Olunye ucwaningo lwe-Roundup luthola izixhumanisi ezingaba nezinkinga zempilo yabantu

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(Kubuyekezwe uFebhuwari 17, kungeza ukugxekwa kokufunda)

A iphepha elisha lesayensi Ukuhlola imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ye-Roundup herbicides kutholakale ukuxhumana phakathi kokuchayeka kumakhemikhali okubulala ukhula i-glyphosate nokwanda kohlobo lwe-amino acid olwaziwa njengengozi yesifo senhliziyo.

Abaphenyi benza izinqumo zabo ngemuva kokudalula amagundane akhulelwe kanye namazinyane abo asanda kuzalwa ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup ngamanzi okuphuza. Bathe babheke ngqo imiphumela ye-glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) kuma-metabolites we-urinary nokuxhumana ne-gut microbiome ezilwaneni.

Abaphenyi bathi bathole ukwanda okukhulu kwe-amino acid ebizwa nge-homocysteine ​​emidlwane yamaduna evezwe ku-glyphosate ne-Roundup.

"Ucwaningo lwethu lunikeza ubufakazi bokuqala bokuthi ukuvezwa kwe-GBH esetshenziswa kakhulu, kumthamo wokuvezwa komuntu owamukelekayo njengamanje, uyakwazi ukuguqula imetabolites yomchamo kubo bobabili abantu abadala bamagundane namazinyane," kusho abaphenyi.

Leli phepha elinesihloko esithi “Ukuvezwa komthamo ophansi wemithi yokubulala ukhula eglyphosate kuphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo nokusebenzisana kwayo ne-gut microbiota,” kubhalwe ngabaphenyi abahlanu abasebenzisana ne-Icahn School of Medicine eNtabeni iSinayi eNew York kanti abane baphuma eRamazzini Institute eBologna, e-Italy. Ishicilelwe kumagazini iScientific Reports ngoFebhuwari 5.

Ababhali bavumile ukulinganiselwa okuningi esifundweni sabo, kufaka phakathi usayizi omncane wesampula, kepha bathi umsebenzi wabo ukhombisile ukuthi "ukutholakala komthamo ophansi wokukhulelwa kanye nobuncane be-glyphosate noma i-Roundup kushintshe kakhulu ama-biomarker amaningi womchamo, emadamini nasenzalweni."

Lolu cwaningo lungolokuqala ngoshintsho lwe-metabolomic ye-urinary olwenziwe ngama-herbicides asuselwa ku-glyphosate emithamo njengamanje ebhekwa njengephephile kubantu, kusho abacwaningi.

Leli phepha lilandela ukushicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ka isifundo emaphephandabeni Impilo Yemvelo ethola i-glyphosate kanye nomkhiqizo we-Roundup kungashintsha ukwakheka kwe-gut microbiome ngezindlela ezingaxhunyaniswa nemiphumela emibi yezempilo. Ososayensi abavela eRamazzini Institute nabo babambe iqhaza kulolo cwaningo.

URobin Mesnage, ongomunye wababhali bephepha elashicilelwa ngenyanga edlule ku-Environmental Health Perspectives, wakuphikisa ukuba semthethweni kwephepha elisha. Uthe ukuhlaziywa kwedatha kukhombisa umehluko otholakele phakathi kwezilwane ezivezwe ku-glyphosate nalezo ezingadalulwanga - izilwane ezilawulayo - nazo bezingatholakala ngokufanayo ngemininingwane ekhiqizwe ngokungahleliwe.

“Sekukonke, ukuhlaziywa kwedatha akusekeli isiphetho sokuthi i-glyphosate iphazamisa i-metabolism yomchamo kanye ne-gut microbiota yezilwane eziveziwe,” kusho uMesnage. "Lolu cwaningo luzoqhubeka nokudida kancane impikiswano ngobuthi be-glyphosate."

Izifundo ezimbalwa zakamuva ku-glyphosate naku-Roundup bathole ukukhathazeka okuningi.

I-Bayer, eyathola ifa lomkhiqizo we-herbicide wase-Monsanto's glyphosate kanye nephothifoliyo yezimbewu ezakhiwe ngezofuzo ngesikhathi ithenga inkampani ku-2018, igcizelela ukuthi inqwaba yezifundo zesayensi emashumini eminyaka iqinisekisa ukuthi i-glyphosate ayibangeli umdlavuza. Isikhungo Sokuvikelwa Kwezemvelo e-US kanye nezinye izinhlaka eziningi ezilawula umhlaba nazo azibheki imikhiqizo ye-glyphosate njenge-carcinogenic.

Kepha i-World Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer ngonyaka ka-2015 yathi ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo lwesayensi kutholakale ubufakazi obanele bokuthi i-glyphosate iyi-carcinogen yabantu.

IBayer ilahlekelwe yizilingo ezintathu kwezintathu ezilethwe abantu abasola umdlavuza wabo ngokuvezwa yimithi yokubulala ukhula kaMonsanto, kanti iBayer ngonyaka odlule ithe izokhokha cishe amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizinkulungwane eziyi-11 ukukhokha izimangalo ezifanayo ezingaphezu kwezingu-100,000 XNUMX.

 

 

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) iyiQembu Lezimboni Zokudla

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) yinhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa yinkampani ezinze eWashington DC, enamahluko ayi-17 ahlangene emhlabeni jikelele. ILSI ichaza ngokwayo njengeqembu elenza “isayensi ukuze kuzuze umphakathi” futhi “lithuthukisa impilo nenhlalakahle yabantu futhi livikele imvelo.” Kodwa-ke, uphenyo olwenziwe yizifundiswa, izintatheli nabaphenyi bezintshisekelo zomphakathi lukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yiqembu lokungenela elivikela izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, hhayi impilo yomphakathi.

Izindaba zakamuva:

  • ICoca-Cola inqamule ubuhlobo bayo besikhathi eside ne-ILSI. Lesi sinyathelo "sihlasela inhlangano enamandla yokudla eyaziwa ngocwaningo nezinqubomgomo zayo ezixhasa ushukela," I-Bloomberg ibike ngoJanuwari 2021.  
  • ILSI isize iCoca-Cola Company ukubumba inqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, ngokusho kocwaningo lwangoSepthemba 2020 Ijenali Yezombusazwe Yezempilo, Inqubomgomo kanye Nomthetho nguProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh. “Ngaphansi kokuxoxwa esidlangalaleni kwe-ILSI ngesayensi engachemile futhi kungekho nqubo yokugqugquzela inqubomgomo kubeka izingqinamba zezinkampani zeziteshi ezifihliwe ezisetshenziselwa ukuqhubekisela phambili izintshisekelo zazo. Ukusebenza ngalezo ziteshi, uCoca Cola waba nomthelela ekwakhiweni kwesayensi nenqubomgomo eChina phakathi nazo zonke izigaba zenqubo-mgomo, kusukela ekubekeni izingqinamba ekubhaleni inqubomgomo esemthethweni, ”kuphetha leli phephandaba.

  • Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ingeza obunye ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili embonini yezokudla. UMeyi 2020 funda ku-Public Health Nutrition ngokuya ngemibhalo yembula “iphethini yomsebenzi lapho i-ILSI ifuna ukuxhaphaza ukwethembeka kososayensi nezifundiswa ukuqinisa izikhundla ezimbonini kanye nokukhuthaza okuqukethwe okusungulwe umkhakha emihlanganweni yayo, emaphephandabeni nakweminye imisebenzi.” Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yokudla neziphuzo ifuna ukuthonya ososayensi nezifundiswa, kukhonjiswa ngama-imeyili  (5.22.20)

  • Umbiko Wokuziphendulela Kwenkampani wango-Ephreli 2020 ihlola ukuthi izinkampani zokudla neziphuzo zisebenzise kanjani i-ILSI ukungena ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee, kanye nenqubekela phambili ekhubazekile kunqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke. Bheka ukumbozwa ku-BMJ, Imboni yezokudla neziphuzo ezinethonya eliningi kakhulu kunemihlahlandlela yokudla yaseMelika, kusho umbiko (4.24.20) 

  • Uphenyo lweNew York Times ngu-Andrew Jacobs uveza ukuthi umphatheli we-ILSI ongenzi nzuzo oxhaswe yimboni weluleke uhulumeni waseNdiya ukuthi aqhubeke ngokuletha amalebula okuxwayisa ngokudla okungenampilo. Izikhathi kuchazwe i-ILSI "njengeqembu lezimboni elinethunzi" futhi "njengeqembu elinamandla kakhulu embonini yokudla ongakaze uzwe ngalo." (9.16.19) IThe Times icaphune a Isifundo sikaJuni ku-Globalization and Health obhalwe ngokuhlanganyela nguGary Ruskin we-US Right to Know ebika ukuthi i-ILSI isebenza njengengalo yokwamukela abaxhasi bayo bezimboni zokudla kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

  • The I-New York Times yembula izibopho ze-ILSI ezingadalulwanga zikaBradley C. Johnston, ongumbhali-mbumbulu wezifundo ezinhlanu zakamuva ezithi inyama ebomvu nocubunguliwe azilethi izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo. UJohnston usebenzise izindlela ezifanayo ocwaningweni oluxhaswe yi-ILSI ukufuna ushukela akuyona inkinga. (10.4.19)

  • Ibhulogi Yezombusazwe Yezokudla kaMarion Nestle, ILSI: kuvezwe imibala yangempela (10.3.19)

ILSI izibophezela neCoca-Cola 

ILSI yasungulwa ngo-1978 ngu-Alex Malaspina, owayeyiphini likamongameli omkhulu eCoca-Cola owayesebenzela iCoke kusuka ngo-1969-2001. UCoca-Cola ugcine ubuhlobo obuseduze ne-ILSI. UMichael Ernest Knowles, i-VP kaCoca-Cola yezindaba zomhlaba zesayensi nezomthetho kusukela ngo-2008-2013, wayengumongameli we-ILSI kusukela ngonyaka ka-2009-2011. Ngo 2015, Umongameli we-ILSI kwakunguRhona Applebaum, ngubani uthathe umhlalaphansi emsebenzini wakhe njengesikhulu esiphezulu seCoca-Cola sezempilo kanye nesayensi (futhi kusuka ILSI) ngo-2015 ngemuva kwe- New York Times futhi Associated Press ibike ukuthi uCoke uxhase i-Global Energy Balance Network engenzi nzuzo ukusiza ukususa icala lokukhuluphala kude neziphuzo ezinoshukela.  

Uxhaso lwezinkampani 

ILSI ixhaswe yiyo amalungu ezinkampani nabasekeli benkampani, kufaka phakathi izinkampani ezihola phambili zokudla nezamakhemikhali. I-ILSI iyavuma ukuthi ithola uxhaso embonini kodwa ayivezi obala ukuthi ngubani onikelayo noma unikela malini. Ucwaningo lwethu lwembula:

  • Iminikelo yebhizinisi ku-ILSI Global okufika ku- $ 2.4 million ngo-2012. Lokhu kwafaka ama- $ 528,500 kwaCropLife International, umnikelo ongu- $ 500,000 ovela eMonsanto kanye no- $ 163,500 waseCoca-Cola.
  • A kubhalwa intela ye-ILSI yango-2013 kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ithole u- $ 337,000 kusuka kwaCoca-Cola futhi ngaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 lilinye lisuka eMonsanto, Syngenta, Dow Agrisciences, Pioneer Hi-Bred, Bayer CropScience neBASF.
  • A okusalungiswa ukubuyiswa kwentela kwe-ILSI yonyaka we-2016 ikhombisa umnikelo ongu- $ 317,827 ovela kwaPepsiCo, iminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 200,000 evela kwaMars, eCoca-Cola, naseMondelez, neminikelo engaphezu kuka- $ 100,000 evela kwaGeneral Mills, Nestle, Kellogg, Hershey, Kraft, Dr. Pepper, Snapple Group, Starbucks Coffee, Cargill, Isobho le-Uniliver neCampbell.  

