Amacala we-FOI kuphenyo lwe-biohazards

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-US Right to Know, iqembu eliphenya ngempilo yomphakathi elingenzi nzuzo, ifake amacala amathathu emelene nezinhlangano zombuso zokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). Amacala amacala ayingxenye yemizamo yethu yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ukuvuza noma ukulimala kumalebhu ezokuvikela, kanye nobungozi bokucwaninga ngomsebenzi okufuna ukukhulisa ukuthinteka noma ukubulala amagciwane angaba khona obhubhane.

Kusukela ngoJulayi, sifake amarekhodi omphakathi angama-48, ombuso kanye nawamazwe omhlaba sicela imininingwane mayelana nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, kanye nezingozi zamalabhu ezokuphepha kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi.

Funda kabanzi mayelana okutholakele kwethu kuze kube manje, kungani senza lolu phenyo, ukufundwa okunconyiwe futhi imibhalo esiyitholile.

Amacala we-FOI afakiwe

(1) UMnyango Wezemfundo wase-US: Ngomhlaka 17 Disemba USRTK wafaka icala ngokumelene noMnyango Wezemfundo wase-US ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-FOIA. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eNyakatho yesiFunda saseCalifornia, lifuna imibhalo uMnyango wezeMfundo oyicelile eNyuvesi YaseTexas 'Medical Branch eGalveston mayelana nezivumelwano zayo zoxhaso kanye nokubambisana kwezesayensi kanye / noma nocwaningo neWuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina.

(2) Umnyango Wombuso wase-US: Ngomhla kaNovemba 30 USRTK wafaka icala ngokumelene noMnyango Wombuso wase-US ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-FOIA. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eNyakatho yesiFunda saseCalifornia, lifuna imibhalo nezincwadi noma i-Wuhan Institute of Virology yaseChina, iWuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi ixhasa iWuhan Institute yeVirology, phakathi kwezinye izifundo. Bheka ukukhululwa kwezindaba.

(3) Izikhungo Zezempilo Zikazwelonke: NgoNovemba 5 USRTK wafaka icala elibhekiswe kuNational Institutes of Health (NIH) ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-FOIA. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eWashington, DC, lifuna ukuxhumana nezinhlangano ezifana ne-Wuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi ixhasa iWuhan Isikhungo seVirology. Bheka ukukhululwa kwezindaba.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi. Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngamacala we-FOI esiwafakile ukufakazela ilungelo lomphakathi lokwazi, bona i- Ikhasi lokumangalelwa kwe-FOIA.

Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ilungelo Lethu Lokwazi e-US ngicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, nobungozi bamalabhoratri okuphepha kanye nokucwaninga ngomsebenzi, okuhlose ukwandisa ukwanda kokutheleleka noma ukubulala kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane. Sithumela izibuyekezo nokutholwa okusha ku- iBiohazards Blog yethu.

Izinto ezivela kuma-imeyili kaRalph Baric we-coronavirus 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Leli khasi libala imibhalo kuma-imeyili kaProfessor Ralph Baric, atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. UDkt Baric isazi se-coronavirus e-University of North Carolina, eChapel Hill (UNC). Unakho kuthuthukiswe izindlela zofuzo kuya ukuthuthukisa amandla obhadane lwama-bat coronaviruses akhona in ukusebenzisana noDkt Zhengli Shi eWuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi ebalulekile yososayensi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-coronavirus, futhi sakhanyisela ubudlelwano phakathi kongoti baseMelika nabaseChina kwizifo ezithathelwanayo nezifo ezithathelwanayo, kanye nezindima zezinhlangano ezifana ne-EcoHealth Alliance neNational Academy of Sciences (NAS).

