ICornell Alliance for Science ngumkhankaso we-PR woMkhakha wezoLimo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngaphandle kwegama layo elizwakala njengezifundo nokusebenzisana nesikhungo se-Ivy League, i- ICornell Alliance yeSayensi (I-CAS) ngumkhankaso wezobudlelwano nomphakathi oxhaswe yiBill & Melinda Gates Foundation oqeqesha abanye abantu emhlabeni jikelele ukukhuthaza nokuvikela izitshalo kanye nezolimo ezikhiqizwa izakhi zofuzo emazweni akubo. Izazi eziningi, ochwepheshe bezinqubomgomo zokudla, amaqembu okudla kanye nawokulima baye babiza imiyalezo enganembile namasu akhohlisayo abangane be-CAS abasebenzise ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ukukhathazeka mayelana nezinye izindlela kwezolimo zezimboni.

NgoSepthemba, i-CAS kumemezela $ 10 million ngemali entsha evela eGates Foundation, okuletha inani eliphelele lamaGates uxhaso ku- $ 22 million kusukela ngo-2014. Imali entsha iza njengoba iGates Foundation injalo sibhekene nokuhlehliswa yizolimo zase-Afrika, amaqembu okholo kanye nezenkolo ngokuchitha izigidigidi zamaRandi ezinhlelweni zokuthuthukisa ezolimo e-Afrika lokho imibukiso yobufakazi yehluleka ukuqeda indlala noma ukuphakamisa abalimi abancane, njengoba zigxila ezindleleni zokulima ezizuzisa izinkampani ngaphezu kwabantu. 

Leli phepha libhala izibonelo eziningi zemininingwane engeyona evela ku-CAS nabantu abaxhumene neqembu. Izibonelo ezichazwe lapha zinikeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-CAS isebenzisa igama likaCornell, idumela negunya lakhe ukuqhubekisela phambili i-PR kanye ne-ajenda yezepolitiki yezinkampani ezinkulu zamakhemikhali nembewu emhlabeni.

Imishini ehambelana nezimboni nemiyalezo

I-CAS yethulwa ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million seGates Foundation futhi ithembisa ukuthi “dicilela phansi ”impikiswano cishe ama-GMO. Iqembu kusho umsebenzi wayo “ukukhuthaza ukufinyelela” ezitshalweni nasekudleni kwe-GMO ngokuqeqesha “ababambisene nesayensi” emhlabeni jikelele ukufundisa imiphakathi yabo ngezinzuzo ze-biotechnology yezolimo.

Iqembu lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane likhuthaza i-CAS 

Ingxenye esemqoka yecebo le-CAS ukuqasha nokuqeqesha Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kuzindlela zokuxhumana nezokukhuthaza, kugxilwe ezifundeni lapho kunokuphikisana nomphakathi embonini ye-biotech, ikakhulukazi amazwe ase-Afrika amelane nezitshalo ze-GMO.

Umsebenzi we-CAS ufana ngendlela emangalisayo uMkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology (I-CBI), umkhakha wemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane oxhase uhlelo lobudlelwano bomphakathi olunayo ihlangene neCAS. Iqembu lezimboni lisebenzele ukwakha imifelandawonye ngaphesheya kochungechunge lokudla futhi qeqesha abantu besithathu, ikakhulukazi izifundiswa nabalimi, ukunxenxa umphakathi ukuthi wamukele ama-GMO.

Imiyalezo ye-CAS ihambisana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane i-PR: ukugxila kwe-myopic ekutholeni izinzuzo ezikhona zesikhathi esizayo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngenkathi kudlalwa phansi, kunganakwa noma kuphikwa izingozi nezinkinga. Njengemizamo yezimboni ze-PR, i-CAS ibuye igxile kakhulu ekuhlaseleni nasekuzameni ukwehlisa isithunzi abagxeki bemikhiqizo yezolimo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi nezintatheli eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka kwezempilo noma kwemvelo.

Ukugxekwa okubanzi

I-CAS nababhali bayo bathole ukugxekwa kwizifundiswa, abalimi, abafundi, amaqembu omphakathi kanye nezinhlangano ezilawula ukudla abathi leli qembu lithuthukisa imiyalezo enganembile futhi edukisayo futhi lisebenzisa amaqhinga angalungile. Bona isibonelo:

Izibonelo zemiyalezo edukisayo

Ochwepheshe bezobunjiniyela, i-biology, i-agroecology nenqubomgomo yokudla babhale izibonelo eziningi zezimangalo ezingalungile ezenziwe nguMark Lynas, umuntu owayevakashele eCornell obhale inqwaba yama-athikili evikela imikhiqizo yezolimo ngegama le-CAS; bona ngokwesibonelo eyakhe izindatshana eziningi ezikhuthazwe yi-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu le-PR lelo isebenza neMonsanto. Incwadi kaLynas ka-2018 ithi amazwe ase-Afrika amukele ama-GMO, futhi anikeze isahluko ekuvikeleni iMonsanto.

Izimangalo ezinganembile ngama-GMO

Ososayensi abaningi bagxeke uLynas ngokwenza kwabo izitatimende ezingamanga, “Ayinasayensi, ayinangqondo futhi ayinangqondo”Izimpikiswano, ukugqugquzela imfundiso phezu kwedatha nocwaningo kuma-GMO, ukuvuselela amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini, nokwenza izimangalo ezinganembile ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane “bonisa ukungazi okujulile kwesayensi, noma umzamo osebenzayo wokwenza ukungabaza. ”

"Uhlu lwelondolo lokuthi uMark Lynas wenza iphutha ngani kuma-GMO kanye nesayensi lubanzi, futhi luye lwaphikiswa ngephuzu ngabathile bezazi zezolimo nezazi zezinto eziphilayo," kubhala u-Eric Holt-Giménez, umqondisi omkhulu weFood First, ngo-Ephreli 2013 (uLynas wajoyina uCornell njengomuntu owayevakashile kamuva ngalowo nyaka).  

“Akanabufakazi futhi akanalo iqiniso”

Amaqembu azinze e-Afrika agxeke uLynas isikhathi eside. I-Alliance for Food sobukhosi e-Afrika, umfelandawonye wamaqembu angaphezu kwama-40 okudla nawokulima e-Afrika yonkana uchaze uLynas njengo “ingcwethi yokundiza” “ukudelela abantu base-Afrika, isiko kanye namasiko akhe akungabazeki.” UMillion Belay, umqondisi we-AFSA, kuchaza uLynas njengomuntu "obandlulula ngokobuhlanga ophusha indaba yokuthi ezolimo zezimboni kuphela ezingasindisa i-Afrika."

Ekushicilelweni kwabezindaba kuka-2018, i-African Centre for Biodiversity eseNingizimu Afrika ichaze amaqhinga angekho emthethweni uLynas awasebenzisile ukukhuthaza i-ajenda ye-biotech lobby eTanzania. "Kunodaba olumayelana nokuziphendulela kanye nesidingo sokubusa iCornell Alliance for Science, ngenxa yolwazi okungelona iqiniso nokuthi bangamaqiniso aluhlaza cwe futhi abanalo iqiniso," kusho uMariam Mayet, umqondisi omkhulu we-African Centre for Biodiversity, uthe kwi Julayi 2020 webinar.

Ukuthola ukuhlaziywa okuningiliziwe komsebenzi kaLynas, bheka izindatshana ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe nokwethu Ishidi lamaqiniso likaMark Lynas.

Ukuhlasela i-agroecology

Isibonelo sakamuva semiyalezo enganembile yindatshana ebhalwe kabanzi kwi-CAS iwebhusayithi nguLynas ethi, "agro-ecology isengozini yokulimaza abampofu." ?? Izifundiswa zichaze lo mbhalo ngokuthi “ukuchazwa kwedemagogic kanye nokungekhona kwesayensi kwephepha lesayensi, ""ayijulile kakhulu, ""imibono emsulwa ”kanye“ nehlazo kumuntu ofuna ukuzibiza ngokwesayensi, ”ukuhlaziywa okuyiphutha ngempela“?? lokho kwenza “ukwenziwa okwandile“?? futhi “iziphetho zasendle.”Abanye abagxeki kubizwe a ukuhoxa.

Isihloko se-2019 ngozakwabo we-CAS uNassib Mugwanya unikeza esinye isibonelo sokuqukethwe okudukisayo ngesihloko se-agroecology. I-athikili, "Kungani izindlela zendabuko zezolimo zingakwazi ukuguqula ezolimo zase-Afrika," ikhombisa indlela ejwayelekile yokuthumela imiyalezo ezintweni ze-CAS: ukwethula izitshalo ze-GMO njengesikhundla se- "pro-science" ngenkathi kudwetshwa “ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ezolimo njenge 'anti-science, 'akunamhlabathi futhi kuyingozi, ” ngokuya ngokuhlaziya yiSeattle-based Community Alliance for Global Justice.

"Okuqapheleke kakhulu kule ndatshana ukusetshenziswa okunamandla kwezingathekiso (isb. I-agroecology efaniswa nozankosi), ukwenziwa kwezinto ezivamile, ukushiywa kolwazi kanye nokunye okungalungile okuyiqiniso," kusho leli qembu.

Kusetshenziswa ibhuku lokudlala leMonsanto ukuvikela ama-pesticides

Esinye isibonelo semiyalezo edukisayo ehambelana nomkhakha we-CAS singatholakala ekuvikeleni kweqembu i-Roundup-based Roundup. I-herbicides iyinto esemqoka yezitshalo ze-GMO nge Ummbila no-soy ongu-90% kutshalwe e-United States izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-Roundup. Ngo-2015, ngemuva kokuthi iphaneli yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation lathi i-glyphosate ingumdlavuza wabantu, iMonsanto yahlela ababambisene nabo ukuze "bahlele ukukhala" ngokumelene nephaneli elizimele lesayensi ukuze "livikele isithunzi" seRoundup, ngokusho kwe imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto.

Ibhuku lokudlala le-Monsanto PR: ukuhlasela ochwepheshe bomdlavuza 'njengezishoshovu'

UMark Lynas usebenzise i- Ipulatifomu ye-CAS ukukhulisa imiyalezo yeMonsanto, echaza umbiko womdlavuza ngokuthi "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi" okwenziwe "izishoshovu ezilwa neMonsanto" "ezisebenzise kabi isayensi" futhi zenze "ukuphendukezelwa okusobala kwesayensi nobulungiswa bemvelo" ngokubika ingozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate. ULynas wasebenzisa okufanayo izimpikiswano ezinamaphutha nemithombo yomkhakha njengoMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo, a iqembu langaphambili iMonsanto likhokhelwe ukusiza ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza.

Ngenkathi ethi usehlangothini lwesayensi, uLynas akabunaki ubufakazi obanele obuvela emibhalweni yeMonsanto, kubikwa kabanzi emaphephandabeni, lokho IMonsanto yaphazamisa nge ucwaningo lwesayensi, izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezilawulwayo futhi ngasebenzisa okunye amaqhinga anzima ukukhohlisa inqubo yesayensi ukuvikela i-Roundup. Ku-2018, ijaji lathola iMonsanto leyowenza ngobubi, ukucindezela noma ukukhwabanisa”Ekumbozeni ingozi yomdlavuza yeRoundup.

Ukunxenxa ama-pesticides nama-GMOs eHawaii

Yize ukugxila kwayo okuyinhloko kuyi-Afrika, i-CAS ibuye isize imizamo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukuvikela izibulala-zinambuzane nokujivaza abameli bezempilo yomphakathi eHawaii. Iziqhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo yokuhlola ebalulekile yezitshalo ze-GMO futhi nendawo ebika ephezulu ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane futhi ukukhathazeka ngezinkinga zezempilo ezihlobene ne-pesticides, kufaka phakathi ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, umdlavuza nesifuba somoya. Lezi zinkinga zaholela abahlali ukuhlela impi ezothatha iminyaka ukwedlulisa imithethonqubo eqinile yokwehlisa ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nokwenza ngcono ukudalulwa kwamakhemikhali asetshenziswa emasimini ezolimo.

“Uqale ukuhlaselwa ngonya”

Njengoba le mizamo ithola ukubambeka, i-CAS ibambe iqhaza “emkhankasweni omkhulu wokungazwakali kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi obenzelwe ukuthulisa ukukhathazeka komphakathi” ngobungozi bezempilo bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kukaFern Anuenue Holland, umgqugquzeli womphakathi weHawaii Alliance for Progressive Action. E-Cornell Daily Sun, UHolland uchaze ukuthi “ikhokhelwe kanjani iCornell Alliance for Science fellows - ngaphansi kokuqagela ubuchwepheshe besayensi - iqala kanjani ukuhlasela okunonya. Basebenzise izinkundla zokuxhumana futhi babhala inqwaba yama-blog begxeka amalungu omphakathi athintekile nabanye abaholi ababa nesibindi sokukhuluma. ”

UHolland uthe yena namanye amalungu enhlangano yakhe babulawa "ngokubulawa kwabalingiswa, ukumelwa kabi kanye nokuhlaselwa kokwethembeka komuntu siqu kanye nobungcweti" ngabaphethwe yiCAS. “Ngiye ngazibonela ngawami imindeni nobungani bempilo yonke buhlukana,” kubhala yena.

Ukuphikisana nelungelo lomphakathi lokwazi     

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uye kusho iqembu lakhe ezimele embonini: “Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni. Njengoba iwebhusayithi yethu iveza ngokusobala nangokugcwele, asitholi zinsiza ezivela embonini. ” Kodwa-ke, inqwaba yama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, manje athunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, Khombisa i-CAS ne-Evanega bexhumana eduze nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane namaqembu ayo angaphambili ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi. Izibonelo zifaka:

Ezinye izibonelo zokubambisana kwe-CAS namaqembu ezimboni zichazwe ezansi kwaleli phepha lamaqiniso.  

Ukuphakamisa amaqembu angaphambili nezithunywa ezingathembekile

Emizameni yayo yokuqhakambisa ama-GMO njengesisombululo “esisuselwe kwisayensi” kwezolimo, iCornell Alliance for Science inikeze ithuba layo emaqenjini aphambili embonini ngisho nomuntu ongaziwa ngesayensi yezulu.

UTrevor Butterworth noSense Mayelana neSayensi / STATS: I-CAS ibambisana ne-Sense About Science / STATS ukunikela “ukubonisana kwezibalo zezintatheli”Futhi wanika ukuhlanganyela kumqondisi weqembu uTrevor Butterworth, owakha umsebenzi wakhe wokuvikela imikhiqizo ebalulekile ku Amakhemikhali, ukuthosa, ukudla okungenamsoco futhi izimboni zezidakamizwa. UButterworth ungumphathi ongumsunguli weSense About Science USA, ayihlanganise nesikhungo sakhe sangaphambili, iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS).

Izintatheli zichaze ama-STAT kanye neButterworth njengabadlali ababalulekile emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhiqizo embonini yamakhemikhali (bheka Izindaba zesitatimende, IMilwaukee Journal Sentinel, I-Intercept futhi I-Atlantic). Imibhalo yeMonsanto iyakhomba I-Sense Mayelana neSayensi phakathi "kozakwethu bemboni" kuthembele ekuvikeleni i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza.

