Iphrojekthi kaJon Entine's Genetic Literacy Project: Izithunywa ze-PR zeMonsanto, iBayer kanye neMboni Yamakhemikhali

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UJon Entine ungumsunguli nomqondisi omkhulu we-Genetic Literacy Project, umlingani oqavile emizamweni yobudlelwano bomphakathi neMonsanto yokuvikela nokuvikela imikhiqizo yezolimo. U-Entine uziveza njengegunya lokulawula isayensi, kepha ubufakazi obuchazwe kuleli qiniso bukhombisa ukuthi usebenza isikhathi eside no-PR ngokuxhumana okujulile nemboni yamakhemikhali futhi uxhaso lwezimboni olungadalulwanga.

Umsuka weProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy: inkampani yaseMonsanto PR futhi engenzi nzuzo enobudlelwano bakagwayi

U-Entine futhi ungumsunguli futhi uthishanhloko we-ESG MediaMetrics, inkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi eyayine IMonsanto njengeklayenti ngo-2011 lapho ifemu kubhaliswe igama lesizinda leGeneticLiteracyProject.org.

U-Entine ngaleso sikhathi wayeqashwa yiStatistical Assessment Services (STATS), iqembu elingenzi nzuzo izintatheli elizichaze njenge “umkhankaso we-disinformation" leyo "kwaziwa ukuthatha izikhundla ezivumela ukuvumelana okungokwesayensi noma ukuchitha ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala. ” IGenetic Literacy Project yathuthukiswa "njengohlelo lokuqondiswa kwezigwegwe olunama-STATS," ngokusho kuka izingobo zomlando zewebhu. Ngo-2015, i-Genetic Literacy Project yathutha ngaphansi kwesambulela seqembu elisha, iSayensi Literacy Project, elathola ifa le-STATS inombolo kamazisi wentela.

Uphenyo olwenziwe yiMilwaukee Journal Sentinel luthole ukuthi i-STATS ibiyi “umdlali omkhulu emkhankasweni wobudlelwano bomphakathi wokuhlambalaza ukukhathazeka nge-bisphenol A”Nokuthi inhlangano yabazali bayo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA),“ yayingu ikhokhwe ngeminyaka yama-1990 nguPhilip Morris, inkampani kagwayi, ukuze ihlukanise izindaba ezigxeka ukubhema. ” U-Entine wayengumqondisi we-CMPA ngonyaka wezimali ka-2014/2015, ngokusho kumafomu entela.

UMonsanto wayeyiklayenti lenkampani ye-Entine's PR ngenkathi ibhalisa isizinda seProjekthi Yokufunda Ngofuzo.

Ozakwethu neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR / ukuhlaselwa kososayensi 

Imibhalo etholwe ngu I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi futhi kusuka icala elibhekene neMonsanto khombisa ukuthi i-Entine ne-Genetic Literacy Project bayasebenzisana neMonsanto ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides, ngaphandle kokudalula ukusebenzisana kwabo:

  • Uhlelo lwe-Monsanto PR lwe-2015 ikhombe i-Genetic Literacy Project njengenye ye "Abalingani bemboni" IMonsanto ihlele ukuzibandakanya emizameni yayo "yokuhlela ukukhala" mayelana a umbiko womdlavuza kusuka ku-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze "kuvikelwe isithunzi" seRoundup. I-GLP ithumele izindatshana ezingaphezu kwama-200 mayelana ne-IARC, eziningana zazo ukuhlaselwa ososayensi othole i-glyphosate carcinogenic njenge ukukhwabanisa futhi abaqambimanga abani kuqhutshwa inzuzo nokuyize.
  • Umklomelo Uphenyo lukaLe Monde mayelana "neMonsanto Papers" ichaze i-Genetic Literacy Project njenge- "webhusayithi eyaziwayo ye-propaganda" "enikezwa abantu be-PR abaxhumene nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye ne-biotechnology," futhi yadlala indima enkulu emizameni kaMonsanto "yokuqeda umdlavuza weZizwe Ezihlangene ukuhlangana nanoma iyiphi indlela. ”
  • Ekugcwalisweni kwenkantolo ngo-2017, abameli babamangali abamangalela iMonsanto ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngomdlavuza we-glyphosate bachaze i-Genetic Literacy Project kanye ne-American Council on Science and Health ngokuthi “izinhlangano ezihlose ukuhlazisa ososayensi nokuqhakambisa imininingwane ewusizo eMonsanto nakwabanye abakhiqizi bamakhemikhali.”
  • Ngo-2014 nango-2015, i-Genetic Literacy Project isebenze neMonsanto nenkampani yabo ye-PR ukushicilela nokuphakamisa uchungechunge lwamaphepha e-pro-GMO abhalwe ngosolwazi ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwendima yenhlangano. Bona umbiko weBoston Globe, “Uprofesa waseHarvard wehlulekile ukudalula ukuxhumana kweMonsanto. "
  • Ngokwe-imeyili kaSeptemba 2014, Abaphathi beMonsanto bakhethe i-Genetic Literacy Project “njengendawo yokuqala” yokushicilela amaphepha oprofesa, nokwakha “uhlelo lokuthengisa” nenkampani ye-PR i-CMA ukukhuthaza amaphepha.
  • Inkampani i-PR i-CMA, eseyethiwe kabusha njenge-Look East, iqondiswa nguCharlie Arnot, naye ophethe i- Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla, engenzi-nzuzo ethola uxhaso kuMonsanto - futhi inikela ku Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo.
  • Ngo-2014 nango-2015, i-Genetic Literacy Project ibambisene no Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto, ukuhlela izingqungquthela ezixhaswa ngezimboni eYunivesithi yaseFlorida nase-UC Davis "ukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate," njengo UPaul Thacker ubike kuThe Progressive.

Ixhumana neSyngenta / American Council on Science and Health

ISyngenta ibixhasa i-ACSH ngenkathi ishicilela incwadi ka-Entine ivikela umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane waseSyngenta.

UJon Entine uboshelwe eduze ne Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo (ACSH), iqembu eliphambili lenkampani lelo uthola imali evela eMonsanto nezinye izinkampani zamakhemikhali. I-ACSH ishicilele incwadi ka-Entine ka-2011, evikela i-atrazine, isibulala-zinambuzane esenziwe yiSyngenta. Ukubika kukaTom Philpott eMother Jones naseCentre for Media and Democracy kuqinisekisa ukuthi iSyngenta yayixhasa i-ACSH ngaleso sikhathi, nokuthi i-ACSH icele iSyngenta ukuthi inikeze ngezimali ezengeziwe zephrojekthi ebandakanya incwadi ezwakala njengencwadi ka-Entine.

Umbhalo kaPhilpott kuMama Jones uchaze izimo eziholele ekushicilelweni kwencwadi ka-Entine, ngokuya ngemibhalo etholwe ngu- Isikhungo Semidiya Nentando Yeningi lokho kuchaza umkhankaso weSyngenta PR ukuthola ababambisene naye abavela eceleni ukuvikela i-atrazine.

Ngo 2009, Abasebenzi be-ACSH babuze uSyngenta ngoxhaso lwama- $ 100,000 - “oluhlukile futhi oluhlukile kunokwesekwa kokusebenza okujwayelekile iSyngenta ibilokhu inikela ngokukhululeka eminyakeni edlule” - ukukhiqiza iphepha kanye "nencwajana elungele abathengi" mayelana ne-atrazine. Ngo-2011, I-ACSH imemezelwe Incwadi entsha ka-Entine kanye “nephepha lokuma elinomngane, elifushanisiwe,” zombili zivikela i-atrazine. U-Entine utshele uPhilpott ukuthi “akazi” ukuthi uSyngenta uxhasa i-ACSH.

Ingqikithi ebalulekile: ukuhlaselwa kososayensi nezintatheli

Indikimba ebalulekile emsebenzini ka-Entine ukuhlasela ososayensi nezintatheli ezibika ngokugxeka ngomkhakha wamakhemikhali, imboni kawoyela noma izinkinga zezempilo ezihambisana nazo. Ezinye izibonelo:

  • Liyahlaselwa New Yorker Intatheli uRachel Aviv ngomzamo wokwehlisa isithunzi sakhe ukubika ngemibhalo yangaphakathi yeSyngenta lokho kuveza ukuthi le nkampani yamakhemikhali izame kanjani ukonakalisa isithunzi sika-UC Berkeley uSolwazi Tyrone Hayes ngenxa yocwaningo lwakhe oluxhuma i-herbicide atrazine nezinkinga zokuzalwa zamaxoxo. Umthombo oyinhloko we-Entine kwakunguBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa owayenguye ethola imali buthule kusuka eMonsanto futhi kwasiza ukuqala i- Iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni.
  • Liyahlaselwa UProfesa waseHarvard uNaomi Oreskes, umbhali ngokubambisana we Abahwebi Ukungabaza, “njengoLuddite odumile, uRottweiler onobuhlakani obusebusweni bakho, ezemvelo, obabuxakayo ngokungadingekile ubuchwepheshe besimanje.”
  • Umangalelwe UMphathi weSikole Sobuntatheli saseColumbia uSteve Coll kanye nentatheli uSusanne Rust “wokugcoba i-Exxon” ngokubika ukuthi i-Exxon ibisazi iminyaka eminingi ukuthi ukushintsha kwesimo sezulu kuyiqiniso kepha ifihle isayensi ukugcina imali igeleza.
  • Phakathi ku ukuhlaselwa okulandelwayo (selokhu isuswe kufayela le- Huffington Post iwebhusayithi), u-Entine usole uRust wokwephula izimiso zokuziphatha ngokubika kwakhe ochungechungeni olwawina imiklomelo kwi-BPA okwakungu kufakwe kuhlu olufushane ngomklomelo wePulitzer; U-Entine akazange adalule ukuthi ukubika kwakhe kukhombe owayengumqashi wakhe i-STATS njenge- umdlali omkhulu emizameni ye-PR yomkhakha.

Umzila Wezezimali KaMurky wokungena ne-GLP

Umlando woxhaso lwe-Entine uyinkimbinkimbi futhi u-opaque, kepha imibhalo yentela nokudalulwa kwakhe uqobo kuveza iphethini yezimali ezivela emithonjeni engaziwa nasezisekelweni zamaphiko angakwesokudla ukususa ukwehliswa kwemithetho kanye nokwenqatshelwa kwesayensi yezulu, kanye nemali engadalulwanga evela embonini ye-biotechnology.

Inothi elicacile, eliguqula njalo "lokubonisa izinto obala"

Umbhalo othi “obala kwezezimali” kwiwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project awunembile, ushintsha kaningi futhi kwesinye isikhathi uyaziphikisa. Ngo-2017 nango-2018, i-Genetic Literacy Project ithi ithola uxhaso kusuka kuzisekelo ezimbalwa kufaka phakathi izisekelo zeTempleton neSearle, okuyi abaxhasi abahola phambili bemizamo yokuphika isayensi yezulu. I-GLP ibuye ibhale uxhaso oluvela eCentre for Food Integrity, a iqembu lemboni yezokudla ethola imali evela kuMonsanto futhi ibuye isebenzisane neMonsanto ne-Genetic Literacy Project ukukhuthaza imboni yezolimo i-PR.