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI ifuna ukuthonya kanjani inqubomgomo yokukhuthaza imibono yezimboni 

A Ucwaningo lwangoMeyi 2020 ku-Public Health Nutrition ungeza ubufakazi bokuthi i-ILSI iyiqembu eliphambili lomkhakha wezokudla. Ucwaningo, olususelwa emibhalweni etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso zamarekhodi womphakathi, lwembula ukuthi i-ILSI izikhuthaza kanjani izintshisekelo zezimboni zokudla nezolimo, kufaka phakathi iqhaza le-ILSI ekuvikeleni izithako zokudla eziyimpikiswano nokucindezela imibono engathandeki embonini; ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neCoca-Cola zingabeka iminikelo ku-ILSI ezinhlelweni ezithile; futhi, nokuthi i-ILSI izisebenzisa kanjani izifundiswa ngegunya labo kepha ivumela imboni ithonya elifihliwe ezincwadini zabo.

Ucwaningo luphinde lwembule imininingwane emisha yokuthi yiziphi izinkampani ezixhasa i-ILSI namagatsha ayo, ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamaRandi eminikelweni ebhalwe phansi evela ezinkampanini ezihola phambili zokudla okungenamsoco, isoda namakhemikhali.

A Iphepha likaJuni 2019 ku-Globalization and Health inikeza izibonelo eziningana zokuthi i-ILSI izithuthukisa kanjani izintshisekelo zomkhakha wezokudla, ikakhulukazi ngokukhuthaza isayensi nezimboni ezisebenzisana nomkhakha kubenzi bezinqubomgomo. Ucwaningo lususelwa kwimibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know ngemithetho yamarekhodi womphakathi.  

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “ILSI ifuna ukuthonya abantu, izikhundla nenqubomgomo, kuzwelonke nakumazwe omhlaba, futhi amalungu ayo ezinkampani ayisebenzisa njengethuluzi lokuthuthukisa izintshisekelo zawo emhlabeni jikelele. Ukuhlaziywa kwethu kwe-ILSI kuyisixwayiso kulabo ababambe iqhaza ekuphathweni kwezempilo emhlabeni wonke ukuthi bawaqaphele amaqembu ocwaningo azimele, futhi benze ngokuzimisela ngaphambi kokuthembela ezifundweni zabo ezixhaswe ngemali kanye / noma ukuzibandakanya ebudlelwaneni nalawo maqembu. ”   

I-ILSI ibukele phansi impi yokukhuluphala eChina

NgoJanuwari 2019, amaphepha amabili ngo UProfesa waseHarvard uSusan Greenhalgh iveze ithonya elinamandla le-ILSI kuhulumeni waseChina ezindabeni eziphathelene nokukhuluphala. Amaphepha abhala ukuthi uCoca-Cola nezinye izinkampani basebenze kanjani egatsheni lase-China le-ILSI ukuthonya amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseChina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala kanye nezifo ezihlobene nokudla ezifana nohlobo 2 sikashukela kanye nomfutho wegazi ophezulu. Funda amaphepha:

I-ILSI ibekwe kahle eChina kangangokuba isebenza ngaphakathi kwesikhungo sikahulumeni Sokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo eBeijing.

Amaphepha kaSolwazi Geenhalgh abhala ukuthi iCoca-Cola nezinye iziqhwaga zaseNtshonalanga zokudla neziphuzo “zasiza kanjani ekulolongeni amashumi eminyaka esayensi yaseShayina nenqubomgomo yomphakathi mayelana nokukhuluphala nezifo ezihlobene nokudla” ngokusebenza nge-ILSI ukuhlakulela izikhulu eziyinhloko zaseChina “ngomzamo wokuvimbela ukunyakaza okukhulayo kokulawulwa kokudla nentela yesoda ebilokhu ishanela entshonalanga, ”kubika i New York Times.  

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe lwezifundo oluvela e-US Right to Know mayelana ne-ILSI 

Isiphelile i-UCSF ye-UCSF Industry Documents Archive Imibhalo engama-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI.  

Ucwaningo lwe-ILSI lukashukela “luphume encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi”

Ochwepheshe bezempilo yomphakathi basola i-ILSI exhaswa ngemali isifundo sikashukela eshicilelwe ephephabhukwini lezokwelapha elivelele ngo-2016 lokho kwaba "ukuhlaselwa okunamandla kwezeluleko zezempilo zomhlaba wonke zokudla ushukela omncane," kubika u-Anahad O'Connor kuThe New York Times. Ucwaningo oluxhaswe yi-ILSI luthi izexwayiso zokusika ushukela zisekelwe ebufakazini obuthakathaka futhi azinakuthenjwa.  

Indaba ye-Times icaphune uMarion Nestle, uprofesa waseNew York University ocwaninga ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo ekucwaningweni kokudla, ocwaningweni lwe-ILSI: "Lokhu kuphuma ngqo encwadini yokudlala yomkhakha kagwayi: kubeka ukungabaza ngesayensi," kusho uNestle. “Lesi yisibonelo sakudala sokuthi ukuxhaswa ngezimboni kukhetha imibono. Kuyihlazo. ” 

Izinkampani zikagwayi zisebenzise i-ILSI ukuvimba inqubomgomo 

Umbiko wangoJulayi 2000 wekomidi elizimele leWorld Health Organisation uveze izindlela eziningi imboni kagwayi ezame ngayo ukubukela phansi imizamo ye-WHO yokulawula ugwayi, kufaka phakathi ukusebenzisa amaqembu esayensi ukuthonya izinqumo ze-WHO nokusebenzisa impikiswano yesayensi ezungeze imiphumela yezempilo. kagwayi. I-ILSI ibambe iqhaza elibalulekile kule mizamo, ngokusho kocwaningo lwe-ILSI oluhambisana nombiko. "Okutholakele kukhombisa ukuthi i-ILSI yayisetshenziswa izinkampani ezithile zikagwayi ukuvimbela izinqubomgomo zokulawulwa kukagwayi. Abaphathi abasezikhundleni eziphezulu ku-ILSI babambe iqhaza ngqo kulezi zenzo, ”ngokusho kocwaningo lwamacala. Bona: 

Isigcini Semibhalo Yezimboni Zogwayi i-UCSF sine ngaphezu kwemibhalo eyizi-6,800 XNUMX ephathelene ne-ILSI

Abaholi be-ILSI basize ukuvikela i-glyphosate njengezihlalo zephaneli ebalulekile 

NgoMeyi 2016, i-ILSI yahlolisiswa ngemuva kwezambulo zokuthi iphini likamongameli we-ILSI Europe, uSolwazi Alan Boobis, futhi wayengusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elathola ikhemikhali likaMonsanto glyphosate bekungenakwenzeka ukuthi kube nomdlavuza ngokudla. Usihlalo obambisene we-UN Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), uSolwazi Angelo Moretto, wayeyilungu lebhodi le-ILSI's Health and Environment Services Institute. Azikho izihlalo ze-JMPR ezimemezele izindima zazo zobuholi be-ILSI njengezingxabano zentshisekelo, yize iminikelo ebalulekile yezezimali ILSI eyitholile kusuka eMonsanto kanye neqembu lokuhweba lomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane. Bona: 

Ubudlelwano obuhle be-ILSI ezikhungweni zase-US Zokulawulwa Nokuvimbelwa Kwezifo e-US  

Ngo-Juni 2016, I-US Right to Know ibike ukuthi uDkt.Barbara Bowman, umqondisi wecandelo leCDC elibhekene nokuvimbela isifo senhliziyo nesifo sohlangothi, wazama ukusiza umsunguli we-ILSI u-Alex Malaspina ukuba nomthelela kwizikhulu zeWorld Health Organisation ukuthi zihlehlise izinqubomgomo zokunciphisa ukusetshenziswa koshukela. UBowman uphakamise abantu namaqembu ukuthi iMalaspina ikhulume nabo, futhi wacela ukuphawula kwakhe ngokufingqiwe kweminye imibiko ye-CDC, ama-imeyili akhombisa. (UBowman wehla ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwendatshana yethu yokuqala ibika ngalezi zibopho.)

NgoJanuwari 2019 funda eMilbank Quarterly ichaza ama-imeyili abalulekile eMalaspina ahlangana noDkt. Bowman. Ukuze uthole ukubikwa okwengeziwe ngalesi sihloko, bona: 

Ithonya le-ILSI ekomidini Lokweluleka Lemihlahlandlela Yokudla yase-US

umbiko weqembu elingenzi nzuzo Ukuziphendulela Kwebhizinisi ibhala ukuthi i-ILSI inethonya elikhulu kanjani kwimihlahlandlela yokudla yase-US ngokungena kwayo ekomidini lezeluleko le-US Dietary Guidelines Committee. Umbiko uhlola ukugxambukela kwezepolitiki okusabalele kokudla neziphuzo ezinjengeCoca-Cola, McDonald's, Nestlé, nePepsiCo, nokuthi lezi zinkampani zisizakale kanjani i-International Life Sciences Institute ukukhubaza inqubekelaphambili ngenqubomgomo yokudla emhlabeni wonke.

Ithonya le-ILSI eNdiya 

I-New York Times ibike ngethonya le-ILSI eNdiya esihlokweni sayo esithi, “I-Shadowy Industry Group Yakha Inqubomgomo Yokudla Emhlabeni Wonke. "

I-ILSI inobudlelwano obusondelene nezikhulu ezithile zikahulumeni waseNdiya futhi, njengaseChina, inhlangano engenzi inzuzo icindezele imiyalezo efanayo neziphakamiso zenqubomgomo njengeCoca-Cola - yehlisa iqhaza likashukela nokudla njengesizathu sokukhuluphala, futhi igqugquzela ukwanda kokuzivocavoca umzimba njengesixazululo , ngokusho kwe-India Resource Centre. 

Amalungu ebhodi labaphatheli be-ILSI India afaka phakathi umphathi we-Coca-Cola India wezomthetho kanye nabamele iNestlé ne-Ajinomoto, inkampani eyengeza ukudla, kanye nezikhulu zikahulumeni ezisebenza kuma-panels esayensi anikezwe umsebenzi wokuthatha isinqumo ngezinkinga zokuphepha kokudla.  