Isimo sezulu sesayensi yezulu u-Owen Paterson: Ku-2015, i-CAS ibambe u-Owen Paterson, usopolitiki waseBritish Conservative Party futhi owaziwa kakhulu isayensi yezulu ingabaza ngubani kunciphise uxhaso lwemizamo yokunciphisa ukufudumala kwembulunga yonke ngesikhathi sakhe njengoNgqongqoshe Wezemvelo wase-UK. UPaterson usebenzise isigaba saseCornell ukusho ukuthi amaqembu ezemvelo aphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngamaGMOs “vumela izigidi ukuba zife.”Amaqembu embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane asebenzise imiyalezo efanayo eminyakeni engama-50 edlule ukuzama ihlazisa uRachel Carson ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lynas futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi: I-Lynas ye-CAS nayo ihlangene ne-Sense About Science njengelungu lebhodi leseluleko lesikhathi eside. Ngo-2015, u-Lynas wabambisana no-Owen Paterson Paterson owayengabaza ngezesimo sezulu kanye no-Sense About Director of Science u-Tracey Brown qalisa lokho akubize "ukunyakaza kwe-ecomodernism," ehambelana ngokubambisana, uhlobo lokulwa nomthethonqubo "kwemvelo."

IHawaii Alliance yezithunywa zeSayensi

Ngo-2016, i-CAS yethule uhlelo lwe- iqembu elihambisanayo elibizwa ngeHawaii Alliance for Science, othe inhloso yayo "ukuxhasa ukwenziwa kwezinqumo okusekelwe ebufakazini kanye nokuqanjwa kwezolimo eziQhingini." Izithunywa zayo zifaka:

USarah Thompson, a owayekade eyisisebenzi seDow AgroSciences, waqondisa i- IHawaii Alliance Yezesayensi, eyayizichaza ngokuthi “iyinhlangano engaphansi engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana ehlangene neCornell Alliance for Science.” (Iwebhusayithi ayisabonakali isebenza, kepha iqembu ligcina i- ikhasi Facebook.)

Okuthunyelwe kwezokuxhumana okuvela eHawaii Alliance for Science kanye nomxhumanisi wayo uThompson bachaze abagxeki bemboni yezolimo njengo abantu abazikhukhumezayo nabangazi lutho, kugujwa ummbila kanye nesoya mono-izilimo futhi ukuvikela ama-pesticides we-neonicotinoid okuyinto izifundo eziningi futhi ososayensi bayasho zilimaza izinyosi.

UJoan Conrow, Ukuphatha Umhleli we-CAS, ubhala izindatshana ngaye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, ngamunye "Kauai Eclectic" ibhulogi nangenxa yeqembu eliphambili embonini Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project uzama ukwehlisa isithunzi ochwepheshe bezempilo, amaqembu omphakathi futhi osopolitiki eHawaii abamele ukuvikelwa okunamandla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, nezintatheli ababhala ngokukhathazeka ngezibulala-zinambuzane. IConrow inayo kusolwa amaqembu ezemvelo lokweqa intela kanye kuqhathaniswa neqembu lokuphepha kokudla kuya ku-KKK.

UConrow ubengakudaluli njalo ukuzibandakanya kwakhe neCornell. Iphephandaba laseHawaii i-Civil Beat limgxeke uConrow ngaye ukungabi sobala futhi wamcaphuna ngo-2016 njengesibonelo sokuthi kungani iphepha lishintsha izinqubomgomo zalo zokuphawula. UConrow “wayevame ukuphikisana nombono we-GMO ngaphandle kokuchaza ngokusobala umsebenzi wakhe njengozwela we-GMO,” kubhala uprofesa wezintatheli uBrett Oppegaard. "UConrow ulahlekelwe nayinkululeko yakhe yobuntatheli (nokubika) mayelana nokubika ngokufanele ngezinkinga ze-GMO, ngenxa yomsebenzi wakhe kulezi zinkinga."

UJoni Kamiya, i-CAS ka-2015 Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke uphikisana nemithetho yokubulala izinambuzane kwiwebhusayithi yakhe Indodakazi yoMlimi waseHawaii, In the abezindaba kanye neqembu eliphambili lomkhakha Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ungumama “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” yezimboni zezolimo ezixhaswe ngemali iwebhusayithi yezentengiso Izimpendulo ze-GMO. NjengoConrow, uKamiya uthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane eHawaii akuyona inkinga, Futhi izama ukudicilela phansi izikhulu ezikhethiwe futhi "Abashisekeli bezemvelo" abafuna ukulawula izibulala-zinambuzane.

ICornell Alliance yabasebenzi beSayensi, abeluleki

I-CAS izichaza ngokuthi "isinyathelo esiseCornell University, isikhungo esingenzi nzuzo." Leli qembu alidaluli isabelomali salo, izindleko zalo noma amaholo abasebenzi, futhi iCornell University ayidaluli noma yiluphi ulwazi mayelana ne-CAS emafayilini ayo.

Uhlu lwewebhusayithi Abasebenzi be-20, kufaka phakathi uMqondisi USarah Evanega, PhD, kanye nokuphatha Umhleli UJoan Conrow (alubhalisi uMark Lynas noma abanye abantu abangathola isinxephezelo). Abanye abasebenzi abaziwayo ababhalwe kuwebhusayithi bafaka:

Ibhodi lokweluleka le-CAS lifaka phakathi izifundiswa ezihlale zisiza imboni yezolimo ngemizamo yazo ye-PR.

IGates Foundation: ukuhlaziywa kwamasu wokuthuthukisa ezolimo 

Kusukela ngo-2016, iGates Foundation isebenzise imali engaphezulu kuka- $ 4 billion kumasu okuthuthukisa ezolimo, okuningi lokho kugxile e-Afrika. Amasu esisekelo wokuthuthukisa ezolimo abekhona eholwa nguRob Horsch (osanda kuthatha umhlalaphansi), a Umakadebona weMonsanto seminyaka engama-25. Amasu adonse ukugxekwa kokuqhakambisa ama-GMO nemikhiqizo yezolimo e-Afrika ukuphikiswa kwamaqembu azinze e-Afrika nokunyakaza komphakathi, futhi ngaphandle kokukhathazeka okuningi nokungabaza ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo e-Afrika yonkana.

Ukuhlaziywa kwendlela yeGates Foundation yokuthuthukiswa kwezolimo nokuxhaswa ngezimali kubandakanya:

Ukusebenzisana okuningi kwe-CAS-industry 

Inqwaba yama-imeyili atholakele nge-FOIA yi-US Right to Know, futhi manje asethunyelwe ku- Umtapo wolwazi wamakhemikhali we-UCSF, khombisa i-CAS ihlangana eduze nemboni yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo obudlelwano bomphakathi ukuxhumanisa imicimbi nokuthumela imiyalezo:

Ukuhlaziywa okuningi kukaMark Lynas 

UNina Fedoroff: Ukugqugquzela igunya lesayensi yaseMelika ukubuyisela iMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
  • Njengomongameli nosihlalo webhodi le-AAAS kusuka ngo-2011-2013, uDkt Fedoroff uthuthukise izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo. Manje usebenzela inkampani yezikhalazo.
  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ubudlelwane bomphakathi kanye nemizamo yokunxenxa kuhlanganiswa kanjani ekusithekeni phakathi kwemboni yezolimo, amaqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele.

UNina Fedoroff, i-PhD, ungomunye wososayensi abanethonya elikhulu abalwela ukwanda nokuncishiswa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Ungumongameli wangaphambilini we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (2011-2012) futhi owayengusihlalo we-AAAS Board of Directors (2012-2013). Ungu- umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi kusukela ngo-2015 e-OFW Law, inkampani yokubamba iqhaza lapho amaklayenti afakiwe Syngenta futhi Umkhandlu Wezokwaziswa Kwe-Biotechnology, iqembu lokuhweba elimele iBayer (engumnikazi weMonsanto), iBASF, iCorteva (isigaba seDowDuPont) neSyngenta.

Kusukela ngo-2007-2010, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengomeluleki wesayensi nobuchwepheshe kuNobhala Wezwe kanye noMphathi we-USAID ngaphansi kokuphathwa kukaGeorge W. Bush kanye no-Obama. Ngaphambi kwalokho, wayengu- ilungu lebhodi we-Sigma-Aldrich Corporation, inkampani yamakhemikhali yamazwe ngamazwe kanye ne-biotech; kanye ne Ilungu lebhodi elelulekayo ye-Evogene, inkampani ye-biotechnology esebenzisana nayo DuPont, Syngenta, Bayer futhi Monsanto.

Umcimbi wango-2017 wokukhangisa uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo Incwadi ethi “junk science” kufakwe uDkt Fedoroff futhi ososayensi ababili abahambisana namaqembu aphika isayensi yezulu.

NjengoNobhala Wezwe uHillary “Umbusi wesayensi kaClinton, "UDkt Fedoroff wasebenza njengonozakuzaku we"GMO yonke indlela”Ngenqubomgomo yaseMelika yezangaphandle, uTom Philpott wabika eGrist ngo-2008 nango-2009. I-Pesticide Action Network yaseNyakatho Melika ichaze uDkt. Fedoroff ngokuthi“inxusa laseMelika ngokoqobo ”lobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo. Ngokusho kukaGreenpeace, uDkt. Fedoroff ube “a ummeli oshisekayo wokwanda komhlaba jikelele kweGM ukudla (okushintshwe izakhi zofuzo) kuwo wonke umsebenzi wakhe. ”

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli nosihlalo we-AAAS, i ngobukhulu emhlabeni umphakathi wesayensi eyahlukahlukene, uDkt Fedoroff waqokomisa lezo zindima ukuhlinzeka ngosizo lwezepolitiki embonini yezolimo: isibonelo, i-AAAS Board of Directors ngaphansi kukasihlalo wayo yakhipha isitatimende esasibekelwe isikhathi sezepolitiki sokuphikisana nokufakwa kophawu lweGMO ngonyaka ka-2012. Ngenkathi engumongameli wenhlangano yesayensi ngo-2011. , UDkt Fedoroff usize ukwehlula isiphakamiso se-EPA sase-US ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yezitshalo ze-GMO, ngokusho kwama-imeyili achazwe ngezansi. Bheka, UNina Fedoroff, i-AAAS kanye nomkhakha wezobuchwepheshe bezolimo. UDkt Fedoroff ne-AAAS abaphendulanga ezicelweni zempendulo.

Ukuhlangana namaqembu aphambili embonini ekhohlisayo nemizamo ye-PR

UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze futhi wasiza ukwenza ngokusemthethweni amaqembu athi angamazwi azimele esayensi kepha asebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ngezindlela ezidukisa umphakathi - kufaka phakathi amaqembu amabili asiza iMonsanto zama ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi abasebenza ophikweni lochwepheshe beWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) oluchaza i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu e 2015.

Umkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nempilo (ACSH) uxhaswa ngu izinkampani zamakhemikhali, ezithaka imithi kanye nogwayi, ngokuvumelana ne kudalulwe imibhalo yangaphakathi lowo mbhalo wokuthi iqembu lizifaka kanjani izinsizakalo zalo ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Ama-imeyili akhishwe ngezinqubo zenkantolo akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto bavuma ukuxhasa i-ACSH ku-2015, futhi ucele iqembu ukuthi libhale ngalo umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC nge-glyphosate; I-ACSH ngokuhamba kwesikhathi bathi umbiko womdlavuza wawungowokukhwabanisa okungokwesayensi.     

UDkt Fedoroff usize ukukhuthaza leli qembu njengomthombo osemthethweni wesayensi ku-2017 Umcimbi weNational Press Club ukwethula i-ACSH's “Little Black Book of Junk Science” Ababebonakala eceleni kukaDkt Fedoroff emcimbini wabezindaba bekungososayensi ababili abaxhumene namaqembu athi ukuphika isayensi yezulu futhi ukunxenxa imikhiqizo kagwayi:

Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo: UDkt Fedoroff ubaliwe njengelungu lebhodi kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu elithi lizimele kodwa abalingani neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR kanye nokunxenxa, ngokwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Imibhalo ekhishwe ekufayweni kwenkantolo ibonisa ukuthi iMonsanto ibhale leli qembu phakathi kwe- "Abalingani bemboni" behlela ukuzibandakanya nesu lokuhlela "ukukhala" ngokuhlolwa kwe-IARC kwe-glyphosate ukuze "kuvikelwe isithunzi ne-FTO ye-Roundup." IGenetic Literacy Project selokhu yathumela okungaphezulu kwe- Izihloko ze-200 egxeka i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza, kufaka phakathi ukuhlaselwa komuntu siqu kososayensi ababandakanyeka embikweni we-glyphosate, ebasola uzungu, ukukhwabanisa, elele, inkohlakalo, imfihlo, nokukhuthazwa “inzuzo nokuyize. ”??

Ku-an uchungechunge lokuwina imiklomelo eLe Monde mayelana "nemizamo kaMonsanto yokucekela phansi i-UN ejensi yomdlavuza nganoma iyiphi indlela," izintatheli uStéphane Foucart noStéphane Horel bachaze iGenetic Literacy Project ne-ACSH "njengamawebhusayithi aziwa kakhulu enkulumo-ze" futhi bathi i-GLP "idliswa ngabantu be-PR abaxhumene izimboni zezibulala-zinambuzane ne-biotechnology. ” I-GLP yethulwe ngo-2011 nguJon Entine, onenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi eyayineMonsanto njengekhasimende ngaleso sikhathi.

Ukuhlaselwa kwabaphenyi bomdlavuza kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project ebala uDkt Fedoroff "njengelungu lebhodi":

Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa: UDkt Fedoroff ukhuthaze ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengomthombo wesayensi onokwethenjelwa esihlokweni sango-2012 ku Amathrendi ku-Genetics kanye nengxoxo ye-2016 ne-Washington Examiner mayelana ubuntatheli besayensi obumpofu. Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ikhombisa ukuthi ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo kwakungu usethe njengeqembu langaphambili ngosizo lweMonsanto ukudicilela phansi abagxeki bobunjiniyela kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, ngenkathi ukugcina izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe. Iqembu, okuyi bathi ukuzimela kodwa kwaba uxhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo, ahlasele imboni yezimboni “njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha.”

Ikamu leBiotech Literacy Boot Camp: UDkt Fedoroff wabalwa ohlwini lwe- ilungu lobuchwepheshe obuyisisekelo we-Biotech Literacy Project “camp boot” owawubanjelwe e-UC Davis ngo-2015. Lo mcimbi wawuhlelwe ngamaqembu amabili e-PR, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, futhi uxhaswe ngasese yizinkampani zezolimo ukuze “aqeqeshe ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate,” kubika uPaul Thacker ku-Okuqhubekayo. Izipikha zifake uhlu olujwayelekile lwabalingani bemboni ye-PR kubandakanya UJay Byrne, UJon Entine, UBruce Chassy, ​​uDavid Tribe, UHank Campbell we-ACSH futhi I-keynote by “iSci Babe.”