In Septhemba 2016, "ukudalulwa" Inothi lithe i-GLP ayitholanga mali ezinkampanini, kodwa iveze u- $ 27,500 "wokudlula" ovela ku- "Academics Review Charitable Association," okubukeka sengathi ayikho. Leli qembu ngokusobala Izifundo zeRegional.org, a iqembu langaphambili elathola uxhaso lwalo embonini yezolimo iqembu lokuhweba.

In Mashi 2016, i-GLP ayidalulanga ngezezimali futhi u-Entine wazama ukuqhela i-GLP kumqashi wakhe wangaphambili we-STATS, ethi i-STATS inikezela ngezinsizakalo zokubalwa kwezimali kuphela nokuthi amaqembu awabandakanyeki emisebenzini yomunye nomunye. Kodwa ngo-2012, i-GLP yathi “ithuthukiswe njengohlelo lokuqondiswa kwezigwegwe nge-STATS. "

Isikhungo Sezindaba Nezindaba Zomphakathi / IGeorge Mason University

Okonyaka wezimali 2014 / 2015, ngokuya ngamarekhodi entela, u-Entine wathola ama- $ 173,100 ngomsebenzi wakhe wokuba “umqondisi” eCentre for Media and Public Affairs, iqembu elizinze eGeorge Mason University futhi elasungulwa ngu-GMU Professor URobert Lichter. I-CMPA wakhokhelwa nguPhillip Morris ngawo-1990 ukwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngogwayi, ngokusho kwemibhalo ekwi-UCSF Library Industry Library.

I-CMPA ayidaluli abaxhasi bayo kepha ithole uxhaso ku-George Mason University Foundation, i umamukeli oholayo yeminikelo ehlangene neCharles Koch kanye neKoch Industries. I-GMUF iphinde yathola ama- $ 5.3 wezigidi kuDonors Trust nakwiDonors Capital Fund phakathi kuka-2011-13, ngokusho koMgcini. Lezi zimali zixhuma imali evela kubanikeli abangaziwa kufaka phakathi izinkampani emikhankasweni nasezifundweni eziphokophela izintshisekelo zemboni, njengoba iGreenpeace ikhombisile uphenyo olufihliwe.

Izinkokhelo ze-STATS nemalimboleko

Iqembu lodadewabo le-CMPA, nalo elasungulwa nguLichter futhi elizinze eGMU, kwakuyiStatistical Assessment Services (STATS), iqembu elingenzi nzuzo eladlala indima enkulu embonini yamakhemikhali emizamweni yokuvikela imikhiqizo enobuthi, ngokusho kokubika I-Intercept, I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Atlantic futhi I-Consumer Reports.

Ngokuya ngamafomu e-IRS:

  • Ama-STATS akhokhelwe ukufaka u- $ 140,600 ku- 2012 / 2013 futhi $ 152,500 ku 2013 / 2014 “njengomxhumanisi ocwaningayo”
  • I-STATS kanye ne-Centre for Media and Public Affairs zombili zibhalise i-Entine njengoMqondisi ku 2014 / 2015 ngesinxephezelo se- $ 173,100. Amarekhodi entela awo womabili amaqembu abuye abala uMengameli uTrevor Butterworth ngama- $ 95,512 noMqondisi uTracey Brown ngaphandle kwesinxephezelo. UTracey Brown ungumqondisi weSense About Science, iqembu futhi ihlola isayensi ukuvikela izintshisekelo zemboni yamakhemikhali; IButterworth isungulwe i-Sense About Science USA ngo-2014 futhi bahlanganisa ama-STATS kulelo qembu.
  • I-Science Literacy Project yathatha i-ID yentela ye-STATS ku 2015 futhi kufakwe ohlwini njengoMqondisi Ophethe enxeshezelwa ngama- $ 188,800.
  • Ku-2018, i-ESG MediaMetrics, inkampani ye-Entine's PR, kubike u- $ 176,420 emholweni.

ICentre for Media and Public Affairs nayo ibolekise imali kwaSTATS, okuthi “ngenxa yokungabi bikho kwemali eyanele” “engakabuyiselwa imali.” IGeorge Mason University Foundation, engadaluli uxhaso lwayo, yanikeza izibonelelo ze-CMPA kuleyo minyaka. Amarekhodi entela akhombisa:

Imali yezimboni ze-Biotechnology yokuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli

Ngo-2014 nango-2015, i-Council for Biotechnology Information, exhaswa yi-BASF, Bayer, DowDuPont kanye neMonsanto Company, yachitha imali engaphezulu kwama- $ 300,000 emicimbini emibili eyayihlelwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project neqembu eliphambili le-Academics Review to “qeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano mayelana nama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate, ”Ngokwamarekhodi entela nokubika ku I-Progressive. Imicimbi, ibizwa nge- Izinkambu zeBiotech Literacy Project, zabanjelwa e- IYunivesithi yaseFlorida ngo-2014 futhi UC Davis ngo-2015. Ama-ajenda achaza imicimbi ngokuthi "ukuqeqeshwa kwamakhono okuxhumana" kososayensi nezintatheli ukusiza ukuqamba kabusha impikiswano yokuphepha kokudla kanye ne-GMO, futhi bathembisa ukuhlinzeka ososayensi “ngamathuluzi nezinsizakusebenza ezidingekayo ukuze bahlanganyele kahle abezindaba futhi bavele njengongoti kwezomthetho ukulalelwa kohulumeni basekhaya, nokunye ukwenziwa kwemigomo kanye namathuba okufinyelela kubantu ahlobene nalokhu. ”

Isikhundla ekuqaleni ikamu lokuqala ebhuthini kufaka phakathi abamele abavela embonini yezolimo, amaqembu aphambili embonini yokudla namaqembu ezentengiselwano, kanye nezifundiswa ze-pro-GMO kufaka phakathi i-University of Florida Professor UKevin Folta, kanye noProfesa Emeritus waseYunivesithi yase-Illinois UBruce Chassy, bobabili abamukele imali engadalulwanga evela eMonsanto futhi bathuthukisa ama-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane abathengisa ngayo iMonsanto abathembele kuyo. Washington Post umlobi wephephabhuku lokudla uTamar Haspel, ubani futhi yemukela imali evela kuzintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo, wayeyintatheli kwi-faculty.

Abaxhasi bezimali zesayensi yezulu

Abasekeli abakhulu bezezimali baka-Entine owayengumqashi we-Entine kanye neqembu lakhe lamanje le-Genetic Literacy Project bafaka izisekelo zamaphiko angakwesokudla - ikakhulukazi iScaife Foundation, iSearle Freedom Trust neTempleton Foundation - abahola phambili ekuxhasweni kwezimali zesayensi yezulu, ngokusho kwe Ucwaningo lwe-2013 Drexel University. Bona uphenyo lwe-USRTK: Izimali Zenethiwekhi Yezenhlalo Yesimo Sezulu Esenqabela Inkulumo Yamakhemikhali Anobuthi.

Umfana wezokuvikela umkhakha wamakhemikhali

Iminyaka eminingi, u-Entine ubengumvikeli ovelele wezintshisekelo zemboni yamakhemikhali, elandela incwadi yokudlala yomkhakha: uvikela amakhemikhali njengaphephile; uphikisana nomthethonqubo; futhi ihlasela isayensi, izintatheli zesayensi kanye nabanye baphakamisa ukukhathazeka.

Ukuvikela ama-neonicotinoids

Growing ubufakazi besayensi busikisela ukuthi i-neonicotinoids, isigaba esisetshenziswa kakhulu semithi yokubulala izinambuzane, siyisici esibalulekile ekufeni kwezinyosi. I-European Union ikhawulele ama-neonics ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngomthelela ezinyosini. I-athikili kaFebhuwari 2020 ku-The Intercept kaLee Fang yabika “ngezinkampani zemininingwane yolwazi” izinkampani zokubulala izinambuzane ezilwela ukugcina amakhemikhali emakethe e-US Entine kube yisithunywa esiyinhloko esisekela imboni; uphikise ngokuthi ama-neonics akuyona into ehamba phambili ekufeni kwezinyosi (I-American Enterprise Institute), ukuthi "i-apocalypse yezinyosi yayingakaze ibe ngeyangempela," (Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo) kanye nezinswelaboya okuthiwa zingasiza impilo yezinyosi (I-American Enterprise Institute futhi Forbes). U-Entine uphinde wahlasela ucwaningo lukaprofesa waseHarvard ngezinyosi iColony Collapse Disorder (I-American Enterprise Institute) futhi wasola osopolitiki baseYurophu ngokuzama ukubulala izinyosi ngokuvimbela ama-neonics (Forbes).

Ukuvikela ama-phthalates

Ama-Phthalates ayisigaba samakhemikhali eside axhunyaniswe nokuphazamiseka kwamahomoni, ukulimala kokuzala, izinkinga zokuzala kanye nezixhumanisi zokukhuluphala kwengane, isifuba somoya, izinkinga zezinzwa nezinkinga zenhliziyo. Uhulumeni wase-US waqala ukuvimbela amakhemikhali kumathoyizi ezingane ngo-2013 ngenxa yezinkinga zezempilo. U-Entine uvikele imikhiqizo yezingane equkethe amakhemikhali. "Ambalwa amakhemikhali asemakethe namuhla ahlolisiswe ngokwesayensi njengama-phthalate esters," kubhala u-Entine (Forbes) - kepha akazange asho umzimba obalulekile of ubufakazi besayensi ihlanganiswe ngaphezu kweminyaka engamashumi amabili exhumanisa ukuvezwa kwe-phthalate ku- ukukhula okungavamile kokuzala in izingane zabafana. Imiyalezo yayihlanganisa nokuhlaselwa kwezintatheli; U-Entine usole intatheli ye-NBC ephakamise imibuzo ngokuphepha "kobuntatheli obungenazinhloso." (Forbes). Inkampani yokuxhumana yakwa-Entine, ESG MediaMetrics, yenze i-PR ye Isikhungo seVinyl; i-vinyl plastic ingumthombo obalulekile wokuchayeka kuma-phthalates. U-Entine akazange adalule ukuxhumana kwemboni ezindabeni zakhe zeForbes.

Ukuvikela ukujija

I-Entine ivikela ukubhoboza umfutholuketshezi ("fracking"), ukudonsa amanzi anengcindezi ephezulu anamakhemikhali emhlabathini ukuze aqhekeze i-shale futhi akhiphe igesi yemvelo. Njengakwimikhankaso yakhe eminingi yokuthumela imiyalezo, u-Entine uqhumisa isayensi nososayensi abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka, ebabiza ngokuthi "izishoshovu," ngenkathi enza izitatimende ezishisayo nezingenakuphikiswa mayelana nesayensi "ehlakaniphile" eyenziwe eminyakeni eminingi evikela ukuphepha kwayo. Isibonelo, u-Entine wathi: “Ngokombono wesayensi, asikho isizathu sokuthi umsolwa izindaba ezingaziwa zezempilo noma ezemvelo zizovela ”kusuka ekuqhekekeni (New York Post).

