Ukuvala Izimpikiswano Namuhla, AmaJurors Wokulimaza Ngamabomu Komdlavuza Obangelwa yiRoundup

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Umbhalo wezinqubo zanamuhla) 

Abameli baka-Edwin Hardeman bethule impikiswano yabo yokuvala namuhla eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eSan Francisco, becela ama-jurors ukuthi ajezise uMonsanto ngokwehluleka ukuxwayisa ngobungozi bomdlavuza we-Roundup herbicide.

Ummeli uJennifer Moore wethule ukuvalwa kwethimba labammangali, kanti ummeli kaMonsanto uBrian Stekloff wenza ingxoxo yakhe yokuvala, waqeda ukuqulwa kwecala okwase kuyinyanga yonke esivele saqopha isinqumo sokuqala sejaji esathola ukuthi iRoundup "yayiyinto ebalulekile" ekubangeleni ukuthi uHardeman IHodgkin lymphoma.

Isinqumo sejaji manje kumane nje kuyindaba yemali - noma ngabe uMonsanto kufanele akhokhe umonakalo, kufaka phakathi umonakalo wokujeziswa, kuHardeman. Yize amajaji esevele enqume ukuthi i-Roundup idale umonakalo ku-Hardeman, kusamele banqume ukuthi ngabe iMonsanto kufanele ithweswe icala ngaleyo ngozi. I- Imiyalo yamajaji shayela ama-jurors ukuze phendula imibuzo emithathu ukuze ukwazi ukunquma umonakalo: Ingabe ukwakheka kukaRoundup kwakungalungile? Ngabe i-Roundup yaswela isixwayiso esanele sezingozi ezingaba khona? Futhi ngabe iMonsanto yayinganaki ngokungasebenzisi ukunakekelwa okufanelekile ukuxwayisa ngezingozi ezibangelwa yiRoundup?

Abameli bakaMonsanto abakashintshi isikhundla sabo sokuthi iRoundup ayibangeli umdlavuza. Kepha ngendaba yesikweletu baphikise ukuthi ngesikhathi uHardeman wasebenzisa i-Roundup - kusuka ku-1986 kuya ku-2012 - akukho nhlangano yezomthetho noma yezempilo eyayidinga isexwayiso kumalebula e-Roundup maqondana nomdlavuza, kanti iMonsanto yayingenabo ubufakazi obuholela ekutheni ikholelwe ukuthi isixwayiso siyadingeka.

Ebufakazini bangoMsombuluko, owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto uHugh Grant uvikele ukuziphatha kwenkampani ezungeze iRoundup nokho wavuma inkampani ayikaze yenze ucwaningo lwezifo ze-Roundup yize inkampani yachitha imali engaphezu kwezigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama- $ 1 minyaka yonke icwaninga ngemikhiqizo emisha.

"UMonsanto wenza ngokuzibophezela," ummeli wenkampani UBrian Stekloff utshele ijaji evikini eledlule. Ukutshela ama-jurors "lo akuwona umncintiswano wokuthandwa," uthe abukho ubufakazi bokuthi uMonsanto wenza ngokunganaki. "IMonsanto, ehambisana nesayensi, ehambisana nokuthi isayensi ibibhekwa kanjani emhlabeni wonke, yenze ngendlela efanele futhi akufanele itholakale inecala," esho.

Abameli bakaHardeman batshele amajaji ukuthi kunengcebo yobufakazi besayensi obukhombisa izingozi zomdlavuza ezihambisana neRoundup kodwa uMonsanto wakhetha ukuzama ukucindezela kanye / noma ukudicilela phansi imininingwane kunokuba axwayise amakhasimende afana noHardeman.

Uma amajaji ethola ukuthi iMonsanto inesibopho, amaqembu asevele avumile inani elingu- $ 200,967.10 lokulahleka kwezomnotho. Kodwa ama-jorors angakhetha ukwengeza 'umonakalo ongekho ku-economic' kulesi sibalo, futhi bangeze nomonakalo wokujezisa.

UJaji Vince Chhabria kusho isinqumo esedlule ukuthi "kwakukhona ubufakazi obuningi" bokusekela umklomelo wokujeziswa kweMonsanto nokukhombisa ukuthi inkampani "ayikaze ithathe indlela ebhekele ukuphepha komkhiqizo wayo."

Ijaji lithe kukhona "ubufakazi obuqinile lapho ijaji lingaphetha ngokuthi iMonsanto ayinandaba nokuthi umkhiqizo wayo empeleni unikeza abantu umdlavuza, ugxile ekusebenziseni umbono womphakathi futhi ubukela phansi noma ngubani ophakamisa ukukhathazeka kwangempela futhi okusemthethweni ngale ndaba."

Esivivinyweni sokuqala somdlavuza we-Roundup, ijaji ngoJulayi odlule unikezwe izigidi ezingu-$ 289 kummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson, yize ijaji lanciphisa lesi sinqumo saba ngu- $ 78 million.

Ubufakazi Obunqunyiwe Njengoba Isivivinyo Somdlavuza WeMonsanto Sivunguza Phansi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Umbhalo wezinqubo zanamuhla) 

Abameli baka-Edwin Hardeman ukunciphisa kakhulu inani lofakazi nobufakazi obuzokwethulwa kumajaji okufanele anqume ukuthi iMonsanto nomnikazi wayo omusha uBayer banesibopho sokukhulisa uHardeman we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngemuva kweminyaka yokusebenzisa i-Roundup kaMonsanto. Basalelwe ngamahora ambalwa ababelwe ijaji, athe lithe ulindele izimpikiswano zokuvala ngoLwesibili.

Ithimba lamajaji elinamalungu ayisithupha linqume ngesonto eledlule ukuthi iRoundup empeleni ibiyinto ebalulekile ekudaleni umdlavuza kaHardeman. Icala manje seligxile ekutheni kufanele kusolwe uMonsanto noma cha, futhi uma kunjalo, malini - uma kukhona - inkampani kufanele ikhokhele uHardeman kumonakalo.

Kodwa ukwenza lelo cala kungaba nzima uma ubheka isikhathi esifushane sabameli bommangali abasishiye “ewashi lesikhathi” seliphelele elibekwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria. Unikeze uhlangothi ngalunye amahora angama-30 ukuthi enze udaba lwabo.