Sicela uthumele i-imeyili noma yini oyithandayo okungenzeka ukuthi siyiphuthele sainath@usrtk.org, ukuze sikwazi ukuwafaka ngezansi.

izinto kusuka kuma-imeyili eBaric

  1. UTracy McNamara, uSolwazi wePathology eWestern University of Health Sciences ePomona, eCalifornia wabhala ngoMashi 25, 2020: “I-Federal govt isebenzise imali engaphezu kwamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane zamaRandi ukuxhasa i-Global Health Security Agenda ukusiza amazwe asathuthuka ukuthi akhe amandla okuthola / okubika / okuphendula ezinsongweni eziwubhadane. Kusetshenziswe enye imali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 1 kwiphrojekthi ye-PREDICT nge-USAID ifuna amagciwane aqhamukayo kumalulwane, amagundane nezinkawu phesheya kwezilwandle. Futhi manje iGlobal Virome Project ifuna amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 200 ukugijima emhlabeni wonke izingela lonke igciwane ebusweni bomhlaba. Cishe bazoluthola uxhaso. Kodwa azikho kulezi zinhlelo ezenze abakhokhi bentela baphephe kakhudlwana khona lapha ekhaya. ” (kugcizelelwa koqobo)
  2. UDkt. Jonathan Epstein, Iphini Likamongameli Wezesayensi Nokufinyelela ku-EcoHealth Alliance, wafuna umhlahlandlela wesicelo esivela ku-US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (i-DARPA) mayelana nokuxhumana "ngemininingwane yokusebenzisa i-dual-use" (Mashi 2018).
  3. Umanyano we-EcoHealth zikhokhwe UDkt Baric isamba esingadalulwanga njenge-honarium (Januwari 2018).
  4. Isimemo kuya e-US National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) kanye ne-Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) I-US China Dialogue kanye neWorkshop mayelana Nezinselelo Zokutheleleka Okuqhamukayo, Ukuphepha Kwelebhu, Ukuphepha Kwezempilo Emhlabeni Wonke Nokuziphatha Okufanelekile Ekusetshenzisweni Kokuhlelwa Kofuzo Ekucwaningweni Kwezifo Ezithathelwanayo, Harbin, China, Jan 8-10, 2019 (Novemba 2018-Januwari 2019). Ukulungiselela Ama-imeyili futhi imemorandamu yezokuvakasha khombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika.
  5. Isimemo se-NAS emhlanganweni wochwepheshe baseMelika nabaseChina abasebenza ukulwa nezifo ezithathelwanayo nokwenza ngcono impilo yomhlaba (Novemba 2017). Umhlangano ububizwe yi-NAS kanye neGalveston National Laboratory. Kwenzeka ngoJanuwari 16-18, 2018, eGalveston, eTexas. A imemorandamu yezokuvakasha ikhombisa ubunikazi bababambiqhaza baseMelika. Okulandelayo Ama-imeyili khombisa ukuthi uDkt Zhengli Shi we-WIV ukhona emhlanganweni.
  6. NgoFebhuwari 27, 2020, iBaric wabhala, "Njengamanje imvelaphi enkulu ngamalulwane, futhi ngiyabona ukuthi kuyiphutha ukucabanga ukuthi kudingeka umuntu ongumninikhaya ophakathi nendawo."
  7. NgoMashi 5, 2020, iBaric wabhala, “Abukho ubufakazi bokuthi leli gciwane lenzelwe izinto eziphilayo.”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Isixhumanisi sama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (~ Ama-83,416 amakhasi)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka ku- uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Usosayensi onokushayisana kwezintshisekelo ezihola iLancet COVID-19 i-task force emsukeni wegciwane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Evikini eledlule, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi isitatimende esinomthelela ku-The Lancet esisayinwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 sihlelwe ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo elithole izigidi zamadola oxhaso lwabakhokhi bentela base-US lokusebenzisa ama-coronaviruses ngokwezakhi zofuzo nososayensi e-Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV). 