Futhi, ukuhlaselwa bekuyingxenye eyinhloko yemiyalezo. U-Entine usole izintatheli ze-New York Times ngokukhohlisa izingane ngobungozi bezemvelo bokuthwebula (Forbes), wahlasela ososayensi ababili baseCornell University ocwaningweni lwabo bephakamisa ukuthi imisebenzi yokuqhekeza ivule i-methaneForbes), futhi yahlasela iPark Foundation, yathi “icishe yachitha isandla esisodwa sokwakha i-shale-gas eNew York State ecebile nge-methane, futhi yafaka uphawu lwayo emibonweni yomphakathi nasezinqumweni zenqubomgomo ezweni lonke.” (Ubuhle obuyindilinga)

Ukuvikela i-BPA

U-Entine ubhala evikela ikhemikhali i-bisphenol A (BPA), yize kukhona ubufakazi obuningi besayensi obuzisa ukukhathazeka mayelana ne-endocrine yayo ephazamisa amandla nezinye izinkinga zempilo ezihambisana nayo. ICanada imemezele ukuthi leli khemikhali linobuthi ngo-2010, kanye ne-EU kuvinjelwe i-BPA emabhodleleni ezingane e 2011.

U-Entine uhlasele abacwaningi baseyunivesithi, ama-NGO nezintatheli bezwakalisa ukukhathazeka nge-BPA (Forbes), kuphakanyiswe ukuthi abesifazane abangakwazi ukukhulelwa akufanele bakusole kuplastikhi (Forbes), futhi waphonsela inselelo ososayensi abaxhumanisa i-BPA nesifo senhliziyo (Forbes).

Ukuvikela Amandla Enuzi

I-Entine ivikela nemboni yamandla enuzi; usho ukuthi izikhungo zamandla enuzi zikhona imvelo imvelo nokuthi “akukho okubi njengaseChernobyl okungenzeka kwenzeke eNtshonalanga.” Usole uSolwazi uNaomi Oreskes waseHarvard isayensi "ukuphika," ngoba, phakathi kokunye, ukukhomba ubungozi bezomnotho nezemvelo bamandla enuzi.

Ubuhlobo

U-Entine ubengumuntu ongakhokhelwa eCentre for Health and Risk Communication eGeorge Mason University (GMU) kusuka ngo-2011-2014. U-Entine ubuye abe ngumuntu ophethe phambili e-UC Davis World Food Center's Institute for Food and Agricultural Literacy, engadaluli. abanikeli bayo, kanye a ovakashele esikanye naye e-American Enterprise Institute, ithangi lokucabanga le-DC elixhaswe ngokwengxenye ngu Inkampani futhi imali emnyama iminikelo.

Bona futhi, Ikhasi le-Greenpeace Polluter Watch kuJon Entine naku “indaba efihliwe yePhrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project. "

Amaqembu ahlobene nabantu

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo
UGeoffrey Kabat
UJay Byrne
Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa
UPamela Ronald no-UC Davis
Amaphrojekthi we-Biotech Literacy 

UDrew Kershen: I-Agrichemical Industry Front Group Ringleader

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UDrew Kershen, uprofesa osaziwayo e-University of Oklahoma College of Law, ungumngane osondelene nomkhakha wezolimo. Uyaphikisana ukuhlukunyezwa zezitshalo nezilwane ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela kanye ngokumelene nokusobala. UKershen ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile emizamweni yokukhangisa exhaswa ngezimali embonini kanye namaqembu angaphambili alwela izintshisekelo zemboni. UKershen akayivezi imithombo yezimali.

Isibopho semboni yezolimo nobuholi beqembu langaphambili

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project / Science Literacy Project

UKershen uyi ilungu lebhodi yeGenetic Literacy Project, iqembu eliphambili elibambisana neMonsanto ukwenza ubudlelwano bomphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, futhi hhayi ukudalula ngokunembile ukuxhaswa kwayo. Imibhalo iveze ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project:

UKershen futhi uyilungu lebhodi le- Iphrojekthi Yezesayensi Yokufunda, i-501 (c) (3) inhlangano yabazali ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Zombili ziqondiswa ngu UJon Entine, umlingani wesikhathi eside we-PR wemboni yamakhemikhali.

Ngokuvumelana ne Amarekhodi wentela ka-2015, UJon Entine kanye ne-Science Literacy Project bathathe izintambo zokulawula iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS), iqembu ebelikade lisebenzisana neCentre for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA) kanye Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ukusebenza kwe-STATS kufakwe ku-Sense About Science USA, okuyi wabelana ngekheli elifanayo lerekhodi ngeProjekthi YeSayensi Yokufunda Nokubhala.

Abasunguli be-STATS, i-CMPA kanye ne-Sense About Science benze ubudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzela imboni kagwayi futhi la maqembu awawona amajaji azimele wesayensi, ngokusho kwe-2016 uphenyo kuThe Intercept.

Ngeminye imininingwane, bheka ama-USRTK emashidi eqiniso UJon Entine kanye neProjekthi Yokufunda Ngofuzo futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi / IZITATIMENDE.

UNobhala Wezifundo Zokubuyekeza Iqembu Langaphambili

UKershen wayengunobhala webhodi labaqondisi be-Academics Review, ngokusho kwalo Amarekhodi wentela ka-2016. Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo bathi kwakuyiqembu elizimele, kodwa imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know wembule ukuthi kwakuyiqembu langaphambili kusethwe ngosizo lweMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo ngenkathi bebonakala bezimele.

UKershen wayengu- umbuyekezi ngombiko wango-2014 we-Academics Review owazama ukudicilela phansi imboni yezinto eziphilayo; i isitatimende sephephandaba ngombiko wathi kwakuwumsebenzi wezifundiswa ezizimele ngaphandle kokuphikisana kwezintshisekelo.

Amarekhodi entela akhombisa ukuthi umxhasi oyinhloko we-Academics Review kwakuyi-Council for Biotechnology Information, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa futhi ephethwe yi-BASF, Bayer, DowDuPont, Monsanto neSyngenta. I-CBI inikeze isamba esingu- $ 600,000 ku-Academics Review ku 2014 futhi 2015-2016.

Kungani iForbes Isuse Ezinye Izindatshana ZaseKershen

IKershen babhala ngokuhlanganyela izindatshana eziningana ezisuswe yiForbes neProjusa Syndicate ngemuva kombhali wakhe, UHenry Miller, wabanjwa usebenzisa ikholomu ebhalwe ghost ngu-Monsanto njengomsebenzi wakhe eForbes. I- New York Times wembula ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki ngo-2017.

UKershen noMiller nabo babhalele ndawonye izindatshana ze- Slate, Buyekeza National, lo Isikhungo seHoover futhi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo (imboni exhaswa ngemali iqembu langaphambili) bephikisana nokufakwa amalebula nokulawulwa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni, nokubanga ukuthi "abampofu emhlabeni bahlupheka futhi bafa ngokungadingekile" ngenxa "yomthetho ongenazidingo ofunwa yizishoshovu."

Izimpendulo ze-GMO

UKershen uyi “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a ukumaketha kanye newebhusayithi ye-PR ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuyi uxhaswe yizinkampani ezinkulu zezolimo nge-Council for Biotechnology Information, futhi ephethwe yi inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi uKetchum.

Ungenele Ekubambeni Ngokusobala Icala Lokuvimbela Ukudalulwa Komphakathi

Imibhalo eminingana ebikwe kuleli qiniso, eveze obudlelwano obungadalulwanga phakathi kwezinhlangano namaqembu angaphambili, yaqala ukutholwa ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information ngu I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. UKershen ungenelele ezinkantolo ezama ukumisa ukudalulwa okuqhubekayo, njengeFreedom of the Press Foundation kubika ngoFebhuwari 2018.

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngamaqembu angaphambili embonini yezokudla, bheka i- Ikhasi lokuphenya le-USRTK.

Izigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto Kuzo Zonke I-Newsweek's Hit on Organic Food

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

buyekeza: Impendulo eyinqaba yeNewsweek

NguStacy Malkan

"Umkhankaso wokudla okuphilayo ngumkhonyovu okhohlisayo, obizayo," ngokusho komhlaka-19 Januwari Newsweek esihlokweni ebhalwe nguDkt.Henry I. Miller weSikhungo seHoover.

Uma lelo gama lizwakala lijwayelekile - uHenry I. Miller - kungahle kube ngoba New York Times muva iveze ihlazo okubandakanya uMiller: ukuthi ubanjwe eshicilela i-athikili ebhalwe ghost nguMonsanto ngaphansi kwegama lakhe ku Forbes. I-athikili, ebikhombisa kakhulu uhlaka olunikezwe uMonsanto, ihlasele ososayensi bephaneli lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation (IARC) labo isinqumo sokufaka ohlwini Amakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kaMonsanto, i-glyphosate, njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukubika ku ukushintshana nge-imeyili ekhishwe ngamacala neMonsanto mayelana nokukhathazeka komdlavuza, i- Izikhathi ' UDanny Hakim wabhala:

"UMonsanto ubuze uMnu. Miller ukuthi angathanda yini ukubhala indatshana ngalesi sihloko, futhi wathi, 'Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala kusuka embhalweni osezingeni eliphezulu.'

Lo mbhalo uvele ngaphansi kwegama likaMnu. Miller, nangokuthi 'imibono evezwe ngabakwa-Forbes Contributors ingeyabo.' Lo magazini awuzange ukhulume ngokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto ekulungiseleleni lo mbhalo…

UForbes ususe lolu daba kwi-webhusayithi yakhe ngoLwesithathu wathi buqedile ubudlelwano bakhe noMnuz Miller phakathi kokudaluliwe. ”

Intambo yombono Iphrojekthi Syndicate kwalandela okufanayo, ngemuva kokuqala ukufaka isimangalo kumazwana kaMiller lapho aqaphela ukuthi ayezokwaliwa uma ukusebenzisana kwakhe noMonsanto kwakwaziwa.

Ithemba Lokwehlisa I-Organic

Ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki alikaze limnciphise uMiller; uqhubekile nokuhlunga okuqukethwe okwenyuswayo embonini yezolimo kusuka ezitolo ezinjenge Newsweek futhi The Wall Street Journal, ngaphandle kokudalula kubafundi ubuhlobo bakhe neMonsanto.

Noma kunjalo kaMiller Newsweek Ukudla okune-organic kunezigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto ngokusobala kuyo yonke indawo.

Okokuqala, uMiller usebenzisa imithombo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukwenza izimangalo ezingenabufakazi (nezindidayo) mayelana nezolimo eziphilayo - ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi ukulima ngokwemvelo "empeleni kuyingozi kakhulu emvelweni" kunokulima okuvamile, noma ukuthi ababambisene nabo bachitha u- $ 2.5 billion ngonyaka bekhankasa ngokumelene nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo eNyakatho Melika.