Abameli bakaHardeman basebenzise isikhathi sabo esiningi engxenyeni yokuqala yokuqulwa kwecala futhi manje banamahora ambalwa asele. Ngenxa yalokho, banayo lazise ijaji ukuthi ngeke babize ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kubaphathi beMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein, uSteven Gould, uDavid Heering, noma uDaniel Jenkins. Futhi abazobe bethula ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kuRoger McClellan, umhleli wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT), kanye nabanye ofakazi okungenani abane.

UMcClellan ubengamele i-CRT ngesikhathi iphephabhuku lishicilela uchungechunge lwamaphepha ngoSepthemba 2016 akhuza lokho okutholwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ethola ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. Amaphepha athi abhalwe ngososayensi abazimele abathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula ubengeke abeke ingozi yomdlavuza kubantu. Kepha imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto khombisa ukuthi amaphepha acatshangwe kwasekuqaleni njengecebo likaMonsanto lokudicilela phansi i-IARC. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kepha ube nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni, noma kunjalo lokho akudalulwanga yiCRT.

Abameli bakaHardeman bahlela cishe amahora amathathu obufakazi obuvela kofakazi abahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kanye noMphathi Omkhulu uHugh Grant, owathola imali engango- $ 32 million ngesikhathi iBayer AG ithenga iMonsanto ehlobo eledlule.

Ingxoxo Yomonakalo

Zombili izinhlangothi sezivumile ukuthi uHardeman ulahlekelwe yimali elinganiselwa ku- $ 200,000 kumonakalo wezomnotho, kepha abameli bakaHardeman kulindeleke ukuthi bacele amashumi ezigidi zamadola, futhi mhlawumbe namakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi ngomonakalo ophelele, kufaka phakathi ukujeziswa.

Abameli beMonsanto baphikise noma yikuphi ukuxoxwa ngengcebo kaMonsanto kanye neBayer engamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-63 akhokhele iMonsanto, kodwa ijaji livumele imininingwane ethile yezezimali ukuthi yabelwe namajaji.

AmaJurors kungenzeka angatshelwa ncamashi ukuthi yimalini iMonsanto ayenzile eminyakeni edlule ekuthengiseni ama-herbicides ayo e-glyphosate, kepha ukubheka unyaka owodwa kuphela wezezimali - 2012, unyaka uHardeman ayeke ukusebenzisa iRoundup - kukhombisa ukuthi inkampani yenze cishe $ 2 billion ngenzuzo ephelele lowo nyaka.

IJaji uChhabria kuphawulwe ezingxoxweni nabameli ngaphandle kobukhona bejaji ukuthi abameli bakaHardeman bangafuna ukuphikisa ukuthi uMonsanto usebenzise imali eningi ekukhangiseni nasekukhokheleni abaphathi kunokuba benze izifundo zokuphepha zesikhathi eside emikhiqizweni yayo. Izinkinga zemali kungenzeka zihambisane nokucatshangelwa kwamajaji mayelana nomonakalo ongaba khona wokujeziswa, kusho uChabria.

"Kungabhekanwa nekhono likaMonsanto lokukhokha, kepha kubukeka kuhambisana kakhulu nodaba lokuthi yini eyayingaziwa - ukulimala kanye nokujeziswa, noma ngabe isenzo sikaMonsanto sasisibi kakhulu futhi sinolaka," kusho iJaji uChhabria. "Kungani bengenakuphikisana, bheka yonke imali uMonsanto abezimisele ukuyisebenzisa ekukhangiseni futhi akazimisele ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lokuphenya ngenhloso yokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo."

"Akukhulunywa kakhulu ngekhono lenkampani kodwa kumayelana nokuziphatha kwenkampani maqondana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo," kusho uChabria. “Bheka zonke lezi zinto inkampani esebenzisa imali eningi ngokweqile, futhi ayizimisele ukuphakamisa umunwe ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lophenyo olunenhloso mayelana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo. Ngicabanga ukuthi leyo yingxabano yabo. ”

UChhabria uthe ubufakazi bezezimali zikaMonsanto bungaba “ngamacala” “okuthukuthelisa ukuziphatha kwenkampani.”

Ukuqala Kwesilingo sePilliod 

Icala lesithathu lomdlavuza weRoundup liyaqhubeka kuleli sonto e-Alameda County Superior Court e-Oakland, eCalifornia. I-Alva ne-Alberta Pilliod,  umyeni nenkosikazi, bathathe uMonsanto noBayer ngezimangalo ukuthi bobabili baphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngenxa yokuvezwa kwemikhiqizo kaMonsanto's Roundup. IVoir dire yokukhethwa kwamajaji iqala namuhla e-Oakland kanti izitatimende zokuvula kulindeleke ukuthi ziqale ngoLwesine. Bona imibhalo ehlobene nalelo cala kulesi sixhumanisi. 

Ijaji ecaleni likaPilliod lisichithile isicelo sikaMonsanto sokuqulwa kwecala. Ithimba lezomthetho elethula icala lePilliod lifaka ummeli waseLos Angeles uBrent Wisner, owazakhela udumo uwine ngummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson ngaphezulu kweMonsanto esivivinyweni sokuqala somdlavuza weRoundup ehlobo eledlule.

Ubufakazi Obunqunyiwe Njengoba Isivivinyo Somdlavuza WeMonsanto Sivunguza Phansi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Thola izibuyekezo eziningi nemibhalo kusuka ezivivinyweni ku- I-Monsanto Trial Tracker.

Abameli baka-Edwin Hardeman ukunciphisa kakhulu inani lofakazi nobufakazi obuzokwethulwa kumajaji okufanele anqume ukuthi iMonsanto nomnikazi wayo omusha uBayer banesibopho sokukhulisa uHardeman we-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngemuva kweminyaka yokusebenzisa i-Roundup kaMonsanto. Basalelwe ngamahora ambalwa ababelwe ijaji, athe lithe ulindele izimpikiswano zokuvala ngoLwesibili.