Ukukhathazeka okude nge-ILSI 

I-ILSI igcizelela ukuthi akuyona iqembu lezimboni, kepha ukukhathazeka nezikhalazo kukude mayelana nezimo zeqembu ezisekela izimboni kanye nokungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo kubaholi benhlangano. Bona, isibonelo:

Ukuxazulula amathonya embonini yokudla, Imithi Yemvelo (2019)

I-ejensi yokudla iyasiphika isimangalo sempikiswano. Kepha izinsolo zobudlelwano bezimboni zingangcolisa igama lomzimba waseYurophu, Imvelo (2010)

Ukudla Okukhulu Vs. UTim Noakes: Impi Yokugcina, Gcina Ukuqina Kwezomthetho, nguRuss Greene (1.5.17) 

Ukudla Kwangempela Ekuvivinyweni, nguDkt Tim Noakes noMarika Sboros (Columbus Publishing 2019). Le ncwadi ichaza “ukushushiswa nokushushiswa okungakaze kube khona kukaProfesa Tim Noakes, usosayensi nodokotela ovelele, ecaleni elalingaphezu kwezigidi zamarandi eladlula iminyaka engaphezu kwemine. Konke nge-tweet eyodwa enikeza umbono wakhe ngokudla okunempilo. ”

IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Related: Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza, nguStacy Malkan

Leli phepha lichaza okuqukethwe yiMonsanto uhlelo oluyimfihlo lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukudicilela phansi igama lophiko locwaningo lomdlavuza lwe-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ngenhloso yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iqembu lomhlaba wonke lochwepheshe kuphaneli ye-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Uhlelo lweMonsanto lubiza amagama angaphezu kweshumi nambili amaqembu "abalingani bezimboni" abaphathi benkampani abakuhlele "ukwazisa / ukugoma / ukubandakanya" emizamweni yabo yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono odumile, futhi "zinikeze ikhava yezinhlaka ezilawulayo. ” Ozakwethu bahlanganisa izifundiswa kanye namaqembu aphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nezokudla, amaqembu ezohwebo kanye namaqembu okubungaza - landela izixhumanisi ezingezansi kumashidi eqiniso anikeza imininingwane eminingi ngamaqembu ophathina.

Ngokubambisana la maphepha emininingwane ahlinzeka ngesense yokujula nobubanzi be-corporaukuhlaselwa kochwepheshe bomdlavuza we-IARC ngokwehlulwanse kaMi-onsanto edayisa kakhulu i-herbicide.

Izinhloso zikaMonsanto zokubhekana nesilinganiso se-IARC se-carcinogenicity se-glyphosate (ikhasi 5).

Background

Umbhalo osemqoka okhishwe ngo-2017 ngo izinqubo zomthetho ngokumelene neMonsanto kuchaza “uhlelo lokulungela nokuzibandakanya” kwenkampani ekuhlelweni komdlavuza we-IARC we-glyphosate, umhlaba isetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo. I- idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto - yangomhla kaFebhuwari 23, 2015 - yabela abasebenzi abangaphezu kwama-20 beMonsanto ezinhlosweni ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela wesinqumo," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa iMON POV" kanye "nokuhola izwi 'kubani i-IARC' kanye ne-2B intukuthelo." NgoMashi 20, 2015, i-IARC yamemezela isinqumo sayo sokuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-Group 2A carcinogen, "mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu. "

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane, bheka: “Ukulungiswa Kanjani KweMonsanto Ekuhlukanisweni Komdlavuza Wamakhemikhali Okulindelekile,”NguCarey Gillam, uHuffington Post (9/19/2017)

Isigaba 1-4 seMonsanto “Abalingani Bemboni”

Ikhasi 5 le- umbhalo weMonsanto ikhomba izingxenye ezine “zabalingani bemboni” abaphathi beMonsanto abebehlele ukuzibandakanya nohlelo lwayo lwe-IARC lokuzilungiselela. La maqembu ehlangene anokufinyelela okubanzi nomthelela ekuphusheni ukulandisa ngengozi yomdlavuza evikela inzuzo yezinkampani.

Umlingani womkhakha weTier 1 angama-lobby axhaswa ngezimboni kanye namaqembu e-PR.

Abalingani bezimboni zeTier 2 bangamaqembu angaphambili avame ukukhonjwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha basebenza nemboni yamakhemikhali ekusithekeni kobudlelwano bomphakathi nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Abalingani bemboni engu-Tier 3 bangamaqembu ezingenzi-nzuzo axhaswe izimboni zokudla. Lawa maqembu athakanyiswe kokuthi, “Xwayisa izinkampani zokudla ngethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement (IFIC, GMA, CFI) 'ngecebo lokutholwa' lokuhlinzeka ngemfundo yokuqala ngamazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate, chaza izifundo ezenzelwe isayensi uma kuqhathaniswa nemibono eqhutshwa yi-ajenda” yomdlavuza ozimele iphaneli.

Umlingani womkhakha we-Tier 4 "yizinhlangano zabakhiqizi abakhulu." Lawa ngamaqembu ezohwebo ahlukahlukene amele ummbila, isoya nabanye abatshali bezimboni nabakhiqizi bokudla.

Ukuhlela ukukhala ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza ku-glyphosate

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR uchaze izinhlelo zabo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kulungiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC."

Ukuthi lokho kudlalwe kanjani kungabonakala emibhalweni yozakwethu embonini amaqembu abesebenzisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile nemithombo ukusola i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza ngokungalungile nokuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abasebenza embikweni we-glyphosate.

Izibonelo zemiyalezo yokuhlasela zingabonakala kuwebhusayithi yeProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Leli qembu lithi lingumthombo ozimele wesayensi, kepha, imibhalo etholwe ngumbukiso wase-US Right to Know ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lokho kusebenzisana. UJon Entine wethule leli qembu e2011 ngenkathi uMonsanto eyiklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. Lena iqhinga lakudala leqembu langaphambili; ukuhambisa imiyalezo yenkampani ngeqembu elithi lizimele kepha akunjalo.

Uhlelo lucebisa i-Sense About Science ukuthi "ihole ukuphendula kwemboni"

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR ukhuluma ngezinhlelo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kuqondiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC." Lolu hlelo luphakamisa iqembu i-Sense About Science (kubakaki abanophawu lombuzo) ukuthi "liholele ekuphenduleni kwemboni futhi linikeze inkundla yezingqapheli ze-IARC nokhulumela imboni."

I-Sense About Science iyisiza somphakathi esizinze eLondon lokho kuthiwa kuthuthukisa ukuqonda komphakathi ngesayensi, kodwa iqembu "laziwa ngokuthatha izikhundla buck ukuvumelana kwesayensi noma ukuchitha ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala, ”Kubika uLiza Gross ku-The Intercept. Ngo-2014, iSense About Science yethule inguqulo yase-US ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kwe-  UTrevor Butterworth, umbhali onomlando omude wokungavumelani naye isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo ngamakhemikhali anobuthi.

I-Sense About Science ihlobene ne- Isayensi Media Center, isayensi PR agency eLondon ethola uxhaso lwezinkampani futhi yaziwa nge ukugcizelela imibono yenkampani yesayensi. Intatheli ephethe sisondelene neSayensi Media Center, UKate Kelland, ushicilele izindatshana eziningana kwiReuters ezigxeka i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-IARC eyayisekelwe kuyo izindaba ezingamanga futhi ukubika okungaphelele okungaphelele. Izindatshana zeReuters zithuthukiswe kakhulu ngamaqembu kaMonsanto “abalingani bemboni” futhi zasetshenziswa njenge isisekelo se ukuhlaselwa kwezepolitiki ngokumelene ne-IARC.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • "I-IARC iyazenqaba izimangalo ezingamanga ku-Reuters," Isitatimende se-IARC (3 / 1 / 18)
  • Indaba ka-Reuters ka-Aaron Blair IARC ikhuthaza ukulandisa okungamanga, USRTK (7 / 24 / 2017)
  • Isimangalo seReuters sokuthi i-IARC "ihlele kahle" okutholakele nakho kungamanga, USRTK (10 / 20 / 2017)
  • "Ngabe izibopho zezinkampani zinomthelela ekusetshenzisweni kwesayensi?" Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (7 / 24 / 2017)

“Bandakanya uHenry Miller”

Ikhasi 2 lombhalo weMonsanto PR likhomba okwokuqala okulethwa ukuhlelela nokulungiselela: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller" "ukugoma / ukusungula umbono womphakathi nge-IARC nezibuyekezo."

"Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngokusalungiswa okuseqophelweni eliphezulu."

UHenry I. Miller, MD, osebenza naye eHoover Institution kanye nomqondisi osungula iHhovisi Le-Biotechnology le-FDA, une umlando omude oqoshiwe wokusebenzisana nezinkampani ukuvikela imikhiqizo enobungozi. Uhlelo lweMonsanto lukhomba “umnikazi we-MON” womsebenzi njengo-Eric Sachs, isayensi, ubuchwepheshe nobuchwepheshe beMonsanto.

Imibhalo kamuva kubika iThe New York Times kwembule lokho amaSachs uthumele i-imeyili uMiller kusasele isonto ngaphambi kombiko we-IARC glyphosate ukubuza ukuthi ngabe uMiller wayenesifiso sokubhala "ngalesi sinqumo esiyimpikiswano." UMiller uphendule wathi, "Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngidalelwe ubuciko obusezingeni eliphezulu." Ngo-Mashi 23, uMiller uthumele isihloko kuForbes "okubonakala kakhulu" okusalungiswa okuhlinzekwe nguMonsanto, ngokusho kwe Times. IForbes inqamule ubudlelwano bayo noMiller ngemuva kwesigameko sokubhala ngezipoki futhi ususe izindatshana zakhe kusuka kusayithi.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

Yize umqulu weMonsanto PR ungazange uqambe igama le- umkhandlu waseMelika oxhaswe ngezinkampani weSayensi nezeMpilo (ACSH) phakathi "kwabalingani bayo bezimboni," ama-imeyili akhishwe nge-litigation show ukuthi iMonsanto uxhase uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo futhi wacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abaphathi beMonsanto bebengakhululekile ngokusebenzisana ne-ACSH kodwa benze njalo noma kunjalo ngoba, "asinabo abalandeli abaningi futhi asikwazi ukulahlekelwa yilabo abambalwa esinabo."

Umholi wesayensi ephezulu kaMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein ubhalele ozakwabo ukuthi, “Ngingakuqinisekisa ukuthi anginabo bonke abantu abanenkanyezi nge-ACSH- banenqwaba yezinsumpa- kodwa: NGEKE UTHOLE UKUBALULEKA OKUNGCONO KWEDOLOLA LAKHO kune-ACSH” (kugcizelela yena). UGoldstein uthumele izixhumanisi zezinto eziningi ze-ACSH ezikhuthaza futhi zivikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane azichaze ngokuthi “ZISEBENZISA KAKHULU.”

Bona futhi: Ukulandelela i-Agrichemical Industry Propaganda Network 

Landela okutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu embonini yokudla kanye nezifundiswa ku ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo ye-USRTK iyatholakala kufayela le- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe ngu-UCSF.