Umthombo kulesi simangalo esingalungile nguJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto (ongaziwa kanjalo kwi Newsweek athikili), manje oqondisa inkampani ye-PR ebizwa nge-v-Fluence Interactive.

Ukuhwebelana nge-imeyili kuveza ukuthi iMonsanto isebenza kanjani nabantu abanjengoJay Byrne - kanye noByrne ngqo - ukusunduza lolu hlobo lokuhlaselwa kwezitha zikaMonsanto ngenkathi kugcinwa ukubandakanyeka kwenkampani kuyimfihlo.

Ngokwama-imeyili atholwe iqembu lami Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi, U-Byrne wadlala indima enkulu ekusizeni iMonsanto ukuba isungule iqembu eliphambili lenkampani elibizwa nge-Academics Review elashicilela umbiko ohlasela imboni yezimboni njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha - okuyisihloko ngqo kuMiller's Newsweek isihloko.

Uhlu lukaJay Byrne lwezitha zaseMonsanto. 

Umqondo weqembu langaphambili - kuchazwe ku- ama-imeyili engiwabike lapha - bekuzokwakha ipulatifomu enomsindo othembekile lapho izifundiswa zingahlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo ngenkathi bethi zizimele, kepha zithola imali ngasese emaqenjini ezimboni. Ukucwayiza, ukucwayiza, ha, ha.

"Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi," kubhale umphathi weMonsanto ohilelekile ohlelweni.

Indima kaByrne, ngokusho kwama-imeyili, ibizosebenza njenge "moto yokuhweba" ukusiza ukuthola imali yenkampani. U-Byrne uphinde wathi uhlanganisa uhlu “lwamathuba” okuhlosiwe - abagxeka imboni yezolimo okungenzeka ukuthi "bafakwe umjovo" endaweni yesikhulumi sabafundi.

Abantu abaningana kuhlu lwamathuba ka-Byrne, noma kamuva bahlaselwa yi-Academics Review, babeyizisulu ku-Miller's Newsweek isihloko, futhi.

IMiller's Newsweek ucezu naye uzame ukudicilela phansi umsebenzi we New York Times ' intatheli uDanny Hakim, ngaphandle kokudalula ukuthi kwakunguHakim owadalula ihlazo likaMiller lokubhala ngesipoki likaMiller.

Njengakamuva nje ukuhlaselwa kwemboni yemvelo, yonke iminwe ikhomba emuva ezinkampanini zezolimo ezizolahlekelwa kakhulu uma isidingo sabathengi siqhubeka nokukhuphuka kokudla okungenawo ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Ukusetshenziswa KukaMonsanto “Okuzimele Kwezemfundo”

UHenry Miller une- umlando omude wokusebenzisana no - no ebeka izinsizakalo zakhe ze-PR - izinkampani ezidinga usizo lokukholisa umphakathi ukuthi imikhiqizo yazo ayiyona ingozi futhi ayidingi ukulawulwa.

Futhi iMonsanto incike kakhulu kubantu abaneziqinisekiso zesayensi noma amaqembu azwakala engathathi hlangothi ukwenza lezo zingxabano - abantu abazimisele ukuxhumana nombhalo wenkampani ngenkathi bethi bangabalingisi abazimele. Leli qiniso lisungulwe ngokubika ku New York Times, Okwezwe, WBEZ, lo Ukuqhubeka phambili futhi ezinye izindawo eziningi eminyakeni yakamuva.

Idokhumenti esanda kukhishwa yeMonsanto inikeza imininingwane eyengeziwe mayelana nokuthi inkulumo-ze kaMonsanto nokusebenza kokunxenxa kusebenza kanjani, kanye nendima esemqoka edlalwa nguHenry Miller kuyo.

Lo 2015 “uhlelo lokulungiselela”- ekhishwe abameli ezinkantolo zomdlavuza i-glyphosate - ibeka isu likaMonsanto le-PR" lokuhlela ukukhala "ngokumelene nososayensi bomdlavuza we-IARC ngombiko wabo we-glyphosate. Owokuqala ongakhishwa: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller."

Uhlelo luzoqhubeka lunezigaba ezine "zabalingani bemboni" - amaqembu ezokuhweba ayishumi nambili, amaqembu ezemfundo kanye namaqembu aphambili abonakala ezimele afana ne Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project - lokho kungasiza "ukugoma" ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza futhi "kuvikele isithunzi… se-Roundup."

UMiller uhambisele iMonsanto ngoMashi 2015 esihlokweni eForbes - lo mbhalo kamuva wembula njengombhalo kaMonsanto - uhlasela ososayensi be-IARC. Ozakwethu bezimboni bebelokhu bephusha izimpikiswano ezifanayo ngemigudu ehlukahlukene kaninginingi, selokhu, ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi bomdlavuza.

Okuningi kwalokhu kugxeka kubonakale emphakathini njengokuvukela okuzenzekelayo kokukhathazeka, kungakhulunywa ngeqhaza likaMonsanto njengomqambi nomqhubi womlando: i-hoodwink yenkampani yakudala.

Njengoba eminye imibhalo ingena embusweni womphakathi - nge Amaphepha eMonsanto futhi uphenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi - iqhinga "lokufunda elizimele" kuzoba nzima ukuligcinela abasebenza embonini njengoHenry I. Miller, kanye nabezindaba nabenzi benqubomgomo abangayinaki.

Okwamanje, Newsweek ayihlehli. Ngisho nangemva kokubuyekeza imibhalo eqinisekisa amaqiniso akule ndatshana, Newsweek Umhleli wemibono uNicholas Wapshott ubhale ku-imeyili ukuthi, “Ngiyakuqonda ukuthi wena noMiller ninomlando omude wokuphikisana ngalesi sihloko. Ukuphika ngokusobala okuqinisekisile. ”

UMiller noWapshott abaphendulanga eminye imibuzo.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu elibheka abathengi nelisebenza obala, i-US Right to Know. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry” (New Society, 2007). Ukudalulwa: I-US Right to Know ixhaswe ngokwengxenye yi-Organic Consumers Association eshiwo ku-athikili kaMiller futhi evela kuhlu olushaywayo lukaByrne.

Izimali Zenethiwekhi Yezenhlalo Yesimo Sezulu Esenqabela Inkohliso Yamakhemikhali Anobuthi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Zikhuthaza ama-GMO nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, zivikela amakhemikhali anobuthi nokudla okungenamsoco, futhi zihlasela abantu abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngaleyo mikhiqizo ngokuthi “balwa nesayensi.” Kodwa-ke uJon Entine, uTrevor Butterworth noHenry Miller baxhaswa ngamaqembu afanayo axhasa ukwenqatshwa kwesayensi yezulu.

NguStacy Malkan

Umbhali waseBrithani uGeorge Monbiot unesixwayiso kulabo bethu abazama ukuqonda amaqiniso amasha ezepolitiki e-US nase-UK: "Asinalo ithemba lokuqonda ukuthi yini ezayo kuze kube yilapho siqonda ukuthi inethiwekhi yemali emnyama isebenza kanjani," wabhala ku i-Guardian.

Kungenzeka ukuthi iCorporate America yehlisa ukwenanela uDonald Trump, kepha kwathi lapho uTrump esekutholile ukuqokwa, "imali enkulu yaqala ukuthola ithuba elingakaze libonwe," kubhala uMonbiot. “Ukungahambisani kwakhe kwakungeyona inkinga, kepha kwakuvula: i-ajenda yakhe yayingakhiwa. Futhi uhlelo olumnyama lwemali olwalusungulwe ezinye izinkampani zaseMelika lwalulungele ngokuphelele ukulwakha. ”

Le nethiwekhi, noma imali emnyama i-ATM njengoba uMama Jones ekuchazile, kubhekiswa enanini elinzima lokulandela umkhondo eligeleza lisuka kozigidigidi abangamasiko amakhulu, abanjengoCharles noDavid Koch nababambisene nabo, nezinkampani eziba ngamaqembu angaphambili akhuthaza imibono yezimakethe ezikhululekile ngokweqile - ngokwesibonelo, izimpi ezilwa nezikole zomphakathi, izinyunyana, ukuvikelwa kwemvelo, izinqubomgomo zokuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kanye nesayensi esongela inzuzo yebhizinisi.

"Asinathemba lokuthi sizokuqonda okuzayo size siqonde ukuthi isebenza kanjani imali emnyama."

Ababhali abaphenyayo UJane Mayer, UNaomi Oreskes, u-Erik Conway kanti abanye badalule ukuthi “indaba yemali emnyama nendaba yokwenqatshwa kwesimo sezulu iyindaba efanayo: izinhlangothi ezimbili zemali eyodwa,” njengoba uSenator wase-United States uSheldon Whitehouse ayichaza ngonyaka odlule inkulumo.

Amasu "okuholwa nguKoch, umsebenzi wokuthenga umthelela" - kufaka phakathi imisebenzi yenkulumo-ze ejikeleza isayensi ngaphandle kokubheka iqiniso - "mhlawumbe yisona sizathu esikhulu esingenayo umthetho-mali ophelele wesimo sezulu eCongress," kusho uWhitehouse.

Ngenkathi la maqhinga elandelelwe kahle emkhakheni wesimo sezulu, okungaxhunywanga kangako iqiniso lokuthi abaxhasi abalandela ukuphika kwesayensi yesimo sezulu baphinde babhalise inethiwekhi yabasebenzi be-PR abakhe imisebenzi yokuphotha isayensi ukuphika ubungozi bezempilo bamakhemikhali anobuthi ekudleni esikudingayo sidle nemikhiqizo esiyisebenzisa nsuku zonke.

Izigxobo ziphakeme empilweni yesizwe sethu. Amanani we- umdlavuza wezingane manje seziphezulu ngama-50% kunangesikhathi lapho “impi yomdlavuza” yaqala emashumini eminyaka adlule, futhi isikhali esihle kunazo zonke asisisebenzisi neze: izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukutholakala kwamakhemikhali abangela umdlavuza.

"Uma sifuna ukunqoba impi yomdlavuza, sidinga ukuqala ngamanxusa ayizinkulungwane omzimba namakhemikhali ahlolwe ngangokunokwenzeka, okungenzeka noma aziwa ngama-carcinogens ngabantu yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation" kubhala usosayensi nomlobi uDevra U-Lee Davis, PhD, MPH, ku The Hill.

Ukunciphisa amanxusa aziwayo "akuhlangene neze nesayensi, futhi kuningi okuphathelene namandla ezimboni ezinenzuzo enkulu ethembele ebudlelwaneni bomphakathi ukuphikisana nemibiko yesayensi ngobungozi," kusho uDavis.

Ukuvikela amakhemikhali anobuthi nokudla okungenamsoco 

Lapho imikhiqizo ebalulekile embonini yokudla kwamakhemikhali nokudla okungenamsoco ingena enkingeni ngesayensi, kuvela abalingiswa namaqembu abikezelwayo endaweni yesehlakalo, besebenzisa amasu abezindaba agugile ukukhipha izinkampani ezidinga ukukhuthazwa yi-PR.