I-AgBioWorld: Ku-2012 Trends and Genetics wakhe esihlokweni, UDkt. Fedoroff wakhuthaza iwebhusayithi i-AgBioWorld ngokuthi “enye insiza eyigugu” yokufunda ngesayensi. Ngo-2002 ku-Guardian, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze ukuthi ithimba le-PR leMonsanto lisebenzise kanjani iwebhusayithi ye-AgBioWorld nama-akhawunti enkohliso ezokuxhumana nabantu ukuhlambalaza ososayensi nabezemvelo abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngezitshalo zeGM. UMonbiot ubike: 

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. '

Ngenkathi esebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi ukuthi Wow ukuthi 'usebenzisa isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ukubamba iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhombe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona kahle.' I-AgBioWorld yisiza lapho [umlingisi mbumbulu online uMary] Smetacek aqala khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuhlaselwa ku-Greenpeace: UDkt Fedoroff wakhuluma ku umcimbi wokucindezela we-2016 weqembu elizibiza “Sekela i-Precision Agriculture, ”Ebethula incwadi esayinwe ngabaklonyelizi bezindondo abangaphezu kwekhulu beNobel begxeka iGreenpeace ngokungahambisani kwabo namaGMO. Ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo usizile ngomkhankaso, kufaka phakathi owayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana kaMonsanto UJay Byrne; iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP I-Val Giddings; noMat Winkler, oxhasa imali nge- Iphrojekthi ye-PR ye-Genetic Literacy Project futhi ibhalwe njenge- ilungu lebhodi kanye noDkt Fedoroff kuwebhusayithi yeqembu. Uhlobo lwe- .com lwewebhusayithi okuthiwa izimele ye- “Support Precision Agriculture” iqondiswe kabusha kwi-Genetic Literacy Project iminyaka (yahlukaniswa ngemuva kokuthi siyinake ku-2019). Ku- ama-imeyili avela ku-2011, U-Byrne wakhomba i-Greenpeace ohlwini lwama "target" ayelwenzela iMonsanto enamagama abagxeki bezimboni ababengabhekana nabo ngemuva kwekhava iqembu lezemfundo elixhaswe ngezimboni lokho kwavela ngokuzimela.

Umngani we GMO Izimpendulo: UDkt Fedoroff uyi isazi esizimele Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a Umkhankaso we-PR owenziwe ubudlelwano bomphakathi kaKetchum, ene-a umlando wokusebenzisa amaqhinga akhohlisayo ukuthonya umphakathi. Yize uKetchum ebanga umkhankaso weZimpendulo ze-GMO 'kungachaza kabusha okwenzekayo,' iqembu izimpendulo ezibhaliwe ngochwepheshe "ozimele" futhi wabalwa phakathi "kwabalingani bemboni" ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ukuvikela i-Roundup ekukhathazekeni komdlavuza. A Isigaba "sezinsizakusebenza" (ikhasi 4) sikhombe kwizixhumanisi zeGMO Answers kanye neMonsanto ezixhumana nomyalezo wenkampani othi "IGlyphosate akuyona i-carcinogenic." Ngo-2016, UDkt Fedoroff ukhulume ngesigungu esixhaswe ngabakwa-GMO Answers, Scientific American kanye ne ICornell Alliance yeSayensi mayelana nokusakazwa kwabezindaba kwesayensi equkethe izintatheli ezinobungani embonini UKeith Kloor futhi UTamar Haspel. Bona “IMedia Machine yeMonsanto Iza eWashington, ”NguPaul Thacker.

Uphenyo oluphikisayo lokuthola ubudlelwane bemboni nezifundo

Ku-2015, uDkt Fedoroff nabanye abaongameli ababili be-AAAS, uPeter Raven noPhillip Sharp, bathuthukisa izindima zabo zobuholi be-AAAS, kepha behlulekile ukudalula noma yikuphi ukubambisana kwabo embonini, ku-Guardian i-op-ed ophikisana nophenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi obefuna ukuthola ubudlelwano obungadalulwanga nezinhlelo zezimali phakathi kwezinkampani zezolimo, amaqembu abo e-PR kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi. I- uphenyo olwenziwe yi-US Right to Know wembule eminye yemibhalo esemqoka echazwe kuleli qiniso.

Yize uGuardian kamuva engeze i- ukudalulwa ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff usebenza enkampanini yokwamukela izivakashi i-OFW Law, akuzange kudalule lokho Iklayenti le-OFW Law ngaleso sikhathi kwakuyiqembu lezokuhweba lezimboni zezolimo, izinkampani zalo ezingamalungu ezazigxile ekuphenyweni kwamarekhodi omphakathi. Omengameli bangaphambilini be-AAAS baphikisana nohlelo lwabo lokuthi uphenyo lokuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ezingadalulwanga embonini nezifundo "lwalukhipha ikhasi encwadini yokudlala yeClimategate" futhi luthinta "ukuphika isayensi," izimangalo ezifanayo enziwe yizimboni amaqembu e-PR achazwe kuleli qiniso.

Kusetshenziswa i-AAAS ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso zenqubomgomo yomkhakha wezolimo

Ngesikhathi sakhe sokuba ngumongameli we-American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) kusuka ngo-2011-2012 nanjengoSihlalo weBhodi Yabaqondisi kusukela ngo-2012-2013, uDkt Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo ukuthuthukisa izinhloso zenqubomgomo ezisemqoka: ukugcina izakhi zofuzo ukudla okwenziwe ngobuchwepheshe kungabhalwanga futhi kwehliswa isiphakamiso se-US Environmental Protection Agency ebesizodinga imininingwane eyengeziwe ngemithelela yezempilo nezemvelo yezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezihlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-AAAS isize ukuncenga abavoti ukuthi baphikise ukufakwa ilebuli kwe-GMO

Ngo-2012, iBhodi Labaqondisi be-AAAS ngaphansi kukaSihlalo kaDkt Fedoroff yathatha isinyathelo esingajwayelekile sokuthatha uhlangothi odabeni lwezepolitiki olunombango kusasele amasonto amabili ngaphambi kokuba abavoti eCalifornia baye okhethweni lokuthatha isinqumo ngeProposition 37, okuyisinyathelo sokuvotela ama-GMO. Ukubuyekezwa kwezitatimende eziningi zezepolitiki ezenziwe yi-AAAS azitholanga ezinye izibonelo zenhlangano eyayizama ukuthonya abavoti ngaphambi kokhetho lombuso. (I-AAAS noDkt. Fedoroff abaziphendulanga izicelo zokubeka imibono. Futhi ukudalulwa: abaqondisi abasebenzisana ne-USRTK basebenze emkhankasweni wokufaka ilebula.)

Amabhodi we-AAAS isitatimende Ukuphikisa ilebula le-GMO kwakuyimpikiswano. It kuqukethe ukunganembi, ngokusho kwamalungu esikhathi eside e-AAAS, amaningi awo usilahlile isitatimende esiphikisana nokulebula njengokuhlasela “kobaba” kwamalungelo abathengi okudukise umphakathi ngokushiya umongo obalulekile wesayensi nokulawula. Okhulumela i-AAAS ngaleso sikhathi, uGinger Pinholster, wabiza ukugxekwa ngokuthi “akulungile futhi akunankinga.” Utshele intatheli ubesekamelweni ngesikhathi ibhodi lidlulisa isitatimende: “Asilona iqembu labameli. Izitatimende zethu sizenza ngokuya ngobufakazi besayensi, ”kusho uPinholster. "Ngingakutshela ukuthi isitatimende sethu asiwona umsebenzi noma asithonywanga yinhlangano engaphandle."

Abanye izingqapheli baqaphela ukufana kolimi olusetshenziswa yi-AAAS ne- umkhankaso oxhaswa ngezimboni ukwehlula isiphakamiso 37. "Ngabe iqembu elikhulu lesayensi liyayilahla iMonsanto?”Kubuza uMichele Simon ngoGrist. USimon uchaze isitatimende sebhodi "njengesingeyona isayensi kepha esifanele kakhulu ukucaphuna," futhi waphawula ukuthi ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kwe-AAAS ibiqukethe "amaphuzu okuxoxa" ahambisana no-No on 37 izincwadi zomkhankaso.

"Ukubonakala ungaphansi kokusobala kungumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wezesayensi"

Phakathi ku Incwadi ka-2013 eya kumagazini weSayensi, elinye iqembu lososayensi abali-11 lizwakalise ukukhathazeka ngokuthi isitatimende sebhodi le-AAAS ngokudla okuyi-GMO "singahle siqhume." Babhala bathi, “sikhathazekile ukuthi isikhundla se-AAA simele indlela engenalo ulwazi lokuxhumana nesayensi…  ukubonakala kungabonakali obala kuwumqondo omubi ngempela emphakathini wesayensi. ”

UDkt. ososayensi abane abamele "umphakathi wesayensi nowezemfundo" ophikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO. Umkhankaso ngokuhamba kwesikhathi wacela uDkt Fedoroff ukuthi asize ekufuneni izifundiswa ezengeziwe emgomweni wazo, lokho wakwenza ngokusho kuka Okthoba 1, 2012 imeyili kuMeghan Callahan we-BCF Wezindaba Zomphakathi, “Ngidlulisele [isicelo sakho sabaxhasi bezemfundo] eqenjini lamazwe omhlaba le-biotechnology elisekela izifundiswa. Ngiyasola ukuthi uzobe uzwa ezingxenyeni eziningi zomhlaba, ”kubhala uDkt Fedoroff.

Kusize ukubulala izidingo zedatha yezitshalo ezikhiqiza izibulala-zinambuzane

Ngo-2011 ngenkathi esebenza njengoMongameli we-AAAS, uDkt. Fedoroff wasebenza nabalingani bemboni yezolimo kanye nomuntu osebenzela izimboni ukumisa i-US Environmental Protection Agency ekudingeni izinkampani ukuthi zinikeze imininingwane eyengeziwe yezempilo nokuphepha yokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuhlukaniswa njengezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokusho kwama-imeyili kuchazwe ngezansi.

Isiphakamiso se-EPA sisuselwe engxoxweni yePhaneli Elulekayo Yezesayensi ye-EPA yango-2009 mayelana izindlela zokwenza ngcono ikhono le-ejensi lokwenza izinqumo ezilawulayo mayelana nezitshalo ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukukhiqiza noma ukuqukatha izibulala-zinambuzane, i-EPA eyibiza ngokuthi "izivikeli ezifakwe ezitshalweni" (ama-PIP). Amalungu ePhaneli acelwe ukuthi ahlole izidingo zamanje neziphakanyiswayo zedatha ye-EPA yama-PIP kulezi zindawo ezilandelayo:

  • idatha yokuhlola ukufana okukhona phakathi kwama-PIP nama-allergen, ubuthi, ama-anti-nutrient namanye amaprotheni ayingozi;
  • ukuhlolwa kwemiphumela ehambisanayo kwezempilo nakwizinto ezingezona ezihlosiwe, lapho izici ezimbili noma ngaphezulu ze-GMO zihlanganisiwe (istacked trait GMOs);
  • imithelela engahle ibe khona kubantu abancane bezinto eziphilayo emhlabathini; futhi
  • idatha yokubhekana kangcono nemithelela yokugeleza kofuzo.

Ngokuvumelana ne amanothi avela emhlanganweni we-EPA ka-Okthoba 2009, imithetho ehlongozwayo "izodidiyela kakhulu izidingo zedatha ezikhona ezisetshenziswa njengamanje," futhi izofaka imikhakha emihlanu yedatha nolwazi: ukwenziwa komkhiqizo, impilo yabantu, imiphumela engahlosiwe, ukuphela kwemvelo nokumelana ukuphathwa. I-EPA umemezele imithetho ehlongozwayo kwiRejista Yenhlangano ngo-Mashi 2011.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi izimbangi zomfelandawonye zahlangana kanjani ukunqoba lesi siphakamiso.

Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo phakathi kukaBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngaleso sikhathi, u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto nabanye abasebenza embonini bexoxa ngemisebenzi nangemihlangano ebandakanya uDkt Fedoroff. UChassy uzichaze kuma-imeyili (ikhasi 66) njengokuxhumana phakathi kwemboni nezifundiswa emzameni wokuphikisana nezidingo zedatha ye-EPA. Okufakwe kuma-imeyili akhe kuSachs bekukhona imibuzo yokuthi ngabe uMonsanto uthumele isheke yini e-University of Illinois Foundation ukuxhasa umsebenzi kaChassy “wokufinyelela kwe-biotechnology kanye nemisebenzi yezemfundo.” (Ngemininingwane engaphezulu ngezimali ezingadalulwanga uChassy azithola eMonsanto iminyaka njengoba ethuthukisa i-biotechnology, bheka kubika nguMonica Eng eWBEZ futhi ama-imeyili athunyelwe yiNew York Times.)

NgoJulayi 5, uDkt Chassy uthumele i-imeyili u-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto ukubika ukuthi uDkt Fedoroff uthumele i- incwadi eya ku-EPA ngaphezulu kwesiginesha yakhe esayinwe ngokubambisana ngamalungu angama-60 eNational Academy of Sciences. “UNina ulicoshe ibhola walisusa phansi enkundleni,” kubhala uChassy. Uchaze isiphakamiso se-EPA “njengokuphahlazeka kwesitimela.”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi ngo-Agasti 19, abamele amaqembu ezokuhweba embonini babe umangele futhi wajabula (ikhasi 19) ukubona i-New York Times i-op-ed kusuka kuDkt. Fedoroff ephikisana nemithethonqubo yobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo; “Ngubani owenze isikhundla sikaNina?” U-Adrienne Massey we-BIO ubuze uDkt Chassy nabanye ababambisene naye embonini, Henry Miller futhi I-Val Giddings. UChassy uphendule wathi:

UMassey udlulisele uDkt Chassy incwadi i-BIO ayithumele ku-EPA “enethemba lokuthi uzokwakhela encwadini yezifundiswa futhi anqamule noma yikuphi ukuphendulwa kwe-EPA kuleyo ncwadi.” Imizamo yabo ayiphumelelanga njengoba bebethemba. Ngo-Agasti 24, UDkt Chassy ubhalele u-Eric Sachs (ikhasi 14) ukuthi uDkt. Fedoroff “uthole impendulo evela ku-EPA eyinhlamba.” Uchaze izinhlelo zokuqinisa ingcindezi.

 

NgoSepthemba, uChassy uhlele ucingo lwengqungquthela noFedoroff, u-Eric Sachs weMonsanto, u-Adrienne Massey we-BIO kanye no-lobbyist wabo uStanley Abramson, phakathi kwabanye. Ngokusho kukaChassy amanothi asocingweni, "Ukuthola indlela yokuqinisekisa ukuthi isiphakamiso se-EPA asikaze sibone ukukhanya kosuku kungaba umphumela omuhle kakhulu esingalindela wona. Okulandelayo okuhamba phambili kuzoba ukuqinisekisa ukuthi yi-DOA, kodwa uma kunesidingo kumele sizimisele ukuqhubeka nokulwa. ”

Wabuye wabelana ngenkinga yokuthi, “I-EPA ayikholwa ukuthi umphakathi wezemfundo ungaphikisana ngokuqinile nomthetho wabo ohlongozwayo; bakholelwa ukuthi bambalwa kuphela abambalwa abalandela isicelo nokuthi iningi labasayinile abazinikele kulolu daba. ” Leli qembu linqume ukuthi lidinga “ukwakha umgogodla wososayensi abaholayo empeleni abazimisele ukukhuluma futhi banikele ngesikhathi kulolu daba.”