Ithimba lamajaji elinamalungu ayisithupha linqume ngesonto eledlule ukuthi iRoundup empeleni ibiyinto ebalulekile ekudaleni umdlavuza kaHardeman. Icala manje seligxile ekutheni kufanele kusolwe uMonsanto noma cha, futhi uma kunjalo, malini - uma kukhona - inkampani kufanele ikhokhele uHardeman kumonakalo.

Kodwa ukwenza lelo cala kungaba nzima uma ubheka isikhathi esifushane sabameli bommangali abasishiye “ewashi lesikhathi” seliphelele elibekwe yiJaji uVince Chhabria. Unikeze uhlangothi ngalunye amahora angama-30 ukuthi enze udaba lwabo.

Abameli bakaHardeman basebenzise isikhathi sabo esiningi engxenyeni yokuqala yokuqulwa kwecala futhi manje banamahora ambalwa asele. Ngenxa yalokho, banayo lazise ijaji ukuthi ngeke babize ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kubaphathi beMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein, uSteven Gould, uDavid Heering, noma uDaniel Jenkins. Futhi abazobe bethula ubufakazi obuhleliwe obuvela kuRoger McClellan, umhleli wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT), kanye nabanye ofakazi okungenani abane.

UMcClellan ubengamele i-CRT ngesikhathi iphephabhuku lishicilela uchungechunge lwamaphepha ngoSepthemba 2016 akhuza lokho okutholwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ethola ukuthi i-glyphosate iyingozi yomdlavuza womuntu. Amaphepha athi abhalwe ngososayensi abazimele abathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula ubengeke abeke ingozi yomdlavuza kubantu. Kepha imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto khombisa ukuthi amaphepha acatshangwe kwasekuqaleni njengecebo likaMonsanto lokudicilela phansi i-IARC. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kepha ube nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni, noma kunjalo lokho akudalulwanga yiCRT.

Abameli bakaHardeman bahlela cishe amahora amathathu obufakazi obuvela kofakazi abahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kanye noMphathi Omkhulu uHugh Grant, owathola imali engango- $ 32 million ngesikhathi iBayer AG ithenga iMonsanto ehlobo eledlule.

Ingxoxo Yomonakalo

Zombili izinhlangothi sezivumile ukuthi uHardeman ulahlekelwe yimali elinganiselwa ku- $ 200,000 kumonakalo wezomnotho, kepha abameli bakaHardeman kulindeleke ukuthi bacele amashumi ezigidi zamadola, futhi mhlawumbe namakhulu ezigidi zamaRandi ngomonakalo ophelele, kufaka phakathi ukujeziswa.

Abameli beMonsanto baphikise noma yikuphi ukuxoxwa ngengcebo kaMonsanto kanye neBayer engamaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezingama-63 akhokhele iMonsanto, kodwa ijaji livumele imininingwane ethile yezezimali ukuthi yabelwe namajaji.

AmaJurors kungenzeka angatshelwa ncamashi ukuthi yimalini iMonsanto ayenzile eminyakeni edlule ekuthengiseni ama-herbicides ayo e-glyphosate, kepha ukubheka unyaka owodwa kuphela wezezimali - 2012, unyaka uHardeman ayeke ukusebenzisa iRoundup - kukhombisa ukuthi inkampani yenze cishe $ 2 billion ngenzuzo ephelele lowo nyaka.

IJaji uChhabria kuphawulwe ezingxoxweni nabameli ngaphandle kobukhona bejaji ukuthi abameli bakaHardeman bangafuna ukuphikisa ukuthi uMonsanto usebenzise imali eningi ekukhangiseni nasekukhokheleni abaphathi kunokuba benze izifundo zokuphepha zesikhathi eside emikhiqizweni yayo. Izinkinga zemali kungenzeka zihambisane nokucatshangelwa kwamajaji mayelana nomonakalo ongaba khona wokujeziswa, kusho uChabria.

“Kungaba nekhono lokukwazi ukukhokha kukaMonsanto, kodwa kubukeka kufaneleke nakakhulu
udaba lokuthi yini eyayingaziwa - kokubili isikweletu kanye nomonakalo wokujeziswa, noma ngabe ukuziphatha kukaMonsanto kwakweqile futhi kunolaka, ”kusho iJaji uChhabria. "Kungani bengenakuphikisana, bheka yonke imali uMonsanto abezimisele ukuyisebenzisa ekukhangiseni futhi akazimisele ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lokuphenya ngenhloso yokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo."

"Akukhulunywa kakhulu ngekhono lenkampani kodwa kumayelana nokuziphatha kwenkampani maqondana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo," kusho uChabria. “Bheka zonke lezi zinto inkampani esebenzisa imali eningi ngokweqile, futhi ayizimisele ukuphakamisa umunwe ukwenza noma yiluphi uhlobo lophenyo olunenhloso mayelana nokuphepha komkhiqizo wayo. Ngicabanga ukuthi lokho kungukuphikisana kwabo. ”

UChhabria uthe ubufakazi bezezimali zikaMonsanto bungaba “ngamacala” “okuthukuthelisa ukuziphatha kwenkampani.”

Ukuqala Kwesilingo sePilliod 

Icala lesithathu lomdlavuza weRoundup liyaqhubeka kuleli sonto e-Alameda County Superior Court e-Oakland, eCalifornia. I-Alva ne-Alberta Pilliod,  umyeni nenkosikazi, bathathe uMonsanto noBayer ngezimangalo ukuthi bobabili baphethwe yi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngenxa yokuvezwa kwemikhiqizo kaMonsanto's Roundup.

IVoir dire yokukhethwa kwamajaji iqala namuhla e-Oakland kanti izitatimende zokuvula kulindeleke ukuthi ziqale ngoLwesine. Bona imibhalo ehlobene nalelo cala kulesi sixhumanisi. 

Ijaji ecaleni likaPilliod lisichithile isicelo sikaMonsanto sokuqulwa kwecala. Ithimba lezomthetho elethula icala lePilliod lifaka ummeli waseLos Angeles uBrent Wisner, owazakhela udumo uwine ngummangali uDewayne “Lee” Johnson ngaphezulu kweMonsanto esivivinyweni sokuqala somdlavuza weRoundup ehlobo eledlule.