Amagama abo namasu abawasebenzisayo - izindatshana ezinde eziphikisayo, ezivame ukwenziwa ukuhlaselwa ngabantu - zizokwaziwa ososayensi abaningi, izintatheli kanye nabameli babathengi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngemikhiqizo enobuthi kule minyaka eyi-15 edlule.

Izicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi ngu I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ezivundulule izinkulungwane zemibhalo, kanye nemibiko yakamuva eyenziwe ngu Greenpeace, The Ngenisa nabanye, bakhanyisa ukukhanya okusha kule nethiwekhi yenkulumo-ze.

Abadlali ababalulekile kubalwa uJon Entine, uTrevor Butterworth, uHenry I. Miller namaqembu axhumene nabo: STATS, Centre for Media and Public Affairs, Genetic Literacy Project, Sense About Science neHoover Institute.

Yize kunemilando ebhalwe kahle njenge-PR operatives, i-Entine, iButterworth neMiller yethulwa njengemithombo yesayensi ebucayi ezinkundleni zokuxhumana eziningi, ezivela Wall Street Journal, New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Newsweek, I-Philadelphia Enquirer, I-Harvard Business Review futhi, bridge ngokuvamile, Forbes - ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwemithombo yabo yezimali noma i-ajenda yokususa umthetho ezimbonini ezingcolisayo ezizikhuthazayo.

Izindatshana zabo zibeka phezulu ekusesheni kweGoogle izinto eziningi eziseqhulwini embonini yamakhemikhali nokudla okungenamsoco - okucindezela ukulandisa kokuthi ama-GMO, izibulala-zinambuzane, amakhemikhali epulasitiki, abashukela esikhundleni sikashukela baphephile, futhi noma ngubani osho okwahlukile ukuthi “uphikisana nesayensi.”

Kwezinye izimo, bathola ithonya njengoba behambisana nezikhungo zokusungula ezifana neBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, iCornell University kanye neYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis.

Kodwa-ke imithombo yabo yezimali ibuyela emuva emibonweni efanayo "yemakethe yamahhala" evela emafutheni kawoyela, ezemithi namakhemikhali axhasa ukwenqaba kwesayensi yezulu - ISearle Freedom Trust, Izisekelo zeScaife, IJohn Templeton Foundation nabanye bahlonzwa njengabaxhasi abakhulu nabangaguquguquki bamaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu, ngokusho kuka Ucwaningo lwe-2013 nguDrexel University isazi sezenhlalo uRobert Brulle, PhD.

Labo abafuna ukuqonda imigomo yenqubomgomo yenethiwekhi yemali emnyama yokuqaqa ukuvikelwa kwezempilo kohlelo lwethu lokudla benza kahle ukubheka lokhu abasakaza inkulumo-ze banamuhla nemiyalezo yabo.

UJon Entine - Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy / STATS

UJon Entine, owayekade eyintatheli, uzibonakalisa njengegunya lokulawula isayensi. Noma kunjalo ubufakazi obanele busikisela ungumsebenzi wobudlelwano bomphakathi obunesikhathi eside enobudlelwano obujulile nezinkampani zamakhemikhali ezihlushwa imibuzo ngezingcuphe zezempilo.

Eminyakeni edlule, u-Entine unakho ehlaselwa Lokhu ososayensi, oprofesa, abaxhasi, abameli futhi izintatheli ngubani ophakamise ukukhathazeka mayelana ukukhwabanisa, amandla enuzi, izibulala-zinambuzane futhi Amakhemikhali esetshenzisiwe amabhodlela ezingane futhi amathoyizi ezingane. Indaba kaMama Jones ka-2012 kaTom Philpott ichaza u-Entine njengo “Umxolisi webhizinisi lezolimo, ”Futhi uGreenpeace uchaza umlando wakhe ku Iwebhusayithi yokubuka iPolluter.

U-Entine manje ungumqondisi we Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, iqembu eligqugquzela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Isiza sithi asithathi hlangothi, kepha “sakhiwe ngokusobala ukukhuthaza isikhundla semboni futhi asizami ukubheka ukungathathi hlangothi ezindabeni,” kusho uMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union.

"Umyalezo uthi ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo muhle futhi noma ngubani okugxekayo uyimbono esabekayo, kepha lokho akusho ukuthi impikiswano yesayensi ikuphi ngempela."

Faka izimangalo, isibonelo, ukuthi "ukuvumelana kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO kunamandla ukwedlula ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke" - isimangalo esiphikiswa yi-World Health Organisation, esithi akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile ngokuphepha kwe-GMO, nangamakhulu ososayensi abathi kukhona akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi kwezokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project nayo ayizange iveze obala mayelana nokuxhumana kwayo neMonsanto. Njengesibonelo esisodwa, isayithi lishicilele amaphepha amaningi ezifundo ze-pro-GMO ama-imeyili adalula kamuva ukuthi ayenjalo abelwe osolwazi yisiphathimandla seMonsanto esihlinzeke ngezindawo zokukhulumela amaphepha futhi sathembisa ukuthi bampompe baphume yonke indawo i-Internet.

Esinye isibonelo: Abalingani be-Genetic Literacy Project babambisana ne-Academics Review ku- Iphrojekthi Ye-Biotechnology Literacy, izingqungquthela ezisekela izimboni eziqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ngokuthi "zingayifaka kanjani kangcono impikiswano ye-GMO nomphakathi ongabazayo."

"Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi."

Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo, okushicilele i- umbiko ngo-2014 behlasela imboni ephilayo, baziveza njengeqembu elizimele, kodwa ama-imeyili embuliwe yasungulwa ngosizo lwesikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto esathembisa ukuthola imali "kuyilapho iMonsanto igcina ngemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi." Ama-imeyili futhi wabonisa owayengumsunguli we-Academics Review uBruce Chassy wayekade ethola Izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto nge-University of Illinois Foundation.

Ngakho-ke ngubani oxhasa iPhrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy and Entine?

Ngokusho kwabo iwebhusayithi, inqwaba yemali ivela ezisekelweni ezimbili - iSearle neTempleton - ekhonjwe ku- Ucwaningo lwe-Drexel njengabaxhasi abaphambili bokuphika isayensi yezulu Lesi siza siphinde sibhale uxhaso lweWinkler Family Foundation futhi "sidlule sisekela i-University of California-Davis Biotech Literacy Bootcamp" esivela kwi-Academics Review Charitable Association.

Imithombo yezimali yangaphambilini ibuye ifake abasekeli bokuphika isayensi yezulu kanye nokudluliswa kwemali okungadalulwanga.

IGenetic Literacy Project ne-Entine phambilini bezisebenza ngaphansi kwesambulela seStatistical Assessment Services (STATS), iqembu eliseGeorge Mason University, lapho u-Entine ayengumuntu khona eCentre for Health and Risk Communication kusuka ngo-2011-2014.

I-STATS ixhaswe kakhulu yi-Scaife Foundation neSearle Freedom Trust phakathi kuka-2005 no-2014, ngokusho kophenyo lweGreenpeace Uxhaso lwe-STATS.

UKimberly Dennis, umongameli kanye ne-CEO yeSearle Freedom Trust, futhi ungusihlalo webhodi leDonors Trust, elidume kabi Isikhwama semali esimnyama esixhunywe nguKoch abanikeli babo abangalandelelwa. Ngaphansi kobuholi bukaDennis, iSearle neDonors Trust yathumela imali engama- $ 290,000 ku-STATS ngo-2010, kubika iGreenpeace.

In 2012 futhi 2013, I-STATS ithole izimali ezibolekwe ngenhlangano engudadewabo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs, okuyi wathola Iminikelo ngaleyo minyaka evela eGeorge Mason University Foundation, okuyi ayivezi imithombo yezimali.

U-Entine uke wazama ukuziqhelelanisa kwesinye isikhathi ne-GLP okuvela kula maqembu; kodwa, amarekhodi entela i-Entine ikhokhelwe u- $ 173,100 yiCentre for Media and Public Affairs ngonyaka ophela ngoJuni 30, 2015.

Nge-2014, ama-imeyili ayabonisa, U-Entine wayezama ukuthola ikhaya elisha le-Genetic Literacy Project, futhi wayefuna ukusungula “ubudlelwano obusemthethweni” ne-University of California, Davis, World Food Centre. Ube ngumuntu oMdala eSikoleni se-Institute for Food and Agricultural Literacy futhi manje ukhomba njengomuntu owayekade esebenza naye. I-GLP manje isingaphansi kwesambulela seqembu elibizwa ngeSayensi Literacy Project.

U-Entine uthe ngeke aphendule imibuzo ngale ndaba.

UTrevor Butterworth - Umuzwa NgeSayensi USA / STATS

UTrevor Butterworth ubethembekile imboni isithunywa iminyaka eminingi, ukuvikela ukuphepha kwemikhiqizo ehlukahlukene eyingozi ebalulekile ezimbonini zamakhemikhali nezokudla okungenamsoco, njenge phthalates, BPA, i-vinyl plastic, isiraphu yengqolowa, ama-sodas anoshukela futhi ubumnandi bokufakelwa. Ungumnikeli wangaphambili ku Newsweek futhi ubhale ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi ze- Wall Street Journal.

Kusukela ngo-2003 kuya ku-2014, iButterworth ibingumhleli kwa-STATS, ixhaswe kakhulu yi-Scaife Foundation neSearle Freedom Trust. Ngo-2014, waba ngumqondisi wokusungula we Inzwa Mayelana neSayensi USA bese ngigoqa ama-STATS kulelo qembu.

Ukudalulwa kwakamuva kukaLiza Gross ku I-Intercept ichaze iSense About Science, umqondisi wayo uTracey Brown, uButterworth, i-STATS kanye nabasunguli balawo maqembu “njengabaqokiwe abazimele besayensi yomsindo” “abalinganisa izikali embonini.”

I-Sense About Science "izama ukusiza umphakathi onolwazi olungelona iqiniso ukuthi ihlunge izimangalo ezethusayo ngempilo nemvelo" kepha "inomlando ophazamisayo wokuqhakambisa ochwepheshe okuvele ukuthi banezibopho nezimboni ezilawulwayo," kubhala uGross.

"Uma izintatheli zibuza ngokufanele ukuthi ngubani oxhasa ucwaningo ngobungozi be-asbestos, noma amakhemikhali okwenziwa, bazokwelulekwa ukuba bangabaze nobufakazi obuvezwa yiSense About Science kulezi zingxoxo."

I-Sense About Science USA ithunyelwe le mpendulo uButterworth uthe nge-imeyili "udumele ngendaba edukisayo ka-Intercept, ebikhanyisela abantu nezinhlangano ezingaxhumananga neSense About Science USA ndawonye." Uthe iqembu lakhe alithathi mali yezinkampani futhi lizimele ngokusemthethweni kwi-UK Sense About Science.

Uthe futhi, "Angikaze ngihlanganyele emkhankasweni wokuthumela imiyalezo embonini - kunoma yikuphi, ngikhokhelwe noma cha."

Ezinye izintatheli ziphethe ngenye indlela. 

