleli cala kuthiwa i-glyphosate babhekise enzyme etholakala kubantu nasezilwaneni eziqinisa amasosha omzimba, ukugaya nokusebenza kwengqondo.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

Kusukela ngaleso sikhathi, iBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe ngabantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe ama- $ 11 billion ukukhokhela izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000.

Ucwaningo olusha luhlola umthelela we-Roundup herbicide kuma-honeybees

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Iqembu labacwaningi baseChina lithole ubufakazi bokuthi imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate-based herbicide iyingozi kuma-honeybees noma ngaphansi kokunconywa okunconywayo.

Ephepheni elishicilelwe ku iphephabhuku online Imibiko yeSayensi, Abaphenyi abasebenzisana neChinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences eBeijing kanye neChinese Bureau of Landscape and Forestry, bathe bathole imithelela eminingi engemihle kuzinyosi lapho bebeka izinyosi kuRoundup - a glyphosateumkhiqizo osuselwe kuthengiswa ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG.

Ukukhunjulwa kwezinyosi zezinyosi "kwakuphazamiseke kakhulu ngemuva kokuchayeka kuRoundup" kusikisela ukuthi ukuvezwa kwezinyosi ezingapheli emakhemikhali okubulala ukhula "kungaba nomthelela omubi ekuseshweni nasekuqoqweni kwezinsizakusebenza nasekuhlanganiseni imisebenzi yokudla" yizinyosi, abacwaningi bathi .

Futhi, "amandla okukhuphuka wezinyosi zezinyosi anciphe kakhulu ngemuva kokwelashwa ngokuhlungwa okunconyiwe kweRoundup," abacwaningi bathola.

Abaphenyi bathi kunesidingo “sohlelo lokuxwayisa nge-herbicide olunokwethenjelwa” ezindaweni zasemakhaya eChina ngoba abafuyi bezinyosi kulezo zindawo “ngokuvamile abaziswa ngaphambi kokuba kufuthwe amakhambi okubulala ukhula” futhi “kwenzeka izehlakalo ezinobuthi njalo zezinyosi zezinyosi”.

Ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo eziningi ezibalulekile zokudla kuncike kuzinyosi zezinyosi nezinyosi zasendle ukuze kuthunyelwe impova, futhi ukwehla okuphawuliwe kubantu bezinyosi baphakamise ukukhathazeka emhlabeni jikelele mayelana nokutholakala kokudla.

Iphepha elivela eRutgers University eshicilelwe ehlobo eledlule uxwayise ngokuthi "isivuno sezithelo sama-aphula, ama-cherry kanye namajikijolo kulo lonke elase-United States sincishiswa ukungabi khona kwezipolishi."

Ukufa nokuhlala njengoba iBayer iqhubeka nokuzama ukuqeda amacala we-Roundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ezinyangeni eziyisikhombisa ngemuva kweBayer AG umemezele izinhlelo ngokuxazululwa kokushonelwa kwamacala omdlavuza we-US Roundup, umnikazi waseJalimane weMonsanto Co uyaqhubeka nokusebenza ukuxazulula amashumi ezinkulungwane zezimangalo ezilethwe abantu abaphethwe umdlavuza abathi zibangelwe yimikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto. NgoLwesithathu, elinye icala livele lathola ukuvalwa, yize ummangali angiphilelanga ukukubona.

Abameli bakaJaime Alvarez Calderon, bavumelane ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto ngesinqumo esanikezwa yiBayer ngemuva kweJaji Lesifunda saseMelika uVince Chhabria ngoMsombuluko inqatshelwe isahlulelo esifingqiwe ngokuthanda iMonsanto, ukuvumela icala ukuthi lisondele ecaleni.

Isivumelwano sizoya emadodaneni amane ka-Alvarez ngoba ubaba wabo oneminyaka engu-65, osebenza isikhathi eside esebenzela iwayini eNapa County, California, ushone nje esikhathini esingaphezu konyaka esedlule kusuka kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma usola umsebenzi wakhe wokufafaza i-Roundup ezungeze impahla ye-winery iminyaka.