Izingxoxo phakathi kweCoca-Cola ne-CDC

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Milbank Ngekota: Ukuhlangana Komphakathi Okuyimfihlo: Izingxoxo Phakathi KweCoca-Cola ne-CDC, nguNason Maani Hessari, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee noDavid Stuckler (1.29.19)

Isiphetho: “Ama-imeyili esiwathole sisebenzisa izicelo ze-FOIA aveza imizamo yeCoca-Cola yokunxenxa i-CDC ukuqhubekisela phambili izinhloso zebhizinisi kunokuba nezempilo, kubandakanya nokuthonya i-World Health Organisation. Okutholakele kwethu kunikeza isibonelo esingajwayelekile sezindlela izintshisekelo zezinkampani ezizama ngazo ukuthonya abezempilo bomphakathi 'ngamazwi abo,' futhi zikhombisa isidingo sezinqubomgomo ezicacile ekugwemeni ubudlelwano nabakhiqizi bemikhiqizo eyingozi. ”

Ukukhishwa Kwezindaba ze-USRTK: Ucwaningo Lukhombisa Imizamo KaCoca-Cola Yokuthonya I-CDC Kokudla Nokukhuluphala (1.29.19)

The Iqoqo le-US Right to Know Food Industry, equkethe ama-imeyili eCoca-Cola ane-CDC, athunyelwe mahhala, ayasesheka Ingobo yomlando yama-UCSF Yezimboni Zokudla.

ICongresswomen ifuna kuphenywe

Ukukhishwa Kwezindaba: UPingree, DeLauro ku-HHS Inspector General: Investigation Coca-Cola's Lobbying of CDC (2.4.19)

Incwadi eya kuMhloli-Jikelele we-HHS uDaniel Levinson (2.4.19)

Isaluni: Amakhosikazi amabili engqungquthela afuna kwenziwe uphenyo ngobudlelwano obugwegwile beCDC neCoca-Cola, nguNicole Karlis (2.5.19)

Ukusakazwa kwezindaba zocwaningo lwekota iMilbank

I-Washington Post: Ama-imeyili e-Coca-Cola aveza ukuthi imboni yesoda izama kanjani ukuthonya izikhulu zezempilo, nguPaige Winfield Cunningham (1.29.19)

I-Associated Press: Imboni yokudla ithonya impilo yomphakathi ihlolwa okusha, nguCandace Choi (1.29.19)

Político: I-Coca-Cola Izame Ukuthonya i-CDC Kucwaningo Nenqubomgomo, New Report States, nguJesse Chase-Lubitz (1.29.19)

CNN: Ama-imeyili amadala aphethe izinkomba ezintsha kubudlelwano obuyimpikiswano beCoca-Cola kanye ne-CDC, nguJacqueline Howard (1.29.19)

BMJ: I-Coca-Cola nokukhuluphala: ukutadisha kukhombisa imizamo yokuthonya Izikhungo Zase-US Zokulawulwa Kwezifo, nguGareth Iacobucci (1.30.19)

Isaluni: Ama-imeyili amasha aveza ukuthi abasebenzi be-CDC babenza isicelo seCoca-Cola, nguNicole Karlis (2.1.19)

Umama Jones: Isifundo: Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi iCoca-Cola Izame Kanjani Ukuthonya Inqubomgomo Yezempilo Yomhlaba Wonke, nguKari Sonde (2.1.19)

I-Atlanta Constitution Journal: I-Coke ne-CDC, izithonjana zase-Atlanta, zabelana ngobuhlobo obuhle, ama-imeyili akhombisa, ngu-Alan Judd (2.6.19)

Imagazini ehlobene kanye nezindatshana zezindaba

BMJ: Ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo kubeka engcupheni inhloso ye-ejensi yezempilo yomphakathi yase-US, kusho ososayensi, nguJeanne Lenzer (10.24.16)

Isayensi: Izishayamthetho zaseMelika zifuna i-NIH ne-CDC izisekelo zisho okuningi ngabanikeli, nguJeffrey Mervis (6.29.18)

BMJ: Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo: Ukuvikela Okusizakala Ngasese? NguJeanne Lenzer (5.15.15)

Thayipha Uphenyo: IFirm Ikhokha Uhulumeni Ukuphonsela inselelo Ucwaningo Lwezinambuzane, nguSheila Kaplan (3.1.11)

BMJ: Inhlangano yezempilo yomphakathi yase-US imangalele ngokwehluleka ukukhipha ama-imeyili avela kwaCoca-Cola, nguMartha Rosenberg (2.28.18)

ISan Diego Union Tribune: U-UCSD uqasha umcwaningi wezempilo oxhaswe nguCoke, nguMorgan Cook (9.29.16)

Ukubika okuningi ngethonya likaCoca-Cola

Ijenali ye-Epidemiology nempilo Yomphakathi: Izinhlangano zezesayensi kanye 'nempi' kaCoca-Cola nomphakathi wezempilo womphakathi: imininingwane evela embhalweni wemboni yangaphakathi, nguPepita Barlow, uPaulo Serôdio, uGary Ruskin, uMartin McKee noDavid Stuckler (3.14.18)

Impilo Yomphakathi Ebalulekile: Izinkampani zokudla zibuthinta kanjani ubufakazi nombono - zisuka emlonyeni wehhashi, nguGary Sacks, uBoyd A. Swinburn, u-Adrian J. Cameron noGary Ruskin (9.13.17)

Izindaba Zezemvelo: "Impi" kaCoca-Cola nomphakathi wezempilo womphakathi, nguGary Ruskin (4.3.18)

BMJ: Ithonya likaCoca-Cola eliyimfihlo ezintathelini zezokwelapha nezesayensi, nguPaul Thacker (4.5.17)

Político: Isikhulu esiphezulu sezempilo sikaTrump sathengisa isitoko sogwayi ngenkathi sihola imizamo yokulwa nokubhema, nguSarah Karlin-Smith noBrianna Ehley (1.30.18)

I-New York Times: Isikhulu esisha se-CDC Sabona uCoca-Cola njengo-Ally ku-Obesity Fight, nguSheila Kaplan (7.22.17)

I-Associated Press: Ama-imeyili aveza iqhaza likaCoke eqenjini elilwa nokukhuluphala, nguCandice Choi (11.24.15) no Izingcaphuno ezivela kuma-imeyili phakathi kweCoke ne-Global Energy Balance Network

I-New York Times: Izimali Zezimali zeCoca-Cola Ososayensi Abasusa Icala Lokukhuluphala Kude Nezidlo Ezingafanele, ngu-Anahad O'Connor (8.9.15)

Izindatshana zezindaba zabasebenzi base-US Right to Know

IGquma: Kwenzekani eCDC? Izimiso zokuziphatha ze-ejensi yezempilo zidinga ukuhlolwa, nguCarey Gillam (8.27.16)

Iposi likaHuffington: Izibopho ezingaphezulu zeCoca-Cola Zibonakala Ngaphakathi Izikhungo Zase-US Zokulawulwa Kwezifo, nguCarey Gillam (8.1.16)

Iposi likaHuffington: I-CDC Official Exits Agency Ngemuva Kokuxhuma KweCoca-Cola Kuvele Ekukhanyeni, nguCarey Gillam (6.30.16)

Iposi likaHuffington: Imboni Yeziphuzo Ithola Umngane Ngaphakathi E-Ejensi Yezempilo yase-US, nguCarey Gillam (6.28.16)

I-Forbes: Inethiwekhi yeCoca-Cola: Ukuxhunyaniswa Kwezimayini zeSoda Giant Nezikhulu Nezazi Zesayensi Ukuthonya Amandla, nguRob Waters (7.11.17)

I-Forbes: I-Pick's Head To Head CDC ibambisene ne-Coke, Izibopho ezihlala isikhathi eside ze-Boosting Agency ku-Soda Giant, nguRob Waters (7.10.17)

I-US Right to Know ingummangali ecaleni le-FOIA maqondana neCDC

I-CrossFit ne-US Right to Know zimangalela uMnyango Wezempilo kanye Nezinsizakalo Zabantu ukufuna amarekhodi okuthi kungani iSisekelo Sezikhungo Zikazwelonke Zokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo (i-CDC Foundation) kanye neSisekelo Sezikhungo Zikazwelonke Zezempilo (i-NIH Foundation) singazange sidalule imininingwane yabaxhasi njengoba kudingwa ngumthetho. (10.4.18)

Ithonya leCoca-Cola / ILSI ku-CDC eChina

I-New York Times: Ngabe uChummy Izidlakela Zokudla Okungenamsoco Nezikhulu Zezempilo ZaseChina? Babelana ngamaHhovisi, ngu-Andrew Jacobs (1.9.19)

Ijenali Yenqubomgomo Yezempilo Yomphakathi: Umkhakha weSoda unethonya kusayensi nenqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, nguSusan Greenhalgh (1.9.19)

BMJ: Ukwenza iChina iphephe kwiCoke: iCoca-Cola yakha kanjani isayensi nenqubomgomo yokukhuluphala eChina, nguSusan Greenhalgh (1.9.19)

BMJ: Amandla afihlekile ezinkampani, NguMartin McKee, uSara Steele noDavid Stuckler (1.9.19)

Amaqoqo emibhalo ye-CDC FOIA

(1) CDC Bowman Malaspina

(2) CDC UJanet Collins

(3) CDC Culbertson Ryan Liburd Galuska

(4) I-CDC Bowman Stokes 2018

Amadokhumenti engeziwe

(1) Incwadi ye-CDC SPIDER

(2) Ama-imeyili amathathu kaBarbara Bowman

I-AgBioChatter: Lapho Izinkampani, Isu Elihleliwe Lezemfundo kuma-GMO, Izibulala-zinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-AgBioChatter iyi-server yangasese ye-imeyili esetshenziswa yimboni yezolimo kanye nabalingani bayo ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Amalungu ohlu afaka izifundiswa ezixhasa umkhakha wezimboni, abasebenza embonini ephezulu yezolimo kanye nabasebenzisana nomphakathi.

Lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i- “Academics (AgBioChatter)” “njengozakwethu bezimboni” kuTier 2 ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto zokudicilela phansi isithunzi seWorld Health Organisation's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze kuvikelwe isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Izifundiswa eziningana ze-AgBioChatter nazo zidlala indima ebalulekile kwamanye amaqembu "ophathina bezimboni" aqanjwe ohlelweni lukaMonsanto lwe-PR lokuhlambalaza umbiko we-IARC we-carcinogenicity, kufaka phakathi Izimpendulo ze-GMO, Ukuhlukaniswa, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi.

Ingemuva: IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter axhunywe ngezansi - kanye neminye imibhalo etholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi futhi manje isingathwe endaweni Ingobo yomlando Yemibhalo Yezimboni ze-UCSF - nikeza izibonelo eziningi zokuthi amaqembu ezifundiswa nezimboni asebenzisana kanjani ngezindlela ezicashile zokududula imiyalezo ehambisanayo nomkhakha kuzingxenyekazi ezahlukahlukene ukukhiqiza ukungabaza ngezingozi zezempilo nezemvelo zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nama-GMO.

Izitolo zabezindaba emhlabeni jikelele babike ngalokhu kusebenzisana ekusithekeni ukukhuthaza imibono yezimboni ngesayensi nokuphikisana nemithethonqubo.

Imizamo ye-US Right to Know yokwenza izinto obala

I-US Right to Know ithole ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter ngo-2016 nango-2017 ngesicelo samarekhodi womphakathi. NgoJulayi 2017, i-US Right to Know wamangalela iNyuvesi yaseFlorida ngokwehluleka kwayo ukukhipha amarekhodi omphakathi aceliwe afaka imboni yezolimo kanye noprofesa abaxhaswe umphakathi, kufaka phakathi imibhalo evela esithangamini se-AgBioChatter.