The Isitatimende sikaFebhuwari 18 wagxeka "imibono yetulo" ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ebhodini, futhi wathi ososayensi "baphetha ngokumangazayo" leli gciwane livela ezilwaneni zasendle. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-USRTK uveze ukuthi uMengameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wayibhala le ncwadi wayihlelela ukuthi "kugwemeke ukuvela kwesitatimende sezombusazwe." 

ILancet yehlulekile ukudalula ukuthi abanye abasayine lesi sitatimende banezikhundla ne-EcoHealth Alliance, enesandla kwezezimali ekuphambukiseni imibuzo kude nokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Manje, iLancet ihambisa ithonya elingaphezulu eqenjini elinokushayisana kwezintshisakalo embuzweni obalulekile wezempilo yomphakathi ngemvelaphi yobhadane. NgoNovemba 23, iThe Lancet yaqamba igama elithi a iphaneli entsha yamalungu ayi-12 kuKhomishini yeLancet COVID 19. Usihlalo wethimba elisha lokuphenya i- “Origins, Early Spread of the Pandemic, kanye ne-One Health Solutions to Future Pandemic Usongo” akekho omunye ngaphandle kukaPeter Daszak we-EcoHealth Alliance. 

Ingxenye yamalungu eqembu - kubalwa iDaszak, Hume Field, Gerald Keusch, Sai Kit Lam, Stanley Perlman noLinda Saif - nabo bangabasayina esitatimendeni sikaFebhuwari 18 abathi bazi umsuka waleli gciwane cishe ngemuva kwesonto ngemuva kweWorld Health. Inhlangano imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-coronavirus yenoveli sizobizwa nge-COVID-19. 

Ngamanye amagama, okungenani isigamu seKhomishini ye-Lancet ye-COVID Commission ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 kubonakala sengathi seyihlulele lo mphumela ngaphambi kokuthi kuqale uphenyo. Lokhu kwehlisa ukwethembeka negunya leqembu.

Imvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 yile kuseyimfihlakalo futhi uphenyo olunzulu noluthembekile kungenzeka lubaluleke kakhulu ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo. Umphakathi ufanele uphenyo olungangcoliswanga yizingxabano zentshisekelo ezinjalo.

Ukuvuselelwa (Novemba 25, 2020): UPeter Daszak naye uqokelwe esikhundleni se- Ithimba labantu abayishumi le-World Health Organisation ngicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

I-EcoHealth Alliance yahlela isitatimende sososayensi abalulekile "ngemvelaphi yemvelo" ye-SARS-CoV-2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi a isitatimende ku I-Lancet ebhalwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 begxeka "imibono yetulo ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi yemvelo" yahlelwa ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo ithole izigidi zamaRandi of Umkhokhi wentela wase-US uxhaso ukuze ukuguqula izakhi zofuzo Ama-coronavirus nososayensi e Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala lo mbhalo I-Lancet isitatimende, nokuthi wayehlose ukukwenza "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”. UDaszak ubhale ukuthi ufuna "ukugwema ukuvela kwesitatimende sezepolitiki".

Incwadi yososayensi yavela ku I-Lancet ngoFebhuwari 18, kusasele isonto elilodwa nje ukuthi i-World Health Organisation imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-novel coronavirus sizobizwa nge-COVID-19.

Ababhali abangama-27 “bayigxeka ngokuqinile imibono yetulo yokuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo,” futhi babika ukuthi ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi “baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.” Le ncwadi ibingafaki izinkomba zesayensi zokuphikisa imfundiso-mbumbulu yegciwane. Usosayensi oyedwa, uLinda Saif, ubuze nge-imeyili ukuthi kungasiza yini “Ukufaka isitatimende esisodwa noma ezi-2 ukuxhasa ukuthi kungani i-nCOV kungelona igciwane elenziwa elebhu futhi kuvele ngokwemvelo? Kubonakala kubalulekile ekuphikiseni lokho kushiwo! ” UDaszak uphendule wathi, “Ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele sinamathele esitatimendeni esibanzi. "

Izingcingo ezikhulayo ukuphenya iWuhan Institute of Virology njengomthombo ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 kuholele kulokhu ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe we-EcoHealth Alliance. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi amalungu e-EcoHealth Alliance adlale kanjani indima yokuqala ekubunjweni kwemibuzo mayelana nokuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingavela kanjani njengemibono “edabukisayo edinga ukulungiswa,” njenge UDaszak utshele The Guardian.