Abathelisi ku I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Atlantic futhi I-Consumer Reports uveze uButterworth njengomdlali ophambili emizameni ye-PR enonya embonini yamakhemikhali yokuvikela ikhemikhali iBPA.

Ngo-2009, izintatheli uSusanne Rust noMeg Kissinger be-Journal Sentinel kuchaze iButterworth njengomvikeli we-BPA "othanda kakhulu", kanye nesibonelo "sababhali bezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yamakhemikhali" abangakudaluli ukusebenzisana kwabo.

 "Ukuvikelwa kweBPA kumablogi kuvela kuTrevor Butterworth."

STATS, babhala, "Izisholo ukuthi iyinhlangano yabezindaba ezimele" kodwa "ixhaswe izinhlangano zezinqubomgomo zomphakathi ezikhuthaza ukupheliswa komthetho." Inhlangano engudadewabo, iCentre for Media and Public Affairs, "inomlando wokusebenzela izinkampani ezizama ukudlulisa ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwemikhiqizo yazo." UButterworth uthe ukubika kwakhe ngeBPA kukhombisa ubufakazi ngaleso sikhathi obuvela emithonjeni egunyaziwe, kanti abakwa STATS bathumele izimpendulo lapha futhi lapha ekubikeni okubucayi.

Isibonelo sakamuva sendlela imibhalo kaButterworth eyadlala ngayo indima enkulu emizamweni yokubambela ezinkampanini yokuhlambalaza isayensi enenkinga ingabonakala emsebenzini wakhe we-sweetener yokufakelwa eyimpikiswano.

Ngo-2012, iButterworth yabhala i- Isihloko seForbes ukugxeka isifundo esiphakamise ukukhathazeka ngengozi yomdlavuza ye-sucralose. Uchaze abacwaningi, uDkt. Morando Soffritti kanye neRamazzini Institute, “njengento yokuhlekisa.”

Ngo-2016, iqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla lalinendatshana kaButterworth yango-2012 kanye “nento ehlaya” ehlaziya isitatimende sephephandaba ukuhlasela iSoffritti entsha "yokufunda ukwethuka" okuphakamise ukukhathazeka nge-sucralose. Izintatheli ku- The IndependentThe Daily MailTelegraph futhi Deseret News wacosha izingcaphuno zaseButterworth ehlazisa abacwaningi, wamkhomba kuphela njengentatheli yaseForbes.

Ngokunjalo, ngo-2011, iButterworth ibingungoti ovelele kwi-International Sweeteners Association Conference, futhi yafaka isicelo sayo kweyabo isitatimende sephephandaba abukho "ubufakazi bokuba yingozi empilweni" kusuka ku-sucralose. Ukhonjwe "njengentatheli evame ukufaka isandla kwi-Financial Times naseWall Street Journal."

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-USRTK akhombisa ukuthi i-Coca Cola VP URona Applebaum uchaze iButterworth kubaholi beGlobal Energy Balance Network - a Iqembu eliphambili leCoca-Cola sisebenzela ukuphotha isayensi ngokukhuluphala - njengo “umngane wethu”Kanye nentatheli obekade“ukulungele futhi uyakwazi”Ukusebenza nabo. IButterworth ithe ayikaze isebenze nalelo qembu.

IButterworth manje isihlangene neCornell University njenge ovakashele esikanye naye eCornell Alliance for Science, iqembu elasungulwa ngonyaka we-2014 linemali eyisibonelelo esingu- $ 5.6 million yeGates Foundation ukuze khuthaza ama-GMO. Iqembu elixhaswe ngabakwaGates manje selihlanganyela ne-Sense About Science USA kwi-workshop yokufundisa ososayensi abasebasha ukuthi “Yimela iSayensi. "

I-Sense About Science USA nayo isebenza ngokuzibandakanya komphakathi imihlangano yokucobelelana ngolwazi yososayensi ezindaweni ezifana ne-University of Washington, University of Pittsburg, Carnegie Melon, Rockefeller University, Caltech kanye ne-University of Massachusetts, Boston.

UHenry I. Miller - Isikhungo seHoover

UHenry I. Miller, MD, ozakwabo eHoover Institution, ungomunye wabavikeli abanamandla kakhulu wokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nabaphikisi abanonya bokukufaka amalebuli. Ubhale ukuhlaselwa okuningi embonini yezinto eziphilayo, kufaka phakathi i- "The Colossal Hoax of Organic Agriculture" (Forbes), "Ukulima Ngokwemvelo Akusimeme" (Wall Street Journal) kanye ne "Iqiniso elingcolile Mayelana Nemikhiqizo Engokwemvelo" (Newsweek).

UMiller ubhale futhi evikela i- izibulala-zinambuzane ezilimaza izinyosi, amakhemikhali epulasitiki futhi imisebe evela ezikhungweni zamandla enuzi, futhi ubelokhu ephikisana ne ukwenziwa kabusha kwe-DDT. Akaphendulanga ezicelweni zokuphawula ngale ndaba.

Ngokungafani neButterworth ne-Entine, uMiller unesizinda sesayensi kanye nezimpawu zikahulumeni; ungudokotela wezokwelapha futhi wayengumqondisi osungula ihhovisi le-FDA le-biotechnology.

NjengoButterworth no-Entine, uxhaso lukaMiller luvela emaqenjini axhasa ukwenqaba kwesayensi yezulu - iHoover Institute's umxhasi ophezulu yiSarah Scaife Foundation, kanti leli qembu selithathe nemali kwaSearle Freedom Trust, Exxon Mobile, American Chemistry Council, Charles Koch Foundation naseDonors Trust.

Njengabasunguli be I-STATS ne-Sense Mayelana neSayensi, UMiller ubuye abe nobudlelwano nemikhankaso ye-PR embonini kagwayi. Ngonyaka we-1994 Imemo yeqhinga le-PR lenkampani kagwayi uPhillip Morris, UMiller wabizwa ngokuthi "umsekeli oqavile" womkhankaso womhlaba wonke wokulwa nemithetho kagwayi. Ngo-2012, UMiller wabhala leyo nicotine “akukubi kangako kuwe ngamanani ahanjiswa ngogwayi noma imikhiqizo engenantuthu.”

UMiller ubuye abe yilungu "lebhodi lokweluleka ngokwesayensi" le IGeorge C. Marshall Institute, edume kakhulu ngomkhakha wayo kawoyela negesi okhokhela ukwenqabela ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu, nowayengumphathiswa we Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, “okuxhomeke kakhulu ekuxhasweni yizinkampani ezinesabelo sezezimali ezingxoxweni zesayensi okuhlose ukubunjwa,” ngokusho kuka umama Jones.

Mhlawumbe ngokubona ukuthi amadoda akhombisayo akuyona imithombo engcono kakhulu yokuthonya abesifazane abathenga ukudla, uMiller usanda kwabelana ngama-byline nabesifazane abasifazane abajoyine ukuhlasela kwakhe abameli bezempilo kanye nabalimi abaphilayo.

Izibonelo zifaka isiqeshana esibhalwe ngokuhlanganyela noKavin Senapathy, umsunguli we- iqembu lokho kuzama phazamisa imicimbi yokukhuluma kwabagxeki be-GMO, isihloko esithi “Shala Izishoshovu; ” futhi eyodwa nge UJulie Kelly, uthisha wokupheka onomyeni wakhe olwela amalungelo enkampani enkulu yezolimo i-ADM, echaza ezolimo eziphilayo njenge “umbuso omubi. "

Umsebenzi wakamuva kaKelly ufaka isiqeshana ku- Buyekeza National kufaka ukungabaza kubaphenyi besayensi yesimo sezulu, nendatshana eku- The Hill enxenxa iCongress ukuthi ibuyisele imali i-International Agency for Research on Cancer, ayisola "ngokuhlanganiswa komdlavuza" kanye "nokusebenzisa isayensi engaqondakali ukuthuthukisa uhlelo oluthinta ezepolitiki."

Njengoba singena eshumini leminyaka lesihlanu lokulahlekelwa yimpi yomdlavuza, futhi njengoba ukungazinzi kwesimo sezulu kusongela imvelo kanye nohlelo lwethu lokudla, sekuyisikhathi sokuqaqa inethiwekhi yabaphikisi besayensi abathi babanga isembatho sesayensi futhi sibadalule ukuthi bayini: abasabalalisi bezindaba abenza lokho umsebenzi ongcolile wemboni.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Isazi sezinto eziphilayo.

UStacy Malkan ungumsunguli futhi ungumqondisi obambisene weqembu elingenzi nzuzo lomqapha womphakathi Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” ongomunye wabasunguli bomkhankaso kazwelonke we-Safe Cosmetics nowake waba ngumshicileli wephephandaba.

Kungani iCornell University Ibamba Umkhankaso We-GMO Propaganda?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Lo mbhalo ka-Stacy Malkan wasekuqaleni uvele ku- Isazi sezinto eziphilayo

Abasunguli beCornell University, u-Andrew D. White no-Ezra Cornell, baphupha ngokwakha inyuvesi enkulu ethatha indlela ebucayi yokufunda. Umoya wabo wenguquko, nesithembiso sokuphishekela ulwazi ngokuzuzisa okukhulu, ngu wathi enhliziyweni yesikole i-Ivy League iphupho labo laba.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuthi le mibono isetshenziswa kanjani yiyunithi yaseCornell esebenza njengengalo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yezolimo.

Nokho yilokho okubonakala kuqhubeka eCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), uhlelo umkhankaso ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela ku-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation kanye nomgomo “wokudicilela phansi inkulumo-mpikiswano ekhokhisiwe” mayelana nama-GMO.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezinto zokwenziwa nezinhlelo zeqembu kusikisela ukuthi ngaphansi kwesithembiso salo “sokubuyisa ukubaluleka kobufakazi besayensi ekuthathweni kwezinqumo,” i-CAS ithuthukisa ama-GMO isebenzisa imiyalezo engathembekile namasu we-PR akhiwa izinkampani zezolimo ezinomlando omude wokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi .

Ukuxhumana nesayensi noma inkulumo-ze?

I-CAS umkhankaso wezokuxhumana ozinikele ekukhuthazeni ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo (okwaziwa nangokuthi ama-GMO) emhlabeni jikelele. Lokhu kucaciswa kweqembu ividiyo yephromoshini.

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uchaza iqembu lakhe "njengenhlangano engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana emelwe ososayensi, abalimi, ama-NGO, izintatheli kanye nezakhamizi ezikhathazekile" ezizosebenzisa "amapulatifomu asebenzisanayo e-inthanethi, izinsizakusebenza zemultimedia nezinhlelo zokuqeqesha ezokuxhumana ukwakha inhlangano yomhlaba wonke yokukhuthaza ukufinyelela kwi-biotechnology . ”

Ngale ndlela, bathi bazosiza ekunciphiseni ukungondleki nendlala emazweni asathuthuka, ngokusho kwevidiyo.

UDkt Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe alinakho ukuxhumana nezimboni futhi alitholi izinsiza ezivela embonini. "Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni," ubhale kanje iposi blog enesihloko esithi “Ilungelo Lokwaziwa (Ngokunembile) lapho ebephindisela khona emuva ekugxekeni eqenjini lami, i-US Right to Know.