Ngo-Okthoba, iqembu lalinethemba kakhulu. UChassy wathumela i-imeyili ngamaSachs ukubika ngomhlangano "okhiqizayo ngokumangazayo" yena noDkt. Fedoroff bahambela noSteve Bradbury we-EPA. Umhlangano wawusungulwe nguMassey kanye no-Abramson owamukela izivakashi. Isiphakamiso se-EPA sokudinga imininingwane yama-GMO PIPs asikaze sikubone ukukhanya kosuku, ngokusho kukaMichael Hansen, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu we-Consumers Union, owabamba iqhaza emihlanganweni yomphakathi nale nhlangano.

Amaketanga e-imeyili aphelele, ngokusebenzisa Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni we-UCSF:

Ukubika okuhlobene 

"Ngavinjelwa engqungqutheleni yabezindaba yeNobel Laureate ngumxhumanisi we-PR noMonsanto Ties, ”NguTim Schwab, Food & Water Watch (2016)

"AbaPuppetmasters base-Academia, ”NguJonathan Latham, PhD, Independent Science News (2015)

"Eminyakeni engama-20 kamuva: iqembu le-biotech limasha, ”I-Pesticide Action Network (2012)

"Ukudla kwezobunjiniyela kukabani? ” ngu-Marcia Ishii-Eitemann, PhD, usosayensi omkhulu e-Pesticide Action Network North America (2011)

"Uxolo, NY Times: Ama-GMO namanje ngeke asindise umhlaba, ”Ngu-Anna Lappe, Grist (2011)

"Lapho ngiya khona uzwane nozakwabo wesayensi kaH. Clinton ngama-GMO, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2009)

"I-Diplomat Eguqulwe Ngokofuzo: Inqubomgomo Yezangaphandle yase-US i-GMO Yonke Indlela, ”NguTom Philpott, Grist (2008)

Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguStacy Malkan (kubuyekezwe ngoMeyi 17, 2019)

UDeWayne Johnson, ubaba oneminyaka engama-46 obulawa yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, waba ngumuntu wokuqala ukubhekana IMonsanto ecaleni ngoJuni odlule ngenxa yezinsolo inkampani yafihla ubufakazi ngezingozi ezibangelwa umdlavuza ze-Roundup weedkiller yayo. Amajaji aselokhu abuya nawo ezintathu ngazwi linye izinqumo ukuthola ukuthi i-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicides iyimbangela enkulu yomdlavuza, futhi yalinganisa umonakalo omkhulu wokujeziswa kweBayer (manje esingeyaseMonsanto). Izinkulungwane eziningi zabantu zimangalele izinkantolo zombuso nezikahulumeni, kanye nemibhalo yezinkampani ephuma ezivivinyweni ikhanya kakhulu kumaqhinga anzima iMonsanto esetshenziselwa ukuphika ingozi yomdlavuza nokuvikela ikhemikhali elaliyi lynchpin yenzuzo yayo.

“IMonsanto kwakungumbhali waso wesipoki ngokubuyekezwa kokuphepha, ”kubika iBloomberg, kanye nesikhulu se-EPA kubikwa ukuthi wasiza uMonsanto “Bulala” ucwaningo lomdlavuza lwenye i-ejensi (lokho kuphuma, manje kuphelile qinisekisa isixhumanisi somdlavuza ku-glyphosate). An uphenyo olwawina imiklomelo eLe Monde Imininingwane yokuthi uMonsanto uzame kanjani “ukubhubhisa i-ejensi yomdlavuza yeZizwe Ezihlangene nganoma iyiphi indlela” ukusindisa i-glyphosate. Izindatshana zeJenali ezisuselwa ekubukezweni kombiko wemibhalo yokutholwa kwesilingo seRoundup ukuphazamiseka kwebhizinisi encwadini yesayensi kanye nenhlangano elawula umthetho, nezinye iziboneloukufaka ubuthi emthonjeni wesayensi. "

“Ukubhalwa kwesipoki kukaMonsanto nokuqinisa izikhali kusongela isayensi yomsindo nomphakathi, "Kubhala uSolwazi waseTufts University uSheldon Krimsky ngoJuni 2018. Uthe imibhalo etholakele," yembula ukuthunjwa kwesayensi okuyinkampani, okubeka impilo yomphakathi kanye nesisekelo sentando yeningi engcupheni. "

Kusukela lapho, njengoba sekuqhubeka izivivinyo, sekuvele eminye imibhalo mayelana ne ubukhulu bokukhohlisa kukaMonsanto kwenqubo yesayensi, izinhlaka zokulawula, nezimpikiswano zomphakathi. NgoMeyi 2019, izintatheli eFrance uthole imfihlo "Ifayela leMonsanto" eyenziwe yinkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi iFleishmanHillard ibala "inqwaba yolwazi" cishe izintatheli ezingama-200, osopolitiki, ososayensi nabanye ababonakala bengaba nomthelela empikiswaneni ye-glyphosate eFrance. Abashushisi eFrance bavule uphenyo lobugebengu futhi IBayer ithe iphenya inkampani yayo i-PR.

Le mpi yenkampani yesayensi inomthelela omkhulu kithi sonke, uma kubhekwa ukuthi uhhafu wabo bonke abesilisa e-US kanye nowesithathu kwabesifazane bazotholakala benomdlavuza esikhathini esithile sokuphila kwethu, ngokusho kwe I-National Cancer Institute.

Imibhalo imboni yokudla ayifuni ukuthi uyibone

Sekuyiminyaka, izimboni zokudla nezamakhemikhali zibheke ngqo kokuhlosiwe okukodwa emhlabeni wesayensi: i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), iqembu elizimele locwaningo elisebenze iminyaka engama-50 khomba izingozi zomdlavuza ukwazisa izinqubomgomo ezingavimbela umdlavuza.

“Kade ngilwa i-IARC unomphela !!! :) ”omunye usosayensi owayenguKraft Foods wabhalela owayengusosayensi waseSyngenta ku-imeyili itholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi esivulekile sombuso. “Ukudla ne-ag sekuvinjezelwe kusukela eGlyphosate ngoMashi 2015. Sonke kudingeka sihlangane ngandlela-thile siveze i-IARC, njengoba nina nenze ephepheni. Izinto eziza kuqala kakhulu yizo zonke izithako zokudla: i-aspartame, i-sucralose, i-iron yokudla, i-B-carotene, i-BPA, njll. I-IARC iyasibulala! ”

Isazi se-IARC isinqumo sephaneli ukuhlukanisa i-glyphosate ngokuthi “mhlawumbe ibanga umdlavuza kubantu” kudale indawo yokuhlangana yezitha zephaneli ukuqoqa amabutho. Umbhalo osemqoka weMonsanto okhishwe ngamacala wecala wembula uhlelo lokuhlaselwa: ihlazisa ososayensi abanomdlavuza ngosizo lwabalingani embonini yezokudla.

Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lokuxhumana nomphakathi unikeze abasebenzi abangu-20 bezinkampani ukulungiselela umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity on glyphosate, ngezinhloso ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela," "ukubeka umbono womphakathi nge-IARC," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa i-MON POV" kanye "nokubandakanya izinhlangano zezimboni" "ekuthukutheleni. ”

Lo mbhalo ukhombe izigaba ezine "zabalingani bemboni" ukusiza ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso ezintathu ezishiwo ohlelweni lwe-PR: ukuvikela isithunzi se-Roundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono ovamile, kanye "nokuhlinzeka ngezembozo ezinhlanganweni ezilawulayo" ukuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate.

Ukuthola inethiwekhi kaMonsanto "yabalingani bemboni"

The amaqembu abalingani bemboni uMonsanto uthephiwe ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi be-IARC babandakanya izinhlangano ezinkulu zokubulala izinambuzane kanye nezimboni zokudla; amaqembu e-spin axhaswa ngezimboni aziveza njengemithombo ezimele efana Izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi Umkhandlu Wemininingwane Yomhlaba Wokudla; futhi "isayensi-y" kuzwakala amaqembu angaphambili afana Umuzwa weSayensi, lo Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa - konke kusetshenziswa imilayezo efanayo futhi kuvame ukubhekiswa komunye nomunye njengemithombo.

Amadokhumenti atholiwe yi-US Right kuya Yazi uphenyo khanyisa ukuthi la maqembu abalingani asebenzisana kanjani ukukhuthaza i- "MON POV" mayelana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo semithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO.

Iqoqo elilodwa lemibhalo lembula ukuthi izinkampani zikaMonsanto ze-PR zahlela kanjani “Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo” njengenkundla ezwakala ingathathi hlangothi lapho ingaqala khona ukuhlaselwa uhlu lwezitha, kufaka phakathi iSierra Club, umbhali uMichael Pollan, i-movie ethi Food, Inc. kanye ne- imboni yemvelo.

Abakhi bokubukeza kwezifundo - ababambisene nabo UBruce Chassy futhi UDavid Tribe, Isikhulu seMonsanto u-Eric Sachs, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana eMonsanto uJay Byrne, Futhi owayeyi-VP weqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha we-biotech iVal Giddings - wakhuluma obala in ama-imeyili maqondana nokusungula ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics njengeqembu eliphambili lokukhuthaza izintshisekelo zemboni nokuheha imali yemboni, ngenkathi kugcinwa izigxivizo zeminwe zenkampani zifihliwe.

I-imeyili evela ku-Eric Sachs, iMonsanto'sScience, Technology & Outreach Lead, iya kuBruce Chassy

Ngisho namanje ngebhuku labo lokudlala lidaluliwe - kanye nelabo imali eyisisekelo ikhonjisiwe njengoba ivela eqenjini lezentengiselwano elixhaswe ngabakwaMonsanto, iBayer, iBASF, iSyngenta neDowDuPont - i-Academics Review isafuna lokho iwebhusayithi ukwamukela iminikelo evela “emithonjeni okungeyona eyezinkampani” Ukubuyekezwa kwe-Academics kubuye kuthiwe "Ukubuyekezwa komdlavuza we-IARC glyphosate kwehluleka ezingxenyeni eziningi," ku okuthunyelwe itholwe yiwebhusayithi ye-PR exhaswa yimboni Izimpendulo ze-GMO, iqembu eliphambili elixhaswe yimboni Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, kanye nendatshana yeForbes ngu Henry Miller lokho kwabhalwa isipoki nguMonsanto.

UMiller nabahleli be-Academics Review Chassy, ​​Tribe, Byrne, Sachs and Giddings are amalungu e-AgBioChatter, isithangami se-imeyili sangasese esivele ohlelweni lweMonsanto lwe-PR njengomlingani womkhakha wesi-2. Ama-imeyili avela kuhlu lwe-AgBioChatter ziphakamisa ukuthi yayisetshenziselwa ukuxhumanisa ababambisene nabo embonini emisebenzini yokunxenxa neyokuphromotha ukuvikela ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane. Amalungu afaka abasebenzi abaphezulu embonini yezolimo, abeluleki be-PR kanye nezifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha, iningi labo elibhalela izinkundla zezindaba zomkhakha ezifana Izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, noma badlale izindima zobuholi kwamanye amaqembu abalingani beMonsanto.

I-Genetic Literacy Project, eholwa ngumkhakha osebenza isikhathi eside wamakhemikhali i-PR UJon Entine, futhi ibambisene ne-Academics Review ukwenza uchungechunge lwezingqungquthela ezixhaswe imboni yezolimo ukuqeqesha izintatheli nososayensi ukuthi ukukhuthaza kangcono ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides baphikisane nokwehliswa kwabo emthethweni. Abahleli bebekhona abangathembeki ngemithombo yezimali zabo.

Lawa maqembu aziphonsa njengabaxazululi abathembekile besayensi njengoba besabalalisa imininingwane engamanga nezinga eliseduze nokuhlaselwa okushubile kwabososayensi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngengozi yomdlavuza ye-glyphosate.

Isibonelo esisemqoka singatholakala kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project, ebibhalwe ukuthi “yi-tier 2 industry partner” ohlelweni lukaMonsanto lwe-PR lokuvikela i-Roundup ekulweni nokukhathazeka komdlavuza okuvezwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer. Ukuseshwa kwe- "IARC" kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project kuveza izindatshana ezingaphezu kwama-200, eziningi zazo ezihlasela ososayensi abaphakamise ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza ngokuthi "ama-anti-chemical enviros" "aqamba amanga" futhi "enza uzungu lokumelela kabi" izingozi zempilo glyphosate, futhi bephikisana nokuthi i-ejensi yomdlavuza yomhlaba wonke kufanele ibuyiselwe imali futhi iqedwe.

Izindatshana eziningi ezilwa ne-IARC ezifakwe ku-Genetic Literacy Project, noma eziqhutshwa abanye abasebenza embonini, ziyishaya indiva imibiko eminingi yezindaba ngokususelwa Amaphepha eMonsanto ukubhala ukungenelela kwezinkampani ocwaningweni lwesayensi, futhi esikhundleni salokho kuthuthukiswe izimangalo zezimboni zamakhemikhali ze-PR noma ze- izindaba ezingamanga a intatheli enobudlelwano obuhle noMonsanto. Impi yezepolitiki yokulwa ifinyelele yonke indlela eya eCapitol Hill, namaRiphabhulikhi e-DRM aholwa ngu Ummeli uLamar Smith efuna kuphenywe nokuzama uku ukugodla imali yase-US kusuka kunhlangano ehamba phambili yocwaningo lomdlavuza.

Ngubani ohlangothini lwesayensi?

Ukunxenxa nokuthumela imiyalezo kukaMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iphaneli yomdlavuza we-IARC kusekelwe empikiswaneni yokuthi ezinye izinhlaka ezisebenzisa ukuhlolwa okususelwa engcupheni zikhiphe i-glyphosate engcupheni yomdlavuza. Kepha njengoba imibiko yophenyo futhi iphephandaba izihloko ngokusekelwe ku Amaphepha eMonsanto bunemininingwane eminingi, ubufakazi bufaka ukuthi ukuhlolwa kokulawulwa kwezinhlekelele ku-glyphosate, okuthembele kakhulu ocwaningweni olunikezwa yimboni, kuyekethiswa ngokungadalulwanga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, ukuthembela kusayensi engabazisayo, izinto ezibhalwe ghost nezinye izindlela zokuqinisa izikhali ezinkampanini ezibeka impilo yomphakathi engcupheni, njengoProfesa waseTufts USheldon Krimsky wabhala.

“Ukuvikela ibhizinisi lesayensi, enye yezinsika zomphakathi wentando yeningi wanamuhla, ekulweni namandla angalenza isisebenzi sezimboni noma ezepolitiki, umphakathi wethu kumele usekele izikhubekiso phakathi kwesayensi yezemfundo kanye nemikhakha yezinkampani futhi ufundise ososayensi abasha futhi abahleli bephephabhuku ngemigomo yokuziphatha esezingeni lomsebenzi wabo, ”kubhala uKrimsky.

Abenzi benqubomgomo akumele bavumele isayensi ebumbene nenkampani ukuqondisa izinqumo mayelana nokuvinjelwa umdlavuza. Abezindaba kumele benze umbiko ongcono womsebenzi futhi babheke izingxabano zentshisekelo ngemuva kwesayensi yenkampani. Isikhathi sokuqeda impi yenkampani yesayensi yomdlavuza.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi nombhali wencwadi ethi “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry.”

Izigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto Kuzo Zonke I-Newsweek's Hit on Organic Food

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

buyekeza: Impendulo eyinqaba yeNewsweek

NguStacy Malkan

"Umkhankaso wokudla okuphilayo ngumkhonyovu okhohlisayo, obizayo," ngokusho komhlaka-19 Januwari Newsweek esihlokweni ebhalwe nguDkt.Henry I. Miller weSikhungo seHoover.

Uma lelo gama lizwakala lijwayelekile - uHenry I. Miller - kungahle kube ngoba New York Times muva iveze ihlazo okubandakanya uMiller: ukuthi ubanjwe eshicilela i-athikili ebhalwe ghost nguMonsanto ngaphansi kwegama lakhe ku Forbes. I-athikili, ebikhombisa kakhulu uhlaka olunikezwe uMonsanto, ihlasele ososayensi bephaneli lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation (IARC) labo isinqumo sokufaka ohlwini Amakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kaMonsanto, i-glyphosate, njenge-carcinogen yabantu.

Ukubika ku ukushintshana nge-imeyili ekhishwe ngamacala neMonsanto mayelana nokukhathazeka komdlavuza, i- Izikhathi ' UDanny Hakim wabhala:

"UMonsanto ubuze uMnu. Miller ukuthi angathanda yini ukubhala indatshana ngalesi sihloko, futhi wathi, 'Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala kusuka embhalweni osezingeni eliphezulu.'

Lo mbhalo uvele ngaphansi kwegama likaMnu. Miller, nangokuthi 'imibono evezwe ngabakwa-Forbes Contributors ingeyabo.' Lo magazini awuzange ukhulume ngokubandakanyeka kukaMonsanto ekulungiseleleni lo mbhalo…

UForbes ususe lolu daba kwi-webhusayithi yakhe ngoLwesithathu wathi buqedile ubudlelwano bakhe noMnuz Miller phakathi kokudaluliwe. ”

Intambo yombono Iphrojekthi Syndicate kwalandela okufanayo, ngemuva kokuqala ukufaka isimangalo kumazwana kaMiller lapho aqaphela ukuthi ayezokwaliwa uma ukusebenzisana kwakhe noMonsanto kwakwaziwa.

Ithemba Lokwehlisa I-Organic

Ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki alikaze limnciphise uMiller; uqhubekile nokuhlunga okuqukethwe okwenyuswayo embonini yezolimo kusuka ezitolo ezinjenge Newsweek futhi The Wall Street Journal, ngaphandle kokudalula kubafundi ubuhlobo bakhe neMonsanto.

Noma kunjalo kaMiller Newsweek Ukudla okune-organic kunezigxivizo zeminwe zikaMonsanto ngokusobala kuyo yonke indawo.

Okokuqala, uMiller usebenzisa imithombo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane ukwenza izimangalo ezingenabufakazi (nezindidayo) mayelana nezolimo eziphilayo - ngokwesibonelo, ukuthi ukulima ngokwemvelo "empeleni kuyingozi kakhulu emvelweni" kunokulima okuvamile, noma ukuthi ababambisene nabo bachitha u- $ 2.5 billion ngonyaka bekhankasa ngokumelene nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo eNyakatho Melika.

Umthombo kulesi simangalo esingalungile nguJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto (ongaziwa kanjalo kwi Newsweek athikili), manje oqondisa inkampani ye-PR ebizwa nge-v-Fluence Interactive.

Ukuhwebelana nge-imeyili kuveza ukuthi iMonsanto isebenza kanjani nabantu abanjengoJay Byrne - kanye noByrne ngqo - ukusunduza lolu hlobo lokuhlaselwa kwezitha zikaMonsanto ngenkathi kugcinwa ukubandakanyeka kwenkampani kuyimfihlo.

Ngokwama-imeyili atholwe iqembu lami Ilungelo le-US Lokwazi, U-Byrne wadlala indima enkulu ekusizeni iMonsanto ukuba isungule iqembu eliphambili lenkampani elibizwa nge-Academics Review elashicilela umbiko ohlasela imboni yezimboni njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha - okuyisihloko ngqo kuMiller's Newsweek isihloko.

Uhlu lukaJay Byrne lwezitha zaseMonsanto. 

Umqondo weqembu langaphambili - kuchazwe ku- ama-imeyili engiwabike lapha - bekuzokwakha ipulatifomu enomsindo othembekile lapho izifundiswa zingahlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo ngenkathi bethi zizimele, kepha zithola imali ngasese emaqenjini ezimboni. Ukucwayiza, ukucwayiza, ha, ha.

"Ukhiye kuzogcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi," kubhale umphathi weMonsanto ohilelekile ohlelweni.

Indima kaByrne, ngokusho kwama-imeyili, ibizosebenza njenge "moto yokuhweba" ukusiza ukuthola imali yenkampani. U-Byrne uphinde wathi uhlanganisa uhlu “lwamathuba” okuhlosiwe - abagxeka imboni yezolimo okungenzeka ukuthi "bafakwe umjovo" endaweni yesikhulumi sabafundi.

Abantu abaningana kuhlu lwamathuba ka-Byrne, noma kamuva bahlaselwa yi-Academics Review, babeyizisulu ku-Miller's Newsweek isihloko, futhi.

IMiller's Newsweek ucezu naye uzame ukudicilela phansi umsebenzi we New York Times ' intatheli uDanny Hakim, ngaphandle kokudalula ukuthi kwakunguHakim owadalula ihlazo likaMiller lokubhala ngesipoki likaMiller.

Njengakamuva nje ukuhlaselwa kwemboni yemvelo, yonke iminwe ikhomba emuva ezinkampanini zezolimo ezizolahlekelwa kakhulu uma isidingo sabathengi siqhubeka nokukhuphuka kokudla okungenawo ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Ukusetshenziswa KukaMonsanto “Okuzimele Kwezemfundo”

UHenry Miller une- umlando omude wokusebenzisana no - no ebeka izinsizakalo zakhe ze-PR - izinkampani ezidinga usizo lokukholisa umphakathi ukuthi imikhiqizo yazo ayiyona ingozi futhi ayidingi ukulawulwa.

Futhi iMonsanto incike kakhulu kubantu abaneziqinisekiso zesayensi noma amaqembu azwakala engathathi hlangothi ukwenza lezo zingxabano - abantu abazimisele ukuxhumana nombhalo wenkampani ngenkathi bethi bangabalingisi abazimele. Leli qiniso lisungulwe ngokubika ku New York Times, Okwezwe, WBEZ, lo Ukuqhubeka phambili futhi ezinye izindawo eziningi eminyakeni yakamuva.

Idokhumenti esanda kukhishwa yeMonsanto inikeza imininingwane eyengeziwe mayelana nokuthi inkulumo-ze kaMonsanto nokusebenza kokunxenxa kusebenza kanjani, kanye nendima esemqoka edlalwa nguHenry Miller kuyo.

Lo 2015 “uhlelo lokulungiselela”- ekhishwe abameli ezinkantolo zomdlavuza i-glyphosate - ibeka isu likaMonsanto le-PR" lokuhlela ukukhala "ngokumelene nososayensi bomdlavuza we-IARC ngombiko wabo we-glyphosate. Owokuqala ongakhishwa: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller."

Uhlelo luzoqhubeka lunezigaba ezine "zabalingani bemboni" - amaqembu ezokuhweba ayishumi nambili, amaqembu ezemfundo kanye namaqembu aphambili abonakala ezimele afana ne Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project - lokho kungasiza "ukugoma" ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza futhi "kuvikele isithunzi… se-Roundup."

UMiller uhambisele iMonsanto ngoMashi 2015 esihlokweni eForbes - lo mbhalo kamuva wembula njengombhalo kaMonsanto - uhlasela ososayensi be-IARC. Ozakwethu bezimboni bebelokhu bephusha izimpikiswano ezifanayo ngemigudu ehlukahlukene kaninginingi, selokhu, ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi bomdlavuza.

Okuningi kwalokhu kugxeka kubonakale emphakathini njengokuvukela okuzenzekelayo kokukhathazeka, kungakhulunywa ngeqhaza likaMonsanto njengomqambi nomqhubi womlando: i-hoodwink yenkampani yakudala.

Njengoba eminye imibhalo ingena embusweni womphakathi - nge Amaphepha eMonsanto futhi uphenyo lwamarekhodi womphakathi - iqhinga "lokufunda elizimele" kuzoba nzima ukuligcinela abasebenza embonini njengoHenry I. Miller, kanye nabezindaba nabenzi benqubomgomo abangayinaki.

Okwamanje, Newsweek ayihlehli. Ngisho nangemva kokubuyekeza imibhalo eqinisekisa amaqiniso akule ndatshana, Newsweek Umhleli wemibono uNicholas Wapshott ubhale ku-imeyili ukuthi, “Ngiyakuqonda ukuthi wena noMiller ninomlando omude wokuphikisana ngalesi sihloko. Ukuphika ngokusobala okuqinisekisile. ”

UMiller noWapshott abaphendulanga eminye imibuzo.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu elibheka abathengi nelisebenza obala, i-US Right to Know. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry” (New Society, 2007). Ukudalulwa: I-US Right to Know ixhaswe ngokwengxenye yi-Organic Consumers Association eshiwo ku-athikili kaMiller futhi evela kuhlu olushaywayo lukaByrne.

Izigxivizo zeminwe zeMonsanto Zithole Konke Ukuhlaselwa Kokudla Okuphilayo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Le ndatshana ivele okokuqala ku- Huffington Post.

NguStacy Malkan

Lapho inhlangano engenzi nzuzo enedumela elihle ikhipha umbiko ohlasela imboni yokudla yemvelo ngo-Ephreli 2014, leli qembu lenza konke okusemandleni alo ukuzimela.

Ikhasi le-30 umbiko by Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, echazwe “njengengenzi nzuzo eholwa ochwepheshe abazimele bezemfundo kwezolimo nakwezesayensi yokudla,” yathola ukuthi abathengi babekhohliswa ukuba basebenzise imali ethe xaxa yokudla okuphilayo ngenxa yemikhuba yokukhangisa ekhohlisayo eyenziwa imboni yezinto eziphilayo.

Izihloko ezisematheni ezentengiselwano zababaza: “Okungokwemvelo kuveziwe!” (Izindaba zeBrownfield) nokuthi “Imboni Engokwemvelo Iyakhula Ngabathengi Abakhohlisayo” (Izindaba Zokuphepha Kokudla), bethi okutholakele ngochwepheshe abazimele.

Lokhu okutholwe “kuvunyelwe yithimba lamazwe omhlaba lesayensi ezimele yezolimo, isayensi yokudla, ongoti bezomnotho nabezomthetho abavela ezikhungweni zomhlaba ezihlonishwayo,” ngokusho kweqembu isitatimende sephephandaba.

Uma ngabe iphuzu mayelana nenkululeko belingacacanga, ukukhishwa kwabezindaba kugcina ngalokhu: “Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundiswa akunakho ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo okuhlobene nalolu shicilelo, nazo zonke izindleko ezihambisanayo ezikhokhelwe ukusebenzisa izimali zethu jikelele ngaphandle kokucaciswa okuthile ithonya noma isiqondiso somnikeli. ”

Okungazange kushiwo embikweni, ukukhishwa kwezindaba noma kuwebhusayithi: Abaphathi beMonsanto Co, umkhokheli ohola phambili emhlabeni wezolimo kanye nembewu eyenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanye nabalingani abakhulu beMonsanto, ababambe iqhaza ekuqoqeni isikhwama se-Academics Review, babambisana namasu waze waxoxa nangezinhlelo zokufihla uxhaso lwezimboni, ngokusho kwama-imeyili etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA).

Izinhloso zikaMonsanto ekuhlaseleni imboni yezinto eziphilayo zisobala: Imbewu namakhemikhali kaMonsanto anqatshelwe ukusetshenziswa kwezolimo, futhi ingxenye enkulu yemiyalezo kaMonsanto ukuthi imikhiqizo yayo iphakeme kunokwemvelo njengamathuluzi okukhulisa ukukhiqizwa kokudla komhlaba wonke.

Izifundiswa Phatha Umyalezo kaMonsanto 

I-Academics Review yasungulwa ngokubambisana "ngoprofesa ababili abazimele… emaphethelweni ohlangothi lweplanethi," uBruce Chassy, ​​Ph.D., uprofesa osafufusa e-University of Illinois, noDavid Tribe, Ph.D., umfundisi omkhulu e-University of Melbourne . Bona Faka isicelo iqembu "lamukela kuphela iminikelo engavinjelwe emithonjeni engeyona eyezinkampani."

Kodwa-ke ukuhwebelana ngama-imeyili okubili ngo-2010 kuveza izinhlelo zokuthola uxhaso lwezinkampani lwe-Academics Review ngenkathi kugcinwa iminwe yenkampani ifihliwe.

Ngo-Mashi 11, 2010 ukushintshana nge-imeyili noChassy, ​​uJay Byrne, owayeyinhloko yezokuxhumana eMonsanto manje osephethe i- I-PR kanye nefemu yocwaningo lwemakethe, wanikela ngokusebenza "njengemoto yezentengiso" ukusiza ukuthola uxhaso lwezinkampani lwe-Academics Review.

UChassy uxoxe ngentshisekelo yakhe yokuhlasela imboni ephilayo kuma-imeyili. "Ngingathanda ukuba negama eliphakeme phakathi kwe-aura engokwemvelo lapho ngizokwethula khona imicibisholo ye-ballistic…" ubhale wathi, "Ngiqinisekile anginayo imali."

U-Byrne uphendule wathi,

“Yebo, ngiphakamisa ukuthi sisebenzele imali (yethu sonke) kuqala futhi ngokushesha! Ngiphakamise uVal [Giddings, owayeyisekela likamongameli we-BIO, inhlangano yokuhweba embonini ye-biotech] ukuthi mina naye sihlangane ngenkathi ngise-DC ngesonto elizayo ukuze sikwazi (hhayi nge-imeyili) ukuthola isithombe esicacile sezinketho ngokuyisa iphrojekthi ye-Academic Review namanye amathuba. "Isikhungo Sokukhululeka Kwabathengi" (ActivistCash.com) singene ngalokhu ngokweqile. "

ICentre for Consumer Freedom iqondiswa nguRick Berman, ilobbyist obizwe “UDkt Evil"Futhi"inkosi yamaqembu angaphambili ezinkampani kanye nenkulumo-ze“Ngomsebenzi wakhe wokuqhakambisa imboni kagwayi nezinye izinto ezibandakanyeka ezinkampanini ngaphansi kwamaqembu angachemile.

"Ngicabanga ukuthi sinomqondo ongcono kakhulu," kusho uByrne etshela uChassy.