NgoMashi 2018, ijaji laseFlorida lalichitha leli cala, lathi ama-imeyili e-AgBioChatter “ayeyizinto zomuntu siqu ezazivela kubantu bakaKevin Folta kuphela” hhayi ibhizinisi lasenyuvesi lomphakathi. Ngemininingwane engaphezulu, bheka i- imibhalo yenkantolo.

Ukusabalala okuhlobene nabezindaba

  • Inkululeko Yokweseka I-Press, "Yeka ukuthi izinkampani zikucindezela kanjani ukudalulwa kwamarekhodi omphakathi mayelana nazo," nguCamille Fassett (2/27/18)
  • I-New York Times, “I-Food Industry Yabhalisa Izifundiswa ku-GMO labeling war, Emails Show,” ebhalwe ngu-Eric Lipton; futhi ingobo yomlando ye-imeyili, "UProfesa waseFlorida usebenza nemboni ye-Biotech" (9/5/2015)
  • I-Alternet, “Ngabe kukhona okushaya amanzi okwenzekayo phakathi kweYunivesithi yaseFlorida nemboni yezolimo? Abathengi banelungelo lokwazi, ”nguDaniel Ross, i-Alternet (2/13/18)

Okuqukethwe kohlu lwe-AgBioChatter

The Ama-imeyili we-AgBioChatter atholakele ngokusebenzisa izicelo zomlando wamarekhodi womphakathi (amakhasi ayi-142) abonisa izifundiswa nabasebenzi bemboni yezolimo abaxhumanisa amaphuzu okukhuluma ukuze baphikise ukufakwa kwelebizo le-GMO, bakhuthaze futhi bavikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, bagxeke imboni, futhi bagweme izicelo zoMthetho weNkululeko Yolwazi ngemininingwane ephathelene noprofesa abakhokhelwa nguhulumeni.

Ingqikithi enkulu yama-imeyili (futhi ikakhulukazi indima yelungu lohlu uJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto) kwakuwukuhlonza abagxeka imboni yezolimo namathuba okubahlasela. Lapha kubalwa uMehmet Oz, uVandana Shiva, uDon Huber, i-Consumers Union nabanye.

Enye indikimba ebalulekile kuma-imeyili e-AgBioChatter yimizamo yokuhlela izifundo zesayensi eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngobungozi bama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane ngokuthi "ziqhutshwa yi-ajenda," kanti izifundo ezibika kahle ngemikhiqizo yezimboni yezolimo "ziyi-pro science."

Ezemfundo, ukusebenzisana kwezimboni 

Ngokwama-imeyili atholakele kuze kube manje ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi, izifundiswa, abasebenzi bemboni yezolimo, abeluleki kanye nezinkampani ze-PR babambe iqhaza ohlwini lwama- "Chatter".

Abahlanganyeli abaziwayo babhalwe ngezansi kanye nezibopho zabo kokunye "Amaqembu abalingani bezimboni" iqanjwe ohlelweni lwe-PR lukaMonsanto ukuze hlela ukukhala ngokumelene nephaneli yomdlavuza we-IARC. Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngala maqembu, bheka amaphepha ethu eqiniso:

Futhi okuphawulwe ngezansi yizibopho eziya ku- Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu langaphambili elithola imali yenkampani ukuze ukukhuthaza imibono yezimboni ngesayensi futhi bahlasele abagxeki.

Izixhumanisi ezigcinwe kulondolozo lwe-Genetic Literacy Project zinikeza umuzwa wokuthumela imiyalezo evamile, ephindaphindwayo la maqembu angaphambili kanye nezifundiswa zisebenzisa ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, zama ukudicilela phansi abagxeki, ukuphikisana nokwesulwa kanye nokuphikisana nemizamo yokwenza izinto obala.

Amalungu ohlu lwe-AgBioChatter 

Ama-imeyili atholwe ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi akhombisa ukuthi laba bantu abalandelayo babeku-listerver ye-AgBioChatter njengezinsuku ezikuma-imeyili.

Andrew Apel, imboni yezolimo umxhumanisi nomhleli wangaphambili yencwajana yomkhakha webhayoloji i-AgBiotech Reporter

UGraham Brooks, Isazi Sezomnotho Wezolimo, i-PG Economics Ltd, e-UK

UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto; umongameli we v-Fluence Interactive inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi

UBruce Chassy, ​​PhD, USolwazi Emeritus Wezokuphepha Kokudla kanye neSayensi Yezomsoco, iYunivesithi yase-Illinois e-Urbana-Champaign

UJon Entine, umqondisi we-Genetic Literacy Project, uMonsanto “ongumlingani wemboni”

UKevin Folta, PhD, USolwazi noSihlalo, uMnyango Wezesayensi Yezolimo, iYunivesithi yaseFlorida

I-Val Giddings, i-PhD, umxhumanisi wemboni, owayengu-VP wenhlangano yezohwebo ye-BIO

  • Umuntu omkhulu kwa-Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (exhaswe ngamaqembu emikhakha yezemithi, engenazintambo kanye neyezolimo)
  • Usizile ukusetha ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo njenge iqembu eliphambili leMonsanto
  • Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project archives

U-Andy Hedgecock, UDuPont Pioneer owayengumqondisi wezindaba zesayensi

UDrew Kershen, PhD, U-Emeritus Professor, University of Oklahoma, College of Law

UMarcel Kuntz, PhD, umqondisi wocwaningo kwa-CNRS, Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Végétale, Grenoble, France 

  • Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project archives 

UChris Leaver, PhD, U-Emeritus Professor of Plant Science, eNyuvesi yase-Oxford

Adrienne Massey, PhD, IBiotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), umphathi ophethe izindaba zesayensi nezomthetho

URobert McGregor, Umhlaziyi Wezinqubomgomo, IPrince Edward Island, eCanada

Alan McHughen, PhD, ENyuvesi yaseCalifornia Riverside

UHenry Miller, MD, esikanye naye eHoover Institution, ihhovisi langaphambili le-FDA le-biotechnology

UVivian Moses, PhD, Isifo Sikashukela Nezempilo, eKing's College London

UPiero Morandini, PhD, umsizi wocwaningo, ENyuvesi yaseMilan

UWayne Parrott, PhD, UProfesa, Ukutshala Ukutshala kanye Nofuzo, University of Georgia

CS Prakash, PhD, UProfesa, i-Plant Genetics, i-Genomics ne-Biotechnology College yeSayensi yezoLimo, ezeMvelo kanye neNutrition, eTuskegee University

UCami Ryan, PhD, IMonsanto, ukuhola kwesayensi yezenhlalo, inqubomgomo yokulawula kanye nezindaba zesayensi eCanada

U-Eric Sachs, PhD, I-Monsanto, ezemvelo, ezenhlalo nezomnotho zihola phambili

U-Alison Van Eenennaam, PhD, I-Animal Genetics ne-Biotechnology Cooperative Extension Specialist, iYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eDavis

UKarl Haro von Mogel, PhD, Umqondisi we-Biofortified wesayensi nabezindaba   

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngokutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu ezimboni nezifundiswa ezindabeni zokudla, bheka ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo yase-US Right to Know iyatholakala ku- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe yiYunivesithi yaseCalifornia, eSan Francisco.

I-Biofortified Aids Chemical Industry PR & Imizamo Yokuzama

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

IBiology Fortified Inc., eyaziwa njenge “Kwenziwe kabusha, ”Inhlangano engenzi nzuzo esebenza ngokubambisana nomkhakha wezolimo kanye nabahlanganyeli bawo kwezobudlelwano bomphakathi kanye nemikhankaso yokunxenxa ukuvikela ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane, futhi ihlasela abagxeki bemboni.

Amalungu ebhodi nama-blogger bangabalingani abakhulu bezimboni zezolimo

Amalungu ebhodi wamanje nabangaphambili nababhali be-blog abhalwe ku-Biofortified's “hlangana nochwepheshe bethu”Leli khasi linobudlelwano obuseduze nomkhakha wezezolimo kanye nemikhankaso yamaqembu aphambili embonini.

Okulandelayo yizibonelo zokunxenxa okuhambisana nomkhakha kanye nemizamo yokuxhumana nomphakathi ebandakanya iBiofortified nabaholi bayo.

"Abafana abasebenza ngokulingana" kuvikela ama-pesticides

Ngo-2013, iHawaii Crop Improvement Association (HCIA) - iqembu lokuhweba emele IDowDuPont, iMonsanto kanye neHartung Brothers - bahlele uhambo lokunxenxa ukuya eKauai ngenhloso yokuphikisana nabasebenzi bezimboni ukuze baphikisane nomthetho womphakathi owawuzothuthuka ukudalulwa emphakathini yokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kanye nendawo edingekayo yokubulala izinambuzane ezungeze izikole, izibhedlela nezinye izindawo zomphakathi. Ngokwama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, umqondisi omkhulu we-HCIA ubhekise kubasekeli abane ababemenywe ohambweni lokungenisa izivakashi njengabafana be- “Biofortified”. Kade:

  • UKarl Haro von Mogel, Umqondisi wesayensi ye-Biofortified
  • USteve Savage, Umbhali webhulogi we-Biofortified kanye nomxhumanisi wemboni yezolimo
  • UKevin Folta, Ilungu lebhodi le-Biofortified kanye noprofesa e-University of Florida
  • UJon Entine, umqondisi we-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu labalingani beMonsanto

Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi uRenee Kester, ongumgqugquzeli ohola wephrojekthi yokwamukela izivakashi i-HCIA, wathumela nge-imeyili la madoda amane Julayi 11, 2013 (ikhasi 10) ukubabonga “ngakho konke ukwesekwa osinikeze khona lapha eHawaii maqondana nezimpi zethu zomthetho zakamuva” nokubeka ucingo lokuxoxa ngokutholakala kwabo ukuze bathamele ukulalelwa komthetho okuzayo. U-Alicia Mulu Research, umqondisi omkhulu we-HCIA, wabe esethumela iqembu nge-imeyili (ikhasi 9) mayelana nesidingo sokuqamba amasu esikhathi esifushane nawesikhathi eside “usebenzisa abafana be-Biofortified”

Ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • New York Times, "UProfesa waseFlorida usebenza nemboni yeBiotech: Uhambo oluya eHawaii ukuyofakaza, lukhokhelwa ngabezimboni" (ikhasi 23) (9/5/2015)
  • Ukubuka kwe-GM, “Indlela 'iBiofortified Boys' evikela ngayo izimfihlo zomkhakha wokubulala izinambuzane eHawaii” (9/27/2015)

I-Biofortified efakwe ohlwini njengo "umlingani wemboni" ku-Monsanto PR doc  

Lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba uBiofortified “njengozakwethu wezimboni” ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi zikaMonsanto zokudicilela phansi igama lengalo yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuvikela isithunzi sikaRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iphaneli lochwepheshe le-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Idokhumenti yeMonsanto PR ikhonjisiwe izingxenye ezine zabalingani bemboni inkampani ihlele ukuzibandakanya “nohlelo lwayo lokulungela” ukuthola umbiko womdlavuza we-IARC. IBiofortified ibhalwe ku- “Tier 2,” kanye ne- Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, Izifundiswa ze-AgBioChatter, Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi. Lawa maqembu avame ukucashunwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha njengoba uhlelo lweMonsanto nezinye izibonelo ziphakamisa, basebenza ngasese nemboni yezolimo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi. (Ukuvuselelwa: Ngo-Okthoba 2018, iBiofortified yathumela i- isitatimende kusuka eMonsanto bethi inkampani ayikhokhi noma ayihlangani nabo.)