Ekulalelweni kwenkantolo ngoLwesithathu, ummeli womndeni wakwa-Alvarez uDavid Diamond utshele iJaji uChhabria ukuthi lesi sinqumo sizolivala leli cala.

Ngemuva kokuqulwa kwecala, uDiamond wathi u-Alvarez usebenze e-winery iminyaka engama-33, esebenzisa isifutho sasebhakeni ukufaka isicelo sikaMonsanto kusekelwe ku-glyphosate ukubulala ukhula kuma-acreage asakazekayo eqembu le-Sutter Home lamawayini. Wayevame ukuya ekhaya kusihlwa nezingubo ezimanzi ngomuthi wokubulala ukhula ngenxa yokuvuza kwemishini kanye nombulali wokhula okhukhuleka emoyeni. Watholwa ngo-2014 ene-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, elashwa kaningi ngamakhemikhali nezinye izindlela zokwelashwa ngaphambi kokushona ngoDisemba 2019.

UDiamond uthe ujabule ngokuxazulula leli cala kodwa unamacala angama-Roundup "angu-400 plus" amanye angakalungiswa.

Akayedwa. Okungenani uhhafu weshumi namanye amafemu wezomthetho wase-US anabamangali baseRoundup abafuna izilungiselelo zesilingo zango-2021 nangaphezulu.

Kusukela ukuthenga iMonsanto ku-2018, iBayer ibilokhu ilwela ukuthola ukuthi ungayenza kanjani kuqedwe ukuqulwa kwamacala lokho kufaka abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 XNUMX e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube yimanje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based kubangela umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Ngaphezu kwemizamo yokuxazulula izimangalo ezisalindile njengamanje, iBayer inethemba lokuthi izokwakha indlela yokuxazulula izimangalo ezingaba khona ezingabhekana nazo kubasebenzisi beRoundup abathuthukisa i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngokuzayo. Uhlelo lwayo lokuqala lokusingatha amacala esikhathi esizayo yenqatshwa nguJaji Chhabria futhi inkampani ayikamemezeli uhlelo olusha.

I-Neonicotinoids: ukukhathazeka okukhulayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NgoJanuwari 10, iThe Guardian lashicilela le ndaba mayelana nomphakathi omncane wasemaphandleni waseNebraska obelokhu unenkinga okungenani iminyaka emibili nokungcola okuhlanganiswe nembewu yommbila eboshwe nge-neonicotinoid. Umthombo uyisitshalo sendawo se-ethanol ebesizikhangisa njengesihlelekile “Ukwenza kabusha” indawo yezinkampani zembewu ezinjengeBayer, iSyngenta kanye nezinye ezazidinga indawo yokulahla okweqile kwalezi zitoko zembewu ephethwe yi-pesticide. Umphumela, abantu basemadolobheni bathi, indawo ehlanganiswe namazinga aphakeme ngokumangalisayo ezinsalela ze-neonicotinoid, abathi zibangele ukugula kubantu nasezilwaneni. Besaba ukuthi umhlaba wabo namanzi manje sekonakele ngendlela engalungiseki.

Iziphathimandla zezemvelo zombuso zirekhode amazinga ama-neonicotinoids ku- izingxenye ezimangazayo ezingama-427,000 ngezigidigidi (ppb) ekuhlolweni kwelinye lamagquma amakhulu emfucuza esizeni sesakhiwo se-ethanol. Lokho kuqhathanisa namabhentshimakhi wokulawula athi amazinga kufanele abe ngaphansi kuka-70 ppb ukuze athathwe njengaphephile.

Bona leli khasi ukuthola eminye imininingwane nemibhalo.

Inganekwane yomgwaqo eMead, eNebraska, iyisibonakaliso sakamuva nje sokuthi ukwenganyelwa kokulawulwa kwezwe neonicotinoids kudinga ukuqiniswa, ngokusho kwabameli bezemvelo nabaphenyi abavela emanyuvesi amaningi aseMelika.