U-Byrne wabelana ngohlu lwamathuba ahlosiwe ngabantu, amaqembu kanye nokuqukethwe okugxeka ama-GMO kanye neMonsanto: UVandana Shiva, Andrew Kimbrell, Ronnie Cummins, Sierra Club, Greenpeace, Institute for Agriculture and Trade Policy, incwadi kaMichael Pollan ethi “In Defense of Ukudla, ”ama-movie athi“ Food, Inc ”ne-“ The World According to Monsanto, ”kanye“ nesihloko esinqamula kuzo zonke izindawo ezinobungozi ze-ag-biotech (ngaphandle kokuwela / ukungcola, izinyosi, izimvemvane, ukuphepha kwabantu, njll.) . ”

"Bonke laba bantu, izinhlangano, izinto zokuqukethwe nezindawo zezihloko zisho imali yezinkampani ezahlukahlukene ezithende kahle, uByrne wabhala, enezela:

Bonke laba bantu, izinhlangano, izinto zokuqukethwe nezindawo zezihloko zisho imali yezinhlangano zezinkampani ezithende kahle.

“Ngikholwa wukuthi mina noVal singakhomba futhi sisebenze njengezimoto ezifanele (ezingezona ezemfundo) esingaxhuma ngazo lezi zinhlaka nomsebenzi ngephrojekthi ngendlela esiza ukuqinisekisa ukuthembeka nokuzimela (futhi ngaleyo ndlela kube nenani) labanikeli abakhulu / abanikazi… Ngikholwa ukuthi ikhabethe lethu lekhishi lapha lingasebenza njengabagcini bamasango (kwezinye izimo abathathi ntela) ukuze kutholakale izimpendulo ezisebenzayo, ezithembekile, ukugoma kanye nokwenza imisebenzi ngokusebenzisa leplatifomu yephrojekthi… ”

"Kuzwakala kukuhle kimi," kuphendula uChassy. “Nginesiqiniseko sokuthi uzongitshela ukuthi nixoxa ngani.”

Ku-an ukushintshana nge-imeyili noChassy yangomhla kaNovemba 30, 2010, u-Eric Sachs, ophethe ezobudlelwano nomphakathi eMonsanto, waxoxa ngokuthola ukwesekwa kwebhizinisi kwe-Academics Review ngenkathi "egcina iMonsanto ingemuva."

USachs ubhalele uChassy:

"Mina nawe sidinga ukukhuluma kabanzi ngesayithi kanye nomqondo" wokubuyekezwa kwezifundiswa ". Ngikholwa wukuthi kunendlela eya enqubweni ebingaphendula kangcono ekukhathazekeni nasezinsolweni zesayensi. Ngihlanganyele noVal izolo. Ngokombono wami inkinga ingenye yokubandakanyeka kochwepheshe futhi engaxazululwa ngokukhokha ochwepheshe ukuze banikeze izimpendulo. Mina nawe sixoxe ngalokhu esikhathini esedlule. UVal uchaze ukuthi igxathu lokuqala lisungula isimo esingu-501 (c) sesi-3 sokungenzi nzuzo ukwenza lula ukuqoqwa kwemali. Lokho kunengqondo kepha kukhona okuningi. Ngixoxile noJerry Steiner namuhla (Ithimba Elilawulayo leMonsanto) futhi ngingasiza ukukhuthaza i-CLI / BIO / CBI nezinye izinhlangano ukuthi zisekele. Ukhiye kuzoba ukugcina iMonsanto ingemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi. ”

Ukhiye uzobe ugcina iMonsanto ngemuva ukuze ingalimazi ukwethembeka kolwazi.

I-CLI / BIO / CBI ibhekisa emaqenjini amathathu okuhweba embonini - iCrop Life International, iBiotechnology Innovation Organisation kanye noMkhandlu Wezokwazisa ngeBiotechnology Information - amele izinhlangano zezolimo.

UChassy uphendule uSachs, “Yebo kufanele sikhulume nge-Academics Review. Ngicabanga ukuthi sisesigabeni esisodwa. ”

Lapho ebuzwa ngqo ngezimali, uChassy uphendule nge-imeyili wathi: “Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundiswa akuceli noma kwamukele izimali kunoma yimuphi umthombo wocwaningo oluthile noma eminye imisebenzi ehambisana nanoma yimiphi imikhiqizo, izinsizakalo noma imboni. Ukubuyekezwa kwe-Academics kwamukela kuphela iminikelo engavinjelwe evela emithonjeni engekho yezinkampani ukusekela umsebenzi wethu. ”

Uthe ukubuyekeza kwe-Academics kwahlanganisa futhi kwabikwa ukuthi akukho mali engenayo ngo-2012 futhi wahlinzeka ngama-IRS form 990s for 2013 futhi 2014 (manje nayo ithunyelwe kuwebhusayithi). Leyo mibhalo ibika u- $ 419,830 kumali engenayo kepha ayifaki lwazi ngabanikeli. UChassy akazange aphendule ezicelweni zokunikeza lolo lwazi.

Cindezela Amakhava Ukuhlasela "Okuzimele" ku-Organic

I-Academics Review yakhipha ucwaningo lwayo lwezinto eziphilayo ngo-Ephreli 2014 kumjikelezo oqinile wokushicilelwa kwabezindaba ochaza okutholwe "ngabaphenyi abazimele":

“Imboni Yokudla Engokwemvelo Ike Yabandakanyeka Embikweni Wokufaka Izimangalo 'Wezinkulungwane Eziningi Zomphakathi Wokukhishwa Kolwazi' (I-Navigator Yokudla)

• “Umbiko: Imboni Engokwemvelo Ithole Iminyaka Engama-25 Yokukhula Ngokushesha Ngokusebenzisa Ukwesaba Nokukhohlisa”Izindaba Zokuphepha Kokudla)

• “Icala Elibi Lokumakethwa Kokudla Okuphilayo” (I-Dairyma kaHoardn)

• "Ukusebenzisa Ukwesaba Njengecebo Lokuthengisa" (Izindaba Zebhizinisi Lokudla)

In the New York Post, UNaomi Schaffer Riley wakha icala elibhekene "nobushiqela be-organic mommy mafia" abakhohliswa amaqhinga wokumaketha angenabungozi embonini yezinto eziphilayo. Imithombo yakhe ibandakanya umbiko we-Academics Review noJulie Gunlock, umbhali wencwadi ekhuluma “ngesiko lokwesaba.”

URiley akazange asho ukuthi uGunlock, kanye noRiley uqobo, bobabili abadala abafo e-Independent Women Forum, iqembu uxhaswa kakhulu yi-Donors Trust, enayo ukuhlaselwa kwezinkampani okubhange ezinyunyaneni, ezikoleni zomphakathi kanye nososayensi bezulu.

In the I-Register ye-Des Moines, UJohn R. Block, owayengunobhala wezoLimo e-US manje osebenzela inkampani yabameli enxenxa izintshisekelo zebhizinisi lezolimo, ubike “ngombiko we-blockbuster” we-Academics Review nemiphumela yayo yokuthi imfihlo yemboni yezimboni eyimpumelelo “ukumaketha kwabantu abamnyama. ”

The iqembu langaphambili lebhizinisi I-American Council on Science and Health, okuyi ithola uxhaso kusuka embonini yezolimo nalapho uChassy esebenza khona njengomeluleki wesayensi, ehlohla isihloko esithi "abamnyama abamaketha" kuma-athikili ngumongameli we-ACSH Hank campbell futhi UHenry I. Miller, MD, uzakwabo waseHoover Institute obesebenza njengesikhulumi ezikhangisweni ngomzamo wokubulala ilebula le-GMO eCalifornia, okwakunguMonsanto ohola imali.

Miller, onomlando omude wokwenza izimangalo zesayensi ezinganembile ukusekela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi, kusetshenziswe nombiko wokubuyekezwa kwezifundo njengomthombo wokuhlaselwa okungokwemvelo ku Newsweek futhi Buyekeza National, futhi wafuna ku Wall Street Journal ukuthi ukulima ngokwemvelo akusimeme.

Izindikimba ezifanayo zokulwa nemvelo zidlula kwezinye iziteshi ze-PR zezimboni zezolimo.

Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a iwebhusayithi yezokumaketha uxhaswe yizinkampani zeBig Six ze-agrichemical (futhi kuphi Chassy futhi Tribe zisebenza "njengochwepheshe abazimele"), zithuthukisa imibono yokuthi iyini imvelo akunampiloakukho okungcono ngemvelo futhi uhlelo lokumaketha nje - yize, ngokumangazayo, inkampani ye-PR eqhuba i-GMO Answers yethule iqembu elikhethekile eSan Francisco ukuzama imali emakethe yemvelo.

Ukuhamba Kwemali Kuya Esidlangalaleni; Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa Kuthula 

NgoMashi 2016, kubika uMonica Eng yeWBEZ kumadokhumende akhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto ikhokhele uSolwazi Bruce Chassy imali engaphezu kwama- $ 57,000 esikhathini esiyizinyanga ezingama-23 ukuhamba, ukubhala nokukhuluma ngamaGMO - imali engazange ivezelwe umphakathi.

Ngokophenyo luka-Eng, le mali ibiyingxenye okungenani yama- $ 5.1 million emalini engadalulwanga iMonsanto ethunyelwe nge-University of Illinois Foundation kubasebenzi baseyunivesithi nasezinhlelweni phakathi kuka-2005 no-2015.

"UChassy akazange adalule ubudlelwano bakhe bezezimali neMonsanto kumafomu wombuso noma eyunivesithi okuhloswe ngawo ukuthola ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo," kubika i-Eng.

“Imibhalo iqhubeka ikhombisa ukuthi uChassy kanye nenyuvesi bayalele iMonsanto ukuthi ifake leyo mali kwi-University of Illinois Foundation, okuwumgwamanda onamarekhodi avikelwe ekuhlolweni komphakathi. Isisekelo futhi sinamandla okuthatha imali yangasese bese siyikhiphela kumuntu 'njengeyunivesithi ekhokhelwayo' - engadalulwanga. ”

NgoJanuwari 2016, uCarey Gillam, umqondisi wezocwaningo wase-US Right to Know, kubikwe ngama-imeyili okukhombisa ukuthi amakhulu ezinkulungwane zamadola asegeleze esuka eMonsanto aya eNyuvesi yase-Illinois “njengoba uChassy ebambisene kumaphrojekthi amaningi neMonsanto ukulwisana nokukhathazeka komphakathi ngezitshalo ezishintshwe izakhi zofuzo (GMOs) - konke lokhu ngesikhathi ezimele njengesifundiswa esizimele sesikhungo somphakathi. ”

"Okutholayo lapho ufunda ngamaketanga e-imeyili amalungiselelo avumela abadlali bemboni ukuthi bahlanganise imiyalezo ye-pro-GMO ngaphakathi kweveli lobuchwepheshe obuzimele, futhi okuncane, uma kukhona, ukudalulwa esidlangalaleni kokuxhumana okwenzeka ngemuva," kubhala uGillam .

The okuthunyelwe kokugcina esizeni Sokubukeza Izifundo, sangomhla ka-Septhemba 2, 2015, yibhulogi kaChassy echaza ukuthi amanye ama-imeyili akhe azokwaziswa umphakathi ngenxa yezicelo ze-FOIA ze-US Right to Know, azibonakalisa njengokuhlaselwa eminyakeni engama-40 isayensi yomphakathi, ucwaningo nokufundisa.

Ukwesekwa kwezezimali okuvela emkhakheni ozimele ocwaningweni lomkhakha kahulumeni kanye nokufinyelela kubantu “kufanelekile, kuvamile futhi kuyadingeka ukufeza izidingo zomphakathi,” kubhala uChassy. "Ukwesekwa okunjalo kufanele, futhi kukho konke engikubonile, kube sobala futhi kwenziwe ngaphansi kweziqondiso zokuziphatha eziqinile zezikhungo zikahulumeni ezisizakala emikhakheni ezimele noma eminikelweni yomuntu ngamunye yezezimali."

Ezinsukwini ezintathu kamuva, amanye ama-imeyili kaChassy aqala ukwenziwa obala ekhasini lokuqala New York Times i-athikili yomlobi wezindaba ophumelele amahlandla amabili wePulitzer Prize u-Eric Lipton. ULipton ubike ukuthi uMonsanto wanikeza uChassy isibonelelo semali engadalulwanga ngo-2011 “yokwenza imisebenzi ye-biotechnology nemisebenzi yezemfundo.”

UChassy utshele uLipton ukuthi imali ayithola kuMonsanto "isize ekukhuphuleni izwi lakhe ngokuhamba, iwebhusayithi ayenzile nezinye izindlela."

Usathola I-Press njengoMthombo Ozimele 

Ngaphandle kokudalulwa kuma-imeyili nokudalulwa kwezibopho zezezimali zikaChassy eMonsanto, iwebhusayithi ye-Academics Review kanye nombiko wayo ohlasela imboni yezinto eziphilayo kusathunyelwe ku-inthanethi nazo zonke izincazelo ezithi zizimele.

Futhi uChassy usakujabulela ukusakazwa ngabezindaba njengochwepheshe "ozimele" kuma-GMO. NgoMeyi 2016, babili abahlukene Associated Press izindaba ucaphune uChassy ngaleso sihloko. Ayikho le ndaba eye yakhuluma ngokuxhumana kwezezimali kukaChassy nomphakathi manje neMonsanto.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabaphathi beqembu labathengi i-US Right to Know. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethole umklomelo, “Hhayi Ubuso nje Obuhle: I-Ugly Side ye-Beauty Industry” (New Society 2007). 

Kungani iCornell University Ibamba Umkhankaso We-GMO Propaganda?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Ukumela isayensi - noma inkulumo-ze?

Lo mbhalo ka-Stacy Malkan wasekuqaleni uvele ku- Isazi sezinto eziphilayo

Abasunguli beCornell University, u-Andrew D. White no-Ezra Cornell, baphupha ngokwakha inyuvesi enkulu ethatha indlela ebucayi yokufunda. Umoya wabo wenguquko, nesithembiso sokuphishekela ulwazi ngokuzuzisa okukhulu, ngu wathi enhliziyweni yesikole i-Ivy League iphupho labo laba.

Kunzima ukuqonda ukuthi le mibono isetshenziswa kanjani yiyunithi yaseCornell esebenza njengengalo yezobudlelwano bomphakathi embonini yezolimo.

Nokho yilokho okubonakala kuqhubeka eCornell Alliance for Science (CAS), uhlelo umkhankaso ngo-2014 ngesibonelelo sika- $ 5.6 million esivela ku-Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation kanye nomgomo “wokudicilela phansi inkulumo-mpikiswano ekhokhisiwe” mayelana nama-GMO.

Ukubuyekezwa kwezinto zokwenziwa nezinhlelo zeqembu kusikisela ukuthi ngaphansi kwesithembiso salo “sokubuyisa ukubaluleka kobufakazi besayensi ekuthathweni kwezinqumo,” i-CAS ithuthukisa ama-GMO isebenzisa imiyalezo engathembekile namasu we-PR akhiwa izinkampani zezolimo ezinomlando omude wokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi .

Ukuxhumana nesayensi noma inkulumo-ze?

I-CAS umkhankaso wezokuxhumana ozinikele ekukhuthazeni ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo (okwaziwa nangokuthi ama-GMO) emhlabeni jikelele. Lokhu kucaciswa kweqembu ividiyo yephromoshini.