Ukungavumelani nokuphikisana nezicelo zombuso ze-FOIA

I-Biofortified ixhaswe ngokubambisana, kanye ne iCornell Alliance for Science, a Mashi 2015 sicelo ephikisana nokusetshenziswa kwezicelo zombuso ze-Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) zokuphenya ukuxhumana phakathi kwezifundiswa ezixhaswe nguhulumeni kanye nemboni yezolimo.

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know ngezicelo zombuso ze-FOIA selivezile izibonelo eziningi yezifundiswa ezisebenza ngezindlela ezicashile nezinkampani ze-agrichemical kanye namafemu abo e-PR ukusiza i-ajenda yezimboni nokuthumela imiyalezo - ngokwesibonelo, amadokhumenti ichaza umsuka weqembu langaphambili le-Academics Review, kanye nalezo ezixoxa “ngabafana abathandekayo” uhambo lokungenisa izivakashi eHawaii. Ama-imeyili amaningi atholwe yi-US Right to Know manje asethunyelwe ku-UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Library, Iqoqo lezolimo le-USRTK. Imibhalo ikhiqize umhlaba wonke Ukusabalala kwezindaba mayelana nokusobala embonini yokudla kanye nezingozi zezempilo nezemvelo zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane kanye nama-GMO.

Ukuhlaselwa okuhambisana nomkhakha kweBiofortified kubagxeki

Unodoli ojiyile omele ummbila we-GMO ogama lakhe linguFrank N. Foode yi-mascot yeBiofortified.

Ilungu lebhodi elasungula iBiofortified uDavid Tribe wasungulwa ngokuhlanganyela Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, iqembu elingaphambili elisungulwe ngosizo lweMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni, ngokusho kwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know. Ku-imeyili eyodwa, UJay Byrne, owayengumqondisi wezokuxhumana kwezinkampani eMonsanto, uxoxe ngohlu oluhlosiwe lwabagxeki bezimboni abebelwenzela iMonsanto.

Mashi Ngokumelene Nezinkoleloze mayelana nokuguqulwa (MAMyths), iphrojekthi ye-Biofortified, iphinde yaqondisa amanye amaqembu nabantu ababizwe ohlwini luka-Byrne - ngokwesibonelo, iqembu labamba iqhaza ukuphikisana noVandana Shiva futhi kubikwa ukuthi uhole a umzamo ohlulekile wokweqa umzila umcimbi obandakanya uVani Hari, i- “Food Babe,” oxhaswe yiCentre for Food Safety.

Umsunguli we-MAMyths uKavin Senapathy wayenama-athikili ambalwa isuswe yiForbes emva kwe I-New York Times yembula ukuthi umbhali wakhe, u-Henry Miller, ushicilele ikholomu e Forbes eyayibhalwe isipoki nguMonsanto. UMiller uphinde wakhonjwa njengomlingani ku Uhlelo lukaMonsanto lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukuhlasela iphaneli yomdlavuza ye-IARC.

USenapathy ungumbhali-mbhali we-2015 ibhuku mayelana neHari, "The Fear Babe," efaka phambili ebhalwe yilungu lebhodi leBiofortified uKevin Folta, lapho echaza khona inhlangano yokudla "njengeqembu lamaphekula elixhaswe kahle."

USenapathy noHaro von Mogel nabo bavela ku- Ifilimu le-propaganda ye-GMO Ukuvela Kokudla.

Amaphrojekthi ahlobene

Isizinda sedatha seGENERA luhlu lwezifundo “ukukhombisa abantu ukuthi kungakanani ucwaningo olwenziwe ngezitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo,” ngokusho kwe- Imibuzo Evame Ukubuzwa kuwebhusayithi yeBiofortified. Uhlu luqale ukuqalwa nguDavid Tribe, ophinde wasungula i- Ukubuyekezwa kwezifundo zeqembu eliphambili leMonsanto. Iphromoshini yokuqala yeGENERA amangalelwe ngokukhohlisa ukukhombisa "imibiko ebukeziwe kontanga engaphezu kuka-600 emibhalweni yesayensi ebhala ukuphepha nokudla okunomsoco kokudla nokudla okuphakelayo." Eziningi zalezo zifundo azizange zibhekane nezinkinga zokuphepha. Ulimi lokukhangisa olungalungile luye lwasuswa kamuva, kanye nengxenye yesithathu yezifundo.

Isikhungo Sabalingani Bokubambisana Kokudla neMonsanto

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

ICentre for Food Integrity (CFI), phambilini eyayiyiGrow America Project, iyinhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa yizimboni eyenza imikhankaso yocwaningo, ukunxenxa kanye nobudlelwano bomphakathi ukuze "ithole ukwethembela kwabathengi" kwezinkampani zokudla nezolimo, okubala I-DowDuPont, iMonsanto, iCargill, i-Costco, i-Grocery Manufacturers Association, i-Hershey, i-Kroger kanye nezinhlangano zezohwebo zenyama, ubisi nobhontshisi.

Esikhathini seminyaka emihlanu kusuka 2012-2016, I-CFI isebenzise ama- $ 23,225,098 ekumaketheni nasekuthumeleni imiyalezo ehlukahlukene izinhlelo ukukhuthaza ukuthumela imiyalezo embonini ukwakha ukwethembela ekudleni okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, izibulala-zinambuzane, izithasiselo zokudla nemithi elwa namagciwane enyameni.

Ingalo yeCFI engu-501 (c) (3), ingalo ye- Isisekelo Sobuqotho Bokudla, uxhasa ngezimali ucwaningo lokwazisa imizamo yemiyalezo yokwakha ukwethembela kwabathengi, ngesabelomali sokusetshenziswa esingu- $ 823,167 kusuka 2012-2016. Abaxhasi ngo-2012 yayihlanganisa Inkampani yeMonsanto, iCropLife America kanye ne-US Farmers and Ranchers Alliance.

"Umlingani wezezimboni" ekuhlaselweni kukaMonsanto kuphaneli yomdlavuza we-IARC

Lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i-Centre for Food Integrity “njengomlingani womkhakha” ezinhlelweni zobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto zokudicilela phansi igama lengalo yocwaningo lomdlavuza le-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuvikela isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Uhlelo lweMonsanto lubala izingxenye ezine zabalingani bemboni ukubamba iqhaza emizameni yayo yokuxhumana nomphakathi. I-CFI ibhalwe njengohlu lwe-Tier 3 “partner partner” kanye namanye amaqembu amabili axhaswe izimboni zokudla, i- Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke futhi Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa.

Ngokwalo mbhalo, la maqembu ayeyingxenye ye “Stakeholder Engagement team” eyayingaxwayisa izinkampani zokudla “ngecebo lokugomela” likaMonsanto ukuze linikeze imfundo ngamazinga e-glyphosate futhi “lichaze izifundo ezenzelwe isayensi uma kuqhathaniswa ne-ajenda eqhutshwa yi-ajenda” yomdlavuza ozimele iphaneli.

Bheka ukubambisana kwe-East / CMA ne-Monsanto ne-Genetic Literacy Project

Isikhulu esiphezulu seCentre for Food Integrity, uCharlie Arnot, naye uyi-CEO ye Bheka eMpumalanga (phambilini i-CMA), i-PR kanye nezokuxhumana ejensi yezokudla nezolimo. Izinkontileka zeCFI neLook East zezinsizakalo zokuphathwa kwamaphrojekthi, ngokusho kwamafomu entela.

Inkampani ka-Arnot PR nayo isebenza neMonsanto, ngokusho kwemibhalo etholakele ngu-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. Ku-2014, iMonsanto yathinta i-CMA ku- “Thengisa” futhi uphromothe uchungechunge lwezinqubomgomo ze-pro-GMO ezinikezwe umphathi we-Monsanto osolwazi futhi wahlela ukuzishicilela kuwebhusayithi ye-Genetic Literacy Project - ngaphandle kokudalulwa kwendima kaMonsanto ekusithekeni, njenge Kubike iBoston Globe.

The Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project, elinye iqembu lozakwethu embonini eliqanjwe ohlelweni lukaMonsanto lwe-PR lokwehlisa isithunzi i-IARC, nalo lithola uxhaso kwiCentre for Food Integrity, ngokusho kwe-GLP yamuva futhi ngokuvamile “ikhasi lokubonisa ngale” elingalungile

UDrew Kershen: I-Agrichemical Industry Front Group Ringleader

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UDrew Kershen, uprofesa osaziwayo e-University of Oklahoma College of Law, ungumngane osondelene nomkhakha wezolimo. Uyaphikisana ukuhlukunyezwa zezitshalo nezilwane ezenziwe ngobunjiniyela kanye ngokumelene nokusobala. UKershen ubambe iqhaza elibalulekile emizamweni yokukhangisa exhaswa ngezimali embonini kanye namaqembu angaphambili alwela izintshisekelo zemboni. UKershen akayivezi imithombo yezimali.

Isibopho semboni yezolimo nobuholi beqembu langaphambili

Iphrojekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project / Science Literacy Project

UKershen uyi ilungu lebhodi yeGenetic Literacy Project, iqembu eliphambili elibambisana neMonsanto ukwenza ubudlelwano bomphakathi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kanye nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, futhi hhayi ukudalula ngokunembile ukuxhaswa kwayo. Imibhalo iveze ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project:

UKershen futhi uyilungu lebhodi le- Iphrojekthi Yezesayensi Yokufunda, i-501 (c) (3) inhlangano yabazali ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Zombili ziqondiswa ngu UJon Entine, umlingani wesikhathi eside we-PR wemboni yamakhemikhali.

Ngokuvumelana ne Amarekhodi wentela ka-2015, UJon Entine kanye ne-Science Literacy Project bathathe izintambo zokulawula iStatistical Assessment Service (STATS), iqembu ebelikade lisebenzisana neCentre for Media and Public Affairs (CMPA) kanye Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project. Ukusebenza kwe-STATS kufakwe ku-Sense About Science USA, okuyi wabelana ngekheli elifanayo lerekhodi ngeProjekthi YeSayensi Yokufunda Nokubhala.

Abasunguli be-STATS, i-CMPA kanye ne-Sense About Science benze ubudlelwano bomphakathi basebenzela imboni kagwayi futhi la maqembu awawona amajaji azimele wesayensi, ngokusho kwe-2016 uphenyo kuThe Intercept.

Ngeminye imininingwane, bheka ama-USRTK emashidi eqiniso UJon Entine kanye neProjekthi Yokufunda Ngofuzo futhi Umuzwa Ngezesayensi / IZITATIMENDE.

UNobhala Wezifundo Zokubuyekeza Iqembu Langaphambili

UKershen wayengunobhala webhodi labaqondisi be-Academics Review, ngokusho kwalo Amarekhodi wentela ka-2016. Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo bathi kwakuyiqembu elizimele, kodwa imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know wembule ukuthi kwakuyiqembu langaphambili kusethwe ngosizo lweMonsanto ukuhlasela abagxeki bemboni yezolimo ngenkathi bebonakala bezimele.