Impikiswano ngesigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngokuthi ama-neonicotinoids, noma ama-neonics, ibilokhu ikhula eminyakeni yamuva nje futhi isiphenduke impikiswano yomhlaba wonke phakathi kwama-behemoth ezinkampani athengisa ama-neonics kanye namaqembu ezemvelo nawabathengi athi ama-insecticide anesibopho sezempilo ebanzi yemvelo kanye neyabantu ukulimaza.

Kusukela yethulwa ngawo-1990s, ama-neonicotinoids abe yisigaba esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni semithi yokubulala izinambuzane, esithengiswa emazweni angama-120 okungenani ukusiza ukulawula izinambuzane ezilimazayo nokuvikela ukukhiqizwa kwezolimo. Izibulala-zinambuzane azifuthwa kuphela ezitshalweni kodwa futhi zimbozwe nembewu. Ama-Neonicotinoids asetshenziselwa ukukhiqiza izinhlobo eziningi zezitshalo, kufaka phakathi irayisi, ukotini, ummbila, amazambane nosoya. Kusukela ngo-2014, ama-neonicotinoids amelwe ngaphezu kwe- Amaphesenti angama-25 omuthi wokubulala zinambuzane womhlaba wonke emakethe, ngokusho kwabaphenyi.

Ngaphakathi kwekilasi, i-clothianidin ne-imidacloprid yizona ezisetshenziswa kakhulu e-United States, ngokusho kwephepha lowe-2019 elishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental.

NgoJanuwari 2020, i-Environmental Protection Agency yakhipha i- izinqumo eziphakanyisiwe zesikhashana ze-acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, kanye thiamethoxam, izinambuzane ezithile ngaphakathi kwesigaba se-neonicotinoid. I-EPA ithe ibisebenza ukunciphisa inani elisetshenzisiwe ezitshalweni ezihambisana "nobungozi bezemvelo obungahle bube khona," ibeke umkhawulo lapho izibulala-zinambuzane zingasetshenziswa ekutshalweni kwezitshalo.

Umzimba okhulayo wobufakazi besayensi ukhombisa ukuthi ama-neonicotinoids ayimbangela ekusakazekeni i-colony collapse disorder yezinyosi, okuyizinambuzane ezibalulekile lapho kukhiqizwa ukudla. Babukwa futhi okungenani njengengxenye yokusolwa kwe- an “I-apocalypse yezinambuzane. Ama-insecticide nawo aboshelwe emaphutheni amakhulu ngezinyamazane ezinomsila omhlophe, kujulisa ukukhathazeka ngamandla amakhemikhali okulimaza izilwane ezinkulu ezincelisayo, kuhlanganise nabantu.

I-European Union ivimbele ukusetshenziswa kwangaphandle kwe-neonics clothianidin, imidacloprid ne-thiamethoxam ngo-2018, kanye ne IZizwe Ezihlangene zithi Ama-neonics ayingozi kangangoba kufanele abekelwe imigoqo “ebucayi”. Kepha e-United States, ama-neonics ahlala esetshenziswa kabanzi.

Isimemo sikaBayer sokuxazulula izimangalo zomdlavuza wase-US Roundup ziyaqhubeka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG wenza inqubekela phambili ekuxazululeni izinkulungwane zamacala aseMelika alethwe ngabantu abathi bona noma abathandekayo babo baba nomdlavuza ngemuva kokuchayeka emithini yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup.

Izincwadi zakamuva ezivela kubameli babamangali eziya kumakhasimende abo zigcizelele leyo nqubekelaphambili, eqinisekisa ukuthi iningi labamangali likhetha ukubamba iqhaza kulesi sikhokhelo, yize kunezikhalazo zabamangali abaningi zokuthi babhekene neziphakamiso zokukhokha ezincane ezingafanele.

Kwezinye izibalo, ukukhokhiswa okujwayelekile kuzoshiya isinxephezelo esincane, mhlawumbe izinkulungwane ezimbalwa zamaRandi, kubamangali ngabanye ngemuva kokukhokhwa kwemali yabameli kanye nezindleko ezithile zezokwelapha ezibuyiswayo.