Umqondisi we-CAS USarah Evanega, PhD, uchaza iqembu lakhe "njengenhlangano engenzi nzuzo yezokuxhumana emelwe ososayensi, abalimi, ama-NGO, izintatheli kanye nezakhamizi ezikhathazekile" ezizosebenzisa "amapulatifomu asebenzisanayo e-inthanethi, izinsizakusebenza zemultimedia nezinhlelo zokuqeqesha ezokuxhumana ukwakha inhlangano yomhlaba wonke yokukhuthaza ukufinyelela kwi-biotechnology . ”

Ngale ndlela, bathi bazosiza ekunciphiseni ukungondleki nendlala emazweni asathuthuka, ngokusho kwevidiyo.

UDkt Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe alinakho ukuxhumana nezimboni futhi alitholi izinsiza ezivela embonini. "Asibhaleli izimboni, futhi asikhuthazi noma siphakamise imikhiqizo ephethwe yimboni," ubhale kanje iposi blog enesihloko esithi “Ilungelo Lokwaziwa (Ngokunembile) lapho ebephindisela khona emuva ekugxekeni eqenjini lami, i-US Right to Know.

Noma kunjalo izinhlelo ezihamba phambili ze-CAS - isifundo samasonto ayi-12 se- Abaholi Bomhlaba Wonke Bobuholi kanye nezinsuku ezimbili izifundo zokuxhumana - fundisa amakhono okuxhumana nabantu "abazibophezele ekukhuthazeni ukufinyelela okwandisiwe kwe-biotechnology" ikakhulukazi ukuze bakwazi "ukuhola imizamo yokukhuthaza ezimeni zabo zendawo."

Leli qembu futhi linokusebenzisana okungajwayelekile nezintatheli. Kusho ukuthini, njengoba ividiyo ye-CAS isho, ukuthi "imelwe" yizintatheli?

Ukunikezwa kwe-CAS ubudlelwane bobuntathelis ngemiklomelo yemali yezintatheli ezikhethiwe ukuze “zithuthukise ukubika okunemibandela ejulile” mayelana nezinkinga eziphathelene nokuvikeleka kokudla, ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo, ubuchwepheshe be-biotechnology kanye nezolimo ezisimeme.

Ngabe lezi zintatheli nazo zingabameli beGMO? Kulungile kanjani ukuthi izintatheli zimelele izikhundla zenqubomgomo yeqembu elisekela ezolimo nemboni?

Imilayezo yezintshisekelo zebhizinisi

Into eyodwa icacile emyalezweni we-CAS otholakala esidlangalaleni: umongo abawunikeza ngesihloko sokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo awunabunzulu futhi ubanzi kepha ukhetha kakhulu futhi uhlose ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezolimo.

Isibonelo, ividiyo: Egcwele ithemba ngamathuba ama-GMO wokuxazulula indlala emhlabeni ngokuzayo, ayishayi indiva inqwaba yocwaningo lwezesayensi olubhale izinkinga ezihlobene nama-GMO - izitshalo ze-GMO ezibekezelela ukhula kuqhutshwa phezulu ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, i-herbicide kuxhumene nomdlavuza ngochwepheshe abaphambili bomdlavuza emhlabeni; futhi yashesha ukumelana nokhula ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-US, elenza ukukhiqizwa kwezitshalo kube nzima kubalimi, kungabi lula.

Akukho lapho kushiwo khona ukwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ezenzelwe gwema izinambuzane eziyingozi, noma ukukhathazeka okukhulayo kodokotela bamaphethini ngokugula ezindaweni ezinjenge Hawaii futhi Argentina lapho ukuvezwa kusinda kakhulu kumakhemikhali ahambisana nama-GMO.

Akukho ukuqashelwa ukuthi abaningi ososayensi futhi ukudla abaholi bathe ama-GMO awabalulekile ekuphakeleni umhlaba, impikiswano okuyisona sizathu esenza izitshalo ze-GMO zingamukelwa kabanzi ngaphandle kwase-United States naseLatin America.

Zonke lezi zinto zifanele engxoxweni yokuthi amazwe asathuthuka kufanele yini amukele izitshalo nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Kepha i-CAS ishiya eceleni le mininingwane futhi ikhulise umbono ongelona iqiniso wokuthi isayensi ixazululwe ekuphepheni nasekudingekeni kwama-GMO.

Ukusabalalisa imininingwane ekhethiwe yohlobo oluchemile noma oludukisayo ukuthuthukisa i-ajenda ethile kwaziwa njengomkhuba wenkulumo-ze.

Ukusebenza encwadini yokudlala ye-PR yomkhakha

 ICornell Alliance for Science bekufanele samanje “Umbono omusha wezokuxhumana kwe-biotechnology,” kepha iqembu lithembele kusethi yemilayezo namasu wokuxhumana ajwayelekile kunoma ngubani olandela imikhankaso ye-PR embonini yamabhizinisi ezolimo.

Umbiko Ukuphalaza ukudla, engibhalile ngokubambisana noKari Hamerschlag no-Anna Lappé, ibhala ukuthi amaqembu axhaswa ngezimboni zezolimo nezimboni asebenzisa kanjani amashumi ezigidi zamaRandi ngonyaka ukukhuthaza imiyalezo edukisayo maqondana nokuphepha kanye nesidingo sezolimo esisebenza ngezimboni, esisebenza ngamakhemikhali, nofuzo.

Izinkampani ezizuza kakhulu kulolu hlelo - iMonsanto, iDow, iDuPont nezinye iziqhwaga zezolimo - ziphambanise kaningi ukuthembela ngokudukisa umphakathi ngesayensi, njengoba uGary Ruskin akhombisile embikweni wakhe Ibhizinisi Lokusiza. Ngakho bathembele amaqembu angaphambili futhi ababambisene nabangaphandle njengososayensi noprofesa ukusabalalisa imiyalezo yabo.

Indaba esemqoka embonini ukuthi isayensi yezokuphepha kwe-GMO ixazululiwe. Izithunywa ze-pro-industry zigxila ekusetshenzisweni kobuchwepheshe esikhathini esizayo ngenkathi zilulaza, zinganaki noma ziphika ubungozi; yenza izimangalo ezinganembile mayelana nezinga lesivumelwano sesayensi kuma-GMO; futhi bahlasele abagxeki abaphakamisa ukukhathazeka njenge- "anti-science."

Njengesibonelo esisodwa, uMark Lynas, umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS, wabhala i-New York Times i-op-ed esola amazwe ayi-17 e-European Union avimbela ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ze-GMO ngokuthi “kuphendulwa isayensi.” Wababiza ngokuthi “umfelandawonye wabangazi.”

I-athikili inzima ekuhlaselweni nasekukhanyeni kwesayensi, ibhulasha phezu kwesihloko ngesimangalo esingalungile mayelana nokuvumelana kokuphepha okuthi ososayensi abaningi baphikisile.

Njengesazi sezakhi zofuzo uBelinda Martineau, PhD, wabhala ku impendulo kuLynas, "Ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo… (akukhona) ngokwesayensi, akunangqondo futhi akunangqondo."

I-World Health Organization uthi, "Akunakwenzeka ukwenza izitatimende ezijwayelekile mayelana nokuphepha kwakho konke ukudla okuphathelene ne-GM."

Kodwa-ke, ngenkathi bethi bayimele isayensi, i-CAS ijwayele ukwenza izimangalo ngokujwayelekile - nokungajwayelekile - mayelana nokuphepha kwe-GMO.

Kusuka kweqembu Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa:

  • "Kungenzeka ukuthi ushayiswe yi-asteroid kunokulimazwa ukudla kwe-GE - futhi lokho akulona ihaba."
  • “Izilimo ze-GE ezitholakalela umphakathi njengamanje azinabungozi obukhulu kwezempilo noma ukukhathazeka ngezemvelo kunezinye zazo ezingezona izakhi. Lona akuwona umbono wami. ”

Eqinisweni, kuyinkulumo-ze.

Ukulwa nokuba sobala kwezesayensi

Ngentwasahlobo ka-2014, i-CAS yethule i- isikhalazo ngihlasela iqembu lami lase-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ngokufaka izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuthola ama-imeyili oprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni njengengxenye yethu uphenyo ezimbonini zokudla nezolimo kanye nemisebenzi yabo ye-PR.

I-CAS ibize i-FOIA ukuthi icele "ukuzingelwa kwabathakathi," kepha imibhalo etholwe ngalezi zicelo ze-FOIA iveze izindaba ezindabeni emithonjeni yezindaba ephezulu emayelana nezifundiswa ezazisebenza nezinhlangano zezimboni ze-PR emikhankasweni yokukhuthaza ama-GMO ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho emphakathini.

Indaba yagqashuka ekhasini lokuqala leNew York Times esihlokweni ngu-Eric Lipton owaphumelela kabili umklomelo wePulitzer Prize, owachaza ukuthi iMonsanto, lapho ibhekene nokungaqiniseki kwabathengi ngama-GMO, “ibuyise kabusha isu labo lokunxenxa nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukuze kubonakale iqembu labameli abangavamile: izifundiswa, ezilethwe ekukhanyeni okungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eza nozalo loprofesa. ”

Kokunye, kubika nguLaura Krantz eBoston Globe, isikhulu seMonsanto sitshele uprofesa waseHarvard uCalestous Juma ukuthi abhale iphepha mayelana nokuthi adingeka kanjani ama-GMO ukondla i-Afrika.

“IMonsanto ayigcinanga nje ngokusikisela lesi sihloko kusolwazi uCalestous Juma. Kufike lapho kuze kwanikezwa isifinyezo sokuthi iphepha lingathini kanye nesihloko esiphakanyisiwe. Le nkampani bese ixhuma lo profesa nenkampani yezokumaketha ukuyipompa nge-Internet njengengxenye yecebo likaMonsanto lokunqoba umphakathi nabomthetho, ”kubhala uKrantz.

UJuma uthe akayithathanga mali eMonsanto kodwa uqaphele ukuthi uthole uxhaso kwiGates Foundation, ebibambisene neMonsanto iminyaka eminingi kumaphrojekthi we-GMO ngemuva URob Horsch, Isikhulu esiphezulu seMonsanto ekuthuthukisweni kwamazwe omhlaba, wajoyina iSisekelo ngo-2006. IHorsch manje kuhola Ithimba lezocwaningo nezentuthuko zikaGates. (A Ukuhlaziywa kwe-2014 yiqembu locwaningo iGrain lithole ukuthi cishe ama-90% ama- $ 3 billion iGates Foundation ayisebenzisile ukondla abampofu e-Afrika waya ezizweni ezicebile, ikakhulukazi amanyuvesi nezikhungo zocwaningo.)

Umphakathi unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi ngabe izifundiswa ezenza imithombo ezimele zisebenza ngasese nezinkampani kanye namafemu abo e-PR emikhankasweni yemiyalezo ehlanganisiwe ukuze baqhube i-ajenda yenkampani.

I-CAS ithatha isikhundla esicelweni sayo sokuthi umphakathi awunalo ilungelo lokwazi ngobudlelwano obuphakathi kwabasebenzi bezimboni ze-PR nososayensi bomphakathi abayi-14 "abafake isandla ekuvumelaneni kwesayensi mayelana nokuphepha kwama-GMO."

Isicelo sikaCornell sihambisana nemontage yezithombe equkethe uCarl Sagan, Madame Curie, Albert Einstein nabanye ososayensi abangasekho abangasayinisanga isicelo, bagxivizwa ngesiqubulo esithi, “Ngima ne- # Science14” - okuncane okukhangayo kwe-PR okubukisa i inkulumo-ze yokungathembeki kujwayele ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.

Ukuqondanisa nabalobi bezimboni ze-PR

Esikhungweni esihlonishwayo njengoCornell, ungalindela ukuthola ochwepheshe kwizifundo zesayensi noma zokuziphatha ezifundisa izifundo zokuxhumana ezithembisa ukubuyisa ubuqotho besayensi enkulumweni yomphakathi. Esikhundleni salokho, ku-CAS, uzothola ochwepheshe kwezokuxhumana kwezinhlekelele abagxile ekuphikiseni imithetho yezempilo yomphakathi.

Isibonelo, uTrevor Butterworth, umuntu ovakashele eCornell kanye nomqondisi weSense About Science ("inhlangano engathathi hlangothi, engenzi nzuzo ekhuthaza ukuqonda ngesayensi!") ukubambisana nge-CAS ukufundisa abafundi nososayensi ukuthi bangaxhumana kanjani nezintatheli mayelana nama-GMO.

IButterworth inomlando omude wokuxhumana nesayensi ukuze kuhlomule izinkampani ezifisa ukugcina imikhiqizo yazo ingalawulwa. I-Milwaukee Journal Sentinel ka-2009 esihlokweni nguMeg Kissinger noSusanne Rust mayelana nemizamo yokunxenxa izimboni kwi-bisphenol A (BPA) emkhombe "njengombhali wezobudlelwano embonini yamakhemikhali."

Njengomhleli we-STATS eGeorge Mason University, uButterworth wayengumvikeli omkhulu we-BPA "ohlanganisa njalo i-Intanethi ezindabeni ze-BPA futhi anikeze imibono ngaphandle kokuveza obudlelwano bakhe nezimboni," kubhala uKissinger noRust.

“I-STATS ithi izimele futhi ayithathi hlangothi. Kepha ukubuyekezwa kwemibiko yayo yezezimali kukhombisa ukuthi igatsha leCentre for Media and Public Affairs. Leli qembu lakhokhelwa imboni kagwayi ukuze liqaphe izindaba ezithinta ubungozi bukagwayi. ” (Imboni kagwayi, baphawula ukuthi, yayinxenxa nemboni yamakhemikhali ukugcina i-BPA ingalawulwa.)

IButterworth iphinde yathuthukisa nezikhundla ezimbonini eziphikisana nemithetho ye-vinyl plastic kanye phthalates, ukukhwabanisa, i-fructose ephezulu isiraphu yengqolowa futhi ama-sodas anoshukela.

Manje usebenzisana neCAS ukufundisa abafundi indlela yokuxhumana ngama-GMO, kanti umqondisi wezepolitiki we-CAS uLynas uhlala ebhodini lezeluleko leSense About Science.

Umsebenzi kaLynas uphakamisa imibuzo eminingi: Kungani iqembu lesayensi lidinga umqondisi wezepolitiki? Futhi kungani iCAS ikhetha uLynas ngendima? ULynas akayena usosayensi kepha ungumbhali wezemvelo owasukuma udumo olungazelelwe ngemuva kokwamukela ama-GMO, futhi isayensi yakhe iye yagxilwa isikhathi eside ngu ososayensi, Izintatheli futhi oprofesa.

Ukwehlisa impikiswano ye-GMO?

Izinkampani zaziwa ngokusabalalisa imiyalezo ethusayo lapho imikhiqizo yazo ingena enkingeni; izibonelo kufaka phakathi i- "DDT ilungele mina," "Odokotela abaningi bayabhema amaKamela" kanye nomkhankaso weDutch Boy wokukhuthaza upende wokuhola ezinganeni.

Iphuzu eliphansi lokuthumela imiyalezo embonini yamakhemikhali bekungokwalo Umkhankaso we-PR ukudweba umbhali “weSilent Spring” uRachel Carson (kanye nezazi zemvelo ngokujwayelekile) njengababulali bezigidi zezingane e-Afrika ngokuveza ukukhathazeka nge-DDT.

Lolo hlobo lwemiyalezo lubuyela emuva empikiswaneni ye-GMO.