Isisulu Somdlavuza Sibuyiselwe Esitimeleni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Umbhalo wezinqubo zanamuhla)

Ummangali u-Edwin Hardeman uthathe lesi sikhundla namuhla ukuze anikeze ubufakazi obengeziwe ecaleni lakhe elibhekene noMonsanto mayelana nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwakhe kwe-Roundup herbicide yenkampani kwamenza waba ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

UHardeman usevele wethule ubufakazi esigabeni sokuqala secala, esakhipha isinqumo senkantolo ngazwilinye esathola ukuthi uRoundup nguye owayesolwa ngomdlavuza wakhe. Ubufakazi bakhe namuhla buphendule umbuzo wesibopho sikaMonsanto nokuthi ngabe inkampani kufanele ikhokhe imali yokulahlekelwa yimpilo yakhe.

Abameli bakaHardman bazama ukukholisa abameli ukuthi uMonsanto wayebazi ubungozi bemikhiqizo yayo kepha wasebenza ngenkuthalo ukucindezela lolo lwazi ngamasu ahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi ukucindezela abalawuli, ukubhala ghostwriting izincwadi zesayensi, nokudukisa abathengi abanjengoHardeman onokumaketha okunzima mayelana nokuphepha ukhula lwe-glyphosate-based.

Esigabeni sokuqala sokuqulwa kwecala, iJaji uVince Chhabria ulinganisele ubufakazi obufushane ngokwelashwa kukaHardeman kanye nokuhlupheka akubekezelele. Kulesi sigaba, ubufakazi obunjalo buvunyelwe.

Amajaji nawo ezwe ngoMary Hardeman, unkosikazi ka-Edwin, ngoLwesihlanu. Esigabeni sokuqala, ebesikhuluma kuphela ngobufakazi obuphathelene nokuthi ngabe uRoundup ubangele umdlavuza kaMnu uHardeman noma cha, ijaji likhuze ummeli kaHardeman u-Aimee Wagstaff ngokuzama ngisho nokwethula uMary Hardeman kuma-jur nangokuchaza ngokuqomisana kwalezi zithandani nokushada isikhathi eside.

Okunye okwathatha isikhundla kwaba ngummangali ufakazi onguchwepheshe uChadi Nabhan,  isikhulu sezokwelapha seCardinal Health eChicago.

Ufakazi wokuqala ngoLwesihlanu kwakungusosayensi wezobuthi waseMonsanto uDonna Farmer, ubufakazi bakhe obethulwa ngevidiyo. Abameli bakaHardeman baqale ubufakazi bakhe ngoLwesithathu. Ayikho inkantolo ebibanjwe ngoLwesine.

Ngesonto elizayo, abameli bakaHardeman bahlela ukudlala ubufakazi bevidiyo yalowo owayenguSihlalo noMonsanto omkhulu kaMonsanto uHugh Grant.

IHepatitis C no… Hugh Grant?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Bona isibuyekezo sevidiyo lapha)

(Umbhalo osuka ekuqhubekeni kwanamuhlas)

Ithimba labameli bakaMonsanto ngoMsombuluko lethule ubufakazi obuqhamuka kuDkt. Alexandra Levine, isazi se-hematologist / i-oncologist esikhungweni seCity of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center, efuna ukukholisa abezomthetho ukuthi ukuvezwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula eseglyphosate kwakungeyona imbangela yomdlavuza kaHardeman, nokuthi Isici i-hepatitis C Hardeman ebinayo iminyaka eminingi. U-Levine ufakazele ukuthi ubone “iziguli eziningi kakhulu, eziningi, ezine-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma,” futhi empeleni uthathwa njengongoti kuleso sifo esithile.

IJaji uChhabria uthe ngesonto eledlule angathanda ukubona lesi sigaba sokuqala secala sisongwa ekuqaleni kwaleli sonto, okusho ukuthi leli cala kumele libe nejaji kungekudala. Isinqumo sidinga ukuthi wonke amajaji ayisithupha ahlangane ngokuvumelana ekutholeni kwabo maqondana nokuthi ukuvezwa kukaHardeman kuRoundup “bekuyinto ebalulekile” ekudaleni umdlavuza wakhe. Ijaji lizochazela amajaji ukuthi kusho ukuthini lokho. (Bheka ukungena kwangoLwesihlanu ukuthola eminye imininingwane.)

Uma ijaji lingavumi ngazwilinye ukunquma uHardeman noma uMonsanto lelo cala lizoba yi-mistrial. UChabria uphinde wathi uma lokho kwenzeka ucabanga ukukuzama ngoMeyi.

Uma ijaji lithola uHardeman nge-causation, ukuqulwa kwecala kungashesha kungene eSigabeni II kusetshenziswa ijaji elifanayo. Futhi kulapho izinto zizoqala ukuheha ngempela. Abameli bakaHardeman hlela ukufona abaphathi abaningana beMonsanto ngobufakazi, kufaka phakathi owayenguSihlalo weMonsanto kanye ne-CEO uHugh Grant. UGrant uchithe iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-35 kule nkampani waqokwa njenge-CEO ngo-2003. Wayehola le nkampani yaze yatholwa yiBayer AG ehlobo eledlule.

Ngokwengeziwe, abameli bakaHardeman bahlela ukubiza uRoger McClellan, umhleli wephephabhuku lesayensi Ukubuyekezwa Okubalulekile ku-Toxicology (I-CRT), eyashicilela uchungechunge lwamaphepha ngoSepthemba 2016 akhuza lokho okutholwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) ethola ukuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu. Amaphepha athi abhalwe ngososayensi abazimele abathole ukuthi isisindo sobufakazi sikhombise ukuthi umbulali wokhula ubengeke abeke ingozi yomdlavuza kubantu.

Nokho, imibhalo yangaphakathi yeMonsanto khombisa ukuthi amaphepha acatshangwe kwasekuqaleni njengecebo likaMonsanto lokudicilela phansi i-IARC. Omunye wososayensi abaphezulu beMonsanto hhayi kuphela ubuyekeze imibhalo yesandla kepha ube nesandla ekubhaleni nasekuhleleni, yize lokho kungadalulwanga yiCRT.