Yize kunjalo, ngokwencwadi ethunyelwe kwabamangali ngasekupheleni kukaNovemba ngenye yamafemu abameli abahamba phambili enkantolo, ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-95 "wabamangali abafanelekile" banquma ukubamba iqhaza ohlelweni lokuxazulula okuxoxiswene ngalo nenkampani neBayer. “Umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala” manje unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokubuyekeza amacala bese eqinisekisa ukufaneleka kwabamangali ukuthola izimali zokuhlala, ngokusho kwezincwadi.

Abantu bangakhetha ukuphuma kuleso sivumelwano bese befaka izicelo zabo ekulamuleni, kulandelwe ukulamula okuyisibopho uma befisa noma bezama ukuthola ummeli omusha ozoqula icala labo. Labo bamangali bangaba nesikhathi esinzima sokuthola ummeli ozobasiza bathathe udaba lwabo baluse enkantolo ngoba amafemu abameli avumelana nokuxazululwa kweBayer avumile ukuthi angazami amanye amacala noma asize ekulingweni okuzayo.

Omunye ummangali, ocele ukungadalulwa ngegama ngenxa yobumfihlo bezinqubo zokukhokha, uthe uyaphuma kuleso sinqumo ngethemba lokuthola imali ethe xaxa ngokulamula noma ngecala elizayo. Uthe udinga ukuhlolwa okuqhubekayo nokwelashwa komdlavuza wakhe kanti nohlaka oluhlongozwayo lokuhlalisa abantu ngeke lumshiye ngalutho ukukhokhela lezo zindleko eziqhubekayo.

"IBayer ifuna ukukhululwa ngokukhokha imali encane ngangokunokwenzeka ngaphandle kokuya ecaleni," esho.

Ukulinganiselwa okulinganiselwe kokukhokhwa okujwayelekile kwemali ngayinye kummangali kungama- $ 165,000, abameli nabamangali abathintekayo ezingxoxweni bathe. Kepha abanye abamangali bangathola okuningi kakhulu, kanti abanye bathola okungaphansi, kuya ngemininingwane yecala labo. Kunemigomo eminingi yokunquma ukuthi ngubani ongabamba iqhaza ekukhokhelweni nokuthi ingakanani imali lowo muntu angayithola.

Ukuze afaneleke, umsebenzisi we-Roundup kufanele abe yisakhamuzi sase-US, kutholakale ukuthi une-non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), futhi wadalulwa ku-Roundup okungenani unyaka owodwa ngaphambi kokutholakala ukuthi une-NHL.

Isivumelwano sokukhokha neBayer sizophela lapho umphathi eqinisekisa ukuthi ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-93 abafaka izicelo abafanelekile, ngokwemigomo yesivumelwano.

Uma umphathi wezokukhokha ethola ummangali engafanelekile, lowo mmangali unezinsuku ezingama-30 zokudlulisa isinqumo.

Kwabamangali ababhekwa njengabafanelekile umphathi wezindawo zokuhlala uzonikeza icala ngalinye amaphuzu amaningi ngokuya ngemibandela ethile. Inani lemali ummangali ngamunye azolithola lisuselwa kunani lamaphoyinti abalwe ngesimo sawo ngasinye.

Amaphuzu esisekelo asungulwa kusetshenziswa iminyaka yomuntu lowo ngesikhathi etholakala ukuthi une-NHL kanye nezinga lobunzima "bokulimala" njengoba kunqunywa izinga lokwelashwa nomphumela. Amazinga agijima u-1-5. Umuntu oshone nge-NHL unikezwa amaphuzu esisekelo ezingeni lesi-5, ngokwesibonelo. Amaphuzu amaningi anikezwa abantu abasha abahlushwa imijikelezo eminingi yokwelashwa kanye / noma abashona.