UKershen wayengu- umbuyekezi ngombiko wango-2014 we-Academics Review owazama ukudicilela phansi imboni yezinto eziphilayo; i isitatimende sephephandaba ngombiko wathi kwakuwumsebenzi wezifundiswa ezizimele ngaphandle kokuphikisana kwezintshisekelo.

Amarekhodi entela akhombisa ukuthi umxhasi oyinhloko we-Academics Review kwakuyi-Council for Biotechnology Information, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo exhaswa futhi ephethwe yi-BASF, Bayer, DowDuPont, Monsanto neSyngenta. I-CBI inikeze isamba esingu- $ 600,000 ku-Academics Review ku 2014 futhi 2015-2016.

Kungani iForbes Isuse Ezinye Izindatshana ZaseKershen

IKershen babhala ngokuhlanganyela izindatshana eziningana ezisuswe yiForbes neProjusa Syndicate ngemuva kombhali wakhe, UHenry Miller, wabanjwa usebenzisa ikholomu ebhalwe ghost ngu-Monsanto njengomsebenzi wakhe eForbes. I- New York Times wembula ihlazo lokubhala ngezipoki ngo-2017.

UKershen noMiller nabo babhalele ndawonye izindatshana ze- Slate, Buyekeza National, lo Isikhungo seHoover futhi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo (imboni exhaswa ngemali iqembu langaphambili) bephikisana nokufakwa amalebula nokulawulwa kokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, ukuhlasela abagxeki bezimboni, nokubanga ukuthi "abampofu emhlabeni bahlupheka futhi bafa ngokungadingekile" ngenxa "yomthetho ongenazidingo ofunwa yizishoshovu."

Izimpendulo ze-GMO

UKershen uyi “Uchwepheshe wenxusa” Izimpendulo ze-GMO, a ukumaketha kanye newebhusayithi ye-PR ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo okuyi uxhaswe yizinkampani ezinkulu zezolimo nge-Council for Biotechnology Information, futhi ephethwe yi inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi uKetchum.

Ungenele Ekubambeni Ngokusobala Icala Lokuvimbela Ukudalulwa Komphakathi

Imibhalo eminingana ebikwe kuleli qiniso, eveze obudlelwano obungadalulwanga phakathi kwezinhlangano namaqembu angaphambili, yaqala ukutholwa ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information ngu I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi. UKershen ungenelele ezinkantolo ezama ukumisa ukudalulwa okuqhubekayo, njengeFreedom of the Press Foundation kubika ngoFebhuwari 2018.

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane ngamaqembu angaphambili embonini yezokudla, bheka i- Ikhasi lokuphenya le-USRTK.

IMonsanto ithi izibulala-zinambuzane zayo ziphephile. Manje, inkantolo ifuna ukubona ubufakazi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imicimbi yaleli sonto izokwakha okokuqala lapho isayensi esetshenzisiwe ukufakazela izibulala-zinambuzane ezithile iyohlaziywa ngaphansi kwesifungo ukuze ibonwe yibo bonke

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe okokuqala ngo The Guardian.

NguCarey Gillam

Ngomsombuluko, ukulalelwa kwenkantolo yenhlangano eSan Francisco sizobeka obala emphakathini isayensi ezungeze ukuphepha kwesinye sezibulala-zinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, ikhemikhali lokubulala ukhula elibizwa nge-glyphosate elixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza futhi elitholakala kakhulu ukudla namanzi, ngisho nakwethu uketshezi lomzimba wakho. Uma sibheka imiphumela ebanzi yezempilo nezemvelo ehlobene nokusetshenziswa kwalesi sibulala-zinambuzane, sizosizakala ukuthi sinake.

Njengesithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup esinegama likaMonsanto namakhulu eminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, i-glyphosate imele izigidigidi zamaRandi emalini engenayo yaminyaka yonke yeMonsanto nezinye izinkampani, futhi isetshenziswa kakhulu ngabalimi njengosizo lokukhiqiza ukudla. Kuyathandwa futhi ngamadolobha ukugcina amapaki omphakathi nezinkundla zokudlala kungekho ukhula, nangabaninikhaya abafuna utshani obuhle. Kepha lelo khemikhali lathathwa njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu ngochwepheshe bomdlavuza beWorld Health Organisation ngonyaka we-2015 ekutholeni okuqale kudala amagagasi amacala amacala ngokumelene neMonsanto.

Izinkulumompikiswano ezishubile mayelana nokuphepha - noma ukuntuleka kwawo - kwalesi sibulali zinambuzane esidumile ziye zasabalela umhlaba futhi kwaqubula impi yenkulumo-ze uhlangothi ngalunye luthi olunye luye lwaveza kabi umlando wesayensi. Izisulu zomdlavuza zisola ukuthi iMonsanto inayo Kubhalwe “isipoki” ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo, abalawuli abathonywe ngokungafanele futhi badala amaqembu angaphambili ukuthi afune amanga ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate. IMonsanto, okwamanje, iqinisekisa izifundo eziningi zososayensi bamazwe inamaphutha futhi inenkuthazo kwezepolitiki, futhi ithi izifundo zemboni zibonisa ukuthi umkhiqizo uphephile uma usetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe.

Imicimbi yaleli sonto kuzobe kungokokuqala ngqa lapho uhlaka lwenhlangano yocwaningo, eminye ebilokhu iqoqa uthuli kumajenali agcwele isayensi noma kumafayili ezinkampani eziyimfihlo, luzohlaziywa ngaphansi kwesifungo ukuze lubonwe ngabantu bonke.

Akuwona umsebenzi wokungenzi lutho. Izimpilo zangempela zisengozini kulokhu futhi kunezimpikiswano ezibanzi mayelana nobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane empilweni yethu. Oyedwa kwabesilisa ababili nowodwa kwabesifazane abathathu manje kulindeleke ukuthi bahlakulele umdlavuza esikhathini sabo sokuphila futhi Umdlavuza wezingane uyanda.

Ezinganeni, ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane akuxhunywanga nje kuphela umdlavuza wezingane, kepha futhi nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo, nezinkinga zokuziphatha. Kubantu abadala, izibulala-zinambuzane zixhumene i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, i-leukemia, ubuchopho, i-prostate namanye amagciwane. Abamangali abangaphezu kuka-3,000 XNUMX abamangalela iMonsanto bethi ukuvezwa kwenkampani esekwe eglyphosate-based Roundup kubangele bona noma amalungu emindeni yabo ukuthi benze i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

IMonsanto izamile ukuncenga ijaji laseMelika uVince Chhabria ukuthi alilahle leli cala, futhi yafuna ukugcina imfihlo imibhalo eminingi yangaphakathi ephoqeleke ukuthi iphendulwe lapho itholwa. Kepha uChabria ukhiphe umyalelo wokuthi ukulalelwa kube kuqoshwe ividiyo futhi kwabiwa esidlangalaleni nge-inthanethi. Futhi uye wakwenza unikezwe imvume ukuze abamangali bahlole enkantolo evulekile izinto ezinjengokubhalwa kwesipoki kwesayensi kanye no isifundo esiyimpikiswano sango-1983 ukuthi ososayensi be-EPA ngaleso sikhathi bathi bakhombisa ubufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate ingadala umdlavuza.

Inkantolo ibize le micimbi ka-5-9 Mashi ngokuthi "isonto lesayensi" ngoba ubufakazi obuzokwethulwa kuphela buzovela ochwepheshe besayensi yomdlavuza, kuhlanganise izazi ze-epidemiologists, i-toxicologists nabanye kubizwe ukuhlaziya ucwaningo olufanele. Ngeke zibe khona izisulu zomdlavuza ezikhalayo zokudonsa izintambo zenhliziyo; izinhlangothi eziphikisayo ezethula isayensi kwijaji elizonquma ukuthi amacala angaqhubekela phambili yini.

Ukuqinisa ukuzivikela kwayo, inkampani nababambisene nayo embonini yamakhemikhali bebelokhu sisebenzela ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi bomdlavuza nabanye abakade bexwayisa ngengozi. Lowo mzamo ugqanyisiwe lapho amalungu ekomidi leNdlu lezesayensi, isikhala nobuchwepheshe wabamba indlebe eWashington ngomhla ka-6 kuNhlolanja ukuyofaka izikhalazo zikaMonsanto mayelana nokuhlukaniswa kwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen okungenzeka kube yi-carbinogen, kanye nokusabisa ngokuhlwitha imali ohlangothini lwesayense.

Umzamo wekomidi - ngokuguqula impi yomdlavuza waba yimpi yesayensi yomdlavuza - kwaba njalo kushayelwe ihlombe imboni yamakhemikhali. IMonsanto, kanye ne-lobbyist CropLife America nezinye izinhlangano zezolimo, nayo wamangalela iCalifornia ukumisa abalawuli bezemvelo ukuthi bangadingi izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo ye-glyphosate, futhi ngomhla ka-26 kuNhlolanja bona uwine umyalo ukuvimba isexwayiso esinjalo.

Impikiswano nge-glyphosate kodwa iyisibonelo sakamuva sendlela imizamo yezimboni ejwayele ukugxila ngayo ekuhloleni ubufakazi besayensi bokulimala, kepha ekudicileleni phansi isayensi ekhubekisayo. Ngonyaka odlule, ngokwesibonelo, iDow Chemical yacela ngempumelelo ubuholi be-Environmental Protection Agency ukuthi ungazinaki izixwayiso ezivela kososayensi bayo (nabanye) ngocwaningo olunzulu olubopha umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane onenzuzo obizwa nge-chlorpyrifos ezinkingeni zokukhula kobuchopho ezinganeni.

Ukunikezwa esidlangalaleni kobufakazi bochwepheshe eSan Francisco mayelana nesibulali zinambuzane esigcwele iMonsanto kunikeza ithuba elibalulekile lokuhlukanisa isayensi ne-spin. Sonke kufanele ngabe sibhekile.

UKate Kelland weReuters ukhuthaze ukulandisa okungamanga nge-IARC no-Aaron Blair

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

QAPHELA uJanuwari 2019: Imibhalo efakwe enkantolo khombisa ukuthi iMonsanto kuhlinzekwe uKate Kelland enemibhalo yendaba yakhe kaJuni 2017 ekhuluma ngo-Aaron Blair futhi wamnika umugqa wesilayidi wamaphoyinti okukhuluma inkampani yayifuna ukumbozwa. Ngemininingwane engaphezulu, bheka Okuthunyelwe kukaCarey Gillam's Roundup Trial Tracker.

Ukuhlaziywa okulandelayo kwalungiswa nguCarey Gillam futhi kwathunyelwa ngoJuni 28, 2017:

NgoJuni 14, 2017 Reuters esihlokweni elibhalwe nguKate Kelland, elinesihloko esithi "I-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-WHO ishiye ebumnyameni phezu kobufakazi be-glyphosate," isole ngephutha usosayensi womdlavuza ngokugodla imininingwane ebalulekile ekuhlolweni kokuphepha kwe-glyphosate okwenziwe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).