Yize ibinzana elithi "EcoHealth Alliance" livele kanye kuphela I-Lancet isitatimende, ngokuhlangana nombhali-mbhali uDaszak, abanye ababhali ababambisene nabo banobudlelwano ngqo neqembu elingadalulwanga njengokushayisana kwezintshisekelo. URita Colwell noJames Hughes banjalo amalungu weBhodi labaQondisi be-EcoHealth Alliance, UWilliam Karesh uyiPhini Likamongameli Ophethe weqembu lezeMpilo neNqubomgomo, futhi Inkambu yeHume ungumeluleki weSayensi neNqubomgomo.

Ababhali besitatimende baphinde bathi "ukwabiwa okusheshayo, okuvulelekile, nokusobala kwemininingwane ngalokhu kuqubuka manje sekusongelwa amahemuhemu nolwazi olungelona iqiniso ngemvelaphi yalo." Namuhla, noma kunjalo, kuncane okwaziwayo mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nophenyo ngemvelaphi yayo ngo- i-World Health Organization futhi I-Lancet Ikhomishini ye-COVID-19 ziye zaba kusitshekelwe ekusithekeni futhi ngicindezelwe ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo.

UPeter Daszak, uRita Colwell, no I-Lancet Umhleli uRichard Horton akazange anikeze imibono ephendula izicelo zethu zale ndaba.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance: University of Maryland (Amakhasi we-466)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ukusebenza kwezifundo ezisemqoka ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus ngokungabazeki; amaphephandaba ezesayensi aphenya

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Kusukela ukuqubuka kwe-COVID-19 edolobheni laseChina i-Wuhan ngoDisemba 2019, ososayensi bathungathe imikhondo mayelana nokuthi yini eholele ekuveleni komenzeli wayo oyimbangela, inoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Ukuthola umthombo weSARS-CoV-2 kungabaluleka ekuvikeleni ukuqubuka okuzayo.

Uchungechunge lwe ezine high Iphrofayili izifundo okushicilelwe ekuqaleni kwalonyaka kwanikeza ukukholelwa kwesayensi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yaqala ngamalulwane yabe seqa iya kubantu ngohlobo lwe-anteater ebizwa nge-pangolin - phakathi kwezilwane zasendle ezishushumbiswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngenkathi lokho inkolelo ethile ezibandakanya pangolins bekulokhu ikakhulukazi ehlisiwe, izifundo ezine ezaziwa ngokuthi "amaphepha epangolin" ziyaqhubeka nokuhlinzeka ukusekela umbono wokuthi ama-coronaviruses ahlobene kakhulu ne-SARS-CoV-2 zungeza endle, okusho ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 edale i-COVID-19 mhlawumbe ivela emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle. 

Ukugxila emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle, inkolelo ethi "zoonotic", sekuyinto ebucayi ezingxoxweni zomhlaba mayelana negciwane, kuqondisa ukunaka komphakathi kude kungenzeka ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane laqala ngaphakathi kwelabhorethri kahulumeni waseChina - the Isikhungo seWuhan seVirology.

I-US Right to Know (USRTK) ifundile, nokho, ukuthi amaphepha amabili kwamane akha isisekelo sombono we-zoonotic abukeka enamaphutha, nokuthi abahleli bamaphephabhuku lapho amaphepha ashicilelwa khona - Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature - baphenya idatha eyinhloko ngemuva kwezifundo nokuthi idatha yahlaziywa kanjani. Abanye ababili ngokufanayo bavela ku- ubhekane namaphutha.