Abameli bakaHardeman ngokwengeziwe bathe bahlela ukushaya ucingo UDoreen Manchester, weCropLife America, inhlangano yezimboni yezolimo ephembelelayo. Indima kaManchester kuCropLife ibisiza "ukuhola amacala kahulumeni nawombuso ukuxhasa izindaba zokulawulwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane."

Kwenziwe Kanjani 'IMonsanto' Ukuthukuthela 'e-IARC ngokwehlukaniswa Komdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo
NguCarey Gillam

Eminyakeni emithathu edlule kule nyanga Monsanto abaphathi babona ukuthi banenkinga enkulu ezandleni zabo.

KwakungoSepthemba 2014 futhi ikhemikhali elidayisa kakhulu kule nkampani, elibulala ukhula lathi glyphosate leso yisisekelo sophawu lukaMonsanto Roundup imikhiqizo, yayikhethwe njengenye yezibulala-zinambuzane ezimbalwa ezazizohlolwa yiWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). UMonsanto uchithe amashumi eminyaka evikela ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokukhalaza ucwaningo lwesayensi olubonisa ukuthi ikhemikhali lingadala umdlavuza noma ezinye izifo. Futhi noma ngabe ukubuyekezwa kwe-IARC kwakusasele izinyanga, ososayensi uqobo lukaMonsanto babazi ukuthi umphumela ungaba yini-futhi babazi ukuthi ngeke kube kuhle.

Amarekhodi enkampani yangaphakathi awakhombisi nje kuphela izinga lokwesaba uMonsanto ayenalo mayelana nokubuyekezwa okuzayo, kodwa ikakhulukazi ukuthi izikhulu zenkampani zazilindele ngokugcwele ososayensi be-IARC ukuthi bathole okungenani ukuxhumana okuthile komdlavuza ne-glyphosate. Ososayensi benkampani baxoxe "ngobungozi" obuzungeze imizamo yabo yokuvikela i-glyphosate phakathi kokutholakele okungathandeki okuningi kocwaningo kwizifundo zabantu nezilwane ezivezwe kumbulali wokhula. Ngaphezu kwezifundo ze-epidemiology, "futhi sinezinkinga ezingaba khona kwezinye izindawo i-IARC ezocubungula, okuwukuthi, ukuvezwa, i-genetox kanye nendlela yokwenza ..." kubhala usosayensi waseMonsanto ngo-Okthoba 2014. I-imeyili efanayo ixoxe ngesidingo sokuthola ababambisene nabo nokuhlela uxhaso “lokulwa” —izinyanga zonke ngaphambi komhlangano we-IARC ngoMashi 2015.

Futhi iMonsanto yabikezela ngaphakathi ngaphambi kokuthi i-IARC ihlangane nokuthi ukubuyekezwa kobufakazi besayensi kungaholela esinqumweni sokuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka" yayiyi-carcinogenic noma "mhlawumbe" yayikhona. Izikhulu zeMonsanto zazibikezele ngesinqumo se-IARC ku uhlelo lwangaphakathi "lokulungela" lokho kwexwayisa ozakwabo ukuthi “bacabangele futhi balungiselele umphumela…” Lo mbhalo ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wayecabanga ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi i-IARC ikhombe i-glyphosate "njenge-carcinogen yabantu." Ukulinganiswa kwe-carcinogen okungenzeka kube "kungenzeka kodwa kuncane kakhulu," kusho imemo yeMonsanto. IARC ekugcineni yenzile hlela i-glyphosate njenge “mhlawumbe okubanga umdlavuza ebantwini.”

Njengoba umhlangano we-IARC wawususondele, imibhalo yangaphakathi ikhombisa ukuthi iMonsanto ayizange ilinde isinqumo sangempela se-IARC ngaphambi kokuthatha isinyathelo. Ibhalise amaqembu ochwepheshe be-PR kanye nabaceli bokucela usizo, ososayensi nabanye kuhlelo oluhlose ukudala lokho okwenzelwe ukuthi kuvele njengesiphepho "sokukhala" kanye "nentukuthelo" yokulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC. I-IARC ibinomlando "wezinqumo ezingabazekayo nezisolwa kwezepolitiki," kusho imemo yeMonsanto.

Uhlelo bekungukudala impikiswano eyanele yokuhlambalaza ngokuphelele ukuhlolwa kwe-IARC ngoba izikhulu zeMonsanto bezazi ukuthi abalawuli bazothonywa yi-IARC, futhi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwamakhemikhali athengisa kakhulu kungaba sengozini.

"Kungenzeka ukuthi isinqumo se-IARC sibe nomthelela ekuthathweni kwezinqumo esikhathini esizayo," kusho uMonsanto encwadini yakhe yangaphakathi.

Isikhathi besibucayi ngoba ngo-2015 bobabili i-US Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) kanye neKhomishini yase-Europe bebehlola ukugunyazwa kabusha kombulali wokhula waseMonsanto. Ukulandela ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, i-European Union kanye ne-EPA kubambezele izinqumo zokugcina nge-glyphosate phakathi kwempikiswano esaqhubeka mayelana nokuphepha kwamakhemikhali.

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi kwakusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kwakukhona ubufakazi bokuba ne-carcinogenicity," kusho uPeter Infante, udokotela wezifo ezithathelana ngezifo osebenze iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-24 kuhulumeni wase-US efunda izingozi zomdlavuza kubasebenzi ekuvezweni yizinto ezinobuthi. "Kungabonakala kimi ukuthi iMonsanto ayithandi ukuthi umphakathi waziswe ngengozi yomdlavuza."

"Lokhu kukhombisa kimi ukuthi bekusobala kuMonsanto ukuthi kunobufakazi bokuthi umzimba ubanga umdlavuza."

Ngemuva kwesinqumo se-IARC, kwaqubuka isiphepho semibhikisho esivela kubantu nezinhlangano ezahlukahlukene kanye nokukhala kukaMonsanto ngentukuthelo. Abanye bangabaze ubuhlakani bezimali zaseMelika i-IARC neMonsanto kuqhubekile ukulandisa okungamanga ukuthi usihlalo weqembu elisebenzayo le-IARC wagodla imininingwane ebalulekile eqenjini.