Ngaphezu kwamaphoyinti esisekelo, ukulungiswa kuvunyelwe okunikeza amaphuzu amaningi kubamangali ababenokuchayeka okuningi ku-Roundup. Kukhona nezibonelelo zamaphoyinti amaningi ezinhlobo ezithile ze-NHL. Abamangali abatholakale benohlobo lwe-NHL olubizwa nge-Primary Central Nervous System (CNS) lymphoma bathola ukukhushulwa ngamaphesenti ayi-10 kumanani abo, isibonelo.

Abantu futhi bangadonswa amaphuzu ngokususelwa ezicini ezithile. Nazi izibonelo ezithile ezithile ezivela kumatrix wamaphoyinti asungulwe ngecala le-Roundup:

  • Uma umsebenzisi womkhiqizo we-Roundup ashone ngaphambi kukaJanuwari 1, 2009, amaphuzu aphelele wesimangalo alethwe egameni lawo azokwehliswa ngamaphesenti angama-50.
  • Uma ummangali oshonile ebengenaye umlingani noma izingane ezincane ngesikhathi sokushona kwabo kudonswa amaphesenti angama-20.
  • Uma ummangali enomdlavuza wegazi ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-Roundup amaphuzu abo anqunywa ngamaphesenti angama-30.
  • Uma isikhathi phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-Roundup kommangali nokutholakala kwe-NHL bekungaphansi kweminyaka emibili amaphuzu asikwa ngamaphesenti angama-20.

Izimali zokuhlala kufanele ziqale ukugelezela kubahlanganyeli entwasahlobo ngezinkokhelo zokugcina ezinethemba lokuthi zenziwe ehlobo, ngokusho kwabameli abathintekayo.

Abamangali nabo bangafaka izicelo zokuba yingxenye yesikhwama semali sokulimala esingajwayelekile, esakhelwe iqembu elincane labamangali abahlushwa ukulimala okukhulu okuhlobene neNHL. Isimangalo singafanelekela isikhwama sokulimala esingajwayelekile uma ukufa komuntu ku-NHL kwenzeka ngemuva kwezifundo ezintathu noma ngaphezulu ezigcwele ze-chemotherapy nezinye izindlela zokwelapha ezinolaka.

Kusukela ethenge iMonsanto e2018, iBayer ibisokola ukuthola ukuthi izophela kanjani enkantolo ebandakanya abamangali abangaphezu kuka-100,000 e-United States. Le nkampani ilahlekelwe yizo zonke izivivinyo ezintathu ebezibanjelwe kuze kube manje futhi ilahlekelwe yizikhalazo zokuqala ezifuna ukuguqula ukulahleka kwecala. Amajaji kwesinye nesinye sezivivinyo athola leyo kaMonsanto ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based, njengeRoundup, idala umdlavuza nokuthi uMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka efihla izingozi.

Imiklomelo yamajaji ifinyelele ngaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 2, yize izahlulelo ziyalelwe ukuthi zincishiswe ngamajaji asenkantolo yokuqulwa kwamacala.

Imizamo yenkampani yokuxazulula leli cala iye yabekelwa eceleni yingqinamba yokuthi zingasuswa kanjani izimangalo ezingalethwa ngokuzayo ngabantu ababa nomdlavuza ngemuva kokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yenkampani.

Ukudluliswa Kwezilingo Kuyaqhubeka

Noma iBayer ihlose ukuqeda ukuvivinywa okuzayo ngamadola okukhokha, inkampani iyaqhubeka nokuzama ukuguqula imiphumela yezilingo ezintathu inkampani elahlekile.

Ekulahlekelweni kokuqala kwesivivinyo - Icala likaJohnson v. Monsanto - IBayer ilahlekelwe yimizamo yokuguqula amajaji athola ukuthi uMonsanto ubhekene nesifo somdlavuza kaJohnson ezingeni lenkantolo yokudlulisa amacala, kwathi ngo-Okthoba, iNkantolo Ephakeme yaseCalifornia unqabile ukubuyekeza icala.

IBayer manje inezinsuku eziyi-150 kusukela kuleso sinqumo sokucela ukuthi lolu daba luthathwe yiNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US. Le nkampani ayikasithathi isinqumo sokugcina mayelana nalesi sinyathelo, ngokusho komkhulumeli weBayer, kodwa iveze phambilini ukuthi ihlose ukuthatha lesi sinyathelo.