Izinkinga zamaphepha ocwaningo ziphakamisa "imibuzo ebucayi nokukhathazeka" mayelana nokusebenza kwe-the zoonotic theory jikelele, ngokusho UDkt Sainath Suryanarayanan, isazi sezinto eziphilayo kanye nesazi sezenhlalo sesayensi, kanye nososayensi wabasebenzi be-USRTK.  Izifundo azinayo imininingwane ethembeke ngokwanele, amasethi wedatha angaqinisekiswa ngokuzimela kanye nokubuyekezwa kontanga okusobala nenqubo yokuhlela, ngokusho kukaDkt. Suryanarayanan. 

Bona ama-imeyili akhe nababhali abaphezulu bamaphepha nabahleli bezincwadi, kanye nokuhlaziywa: Imvelo nama-PLoS Pathogens ahlola ubuqiniso besayensi bezifundo ezibalulekile ezixhumanisa i-pangolin coronaviruses kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2.

Iziphathimandla zikahulumeni waseChina uqale waphakamisa umqondo ukuthi umthombo we-causal agent we-COVID-19 kubantu uvela esilwaneni sasendle ngoDisemba. Ososayensi abasekelwa uhulumeni waseChina bese beyisekela leyo mbono ezifundweni ezine ezihlukene ezithunyelwe kumaphephandaba phakathi kukaFebhuwari 7 no-18.

Ithimba le-World Health Organisation le-China Joint Mission Team eliphenya ngokuvela nokusabalala kwe-COVID-19 eChina kusho uFebhuwari

Ukugxila okwenziwe amaShayina emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle kwasiza ukuphola izingcingo uphenyo nge Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology, lapho kade kugcinwa khona ama-coronaviruses ezilwane futhi kwasetshenziswa izakhi zofuzo. Esikhundleni salokho, izinsizakusebenza nemizamo yomphakathi wamazwe omhlaba wesayensi nokwenziwa kwenqubomgomo kube kudwetshwe ekuqondeni izinto ezakha ukuxhumana phakathi kwabantu nezilwane zasendle. 

Amaphepha amane okukhulunywa ngawo yilawa U-Liu et al., UXiao et al. , ULam et al. futhi UZhang et al. Ababili abasaphenywa njengamanje ngabahleli bephephabhuku nguLiu et al noXiao et al. Kwezokuxhumana nababhali nabahleli bamaphephabhuku ala maphepha amabili, i-USRTK ifunde ngezinkinga ezinkulu ngokushicilelwa kwalezo zifundo, kubandakanya okulandelayo:    

  • Liu et al. ayizange ishicilele noma yabelane (lapho kubuzwa) idatha eluhlaza kanye / noma elahlekile ezovumela ochwepheshe ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela ukuhlaziywa kwabo kofuzo.
  • Abahleli kukho kokubili Nature futhi Amagciwane e-PLoS, kanye noProfesa Stanley Perlman, umhleli weLiu et al., bavumile kwezokuxhumana nge-imeyili ukuthi bayazi izingqinamba ezibucayi ngala maphepha nokuthi amaphephandaba ayawaphenya. Kodwa-ke, abakudalulanga esidlangalaleni ngezinkinga ezingaba khona ngamaphepha.  

Ukuthula kwala maphephabhuku ngokuphathelene nophenyo lwawo oluqhubekayo kusho ukuthi imiphakathi ebanzi yososayensi, abenzi bezinqubomgomo kanye nomphakathi othintwe yi-COVID-19 abazi ngezinkinga ezihambisana namaphepha ocwaningo, kusho uDkt Suryanarayanan. 

"Sikholwa wukuthi lezi zinkinga zibalulekile, ngoba zingabumba ukuthi izikhungo zisabela kanjani kubhadane oluyinhlekelele oluthinte kakhulu izimpilo zabantu emhlabeni wonke," esho.