Umzila wedokhumenti, okubandakanya ama-imeyili angaphakathi, ama-memos nokunye ukuxhumana okutholwe eMonsanto ngabameli babamangali ngokusebenzisa amacala asalindwe e-US, kucacisa ukuthi impikiswano, nenselelo yokuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC ayizange ihlume ngokoqobo kumazwi ahlukahlukene, kepha eyenziwe nguMonsanto ngaphambi kwesinqumo se-IARC futhi yaqhubeka ngemuva kwalokho. Inhloso bekungukuthi-futhi inguye-ukukholisa abalawuli ukuthi bakuyeke okutholwe yithimba lochwepheshe abazimele besayensi abakha iqembu le-IARC elalihlola i-glyphosate.

Amarekhodi angaphakathi atholwe ngamacala, kuhlanganiswe nemibhalo etholwe nge-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) nezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso futhi kukhombisa ukuthi izenzo ezisetshenziselwe ukudicilela phansi i-IARC beziyingxenye yamaphethini amashumi eminyaka amaqhinga akhohlisayo yiMonsanto ukuncenga abalawuli, abenzi bomthetho namalungu abezindaba nomphakathi ukuthi i-glyphosate ne-Roundup ziphephile. Le nkampani isisebenzise la maqhinga kaningi eminyakeni edlule ukuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abaningana abacwaningi babo abathole imiphumela eyingozi ehambisana ne-glyphosate.

"Ukukhala Kwe-orchestrate ”

Uhlelo lokuhlaselwa kwe-IARC, olwabekwa kumemo kaFebhuwari 2015, aluzange lubandakanye kuphela abantu baseMonsanto bangaphakathi be-PR, ososayensi kanye nochwepheshe bezokumaketha, kodwa nohlu lwabadlali bezimboni bangaphandle. Abantu abahlukahlukene babelwa imisebenzi. “Amasu namasu” afakiwe:

  • "I-Orchestrate Outry" enesinqumo se-IARC-Imboni iqhuba ukufinyelela okuqinile kwemidiya / imithombo yezokuxhumana ngenqubo nomphumela.
  • "Khomba / ucele ochwepheshe abavela eceleni ukuthi babhulogi, ba-op / bahlele, babhale i-tweet kanye / noma baxhumanise, baphinde babhale, baphinde babhale kabusha, njll." Le mibhalo ikhombisa “uchwepheshe” onjalo, uHenry Miller oyisifundiswa unikeze i-athikili ebhaliwe ukuthumela iForbes ukuthi ishicilelwe ngaphansi kwegama lakhe kungashiwo ukuthi uMonsanto ubandakanyekile. UForbes ufunde ngokukhohlisa ngenyanga edlule futhi baqeda ubudlelwane noMiller.
  • “Inform / Inoculate / Engage Industry Partners” —Ngokucacile abalingani bemboni ababalwe ohlwini babandakanya izinhlangano ezintathu ezithi zizimele ngeMonsanto kodwa sekuyisikhathi eside zibonwa ngabagxeki njengamaqembu aphambili enkampani — iMonsanto iqanjwe Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa futhi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, womabili asuselwe e-US nase Umuzwa Ngezesayensi, esebenze e-United Kingdom nase-US, njengamaqembu ukusiza ngomsebenzi wayo. Eqinisweni, iSense About Science kwakuyiqembu elakhonjwa yiMonsanto ukuhola ukuphendula kwemboni futhi "linikeze inkundla yababukeli be-IARC." La maqembu enza njengoba kuhlelwe iMonsanto, athumela ukuhlaselwa okuthusayo e-IARC kumawebhusayithi awo.
  • Ukuzibandakanya ne-Regulatory Agencies-I-Monsanto ihlelelwe izinhlangano / abatshali bezolimo ukuthi "babhale abalawuli ngesikhalazo sokuthi bahlale begxile kwisayensi, hhayi esinqumweni sezombusazwe esenziwe yi-IARC."
  • "Push umbono womholi incwadi eya ephephandabeni eliyinhloko lansuku zonke ngosuku lwesinqumo se-IARC" ngosizo lwenkampani yezentengiso yasePotomac Group.

Uhlelo lokulungela lolo lubuye lusekele ukuxhasa "ukwakhiwa kwamaphepha amathathu amasha kwi-glyphosate egxile ku-epidemiology kanye ne-toxicology." Njengoba kuhlelwe, ngemuva nje kwesinqumo se-IARC uMonsanto wahlela ukuthi ososayensi abaningana — iningi labo ababengabasebenzi noma abeluleki abakhokhelwayo - babhale futhi bashicilele amaphepha ocwaningo asekela ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate. Kwembulwa ngemibhalo yokutholwa ukuthi iMonsanto yaxoxa ngokubhalwa kwamaphepha ngesipoki. Ku-imeyili eyodwa, usosayensi wenkampani uWilliam Heydens utshele ozakwabo ukuthi inkampani "ingabhala izipoki" imibiko ethile ezophatha amagama ososayensi abangaphandle - "bazovele bahlele futhi basayine amagama abo ukuze bakhulume," wabhala. Ubalule njengesibonelo isifundo sango-2000 esathathwa njengesinomthelela kubalawuli. Imibhalo ikhombisa Ukubhala nokuhlela okunzima kukaMonsanto ekubuyekezweni okusolakala ukuthi “kuzimele” okuholele kulokho.

IMonsanto iphikile yaliphika ilungelo lokubhala, kepha imemo eyodwa kusukela ngo-Agasti 2015 okuvela emafayilini kasosayensi waseMonsanto uDavid Saltmiras empeleni usebenzisa lelo gama, esho ukuthi “ghostwrote iphepha lokubuyekeza umdlavuza uGreim et al (2015)…” ebhekisa ephepheni elakhombisa ukuqanjwa ngusosayensi waseJalimane uHelmut Greim kanye noSaltmiras. (UMonsanto uvumile ukuthi uGreim wasebenza njengomxhumanisi enkampanini kanti ingxenye yomsebenzi wakhe kwakuwukushicilela imininingwane ebuyekezwa ngontanga ku-glyphosate).