Uma iBayer ifaka isicelo eNkantolo Ephakeme yase-US, abameli bakaJohnson kulindeleke ukuthi bafake isicelo sokuphikisa esinemibandela becela inkantolo ukuthi ihlolisise izinyathelo zokwahlulela ezanciphisa umklomelo wamajaji kaJohnson kusuka ku- $ 289 million kuya ku- $ 20.5 million.

Amanye amacala enkantolo yaseBayer / Monsanto

Ngaphezu kwesikweletu uBayer abhekene nesibopho sakwaMonsanto sikaRoundup somdlavuza, inkampani ilwa nezikweletu zeMonsanto ezinkantolo zokungcola kwePCB nasenkingeni yokulimala kwezitshalo okubangelwe uhlelo lwezitshalo olususelwa ku-Micanto dicamba herbicide.

Ijaji lombuso eLos Angeles ngesonto eledlule wasenqaba isiphakamiso yiBayer ukukhokha imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 648 ukuxazulula amacala asezingeni elilethwe ngabamangali abasola ukungcoliswa okuvela kuma-biphenyls anezinwele, noma ama-PCB, enziwe iMonsanto.

Nangesonto eledlule, ijaji eliqulile icala le I-Bader Farms, Inc. v. Monsanto wenqaba iziphakamiso zikaBayer zokuqulwa kwecala elisha. Ijaji lisike umonakalo wokujeziswa onikezwe yijaji, noma kunjalo, kusuka ku- $ 250 million kuya ku- $ 60 million, kushiya umonakalo ongaphelele we $ 15 million, ngomklomelo ophelele ka- $ 75 million.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe ngokutholwa kwecala likaBader kuveze ukuthi iMonsanto ne-giant BASF yamakhemikhali babazi iminyaka ukuthi izinhlelo zabo zokwethula uhlelo lwembewu yezolimo kanye namakhemikhali olususelwa ku-dicamba kungenzeka ziholele emonakalweni emapulazini amaningi ase-US.

Amaphepha amasha e-glyphosate akhomba "ekuphuthumeni" kocwaningo olwengeziwe ngomthelela wamakhemikhali empilweni yomuntu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Amaphepha esayensi amasha asanda kushicilelwa akhombisa ubuningi bokutholakala kokhula olubulala ukhula i-glyphosate kanye nesidingo sokuqonda kangcono umthelela ovezwa umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane odumile ongahle ube nawo empilweni yomuntu, kubandakanya nempilo yegciwane le-microbiome.

In elinye lamaphepha amasha, Abaphenyi abavela eNyuvesi yaseTurku eFinland bathi bakwazile ukuthola, "ngokulinganisela okulindelekile," ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-54 ezinhlobo ezisengxenyeni ye-gut microbiome yomuntu "angazwela" ku-glyphosate. Abaphenyi bathi basebenzise indlela entsha ye-bioinformatics ukwenza okutholakele.

Nge "ingxenye enkulu" yamagciwane asesiswini i-microbiome esengozini ye-glyphosate, ukutholwa kwe-glyphosate "kungathinta kakhulu ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome yomuntu," kusho ababhali ephepheni labo, elishicilelwe kule nyanga Ijenali Yezinto Eziyingozi.

Amagciwane asemathunjini omuntu afaka izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zamagciwane kanye nesikhunta futhi kukholelwa ukuthi kunomthelela ekusebenzeni komzimba kanye nezinye izinqubo ezibalulekile. Ama-microbiomes emathunjini angenampilo akholelwa ososayensi abathile ukuthi banikela ezinhlotsheni zezifo.

"Yize imininingwane yezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezinhlelweni zomgudu womuntu isashoda, imiphumela yethu iphakamisa ukuthi izinsalela ze-glyphosate zinciphisa ukwehluka kwamagciwane futhi zilinganise ukwakheka kwezinhlobo zamagciwane emathunjini," kusho ababhali. "Singacabanga ukuthi ukutholakala isikhathi eside ezinsaleleni ze-glyphosate kuholela ekubuseni kwamagciwane amelana nomphakathi wamagciwane."