Izixhumanisi zala ma-imeyili zingatholakala lapha: 

Ngo-July 2020, I-US Right to Know iqale ukuhambisa izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngokulandela idatha ezivela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-Covid-19. Selokhu kuqale ukubheduka eWuhan, abakwaSARS-CoV-2 babulale abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi, ngenkathi begulisa ezinye izigidi ngobhadane lomhlaba oluqhubeka nokuvela.

NgoNovemba 5, I-US Right to Know yafaka icala ngokumelene neNational Institutes of Health (NIH) ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-Freedom of Information Act. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eWashington, DC, lifuna ukuxhumana nezinhlangano ezifana ne-Wuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi yaxhasa iWuhan Institute of I-Virology.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ekukhuthazeni ukubonakala kwezempilo yomphakathi. Ungakwazi sekela ucwaningo lwethu nokubika ngokunikela lapha. 

Kungani sicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, amalebhu ezokuvikela kanye nocwaningo lwe-GOF

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bheka IBiohazards Blog ukuthola izibuyekezo kuphenyo lwethu, futhi siyathumela imibhalo evela kuphenyo lwethu lapha. Bhalisela lapha ukuthola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke. 

NgoJulayi 2020, i-US Right to Know yaqala ukuletha izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngenhloso yokuthola imininingwane evela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-Covid-19. Selokhu kuqale ukubheduka eWuhan, abakwaSARS-CoV-2 babulale abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi, ngenkathi begulisa ezinye izigidi ngobhadane lomhlaba oluqhubeka nokuvela.

Siphenya nezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye ukwenzeka emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe izifo ezinamandla eziwubhadane, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zomphakathi zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), olubandakanya ucwaningo lokuthuthukisa izici zokusebenza kwamagciwane abulalayo , njengomthamo wegciwane, ukusuleleka kanye nokusabalalisa.

Umphakathi wesayensi womphakathi nowomhlaba wonke unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi idatha ekhona ngalezi zindaba. Sizobika lapha noma yikuphi ukutholakala okuwusizo okungavela ocwaningweni lwethu.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi.

Kungani senza lolu cwaningo?

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi izinsizakusebenza zokuphepha zikazwelonke e-United States, China nakwezinye izindawo, kanye neyunivesithi, izimboni kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni abasebenzisana nazo, kungenzeka zinganikeli isithombe esiphelele nesithembekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 nobungozi yocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi.

Ngocwaningo lwethu, sifuna ukuphendula imibuzo emithathu:

  • Yini eyaziwayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2?
  • Ngabe zikhona izingozi noma iziphithiphithi ezenzekile ezikhungweni zokucwaninga nge-biosafety noma ze-GOF ezingakabikwa?
  • Ngabe kukhona ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zokuphepha eziqhubekayo zamalabhorethri okuphepha noma ucwaningo lwe-GOF olungakabikwa?

Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2?

Ngasekupheleni kukaDisemba 2019, edolobheni laseWuhan, eChina, kwavela izindaba zesifo esibulalayo esithathelwanayo esibizwa nge-COVID-19, esidalwe yiSARS-CoV-2, i-coronavirus yenoveli eyayingaziwa ukuthi ibikhona phambilini. Imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 ayaziwa. Kunemicabango emibili eyinhloko.

Abaphenyi kumanethiwekhi ochwepheshe ahlobene ne Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology (WIV) futhi Umanyano we-EcoHealth, i-US non-profitthat ine kutholwe izigidi zamadola kwizibonelelo ezikhokhelwa ngabakhokhi bentela kuya sebenzisana no I-WIV ocwaningweni lwe-coronavirus, babe ezibhaliwe ukuthi igciwane lenoveli kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ngokukhethwa kwemvelo ezindaweni zezilwane, nge inqolobane yayo kumalulwane. Lokhu "Zoonotic" umsuka i-hypothesis yaphinde yaqiniswa ngu izimangalo ukuthi ukuqubuka okusha kwe-coronavirus kuqale kufayela le- “Izilwane zasendle” emakethe eWuhan, the Imakethe yokudla kwasolwandle yaseHuanan, lapho kungenzeka khona ukuthi kuthengiswe izilwane ezingase zitheleleke. (Noma kunjalo, okungenani ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yeqoqo lokuqala leziguli ezinegciwane, kufaka phakathi icala lokuqala elaziwa kakhulu lokutheleleka kusuka ngoDisemba 1, 2019, lalingaxhumananga ngqo noma ngokungaqondile nababekhona emakethe yezilwane zasolwandle yabantu nezilwane.)