Enye i-imeyili yangaphakathi kukhombisa ukubhalwa ngusosayensi waseMonsanto wephepha locwaningo elinesihloko esithi "Imiphumela Yokuthuthuka Nokuzala… ngemuva Kokuvezwa KweGlyphosate." Usosayensi, uDonna Farmer, wenza umsebenzi omningi, kufaka phakathi lokho akubiza ngokuthi "ukusika nokunamathisela" kolwazi oluthile. Kepha igama lakhe alifakwanga njengombhali ngaphambi kokuba leli phepha linikezwe iphephabhuku. I- okushicilelwe uphethe ngokuthi abukho "ubufakazi obuqinile obuxhuma ukuvezwa kwe-glyphosate emiphumeleni emibi yokukhula noma yokuzala."

Umzila wamaphepha futhi ukhombisa ukuthi uMonsanto wesaba ukuthi inkampani yezempilo yase-US ehlela ukubuyekeza i-glyphosate e2015 ingavumelana ne-IARC futhi isebenzisane ne-EPA ukuvimba ngempumelelo leyo ejensi—I-Agency for Toxic Substances & Registry Registry (ATSDR) -kusukela ekwenzeni ukubuyekeza kwayo. "Sizama ukwenza konke okusemandleni ukuvimbela ukuthi i-IARC yasekhaya yenzeke," Isikhulu senkampani sabhala. 

Irekhodi likhombisa ukuthi ngaphambi kwe-IARC, iMonsanto amanethiwekhi aqashiwe ososayensi bezemfundo e-US nase-Europe abavikele imikhiqizo kaMonsanto, kufaka phakathi umbulali wayo wokhula, ngaphandle kokumemezela ukusebenzisana kwabo neMonsanto. Futhi ukuthi la masosha athule asize iMonsanto idicilele phansi ososayensi ababike ucwaningo olubonisa ukulimala okuhambisana ne-glyphosate ne-Roundup, kufaka phakathi ukusebenza ngokubhideka kukaMonsanto ukuthola ucwaningo olulodwa oluyingozi ngusosayensi waseFrance uGilles-Éric Séralini ehoxisiwe kumagazini wesayensi lapho yashicilelwa khona ngoSepthemba 2012. Le nkampani yaze yakwehlisa ukukhathazeka ngomunye wabaluleki bayo abakhokhelwayo owathola ubufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate's genotoxicity yanqaba ukwenza ezinye izivivinyo watusa.

Uma okushiwo yiMonsanto kuyiqiniso, leyo glyphosate iphephe kakhulu, nokuthi abukho ubufakazi bokuthi idala umdlavuza noma ezinye izinkinga zempilo, pho kungani yonke intuthu nezibuko? Kungani inkampani izodinga ukubhala amaphepha okucwaninga ukuze iwanikeze abalawuli? Kungani iMonsanto ingadinga ukusungula amanethiwekhi ososayensi ukukhuthaza ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate nokudiliza ososayensi abacwaningo lwabo oluphakamisa ukukhathazeka? Kungani iMonsanto izama ukuvimba ukubuyekezwa kwe-glyphosate yi-US ATSDR?

Amakomidi amabili ePhalamende laseYurophu ahlele ukulalelwa komhlaka-11 Okthoba eBrussels ukuze acubungule le mibuzo neminye njengoba iKhomishini yaseYurophu ibhekene nesikhathi esinqunyiwe sokuthatha isinqumo ngokugunyazwa kabusha kwe-glyphosate ngaphambi kokuphela kuka-2017.

Abenzi bomthetho kufanele babunake ubufakazi bokuthi i-ejensi yabo yokuphepha kokudla ibonakala ilahle ibhola ekuhloleni okuzimele kocwaningo lwe-glyphosate. Amarekhodi akhombisa ukuthi i-European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) uxoshe isifundo ukuxhumanisa umbulali wokhula kaMonsanto nomdlavuza ngokululekwa isikhulu se-EPA esathi uMonsanto wabona “silusizo” futhi oyingxenye cwaninga manje ngokuhlangana okungenzeka phakathi kwe-EPA neMonsanto.

Kufanele futhi banake izindaba zokuthi i-EFSA isusele isincomo sayo ku-glyphosate embikweni okopishe futhi wanamathisela ukuhlaziywa okuvela ocwaningweni lweMonsanto.

Usihlalo weMonsanto uHugh Grant wamenywa ukuba azothula inkulumo yakhe emhlanganweni wePhalamende ngo-Okthoba, kodwa wenqaba ukuvela noma ukuthumela omunye umuntu ovela eMonsanto. UDkt Roland Solecki, inhloko yezokuphepha kwamakhemikhali eGerman Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), naye unqabile, ngokusho kwabahleli. Ngihlela ukubamba iqhaza, njengoba nommeleli ovela e-IARC nabanye abaningi.

Kuyo yonke le mpikiswano, kufanelekile ukukhumbula ukuthi ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate kunezimpande ezijulile ezisukela emuva okungenani ngonyaka we-1985 lapho i-EPA toxicologists ibheka idatha ekhombisa izicubu ezingavamile amagundane akhishwe nge-glyphosate futhi wanquma ukuthi i-glyphosate "kungenzeka ukuthi ibanga umdlavuza kubantu."

Imibhikisho yeMonsanto ekugcineni yaguqula lokho kuhlukaniswa kodwa ngenxa yawo wonke amaqhinga akhohlisayo asanda kuvezwa emibhalweni, amazwi kasosayensi we-EPA eminyakeni engaphezu kwengu-30 eyedlule kufanele abhekwe namuhla: “IGlyphosate iyasola… Impikiswano kaMonsanto ayamukeleki. "

Usosayensi we-EPA ku leso memo sango-1985 ubhale nokuthi: “Umbono wethu ungowokuvikela impilo yomphakathi lapho sibona imininingwane esolisayo. Akuwona umsebenzi wethu ukuvikela ababhalisile… ”

Izishayamthetho zaseYurophu zingaba nokuhlakanipha ukuwakhumbula lawo mazwi.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku I-EcoWatch.