Indaba kaKelland iqukethe amaphutha ayiqiniso futhi isho iziphetho eziphikisana nokufundwa okugcwele kwemibhalo ayikhombise njengemithombo eyinhloko. Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi uKelland akazange axhumanise nemibhalo ayikhombile, okwenza abafundi bangakwazi ukuzibona ukuthi uphambuke kangakanani ekuchazeni. I- idokhumenti eyinhloko yomthombo iphikisana ngokusobala nomqondo wendaba kaKelland. Eminye imibhalo indaba yakhe ekhonjisiwe, kepha futhi ayixhumananga nayo, ingatholakala ekugcineni kwalokhu okuthunyelwe.

Ingemuva: Indaba yeReuters yayingenye yochungechunge lwezingcezu ezibucayi i-ejensi yezindaba eyishicilele nge-IARC uKelland ayibhala ngemuva kokuthi i-IARC ihlukanise i-glyphosate njenge kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu ngoMashi 2015. IGlyphosate iyimboni yokubulala ukhula enenzuzo enkulu esetshenziswa njengesithako esiyinhloko emikhiqizweni yokubulala ukhula iMonsanto's Roundup, kanye namakhulu eminye imikhiqizo edayiswa emhlabeni jikelele. Ukwahlukaniswa kwe-IARC kudale ukuqulwa kwamacala amakhulu e-United States alethwe ngabantu abasola ukuthi umdlavuza wabo ubangelwe yiRoundup, futhi kwagqugquzela abalawuli be-European Union kanye ne-US ukuthi bakhulise ukuhlolwa kwabo kwamakhemikhali. Ngokuphendula ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC, futhi njengendlela yokuzivikela ekumangalelweni kwamacala kanye nokuqinisa ukwesekwa kwezomthetho, iMonsanto ifake izikhalazo eziningi nge-IARC efuna ukubukela phansi ukwethembeka kwe-IARC. Indaba ka-June 14 Kelland, eyacaphuna isikhulu esiphezulu se “Monsanto” se-Monsanto, yaqinisa leyo mizamo yamasu futhi yashiwo nguMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali njengobufakazi bokuthi ukuhlukaniswa kwe-IARC kunamaphutha.

Cabanga ngalokhu:

  • Ukufakwa kukasosayensi u-Aaron Blair, ukukhulumisana okungaqondakali kanye nokuxhumana nge-imeyili endabeni yakhe ngokuthi "amadokhumende asenkantolo" bekungeyona imibhalo yenkantolo kepha bekuyimibhalo eyakhiwe yatholakala njengengxenye yokutholwa enkantolo yamacala amaningi eza nezisulu zomdlavuza Umangalela uMonsanto. Le mibhalo ibiphethwe yithimba labameli bakaMonsanto kanjalo nethimba labammangali. Bheka i-docket US Court Court yesifunda esiseNyakatho neCalifornia, icala lokuhola 3: 16-md-02741-VC. Uma iMonsanto noma i-surrogate inikeze uKelland amadokhumende, lokho kufuna kufanele ngabe kushiwo. Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi le mibhalo ayitholakalanga enkantolo, njengoba indaba kaKelland isho, kubonakala sengathi iMonsanto noma ama-surrogates batshala udaba lwendaba futhi banikeza uKelland imibhalo, noma okungenani izingxenye ezithile zemibhalo, kanye nokuhlolwa kwayo.
  • Umbhalo kaKelland unikeza ukuphawula nokuchazwa kwesikhundla esivela kuBob Tarone, uKelland amchaza ngokuthi “ozimele ngeMonsanto.” Nokho imininingwane inikezwe yi-IARC kusungula ukuthi iTarone isebenze njengomxhumanisi okhokhelwayo eMonsanto emizameni yayo yokuhlambalaza i-IARC.
  • I-Reuters ihlekise lolu daba ngalesi sitatimende: "Usosayensi ohola lokho kubuyekezwa wayazi ngemininingwane emisha engakhombisi ukuxhumana nomdlavuza - kodwa akakaze akhulume ngayo futhi ne-ejensi ayizange iyinake." UKelland waveza ukuthi uDkt Blair wayefihla ngenhloso imininingwane ebucayi. Noma kunjalo ukufakwa kwemali kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair ufakazile ukuthi imininingwane okukhulunywa ngayo "ibingakalungeli" ukuthunyelwa kumagazini ukuze ishicilelwe futhi ngeke ivunyelwe ukuthi icutshungulwe yi-IARC ngoba ibingakaqedwa futhi ishicilelwe. Idatha eningi yaqoqwa njengengxenye yeSifundo Sezempilo Sezolimo Sase-US ebanzi futhi ibizofakwa eminyakeni eminingana yolwazi olushicilelwe ngaphambili oluvela ku-AHS olungakhombisi ukuhlangana phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Ummeli waseMonsanto ubuze uBlair ngokuthi kungani imininingwane ingashicilelwanga ngesikhathi esizobhekwa yi-IARC, ethi: “Unqume, nganoma yisiphi isizathu, ukuthi leyo datha ngeke ishicilelwe ngaleso sikhathi, ngakho-ke ayizange ibhekwe IARC, akunjalo? ” UBlair uphendule wathi: “Cha. Futhi uyayingcolisa le nqubo. ” “Esinqume ukuthi kube ngumsebenzi ebesiwenza kulezi zifundo ezahlukene ubungakabi - awukakulungeli ukuthunyelwa kumajenali. Noma usuthathe isinqumo sokuyithumela emaphephandabeni ukuze ibuyekezwe, awunqumi ukuthi izoshicilelwa nini. ” (Blair deposition transcript page 259) UBlair uphinde wathi kummeli weMonsanto: “Okungafanelekile ukusheshe uphuthume okuthile okungakahlaziywa ngokuphelele noma kucatshangelwe kahle” (ikhasi 204).
  • UBlair uphinde wethula ubufakazi bokuthi eminye imininingwane evela ku-AHS engakaqedwa, engashicilelwe "ibingabalulekanga ngokwezibalo" (ikhasi 173 lokufaka imali). UBlair uphinde wafakaza kulokho kufakwa mayelana nedatha ekhombisa ukuxhumana okuqinile phakathi kwe-glyphosate ne-NHL nayo engazange ivezelwe i-IARC ngoba ayizange ishicilelwe.
  • UBlair ufakazele ukuthi eminye imininingwane evela ocwaningweni lweProject Pooled Project ikhombise ukuthi ubudlelwane obuqinile kakhulu ne-NHL ne-glyphosate, enobungozi obuphindwe kabili nobuphindwe kathathu obuhambisana ne-pesticide ebonwa kubantu abasebenzisa i-glyphosate ngaphezu kokuphindwe kabili ngonyaka. Njengedatha ye-AHS, le datha nayo ayizange ishicilelwe noma inikezwe i-IARC (amakhasi 274-283 we-Blair deposition).
  • Umbhalo kaKelland uphinde wathi: “UBlair uphinde wathi imininingwane ibizoguqula ukuhlaziywa kwe-IARC. Uthe bekuzokwenza ukuthi kungabi namathuba amancane okuthi i-glyphosate ihlangabezane nemibandela ye-ejensi yokuchazwa ngokuthi 'mhlawumbe yi-carcinogenic.' ”Lobo bufakazi (emakhasini 177-189 of deposition) abuzisekeli nhlobo lezo zitatimende. Ekugcineni uBlair uthi “mhlawumbe” ukuze abuze imibuzo evela kummeli kaMonsanto ebuza ukuthi ngabe idatha ye-AHS ka-2013 ifakiwe yini ekuhlaziyweni kwedatha ye-epidemiology ebhekwe yi-IARC, uma lokho “bekuzokwehlisa ubungozi bezihlobo ze-meta-glyphosate kanye ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma ngisho nangaphezulu… ”Indaba kaKelland nayo ishiya isithombe sokuthi le datha ye-epidemiology engashicilelwe evela ocwaningweni olungakaqedwa ngabe ishintsha umdlalo we-IARC. Eqinisweni, ukufunda lokhu kufakwa ngokuphelele, bese ukukuqhathanisa nombiko we-IARC we-glyphosate, kugcizelela ukuthi lowo mbono ungamanga futhi udukisa kanjani. UBlair ufakaze kuphela kwimininingwane ye-epidemiology futhi i-IARC ibisivele ibubonile ubufakazi besi sifo obubonakala njengobuncane. Ukuhlukaniswa kwayo kwe-glyphosate kwabona ukubaluleka kwedatha yezilwane (i-toxicology) eyibuyekeza, ikubheka "njengokwanele."
  • UKelland uziba izingxenye ezibalulekile zokufakwa kukaBlair ngqo ocwaningweni olushicilelwe lowe-2003 olathola ukuthi “kwakukhona ukuphindeka kabili kwengozi ye-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma kubantu ababekade bevezwa yi-glyphosate” (amakhasi 54-55 of the deposition).
  • UKelland akabunaki ubufakazi obethulwe eBlair mayelana "namaphesenti angama-300 engcupheni eyandisiwe" yomdlavuza ocwaningweni lwaseSweden (ikhasi 60 lokufakwa).
  • Ukufunda konke ukufakwa kwemali kukhombisa ukuthi uBlair ufakaze ngezibonelo eziningi zezifundo ezibonisa ukuhlangana okuhle phakathi kwe-glyphosate nomdlavuza, konke uKelland akushaya indiva.
  • UKelland ubhala ukuthi ebufakazini bakhe bezomthetho, uBlair uphinde wachaza i-AHS "njengeyinamandla" futhi wavuma ukuthi imininingwane ayibonisi ukuxhumana nomdlavuza. Uveze ukuthi ubekhuluma ngemininingwane ethile engashicilelwe yango-2013 kwi-NHL ne-glyphosate okuyi-subset encane yolwazi etholwe ku-AHS, lapho ubufakazi bukhombisa ukuthi wayekhuluma ngesambulela esikhulu somsebenzi se-AHS, ebesilandelela imindeni yasepulazini. nokuqoqa idatha kumayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane iminyaka eminingana. Lokho uBlair akusho empeleni nge-AHS ebanzi yilokhu: “Kungumsebenzi onamandla. Futhi kunezinzuzo. Angiqiniseki ukuthi ngingathi yiyona enamandla amakhulu, kodwa isifundo esinamandla. ” (ikhasi 286 lokufaka imali)
    • Ngaphezu kwalokho, lapho ekhuluma ngqo ngemininingwane ye-AHS ka-2013 kwi-glyphosate ne-NHL, uBlair ukuqinisekisile ukuthi imininingwane engashicilelwanga idinga “ukutolikwa okuqaphile” uma kubhekwa inani lamacala avezwe emaqenjini amancane "lincane" (ikhasi 289).
  • UKelland uthi "I-IARC itshele iReuters ukuthi, yize bekukhona imininingwane emisha nge-glyphosate, ibihambisana nokutholakele kwayo," iphakamisa isimo se-cavalier. Isitatimende esinjalo sidukisa ngokuphelele. Yini iARC empeleni wathi bekungumkhuba wayo ukungacabangi okutholakele okungashicilelwanga nokuthi ingahlola kabusha izinto lapho umzimba omkhulu wedatha entsha ushicilelwa ezincwadini.

Ukusabalala okuhlobene:

Imibhalo ezihlobene

Ukufakwa okuqoshwe ngevidiyo kuka-Aaron Earl Blair, Ph.D., Mashi 20, 2017

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