I-zoonosis hypothesis njengamanje iyi-hypothesis yemvelaphi ekhona. Kodwa-ke, imvelaphi ye-zoonotic ye-SARS-CoV-2 inayo kepha isazomiswa ngokuqinisekile, futhi abanye abacwaningi baveze ukuthi kusekelwe eziphikisanayo kokuma ukuthi zidinga ukuqhubeka kophenyo.

Ngokuqhubeka nokufunda ngalezi zihloko, bheka uhlu lwethu lokufunda: Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2? Ziyini izingcuphe zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi?

Abanye ososayensi baye basikisela umbono ohlukile wemvelaphi; bacabanga ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingumphumela we ngengozi ukukhishwa kohlobo lwasendle noma i-lab-modified uhlobo lokuhlobene eduze Igciwane elifana ne-SARS ebigcinwe ezikhungweni zokuvikela ukuphepha ezenza ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan, njenge-WIV noma iZikhungo ze-Wuhan zokuLawulwa nokuVinjelwa kwezifo.

Okubaluleke kakhulu, isimo esivela kumalabha asisho ukuthi asiyifaki i-zoonosis hypothesis ngoba i-SARS-CoV-2 ingaba umphumela wokulungiswa kwelebhu okwenziwe ngezinhlobo ezingabikwanga ze-bat coronaviruses ezingabiki ze-SARS igcinwe ku-WIV, noma ukuqoqwa nje kanye nokugcinwa kwama-coronaviruses anjalo. Abagxeki ye-lab-origin hypotheses iyichithile le mibono njenge ukuqagela okungenabufakazi futhi izinkolelo zendlovu.

Kuze kube manje, kukhona hhayi kwanele ubufakazi ukwenqaba ngokuphelele imvelaphi ye-zoonotic noma i-lab-Origin hypotheses. Siyazi, ngokususelwa kuzindatshana zocwaningo ezishicilelwe futhi Izibonelelo zikahulumeni wase-US ku-EcoHealth Alliance yokuxhasa ucwaningo lwe-WIV coronavirus, leyo WIV igcinwe amakhulukhulu wama-coronaviruses angaba yingozi akwa-SARS, futhi enziwe Ukuhlolwa kwe-GOF kuma-coronaviruses ngokubambisana namanyuvesi ase-US, futhi kwakukhona ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha nge I-WIV's BSL-4 laboratory.

Kepha kuze kube manje, akukabi khona ukucwaningwa okuzimele kwamarekhodi kanye nemininingwane yolwazi lweWIV, futhi kunolwazi oluncane mayelana nokusebenza kwangaphakathi kweWIV. I-WIV isusile kwimininingwane yayo yewebhusayithi njenge ukuvakashelwa konozakuzaku besayensi baseMelika ngonyaka wezi-2018, Futhi ivale ukufinyelela kwi-database yayo yamagciwane futhi amarekhodi elabhorethri izivivinyo ze-coronavirus ezenziwa ososayensi be-WIV.

Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2 kunemithelela ebalulekile yenqubomgomo yezinhlelo zomphakathi zezempilo nezokudla. Imvelaphi engaba khona ye-zoonotic yakwaSARS-CoV-2 iyaphakama imibuzo mayelana nezinqubomgomo ezithuthukisa ukunwetshwa kokusebenza kwezolimo ezimbonini kanye nemfuyo, okungaba yizimbangela ezinkulu ze ukuvela kwamagciwane enoveli kanye ne-pathogenic kakhulu, ukugawulwa kwamahlathi, ukulahleka kwezinhlobonhlobo zemvelo kanye nokuhlaselwa kwemvelo. I- kungenzeka ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingahle ivele kulabhorethri ye-biodefense imibuzo mayelana ukuthi kufanele yini unalezi zinsiza, lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe okwenziwe ngama-microbial pathogen akhiqizwa endle.

Noma ngabe i-SARS-CoV-2 iguqulwe ilebhu noma cha, uphenyo lwelab-origin-theorists luphakamisa imibuzo ebalulekile mayelana nokushoda obala maqondana nocwaningo ngamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane, kanye nezinto ezibalulekile kanye nabadlali abakha izindawo zokuvikela ukuphepha ezanda kakhulu lapho amagciwane ayingozi ekhona igcinwe futhi yaguqulwa ukuze ibenze babulale kakhulu.

Ingabe ucwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi lufanele ingozi?

Kukhona okuphawulekayo ubufakazi ukuthi amalabhorethri okuphepha okuvikela ukuphepha kokuphila abe nokuningi izingozi, ukwephulwa, Futhi ukwehluleka kokuqukethwe, nokuthi izinzuzo ezingaba khona zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi may akufanelekile the izingozi kokubangela izifo ezingaba khona.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka lushintsha futhi luhlole amagciwane ayingozi njenge-Ebola, igciwane lesifo somkhuhlane i-H1N1, kanye nama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS ngaphansi kwerubrikhi yokwenziwa kwezinyathelo zokulwa nezokwelapha (njengemithi yokugoma). Ngenxa yalokho, inesithakazelo hhayi kuphela ku- umkhakha we-biotechnology kanye nowokwenza imithi kepha futhi ukuze umkhakha we-biodefense, ephathelene nokusetshenziswa okungenzeka kocwaningo lwe-GOF ngezenzo ze-biowarfare.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF ngamagciwane abulalayo yi- Staff umphakathi impilo. Imibiko kokuvuza ngengozi nokwephulwa kokungavikeleki ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-GOF akuvamile. Ngemuva kokuthi iqembu elivelele lama-virologists lishicilele okuphuthumayo isitatimende sokuvumelana ngoJulayi 14, 2014 ecela ukuthi kumiswe ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka, uhulumeni wase-US ngaphansi kokuphatha kukaMongameli uBarack Obama wabeka umthetho  "Ikhefu lezezimali" ekuhlolweni kwe-GOF okubandakanya amagciwane ayingozi, kufaka phakathi ama-coronaviruses namagciwane omkhuhlane.

Ukuphumula kwemali kahulumeni ocwaningweni lokukhathazeka nge-GOF kwasuswa ngo-2017 ngemuva kwesikhathi lapho uhulumeni wase-US enza khona uchungechunge lwezingxoxo ukuhlola i- izinzuzo nezingozi kuhlotshaniswa nezifundo ezibandakanya ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka.

Ifuna ukwenza izinto obala

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi imininingwane ebaluleke kakhulu kunqubomgomo yezempilo yomphakathi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nezingozi zamalabhorethri okuphepha kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi, kungafihlwa kumanethiwekhi e-biodefense wezinsiza zokuphepha zikazwelonke ze-United Amazwe, iChina, nakwezinye izindawo.

Sizozama ukukhanyisa ngalezi zindaba ngokusebenzisa izicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi. Mhlawumbe sizophumelela. Singahluleka kalula. Sizobika noma yini ewusizo esingayithola.

USainath Suryanarayanan, PhD, ungusosayensi wabasebenzi e-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali ngokubambisana wale ncwadi, “Izinyosi Ezinyamalalayo: Isayensi, Ezombusazwe kanye ne-Honeybee Health”(Rutgers University Press, 2017).