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli engumakadebona nombhali we I-Whitewash - Indaba Yombulali Wokhula, Umdlavuza Nenkohlakalo Yesayensi. Ungumqondisi ocwaningayo we-US Right to Know, iqembu elingena nzuzo labathengi elibhekele iqiniso nokusebenzela obala ohlelweni lwethu lokudla.  

Iviki Elikhulu labadlali beBig Ag Monsanto neDow

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Umhlangano Wabaninimasheya weMonsanto Udonsa Umlilo 

Abagxeki abaningi be-GMO kanye nabagxeki bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane bakhulume emhlanganweni waminyaka yonke wabaninimasheya weMonsanto Co. ngoLwesihlanu, Jan. 29 edolobheni lenkampani iCreve Coeur, eMissouri, becela inkampani ukuba ilungise ukukhathazeka ngemikhiqizo yezitshalo eyenziwe ngobunjiniyela kanye i-glyphosate-based Roundup herbicide esetshenziswe kulezo zitshalo.

Abamele amasheya, kanye nabanye abavela ezinhlanganweni ezingaphandle, batshele uSihlalo kanye noMphathi Omkhulu weMonsanto uHugh Grant ukuthi inkampani kufanele ithathe izinyathelo eziningana, kufaka phakathi ukubika nganoma yiziphi izinhlelo zokunciphisa ubungozi empilweni yabantu kanye nemvelo eboshwe kuRoundup kanye nesithako sayo esiyinhloko, i-glyphosate. NgoMashi 2015, ochwepheshe bomdlavuza beWorld Health Organisation bahlukanisa i-glyphosate ngokuthi “mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.”Futhi IMonsanto ibhekene nezinsolo eziningi efakwe ngabasebenza emapulazini nabanye abathi iRoundup ibangele umdlavuza wabo.

"Njengoba kucatshangwa ukuthi cishe ingxenye yemali engenayo yeMonsanto ivela ku-Roundup nakwamanye ama-herbicides asuselwa e-glyphosate, ukufakwa kophawu lomkhiqizo oyinhloko wenkampani ngokuthi 'mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic' akuyona inqubekela phambili ethembeni lenkampani," kusho uJohn Harrington, oyi-CEO yeHarrington Investments. esitatimendeni.  Ukutshalwa kwezimali eHarrington ukuhlinzeka ngezinsizakalo zokweluleka ngokugxila kuzinhloso zezemvelo nezenhlalo, futhi kunohlelo olusebenzayo lokukhuthaza abaninimasheya.

Kanye neHarrington Investments, abamele i-Organic Consumers Association, omama abaseMelika yonkana, amaSumofU, iWomen International League for Peace and Freedom, kanye neGMO Free Midwest waya emhlanganweni ukubhikisha ukukhushulwa kwenkampani iRoundup, abathi ababhikishi kuhlobene nezifo ezahlukahlukene.

Leli qembu litshele uMonsanto's Grant ukuthi kunezibalo ezandayo zezifundo ezizimele ezihlanganisa i-glyphosate nomdlavuza, ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, isifo sezinso nokuphazamiseka kwamahomoni.

UGrant ukuphambukile ukugxeka wathi kokubili i-glyphosate ne-GMOs kukhonjiswe ukuthi ziphephile: “Lona yi-20th unyaka wokutshala ama-GMO, ”kusho uGrant. "Kutshalwe amahektare ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane ezine emhlabeni ... ngaphandle kwenkinga eyodwa yezempilo. Le yimikhiqizo evivinywa kunazo zonke imboni yezokudla eyake yabona. ”

IMonsanto iletha cishe ama- $ 5 billion ngonyaka emholweni ovela ekuthengisweni kwe-Roundup nemikhiqizo ehlobene nayo.

Odokotela nososayensi baphakamise ukukhathazeka ngokuthambekela kwezempilo ezindaweni lapho abasebenzi basemapulazini nemiphakathi, njenge Hawaii futhi Argentina, Ukuvezwa okuphezulu kumakhemikhali asetshenziswa kuzilimo zeRoundup Ready, ezenzelwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela ukufafazwa nge-glyphosate.

Ukuphindwa komsindo okulalelwayo komhlangano kuyatholakala kuwebhusayithi kaMonsanto ku- www.monsanto.com/investors.

UDow Uthola Inkantolo Iya Phambili Nge-Herbicide Entsha Engqubuzanayo

Inkantolo yenhlangano yokudlulisa amacala inikeze iDow AgroSciences ukunqoba emzameni wokuphikisana wale nkampani wokuletha umuthi omusha wokhula ezindaweni zamapulazi zase-US. I-herbicide entsha, ebizwa nge-Enlist Duo, ihlanganisa i-glyphosate ne-2,4-D, zombili ezixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo.

The IChicago Tribune ibike kanjalo ukuthi iNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yesi-9 yase-US isichithile isicelo se-US Environmental Protection Agency sokushiya ososayensi bayo abavuma u-Dow weedkiller ngo-2014 ngaphandle kokuchaza isizathu salo myalelo.

I-herbicide entsha kaDow yenzelwe ukubhekana nokumelana nokubulala ukhula okusabalele okubambe cishe amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-60 epulazini lase-US ngemuva kokusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-glyphosate. IGlyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko seMonsanto Co's Roundup, yanda kakhulu ekukhiqizeni ummbila, ubhontshisi, ukotini nezinye izitshalo ngemuva kwezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo zeMonsanto ukumelana nokukhishwa kwamakhemikhali ngqo.

Faka i-Duo yakhelwe ukusetshenziswa ku- ummbila owenziwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo, ukotini kanye nobhontshisi ithuthukiswe yi-Dow ukuze ingavikeleki kumxube we-glyphosate-2,4D. NgoDisemba, i- IChicago Tribune yembule ukuthi i-EPA ivume u-Enlist Duo ngemuva kokuthi i-ejensi yehlise ubufakazi bezinkinga zezinso abacwaningi bakaDow uqobo abathi zibangelwe yi-2,4-D.

UDow uthe ubona umugqa we-Enlist wezitshalo namakhemikhali njengethuba lemakethe elingu- $ 1 billion.

Funda kabanzi lapha http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/watchdog/ct-dow-enlist-duo-court-ruling-20160127-story.html