Ukukhathazeka ngomthelela we-glyphosate kumgudu womuntu we-microbiome kusuka eqinisweni lokuthi i-glyphosate isebenza ngokukhomba i-enzyme eyaziwa njenge-5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS.) Le enzyme ibalulekile ekwakhiweni kwama-amino acid abalulekile.

“Ukuthola umthelela wangempela we-glyphosate ku-gut gut microbiota nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo, kudingeka izifundo ezengeziwe zokuveza izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ukuthola imiphumela ye-glyphosate emsulwa nokwakhiwa kwezentengiselwano kuma-microbiomes nokuhlola ukuthi i-EPSPS yethu ingakanani izimpawu ze-amino acid zibikezela ukuthi amagciwane angabanjwa yi-glyphosate in vitro kanye nezimo zomhlaba wangempela, ”kuphetha ababhali bephepha elisha.

Ngaphezu kwabaphenyi abayisithupha abavela eFinland, omunye wababhali bephepha ubambisene nomnyango we-biochemistry kanye ne-biotechnology eRovira i Virgili University, eTarragona, eCatalonia, eSpain.

“Imiphumela yezempilo yomuntu ayinqunywa esifundweni sethu. Kodwa-ke, ngokuya ngocwaningo lwangaphambilini… siyazi ukuthi ushintsho ku-gut gut microbiome lungaxhunyaniswa nezifo eziningi, ”kusho umcwaningi wase-University of Turku uPere Puigbo enkulumweni abe nayo.

"Ngiyethemba ukuthi ucwaningo lwethu luvula umnyango wokuqhubeka nokuhlola, ku-in-vitro nasensimini, kanye nezifundo ezenzelwe inani labantu ukuze kukalwe umphumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate okunayo kubantu nakwezinye izinto eziphilayo," kusho uPuigbo.

Kwethulwe ku-1974

I-Glyphosate isithako esisebenzayo kuma-Roundup herbicides kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Yethulwa njengombulali wokhula nguMonsanto ngonyaka we-1974 futhi yakhula yaba umuthi wokubulala ukhula osetshenziswa kakhulu ngemuva kokwethulwa kukaMonsanto ngeminyaka yama-1990s yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ikhemikhali. Izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni nasemanzini. Ngenxa yalokho, izinsalela zivame ukutholakala emchameni wabantu abavezwe ku-glyphosate ngokudla kanye / noma ngokufaka isicelo.

Abalawuli baseMelika kanye nomnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG bagcina ukuthi akukho ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate lapho imikhiqizo isetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe, kufaka phakathi okusele ekudleni.

Umzimba wocwaningo ophikisana nalezo zimangalo uyakhula, noma kunjalo. Ucwaningo ngemithelela engaba khona ye-glyphosate ku-gut microbiome alucishe luqine njengezincwadi ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, kepha luyindawo ososayensi abaningi bayaphenya.

Ngokuhlobene kancane iphepha eshicilelwe kule nyanga, iqembu labaphenyi baseWashington State University naseDuke University bathi bathole ukuxhumana phakathi kwamazinga amabhaktheriya nesikhunta emapheshana emathunjini ezingane namakhemikhali atholakala emakhaya abo. Abaphenyi abazange babheke i-glyphosate ngokuqondile, kodwa babenjalo wethukile ukuthola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu amakhemikhali avamile asendlini egazini lazo zibonise ukwehla kwenani nokwehluka kwamagciwane abalulekile emathunjini awo.

IGlyphosate emchameni

An iphepha elengeziwe lesayensi kushicilelwe kule nyanga kugcizelele isidingo sedatha engcono nengaphezulu uma kukhulunywa ngokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezingane.