Noma kunjalo izinhlelo ezihamba phambili ze-CAS - isifundo samasonto ayi-12 se- Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kanye nezinsuku ezimbili izifundo zokuxhumana - fundisa amakhono okuxhumana nabantu "abazibophezele ekukhuthazeni ukufinyelela okwandisiwe kwe-biotechnology" ikakhulukazi ukuze bakwazi "ukuhola imizamo yokukhuthaza ezimeni zabo zendawo."

Leli qembu futhi linokusebenzisana okungajwayelekile nezintatheli. Kusho ukuthini, njengoba ividiyo ye-CAS isho, ukuthi "imelwe" yizintatheli?

Ukunikezwa kwe-CAS ubudlelwane bobuntathelis ngemiklomelo yemali yezintatheli ezikhethiwe ukuze “zithuthukise ukubika okunemibandela ejulile” mayelana nezinkinga eziphathelene nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, ubuchwepheshe be-biotechnology kanye nezolimo ezisimeme.

Ngabe lezi zintatheli nazo zingabameli beGMO? Kulungile kanjani ukuthi izintatheli zimelele izikhundla zenqubomgomo yeqembu elisekela ezolimo nemboni?

Imilayezo yezintshisekelo zebhizinisi

Into eyodwa icacile emyalezweni we-CAS otholakala esidlangalaleni: umongo abawunikeza ngesihloko sokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo awunabunzulu futhi ubanzi kepha ukhetha kakhulu futhi uhlose ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Isibonelo, ividiyo: Egcwele ithemba ngamathuba ama-GMO wokuxazulula indlala emhlabeni ngokuzayo, ayishayi indiva inqwaba yocwaningo lwezesayensi olubhale izinkinga ezihlobene nama-GMO - izitshalo ze-GMO ezibekezelela ukhula kuqhutshwa phezulu ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-herbicide kuxhumene nomdlavuza ngochwepheshe abaphambili bomdlavuza emhlabeni; futhi yashesha ukumelana nokhula ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-US, elenza ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo kube nzima kubalimi, kungabi lula.

Akukho lapho kushiwo khona ukwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ezenzelwe gwema izinambuzane eziyingozi, noma ukukhathazeka okukhulayo kodokotela bamaphethini ngokugula ezindaweni ezinjenge Hawaii futhi Argentina lapho ukuvezwa kusinda kakhulu kumakhemikhali ahambisana nama-GMO.

Akukho ukuqashelwa ukuthi abaningi ososayensi futhi ukudla abaholi bathe ama-GMO awabalulekile ekuphakeleni umhlaba, impikiswano okuyisona sizathu esenza izitshalo ze-GMO zingamukelwa kabanzi ngaphandle kwase-United States naseLatin America.

Zonke lezi zinto zifanele engxoxweni yokuthi amazwe asathuthuka kufanele yini amukele izitshalo nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kepha i-CAS ishiya eceleni le mininingwane futhi ikhulise umbono ongelona iqiniso wokuthi isayensi ixazululwe ekuphepheni nasekudingekeni kwama-GMO.

Ukusabalalisa imininingwane ekhethiwe yohlobo oluchemile noma oludukisayo ukuthuthukisa i-ajenda ethile kwaziwa njengomkhuba wenkulumo-ze.

Ukusebenza encwadini yokudlala ye-PR yomkhakha

 ICornell Alliance for Science bekufanele samanje “Umbono omusha wezokuxhumana kwe-biotechnology,” kepha iqembu lithembele kusethi yemilayezo namasu wokuxhumana ajwayelekile kunoma ngubani olandela imikhankaso ye-PR embonini yamabhizinisi ezolimo.

Umbiko Ukuphalaza ukudla, engibhalile ngokubambisana noKari Hamerschlag no-Anna Lappé, ibhala ukuthi amaqembu axhaswa ngezimboni zezolimo nezimboni asebenzisa kanjani amashumi ezigidi zamaRandi ngonyaka ukukhuthaza imiyalezo edukisayo maqondana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo sezolimo esisebenza ngezimboni, esisebenza ngamakhemikhali, nofuzo.

Izinkampani ezizuza kakhulu kulolu hlelo - iMonsanto, iDow, iDuPont nezinye iziqhwaga zezolimo - ziphambanise kaningi ukuthembela ngokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi, njengoba uGary Ruskin akhombisile embikweni wakhe Ibhizinisi Lokusiza. Ngakho bathembele amaqembu angaphambili futhi ababambisene nabangaphandle njengososayensi noprofesa ukusabalalisa imiyalezo yabo.

Indaba esemqoka embonini ukuthi isayensi yezokuphepha kwe-GMO ixazululiwe. Izithunywa ze-pro-industry zigxila ekusetshenzisweni kobuchwepheshe esikhathini esizayo ngenkathi zilulaza, zinganaki noma ziphika ubungozi; yenza izimangalo ezinganembile mayelana nezinga lesivumelwano sesayensi kuma-GMO; futhi bahlasele abagxeki abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka njenge- "anti-science."

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uMark Lynas, umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS, wabhala i-New York Times i-op-ed esola amazwe ayi-17 e-European Union avimbela ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ze-GMO ngokuthi “kuphendulwa isayensi.” Wababiza ngokuthi “umfelandawonye wabangazi.”

I-athikili inzima ekuhlaselweni nasekukhanyeni kwesayensi, ibhulasha phezu kwesihloko ngesimangalo esingalungile mayelana nokuvumelana kokuphepha okuthi ososayensi abaningi baphikisile.

Njengesazi sezakhi zofuzo uBelinda Martineau, PhD, wabhala ku impendulo kuLynas, "Ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo… (akukhona) ngokwesayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo."

I-World Health Organization uthi, "Akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kwakho konke ukudla okuphathelene ne-GM."

Kodwa-ke, ngenkathi bethi bayimele isayensi, i-CAS ijwayele ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile - nokungajwayelekile - mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Kusuka kweqembu Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa:

  • "Kungenzeka ukuthi ushayiswe yi-asteroid kunokulimazwa ukudla kwe-GE - futhi lokho akulona ihaba."
  • “Izilimo ze-GE ezitholakalela umphakathi njengamanje azinabungozi obukhulu kwezempilo noma ukukhathazeka ngezemvelo kunezinye zazo ezingezona izakhi. Lona akuwona umbono wami. ”

Eqinisweni, kuyinkulumo-ze.

Ukulwa nokuba sobala kwezesayensi

Ngentwasahlobo ka-2014, i-CAS yethule i- isikhalazo ngihlasela iqembu lami lase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngokufaka izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuthola ama-imeyili oprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni njengengxenye yethu uphenyo ezimbonini zokudla nezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yabo ye-PR.

I-CAS ibize i-FOIA ukuthi icele "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi," kepha imibhalo etholwe ngalezi zicelo ze-FOIA iveze izindaba ezindabeni emithonjeni yezindaba ephezulu emayelana nezifundiswa ezazisebenza nezinhlangano zezimboni ze-PR emikhankasweni yokukhuthaza ama-GMO ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho emphakathini.

Indaba yagqashuka ekhasini lokuqala leNew York Times esihlokweni ngu-Eric Lipton owaphumelela kabili umklomelo wePulitzer Prize, owachaza ukuthi iMonsanto, lapho ibhekene nokungaqiniseki kwabathengi ngama-GMO, “ibuyise kabusha isu labo lokunxenxa nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukuze kubonakale iqembu labameli abangavamile: izifundiswa, ezilethwe ekukhanyeni okungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eza nozalo loprofesa. ”

Kokunye, kubika nguLaura Krantz eBoston Globe, isikhulu seMonsanto sitshele uprofesa waseHarvard uCalestous Juma ukuthi abhale iphepha mayelana nokuthi adingeka kanjani ama-GMO ukondla i-Afrika.

“IMonsanto ayigcinanga nje ngokusikisela lesi sihloko kusolwazi uCalestous Juma. Kufike lapho kuze kwanikezwa isifinyezo sokuthi iphepha lingathini kanye nesihloko esiphakanyisiwe. Le nkampani bese ixhuma lo profesa nenkampani yezokumaketha ukuyipompa nge-Internet njengengxenye yecebo likaMonsanto lokunqoba umphakathi nabomthetho, ”kubhala uKrantz.

UJuma uthe akayithathanga mali eMonsanto kodwa uqaphele ukuthi uthole uxhaso kwiGates Foundation, ebibambisene neMonsanto iminyaka eminingi kumaphrojekthi we-GMO ngemuva URob Horsch, Isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto ekuthuthukisweni kwamazwe omhlaba, wajoyina iSisekelo ngo-2006. IHorsch manje kuhola Ithimba lezocwaningo nezentuthuko zikaGates. (A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 yiqembu locwaningo iGrain lithole ukuthi cishe ama-90% ama- $ 3 billion iGates Foundation ayisebenzisile ukondla abampofu e-Afrika waya ezizweni ezicebile, ikakhulukazi amanyuvesi nezikhungo zocwaningo.)

Umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi ngabe izifundiswa ezenza imithombo ezimele zisebenza ngasese nezinkampani kanye namafemu abo e-PR emikhankasweni yemiyalezo ehlanganisiwe ukuze baqhube i-ajenda yenkampani.

I-CAS ithatha isikhundla esicelweni sayo sokuthi umphakathi awunalo ilungelo lokwazi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kwabasebenzi bezimboni ze-PR nososayensi bomphakathi abayi-14 "abafake isandla ekuvumelaneni kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO."

Isicelo sikaCornell sihambisana nemontage yezithombe equkethe uCarl Sagan, Madame Curie, Albert Einstein nabanye ososayensi abangasekho abangasayinisanga isicelo, bagxivizwa ngesiqubulo esithi, “Ngima ne- # Science14” - okuncane okukhangayo kwe-PR okubukisa i inkulumo-ze yokungathembeki kujwayele ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.

Ukuqondanisa nabalobi bezimboni ze-PR

Esikhungweni esihlonishwayo njengoCornell, ungalindela ukuthola ochwepheshe kwizifundo zesayensi noma zokuziphatha ezifundisa izifundo zokuxhumana ezithembisa ukubuyisa ubuqotho besayensi enkulumweni yomphakathi. Esikhundleni salokho, ku-CAS, uzothola ochwepheshe kwezokuxhumana kwezinhlekelele abagxile ekuphikiseni imithetho yezempilo yomphakathi.

Isibonelo, uTrevor Butterworth, umuntu ovakashele eCornell kanye nomqondisi weSense About Science ("inhlangano engathathi hlangothi, engenzi nzuzo ekhuthaza ukuqonda ngesayensi!") ukubambisana nge-CAS ukufundisa abafundi nososayensi ukuthi bangaxhumana kanjani nezintatheli mayelana nama-GMO.