NgoSepthemba 2015, i-CAS Speakers Series yabamba u-Owen Paterson, iLungu lePhalamende lase-UK, ngo-a inkulumo enesihloko esithi, “Bheka Ilungelo Lakho Eliluhlaza: Akusona Isimo Sezulu Ukuvumela Izigidi Zife.”

EzikaPaterson inkulumo kwagcwala izimangalo ze-hyperbolic mayelana nama-GMO angenakho ukuqina kwesayensi (ama-GMOs) empeleni iphephe kunezilimo ezijwayelwe ... enye yezintuthuko ezigcina imvelo emhlabeni ingakaze ibonwe… kungasindisa izimpilo eziyizigidi ezisaphazwa namuhla yimibono yamaqembu omkhankaso wezemvelo asekelwa kakhulu. ”)

Le nkulumo ithole indumiso evela ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu eliphambili lezimboni, ku blog nguDkt. Gil Ross onesihloko esithi, "Imikhankaso Eluhlaza Yezigidigidi Eziyizigidi Ezimbili Ibulala Izingane Ezimpofu."

URoss uchaze kubhulogi ukuthi iCAS Speakers Series yadalwa, “ukusebenzisa amaqiniso ukumelana nokuthambekela okubonakalayo kwabafundi basekolishi ukulandela imantra yezemvelo ngaphandle kokucabanga kakhulu… umqondo wokwesaba ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo ufana nokubheka ngaphansi kombhede ngenxa yama-hobgoblins afana no-Godzilla, avuswa ukuhlolwa kwe-athomu kwempi yomshoshaphansi. ”

UPaterson noRoss abasizi ngomfanekiso wobuqotho besayensi i-CAS izama ukuveza lokho. URoss uyisigebengu esilahlwe yicala esachitha isikhathi ejele ngokukhwabanisa kweMedicaid. UPaterson, owayengunobhala wezemvelo e-UK, ubonakala kabanzi njenge- ukuguquguquka kwesimo sezulu kuyabazeka imibono kabani akuhambisani nesayensi.

Ngabe ama-blogger aseHawaii asiza kanjani ukondla abampofu e-Afrika?

 Ngenkathi yokukhula konyaka, iziQhingi zaseHawaii ziyindawo ebalulekile yokuhlola ama-GMO. Futhi ayiziro yomhlabathi ye- ukukhathazeka mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane ezihlotshaniswa nama-GMO, kanye nokugxila okuyinhloko kwemikhankaso yenkulumo-ze ye-pro-GMO yomkhakha nabalingani bayo njenge-CAS.

Elif Bealle, umqondisi omkhulu we IHawaii Alliance Yezenzo Eziqhubekayo, ubesebenza emizamweni engaphansi ye ukubikwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, banns futhi izindawo zokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane cishe izitshalo ze-GMO. Ubuye futhi wabheka i-CAS, athe ibilanda ama-blogger endawo futhi inabalingani eziQhingini eziningana.

“Baziveza 'njengezakhamuzi zendawo ezikhathazekile' noma 'njengezintatheli ezingathathi hlangothi.' Cishe basebenza isikhathi esigcwele bephawula ngama-athikili ephephandaba aku-inthanethi, bethumela, i-Community Voice Op-Eds, njll. Okuthunyelwe kwabo kubhulogi kuthathwa njalo kusatshalaliswe yiwebhusayithi yeqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech eHawaii, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association, ”kusho uBealle.

Isibonelo, uJoni Kamiya, i-CAS Umfo Wobuholi Emhlabeni Wonke, usebenzisa blog yakhe, Indodakazi kaMlimi waseHawaii, ukugqugquzela “ukuphepha nesayensi” yama-GMO ngemiyalezo ecwebezela isayensi futhi ehlazisa abagxeki be-GMO.

UKamiya futhi "uchwepheshe ozimele" we-GMO Answers, a GMO PR iwebhusayithi eyenziwe yinkampani yeKetchum PR futhi ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo. Izindatshana zakhe zibhalwe ku KaJon Entine I-Genetic Literacy Project, nayo eyathwetshelwa ukushicilela amaphepha okuphakanyiswa kweGMO anikezwe abakwaMonsanto futhi abhalwa ngosolwazi.

Ukubhalwa kukaKamiya kuvela ekhasini lasekhaya le- IKauai Farming and Jobs Coalition, iqembu elinemali engaziwa elithi "limele abantu kanye nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene emphakathini wethu" futhi lithuthukisa izindatshana zeMonsanto, i-Genetic Literacy Project kanye neminye imboni yokudla amaqembu angaphambili njengesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi.

Abanye ababambisene ne-CAS eziqhingini bahlanganisa uLorie Farrell, a Umlingani we-CAS obhalela izimpendulo ze-GMO futhi wasiza ukuxhumanisa ukuphikisana nokuvinjelwa kokulinywa kwe-GMO esiQhingini Esikhulu sabaFuyi baseHawaii nabaseRanchers United; noJoan Conrow, obonisana nabantu isivumelwano noCornell bese ebhala i- ibhulogi elibhekene IKauai Eclectic.

Imiyalezo yabo ilandela iphethini ejwayelekile: bathi ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO futhi bahlasela abantu abafuna ukubekwa obala nokuphepha njengabantu bangaphandle ababulala "umoya we-Aloha" weziQhingi.

Ukuhlomisa ingxabano

Kuye esihlokweni, "The War on Genetically Modified Food Critics," uTufts uProfesa Timothy Wise uthatha abezindaba abenze iphutha ngokulahla amaqhinga embonini ye-PR futhi ngokungafanele abike isayensi ku-GMO "njengelungisiwe."

"Esikubonayo wumkhankaso ohlangene wokuthi… kupendwe abagxeki be-GMO njengabaphikisana nesayensi ekubeni benganiki ngxoxo ebucayi ngempikiswano yesayensi esathukuthele," kubhala uWise.

Esinye isikhombisi salowo mkhankaso, uthe, kwakuwumnikelo weGates Foundation eya kuCornell ukuze "adicilele phansi" impikiswano ngokudla okuyi-GM.

"IGates Foundation ikhokhela ososayensi nabameli baseCornell ukubasiza bakholwe umphakathi ongenalwazi nongavunyelwe ingqondo, 'okungenzeka ukuthi abanolwazi olwanele,' ukuthi abanalwazi futhi badidekile engqondweni ... Kufana nokudicilela phansi isifuba ngokulwa nohlangothi olulodwa izikhali eziningi, ”kubhala uWise.

Esikhundleni sokuhlomisa izimpi ze-PR ngenhloso yokusebenzela imboni, iCornell University kufanele imele isayensi ngokubiza ingxoxo ethembekile ngama-GMO - evuma ubungozi kanye nezinzuzo zokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Lowo ogwema ukuhlasela futhi afune indawo esivumelana ngayo namaqembu afuna ukubekwa obala kanye namazinga ezempilo nezokuphepha.

Umqondisi we-CAS uDkt. Evanega uthe iqembu lakhe linamanani afanayo azungeze ilungelo lokwazi nokufinyelela olwazini, futhi uphikisana nombono wokuthi i-CAS yasungulwa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO.

“Lokho okubizwa ngokuthi 'ama-GMOs' akuyona into e-monolithic,” kubhala uDkt. Evanega kuye blog. “Isibonelo, akunangqondo ukuhlanganisa ndawonye ubuchwepheshe obuhlukahlukene njengamabhaktheriya akhiqizelwe ukukhiqiza i-insulin nopopo okwenzelwe ukumelana negciwane. Sisekela ukufinyelela - emisha kanye nolwazi oluzosiza abantu benze izinqumo ezizwakalayo ezisuselwa kwisayensi nobufakazi - hhayi ukwesaba, imizwa. ”

Impela ama-GMO akuyona into e-monolithic. Yingakho kungalungile futhi kungathembeki ukusho ukuthi abantu banamathuba amaningi okushaywa yi-asteroid kunokulimala ngama-GMO.

Ubumbano lwesayensi olumayelana nokubuyisa ubuqotho kwisayensi kufanele lukhanyise irekhodi eliphelele locwaningo, hhayi ukuphalaza amaphuzu okukhuluma amafemu e-PR nabadlali bezinkampani.

UStacy Malkan ungomunye wabasunguli nomqondisi-co weqembu labathengi I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ungumbhali wencwadi ethi, “Not Just a Pretty Face: The Ugly Side of the Beauty Industry,” (New Society Publishing, 2007). UStacy wayeyintatheli futhi engummemezeli wephephandaba futhi esengummeli wesikhathi eside wezempilo yezemvelo. Ubuye wasungula iCampaign for Safe Cosmetics ngo-2002 wasebenza njengomqondisi wezokuxhumana kwi-Health Care Without Harm iminyaka eyisishiyagalombili.

Isikhungo Senkululeko Yabathengi - amaqiniso asemqoka

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isifinyezo

* Yaqalwa ngonyaka we-1995 njenge-Guest Choice Network

* UPhillip Morris unikeze le nhlangano imali eyi- $ 600,000 ngemali yezimbewu

* Indawo yokudlela, izimali zenkampani kagwayi zasetshenziselwa ukulwa nokuvinjelwa kokubhema ezindaweni zokudlela

* Izindleko ezingaphezu kuka-40% ezihanjiselwe isitolo sokunxenxa uCenter for Consumer Freedom (CCF) uRick Berman

* Izinkokhelo eziya enkampanini yokubamba iqhaza eBerman ziholele iCharity Navigator ukuthumela ukwelulekwa kwabaxhasi ngeCCF

* ISIKHATHI: Ukuhlaselwa Kwenhlangano Yezabasebenzi "okushaya kancane"

Isikhungo Sokukhululeka Kwabathengi Ekuqaleni Sikhokhelwa Izimboni Zikagwayi Nezokudlela Ukulwa Nokuvinjelwa Kokubhema Ezitolo Zokudlela

Ngokusho the Washington Post, iCentre for Consumer Freedom - ngaleso sikhathi eyayibizwa ngokuthi iGuest Choice Network - ekuqaleni yayixhaswe ngemali “yenkampani kagwayi neyokudlela ukuze kuliwe nemingcele yokubhema ezindaweni zokudlela.”

The Thumela ibike ukuthi "uPhilip Morris USA Inc. wathembisa u- $ 600,000 - iningi lemali yembewu - eqenjini likaBerman ngo-1995. Inkampani yathi idinga umxhumanisi owayengumboni ophakathi nendawo '' futhi '' eqoqwe njengengxenye yenkantolo yamazwe amaningi emelene nezinkampani zikagwayi. ” [Washington Post, 4 / 27 / 05]

ISIKHATHI yabika ngo-2013 ukuthi leli qembu laxhaswa yimali evela kuPhilip Morris, futhi ladalelwa ukuthuthukisa “amalungelo ababhemayo” ezimbonini zokudlela nezokungenisa izihambi. [ISIKHATHI, 8 / 12 / 13]

Kusukela Izimpande Ezikhokhelwa Ugwayi, I-CCF Iselulekele Kwezinye Izindawo Ezithandekayo Zokuthakazelisa

Ngemuva kokushintshwa kwegama layo laba yiCentre for Consumer Freedom ngo-2001, iWashington Post yabika ukuthi “yagxila kakhulu ezindabeni zokudla neziphuzo, yaphakanyiswa ukukhathazeka ngokukhuluphala, isifo sezinkomo ezihlanyayo nemikhiqizo eguqulwe izakhi zofuzo.” [Washington Post, 4 / 27 / 05]

ISIKHATHI yabika ngo-2013 ukuthi i-CCF yandile ukukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kwenyama, kanye nokuphikisana nobufakazi besayensi ngobungozi be-mercury ne-high fructose corn syrup. [ISIKHATHI, 8 / 12 / 13]

Izindleko ezingaphezu kuka-40% zeCCF zaya eBerman naseNkampanini kusukela ngo-2002-2012

Ithebula elingezansi lichaza izindleko eziphelele ze-CCF kanye nesinxephezelo esikhokhelwe yi-CCF kuBerman naseNkampani kusukela ngonyaka wentela ka-2002 kuya onyakeni wentela ka-2012.

Ngaleso sikhathi, ngaphezu kuka-40% wazo zonke izindleko zeCCF zaya eBerman naseNkampanini, kwathi kuleyo minyaka emihlanu (2002, 2007, 2008, 2010 nango-2011) imali engaphezu kwengxenye yezindleko zeCCF yaya eBerman naseNkampanini.

IntelaUnyaka UbudeIzindleko Isinxephezelo ku- UBerman neNkampani % Yezindleko eziya ku-UBerman neNkampani
2012 $ 1,024,582 $ 246,874 24.10%
2011 $ 2,121,780 $ 1,294,488 61.01%
2010 $ 2,640,780 $ 1,682,126 63.70%
2009 $ 8,831,659 $ 1,461,597 16.55%
2008 $ 1,594,299 $ 1,043,604 65.46%
2007 $ 1,951,753 $ 1,562,280 80.04%
2006 $ 3,291,050 $ 1,190,512 36.17%
2005 $ 3,818,769 $ 1,623,186 42.51%
2004 $ 3,246,452 $ 1,435,056 44.20%
2003 $ 2,752,519 $ 1,252,344 45.50%
2002 $ 1,970,803 $ 1,044,553 53.00%
TOTAL $ 33,244,446 $ 13,836,620 41.62%

[I-CCF IRS Form 990 filings]

Izinkokhelo ezeqile zeCCF eziya eBerman Led Charity Navigator Ukukhipha Iseluleko Sabanikeli

ICharity Navigator, umhloli wokuzimela omkhulu kunabo bonke waseMelika, njengamanje unoMeluleki Wabanikeli maqondana neCCF.

Ekwelulekeni, iCharity Navigator iveze ukuthi ukuhlaziywa kwabo kweFomu 2011 le-CCF lika-990 kwaveza ukuthi iningi lezindleko zeCCF zakhokhelwa iBerman kanye neNkampani, nokuthi “sithola umkhuba wenkontileka yokupha esiza izinsizakalo zokuphatha ngebhizinisi eliphethwe yilelo Isikhulu esiphezulu senkampani esiza abantulayo sisebenza kabi uma siqhathaniswa nezinye izinkampani ezisiza umphakathi ezisizayo. ” [Iseluleko sabanikeli beCharity Navigator]

Umlando Omude Wokwenza Ukuhlaselwa Kamanga Ngezinhlangano Ezihlonishwayo

ICentre for Consumer Freedom inomlando omude wokwenza ukuhlasela okungelona iqiniso nokungaqondakali kwezinhlangano ezihlonishwayo, kubandakanya iHumane Society, Mothers Against Drunk Driving kanye neTrout Unlimited.

UBerman uthi amaqembu anjalo "aneqembu elinodlame kuwo." [Washington Post, 4 / 27 / 05]

ISIKHATHI: Ukuhlaselwa Kwenhlangano Yezobuntu “Ukushaya Okuncane”

Ngo-Agasti 2013, ISIKHATHI ibike ngokuxhaswa kweCCF ngezikhangiso ezihlasela iHumane Society.

Lezi zikhangiso zithi yi-1% kuphela yemali engenayo yeNhlangano yoMphakathi eya ezindaweni zokukhosela zendawo, ukuhlaselwa ISIKHATHI ebizwa ngokuthi "ukushaywa okuphansi." [ISIKHATHI, 8 / 12 / 13]