Leli phepha, lishicilelwe ephephabhukwini Health Environmental ngabaphenyi abavela ku-Institute for Translational Epidemiology e-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York, kungumphumela wokubuyekezwa kwezincwadi zezifundo eziningi ezibika amanani wangempela we-glyphosate kubantu.

Ababhali bathi bahlaziye izifundo ezinhlanu ezishicilelwe eminyakeni emibili edlule zibika amazinga e-glyphosate alinganiswa kubantu, kufaka phakathi ucwaningo olulodwa lapho kukalwa khona amazinga e-urinary glyphosate ezinganeni ezihlala emaphandleni aseMexico. Ezinganeni ezingama-192 ezihlala endaweni yase-Agua Caliente, amaphesenti angama-72.91 ayenezinga le-glyphosate elitholakalayo emchameni wazo, futhi zonke izingane ezingama-89 ezihlala e-Ahuacapán, eMexico, zazinamazinga atholakalayo we-pesticide emchameni wazo.

Noma ufaka izifundo ezingeziwe, kukonke, kunemininingwane embalwa mayelana namazinga e-glyphosate kubantu. Izifundo emhlabeni jikelele zingabantu abangu-4,299 kuphela, kubandakanya nezingane ezingama-520, kusho abacwaningi.

Ababhali baphethe ngokuthi okwamanje akunakwenzeka ukuqonda "ubudlelwano obungahle bube khona" phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-glyphosate nezifo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ngoba ukuqoqwa kwedatha emazingeni okuvezwa kwabantu kunqunyelwe futhi akujwayelekile.

Baphawule ukuthi yize bekushoda imininingwane eqinile mayelana nemithelela ye-glyphosate ezinganeni, inani lezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ngokusemthethweni ngabalawuli be-US ekudleni lenyuke kakhulu kule minyaka edlule.

"Kunezikhala ezincwadini ezibhalwe nge-glyphosate, futhi lezi zikhala kufanele zigcwaliswe ngokuphuthuma okuthile, uma kubhekwa ukusetshenziswa okukhulu kwalo mkhiqizo nokuba khona kwawo yonke indawo," kusho umbhali u-Emanuela Taioli.

Izingane zisengcupheni yokuthola izidalwa ezibulala imvelo futhi ukulandelela ukutholakala kwemikhiqizo efana ne-glyphosate ezinganeni “kuyinto ebaluleke kakhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi,” ngokusho kwabalobi bephepha.

"Njenganoma iyiphi ikhemikhali, kunezinyathelo eziningi ezibandakanyekile ekuhloleni ubungozi, okubandakanya ukuqoqa imininingwane mayelana nokuvezwa kwabantu, ukuze amazinga aletha ukulimala kubantu noma ezilwaneni ezilwaneni angaqhathaniswa namazinga okuvezwa ajwayelekile," kubhala ababhali.

“Kodwa-ke phambilini sikhombisile ukuthi imininingwane ngokuvezwa kwabantu kubasebenzi nakubantu jikelele incane kakhulu. Kunezinye izikhala zolwazi ezikhona kulo mkhiqizo, ngokwesibonelo imiphumela ku-genotoxicity yayo kubantu inqunyelwe. Impikiswano eqhubekayo mayelana nemiphumela yokuchayeka kwe-glyphosate yenza ukuthi amazinga okuchayeka emphakathini jikelele kube yinkinga ecindezelayo yezempilo yomphakathi, ikakhulukazi kulabo abasengozini enkulu.

Ababhali bathe ukuqapha amazinga we-urinary glyphosate kufanele kwenziwe kubantu abaningi.

“Siyaqhubeka nokuphakamisa ukuthi ukufakwa kwe-glyphosate njengokuvezwa okulinganisiwe ezifundweni ezimele izwe lonke njengeNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey kuzovumela ukuqonda kangcono izingozi ezingase zibangelwe yi-glyphosate futhi kuvumele ukuqashwa okungcono kwalabo okungenzeka badalulwe futhi labo abasengozini yokuchayeka kalula, ”babhala.

Bhalisela incwadi yethu yezindaba. Thola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke ebhokisini lakho lokungenayo.