IButterworth inomlando omude wokuxhumana nesayensi ukuze kuhlomule izinkampani ezifisa ukugcina imikhiqizo yazo ingalawulwa. I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ka-2009 esihlokweni nguMeg Kissinger noSusanne Rust mayelana nemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni kwi-bisphenol A (BPA) emkhombe "njengombhali wezobudlelwano embonini yamakhemikhali."

Njengomhleli we-STATS eGeorge Mason University, uButterworth wayengumvikeli omkhulu we-BPA "ohlanganisa njalo i-Intanethi ezindabeni ze-BPA futhi anikeze imibono ngaphandle kokuveza obudlelwano bakhe nezimboni," kubhala uKissinger noRust.

“I-STATS ithi izimele futhi ayithathi hlangothi. Kepha ukubuyekezwa kwemibiko yayo yezezimali kukhombisa ukuthi igatsha leCentre for Media and Public Affairs. Leli qembu lakhokhelwa imboni kagwayi ukuze liqaphe izindaba ezithinta ubungozi bukagwayi. ” (Imboni kagwayi, baphawula ukuthi, yayinxenxa nemboni yamakhemikhali ukugcina i-BPA ingalawulwa.)

IButterworth iphinde yathuthukisa nezikhundla ezimbonini eziphikisana nemithetho ye-vinyl plastic kanye phthalates, ukukhwabanisa, i-fructose ephezulu isiraphu yengqolowa futhi ama-sodas anoshukela.

Manje usebenzisana neCAS ukufundisa abafundi indlela yokuxhumana ngama-GMO, kanti umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS uLynas uhlala ebhodini lezeluleko leSense About Science.

Umsebenzi kaLynas uphakamisa imibuzo eminingi: Kungani iqembu lesayensi lidinga umqondisi wezepolitiki? Futhi kungani iCAS ikhetha uLynas ngendima? ULynas akayena usosayensi kepha ungumbhali wezemvelo owasukuma udumo olungazelelwe ngemuva kokwamukela ama-GMO, futhi isayensi yakhe iye yagxilwa isikhathi eside ngu ososayensi, Izintatheli futhi oprofesa.

Ukwehlisa impikiswano ye-GMO?

Izinkampani zaziwa ngokusabalalisa imiyalezo ethusayo lapho imikhiqizo yazo ingena enkingeni; izibonelo kufaka phakathi i- "DDT ilungele mina," "Odokotela abaningi bayabhema amaKamela" kanye nomkhankaso weDutch Boy wokukhuthaza upende wokuhola ezinganeni.

Iphuzu eliphansi lokuthumela imiyalezo embonini yamakhemikhali bekungokwalo Umkhankaso we-PR ukudweba umbhali “weSilent Spring” uRachel Carson (kanye nezazi zemvelo ngokujwayelekile) njengababulali bezigidi zezingane e-Afrika ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lolo hlobo lwemiyalezo lubuyela emuva empikiswaneni ye-GMO.

NgoSepthemba 2015, i-CAS Speakers Series yabamba u-Owen Paterson, iLungu lePhalamende lase-UK, ngo-a inkulumo enesihloko esithi, “Bheka Ilungelo Lakho Eliluhlaza: Akusona Isimo Sezulu Ukuvumela Izigidi Zife.”

EzikaPaterson inkulumo kwagcwala izimangalo ze-hyperbolic mayelana nama-GMO angenakho ukuqina kwesayensi (ama-GMOs) empeleni iphephe kunezilimo ezijwayelwe ... enye yezintuthuko ezigcina imvelo emhlabeni ingakaze ibonwe… kungasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi ezisaphazwa namuhla yimibono yamaqembu omkhankaso wezemvelo asekelwa kakhulu. ”)

Le nkulumo ithole indumiso evela ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni, ku blog nguDkt. Gil Ross onesihloko esithi, "Imikhankaso Eluhlaza Yezigidigidi Eziyizigidi Ezimbili Ibulala Izingane Ezimpofu."

URoss uchaze kubhulogi ukuthi iCAS Speakers Series yadalwa, “ukusebenzisa amaqiniso ukumelana nokuthambekela okubonakalayo kwabafundi basekolishi ukulandela imantra yezemvelo ngaphandle kokucabanga kakhulu… umqondo wokwesaba ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ufana nokubheka ngaphansi kombhede ngenxa yama-hobgoblins afana no-Godzilla, avuswa ukuhlolwa kwe-athomu kwempi yomshoshaphansi. ”

UPaterson noRoss abasizi ngomfanekiso wobuqotho besayensi i-CAS izama ukuveza lokho. URoss uyisigebengu esilahlwe yicala esachitha isikhathi ejele ngokukhwabanisa kweMedicaid. UPaterson, owayengunobhala wezemvelo e-UK, ubonakala kabanzi njenge- ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kuyabazeka imibono kabani akuhambisani nesayensi.

Ngabe ama-blogger aseHawaii asiza kanjani ukondla abampofu e-Afrika?

 Ngenkathi yokukhula konyaka, iziQhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo ebalulekile yokuhlola ama-GMO. Futhi ayiziro yomhlabathi ye- ukukhathazeka mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane ezihlotshaniswa nama-GMO, kanye nokugxila okuyinhloko kwemikhankaso yenkulumo-ze ye-pro-GMO yomkhakha nabalingani bayo njenge-CAS.

Elif Bealle, umqondisi omkhulu we IHawaii Alliance Yezenzo Eziqhubekayo, ubesebenza emizamweni engaphansi ye ukubikwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, banns futhi izindawo zokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane cishe izitshalo ze-GMO. Ubuye futhi wabheka i-CAS, athe ibilanda ama-blogger endawo futhi inabalingani eziQhingini eziningana.

“Baziveza 'njengezakhamuzi zendawo ezikhathazekile' noma 'njengezintatheli ezingathathi hlangothi.' Cishe basebenza isikhathi esigcwele bephawula ngama-athikili ephephandaba aku-inthanethi, bethumela, i-Community Voice Op-Eds, njll. Okuthunyelwe kwabo kubhulogi kuthathwa njalo kusatshalaliswe yiwebhusayithi yeqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech eHawaii, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association, ”kusho uBealle.

Isibonelo, uJoni Kamiya, i-CAS Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke, usebenzisa blog yakhe, Indodakazi kaMlimi waseHawaii, ukugqugquzela “ukuphepha nesayensi” yama-GMO ngemiyalezo ecwebezela isayensi futhi ehlazisa abagxeki be-GMO.

UKamiya futhi "uchwepheshe ozimele" we-GMO Answers, a GMO PR iwebhusayithi eyenziwe yinkampani yeKetchum PR futhi ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo. Izindatshana zakhe zibhalwe ku KaJon Entine I-Genetic Literacy Project, nayo eyathwetshelwa ukushicilela amaphepha okuphakanyiswa kweGMO anikezwe abakwaMonsanto futhi abhalwa ngosolwazi.

Ukubhalwa kukaKamiya kuvela ekhasini lasekhaya le- IKauai Farming and Jobs Coalition, iqembu elinemali engaziwa elithi "limele abantu kanye nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene emphakathini wethu" futhi lithuthukisa izindatshana zeMonsanto, i-Genetic Literacy Project kanye neminye imboni yokudla amaqembu angaphambili njengesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi.

Abanye ababambisene ne-CAS eziqhingini bahlanganisa uLorie Farrell, a Umlingani we-CAS obhalela izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi wasiza ukuxhumanisa ukuphikisana nokuvinjelwa kokulinywa kwe-GMO esiQhingini Esikhulu sabaFuyi baseHawaii nabaseRanchers United; noJoan Conrow, obonisana nabantu isivumelwano noCornell bese ebhala i- ibhulogi elibhekene IKauai Eclectic.

Imiyalezo yabo ilandela iphethini ejwayelekile: bathi ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO futhi bahlasela abantu abafuna ukubekwa obala nokuphepha njengabantu bangaphandle ababulala "umoya we-Aloha" weziQhingi.

Ukuhlomisa ingxabano

Kuye esihlokweni, "The War on Genetically Modified Food Critics," uTufts uProfesa Timothy Wise uthatha abezindaba abenze iphutha ngokulahla amaqhinga embonini ye-PR futhi ngokungafanele abike isayensi ku-GMO "njengelungisiwe."

"Esikubonayo wumkhankaso ohlangene wokuthi… kupendwe abagxeki be-GMO njengabaphikisana nesayensi ekubeni benganiki ngxoxo ebucayi ngempikiswano yesayensi esathukuthele," kubhala uWise.

Esinye isikhombisi salowo mkhankaso, uthe, kwakuwumnikelo weGates Foundation eya kuCornell ukuze "adicilele phansi" impikiswano ngokudla okuyi-GM.

"IGates Foundation ikhokhela ososayensi nabameli baseCornell ukubasiza bakholwe umphakathi ongenalwazi nongavunyelwe ingqondo, 'okungenzeka ukuthi abanolwazi olwanele,' ukuthi abanalwazi futhi badidekile engqondweni ... Kufana nokudicilela phansi isifuba ngokulwa nohlangothi olulodwa izikhali eziningi, ”kubhala uWise.

Esikhundleni sokuhlomisa izimpi ze-PR ngenhloso yokusebenzela imboni, iCornell University kufanele imele isayensi ngokubiza ingxoxo ethembekile ngama-GMO - evuma ubungozi kanye nezinzuzo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Lowo ogwema ukuhlasela futhi afune indawo esivumelana ngayo namaqembu afuna ukubekwa obala kanye namazinga ezempilo nezokuphepha.

Umqondisi we-CAS uDkt. Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe linamanani afanayo azungeze ilungelo lokwazi nokufinyelela olwazini, futhi uphikisana nombono wokuthi i-CAS yasungulwa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO.

“Lokho okubizwa ngokuthi 'ama-GMOs' akuyona into e-monolithic,” kubhala uDkt. Evanega kuye blog. “Isibonelo, akunangqondo ukuhlanganisa ndawonye ubuchwepheshe obuhlukahlukene njengamabhaktheriya akhiqizelwe ukukhiqiza i-insulin nopopo okwenzelwe ukumelana negciwane. Sisekela ukufinyelela - emisha kanye nolwazi oluzosiza abantu benze izinqumo ezizwakalayo ezisuselwa kwisayensi nobufakazi - hhayi ukwesaba, imizwa. ”

Impela ama-GMO akuyona into e-monolithic. Yingakho kungalungile futhi kungathembeki ukusho ukuthi abantu banamathuba amaningi okushaywa yi-asteroid kunokulimala ngama-GMO.

Ubumbano lwesayensi olumayelana nokubuyisa ubuqotho kwisayensi kufanele lukhanyise irekhodi eliphelele locwaningo, hhayi ukuphalaza amaphuzu okukhuluma amafemu e-PR nabadlali bezinkampani.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabasunguli nomqondisi-co weqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” (New Society Publishing, 2007). UStacy wayeyintatheli futhi engummemezeli wephephandaba futhi esengummeli wesikhathi eside wezempilo yezemvelo. Ubuye wasungula iCampaign for Safe Cosmetics ngo-2002 wasebenza njengomqondisi wezokuxhumana kwi-Health Care Without Harm iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili.