IBiohazards News Tracker: Izindatshana ezihamba phambili ngemvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2, ama-biolabs kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Nalu uhlu lokufundwayo mayelana nokwaziwayo nokungaziwa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, izingozi nokuvuza kuma laboratories e-biosafety kanye ne-biowarfare, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), oluhlose ukwandisa uhla lokusingathwa, ukuhanjiswa, ukusuleleka noma ukubakhona kwamagciwane okungenzeka kube yizifo ezihlasela ubhubhane. I-US Ilungelo Lokwazi ukwenza ucwaningo ngalezi zihloko nokuthumela okutholakele ku- IBiohazards Blog.

Lolu hlu lokufunda ngumsebenzi oqhubekayo. Sizoyibuyekeza. Sicela uthumele ukufundwa okungenzeka ukuthi sikuphuthele eSainath Suryanarayanan ku- sainath@usrtk.org.

Izihloko (izixhumanisi zokwehla)

Izindatshana zakamuva kakhulu

I-Wall Street Journal. Umhlaba Udinga Uphenyo Langempela Kumsuka WeCovid-19.  Januwari 15, 2021.

Imithi Yemvelo. Kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2. U-Angela Rasmussen. Januwari 13, 2021.

Bloomberg. Namanje Asazi Ukuthi I-Covid-19 Ivelaphi. UFaye Flam. Januwari 12, 2021.

New York Magazine. I-lab-leak hypothesis. UNicholson Baker. Januwari 4, 2021.

The Times. Igciwane lezikhali zebhayoloji lavuza i-coronavirus, kusho isikhulu sase-US. UDidi Tang. Januwari 4, 2021.

Associated Press. I-China ibambelela phansi ekuzingeleni okufihliwe ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UDake Kang, uMaria Cheng noSam McNeil. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Izinsuku Ezingama-25 Ezashintsha Umhlaba: Ukuthi iCovid-19 ishelele kanjani iChina. UChris Buckley, uDavid D. Kirkpatrick, u-Amy Qin noJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Intatheli YaseChinese Citizen Igwetshwe Iminyaka Engu-4 Ngokubikwa KweCovid. UVivian Wang. Disemba 28, 2020.

I-BBC. UCovid: Usosayensi waseWuhan 'angakwamukela' ukuvakashela umbono wokuvuza kwelebhu. UJohn Sudworth. Disemba 22, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. I-EcoHealth Alliance kaPeter Daszak Ifihle Cishe ama- $ 40 Million Esikhwameni Sezimali sePentagon NaseMilitarised Pandemic Science. USam Husseini. Disemba 16, 2020.

Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2?

Izinqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Ukunqanda ubhadane olulandelayo, sidinga ukuqaqa umsuka we-COVID-19. UDavid A. Relman. Novemba 3, 2020.

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Ngabe igciwane leSARS-CoV-2 livele ohlelweni locwaningo lwe-bat coronavirus elabhoratri laseChina? Kungenzeka kakhulu. UMilton Leitenberg. Juni 4, 2020.

I-Washington Post. Izintambo zoMnyango Wezwe zixwayise ngezinkinga zokuphepha elabhoratri laseWuhan ezicwaninga nge-bat coronaviruses. UJosh Rogin. Ephreli 14, 2020.

I-Houston Chronicle. Usosayensi we-UTMB uvuma izingozi zokuphepha ebhodini laseChina elenza ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus. UNick Powell. Ephreli 23, 2020. 

The Wall Street Journal. I-NIH icindezela i-US engenzi-nzuzo ukuthola ulwazi nge-Wuhan virology lab. UBetsy McKay. Agasti 19, 2020.  

The Wall Street Journal. Ngakho lavelaphi igciwane? UMat Ridley. Kwangathi 29, 2020. 

Isikhungo Sikazwelonke SaseFrance Socwaningo Lwezesayensi (CNRS). Imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 ibuzwa ngokungathí sina. Yaroslav Pigenet. Novemba 9, 2020.

The Times. Iqale kanjani iCovid-19? Ukuzingela zero isiguli sekubanjwe ukungqubuzana kwamandla amakhulu. UTom Whipple. Disemba 31, 2020.

I-Boston Magazine. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-COVID-19 yeqe ebhodini? URowan Jacobsen. Septhemba 9, 2020. 

Nature. Imfihlakalo enkulu kunazo zonke: ukuthi kuzothathani ukulandelela umthombo we-coronavirus. UDavid Cyranoski. Juni 5, 2020.

I-Newsweek. Ukuhlolwa okuyimpikiswano kanye nelabhu laseWuhan kusolwa ukuqala ubhadane lwe-coronavirus. UFred Guterl, uNaveed Jamali noTom O'Connor. Ephreli 27, 2020.

The Washington Post. UMnyango Wezwe ukhipha ikhebula elethule izimangalo zokuthi i-coronavirus yeqe ebhodini laseChina. UJohn Hudson noNate Jones. Julayi 17, 2020. 

I-Telegraph. Ososayensi bahlole ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi uCovid uputshuke ebhodini njengengxenye yophenyo ngemvelaphi yamagciwane. UPaul Nuki. Septhemba 15, 2020.  

Izindaba ze-NBC. Umbiko uthi imininingwane kamakhalekhukhwini ikhombisa ukuvalwa kwango-Okthoba e-Wuhan lab, kepha ochwepheshe bayangabaza. UKen Dilanian, uRuaridh Arrow, uCourtney Kube, uCarol E. Lee, uLouise Jones noLorand Bodo. Meyi 9, 2020. 

Washington Post. Iqale kanjani i-covid-19? Indaba yayo yokuqala yemvelaphi iyazamazama. UDavid Ignatius. Ephreli 2, 2020.

The Times. Kwembulwa: Umzila weminyaka eyisikhombisa we-coronavirus kusuka ekufeni kwezimayini kuya ebhodini laseWuhan. UGeorge Arbuthnott, uJonathan Calvert noPhilip Sherwell. Julayi 4, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. Abaseshi be-coronavirus be-WHO babheka emakethe yaseWuhan njengezindawo zemephu ezingadaluliwe. UJohn Power noSimone McCarthy. Disemba 15, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. ICoronavirus: Uphenyo lweWuhan lweWorld Health Organisation alubheki amaqembu 'anecala'. I-Agence France-Presse. Disemba 24, 2020.

BBC. I-Wuhan: Idolobha lokuthula; Ifuna izimpendulo endaweni lapho i-coronavirus iqale khona. UJohn Sudworth. Julayi 2020.

I-New York Times, Imibuzo eyi-8 evela kumseshi wesifo onomsuka wobhubhane. UWilliam J. Broad. Julayi 8, 2020.

Isayensi. Umsebenzi oholwa yi-WHO ungaphenya ngemvelaphi yalolu bhubhane. Nayi imibuzo esemqoka ongayibuza. UJon Cohen. Julayi 10, 2020.

I-New York Times. Ekuzingeleni Umthombo Wegciwane, I-WHO Vumela i-China Iphathe. Selam Gebrekidan, UMat Apuzzo, U-Amy Qin futhi . Novemba 2, 2020.

The Washington Post. Umsuka we-coronavirus useyindida. Sidinga uphenyo oluphelele. IBhodi lokuHlela. Novemba 14, 2020.

Independent. ICoronavirus: Lowo owayeyinhloko ye-MI6 ubanga ngokuthi ubhubhane 'lwaqala ngengozi' kwelabhorethri yaseChina. U-Andy Gregory. Juni 4, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Ngokunyakaza okungajwayelekile, izinhlaka zezobunhloli zase-US ziyaqinisekisa ukuthi ziyaphenya ukuthi ngabe i-coronavirus ivele engozini yaselebhu. UWarren P. Strobel noDustin Volz. Ephreli 30, 2020.

The Wall Street Journal. Isazi selulwane saseChina sithi ilebhu yakhe iWuhan ibingewona umthombo we-coronavirus entsha. UJames T. Areddy. Ephreli 21, 2020.

ABC News. Uxolo, izazi zetulo. Ucwaningo luphetha ukuthi i-COVID-19 'akuyona eyokwakhiwa kwelebhu'. UKate Holland. Mashi 27, 2020. 

The Economist. Izingcezu zepuzzle zemvelaphi kaCovid-19 zizovela. Meyi 2, 2020. 

The Wall Street Journal. Umbono welebhu yeWuhan. IBhodi lokuHlela. Meyi 6, 2020. 

The Guardian. Ziba imibono yetulo: Ososayensi bayazi ukuthi iCovid-19 ayidalwanga elebhu. UPeter Daszak. Juni 9, 2020. 

I-Daily Telegraph. Ososayensi bathi kungenzeka ukuthi i-COVID-19 iphekwe ebhodini. USharri Markson. Juni 1, 2020.

Isayensi. UTrump 'usikweleta ukuxolisa.' Usosayensi waseChina enkabeni yemibono yemvelaphi ye-COVID-19 uyakhuluma. UJon Cohen. Julayi 24, 2020.

Isayensi. Phendula kuSayensi Magazine: I-Q & A yeShi Zhengli. Shi Zhengli. Julayi 15, 2020.

Minerva. Izitatimende eziphikisanayo zenza ukungabaza ngemininingwane eluhlaza yaseChina. Aksel Fridstrøm. Septhemba 10, 2020. 

Minerva. Incazelo enengqondo kunazo zonke ukuthi ivela elabhoratri. U-Aksel Fridstrøm noNils August Andresen. Julayi 2, 2020. 

Newsweek. UDkt Fauci usekele i-Wuhan lab enempikiswano ngamadola wase-US ocwaningweni oluyingozi lwe-coronavirus. UFred Guterl. Ephreli 28, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Icala lakha ukuthi i-COVID-19 ibinomsuka webhu. UJonathan Latham no-Allison Wilson. Juni 5, 2020.

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Umsuka ohlongozwayo we-SARS-CoV-2 nobhadane lwe-COVID-19. UJonathan Latham no-Allison Wilson. Julayi 15, 2020.

I-Federalist. Isazi seVirologist sichaza ukufuna kwaso ukulandelela umsuka we-COVID-19. UJulian Vigo. Septhemba 2, 2020. 

I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukubuza i-CDC: Ingabe kwenzeka ngengozi ephelele ukuthi i-BSL4 yaseChina kuphela iseWuhan? Umsindo nevidiyo. USam Husseini. Ephreli 17, 2020.

GMWatch. Ososayensi baseWuhan nabaseMelika basebenzise izindlela ezingatholakali zobunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo kuma-bat coronaviruses. UJonathan Matthews noClaire Robinson. Meyi 20, 2020. 

Intatheli Yobulelesi Benkampani. Andrew Kimbrell ngomsuka we-COVID-19. URussell Mokhiber. Agasti 11, 2020.

GMWatch. Ngabe igciwane le-COVID-19 lenzelwe izakhi zofuzo? UJonathan Matthews. Ephreli 22, 2020.

GMWatch. Kungani ababaleki bebalekela ukuphika bekhuluma amanga anjalo? UJonathan Matthews. Juni 17, 2020. 

Izindaba ze-NBC. Ngaphakathi kwelebhu yaseChina emaphakathi ekusesheni umsuka we-coronavirus. UJanis Mackey Frayer noDenise Chow. Agasti 10, 2020.

I-Intercept. Ekushisekeleni Kwayo Ukusola iChina ngeCoronavirus, uHulumeni WeTrump Uvimbela Uphenyo Ngomsuka Wobhubhane. UMara Hvistendahl. Meyi 19, 2020.

I-South China Morning Post. I-WHO iqamba uhlu lweqembu lomhlaba wonke elibheke kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus. USimone McCarthy. Novemba 25, 2020.

U-Edizioni Cantagalli. Cina Covid 19. La chimera che ha cambiato il mondo (I-China COVID-19: IChimera Eyashintsha Umhlaba). UJoseph Tritto. Agasti 2020. 

Ukwehluleka kokubonisa ngale kanye nokucindezelwa kobufakazi maqondana ne-COVID-19

The Wall Street Journal. Emhlabathini eWuhan, izimpawu zeChina eziqinisa uphenyo lwemvelaphi ye-coronavirus. UJeremy Page noNatasha Khan. Meyi 12, 2020.

I-New York Times. Izinsuku Ezingama-25 Ezashintsha Umhlaba: Ukuthi iCovid-19 ishelele kanjani iChina. UChris Buckley, uDavid D. Kirkpatrick, u-Amy Qin noJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 30, 2020.

I-New York Times. Intatheli YaseChinese Citizen Igwetshwe Iminyaka Engu-4 Ngokubikwa KweCovid. UVivian Wang. Disemba 28, 2020.

I-ProPublica. Imibhalo evuzayo ikhombisa ukuthi amasosha ase-China akhokhelwa i-Intanethi amaTolls asize kanjani ukuhlola iCoronavirus. URaymond Zhong, uPaul Mozur, u-Aaron Krolik noJeff Kao. Disemba 19, 2020.

I-New York Times. I-China ihambisa amanga ukuze icindezele umbono wokuthi leli gciwane livele kwenye indawo. UJavier C. Hernández. Disemba 6, 2020.

Bloomberg. I-China Yenza Kwanzima Ukuxazulula Imfihlakalo Yokuthi I-Covid Yaqala Kanjani. Disemba 30, 2020.

Financial Times. Imithombo yezindaba yaseChina inyusa umkhankaso wokuhlola udaka ngemvelaphi yeCovid. Umalusi ongumKristu. Novemba 26, 2020.

ISky News Australia. Ama-imeyili akhishwe aveza ukuthi 'alikho iqiniso noma okusobala' encwadini ephathelene nemvelaphi ye-COVID-19. USharri Markson. Novemba 22, 2020.

Izingozi, ukuvuza, ukwehluleka kokuqukethwe, ukwehluleka ukwenza izinto obala ezindaweni zokuvikela ukuphepha

I-New Yorker. Ubungozi bokwakha ama-bio labs amaningi kakhulu. Elisabeth Eaves Mashi 18, 2020. 

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Iphutha lomuntu kumalebhu aphezulu e-biocontainment: usongo olungaba yinkinga. ULynn Klotz. Februwari 25, 2019. 

Isikhungo saseJames Martin sokungavikeleki Izifundo. Umhlahlandlela Wokuphenya Imvelaphi Yokuqubuka: Imvelo kuqhathaniswa neLaboratory. URichard Pilch, uMiles Pomper, uJill Luster noFilippa Lentzos. Okthoba 2020.

I-ProPublica. Nazi izingozi eziyisithupha abacwaningi be-UNC ababa nazo ngama-coronaviruses enziwe elebhu. U-Alison Young noJessica Blake. Agasti 17, 2020. 

CBC. Usosayensi waseCanada wathumela amagciwane abulalayo eWuhan lab izinyanga ngaphambi kokuba i-RCMP icele ukuphenya. Juni 16, 2020.

I-Frederick News-Post. Ukutholwa kokuhlolwa kwe-CDC kuveza okuningi mayelana nokumiswa kocwaningo lwe-USAMRIID. UHeather Mongilio. Novemba 23, 2019. 

Izikhungo Zokulawulwa Nokuvikelwa Kwezifo (CDC) noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US. I-US Army Medical Research Institute yezifo ezithathelwanayo (i-USAMRIID): incazelo yezincazelo zokutholwa kokuhlolwa. Agasti 2019.

IHhovisi Lokuziphendulela kuHulumeni wase-US. Amalabhorethri athwala kakhulu: Izinqubomgomo eziphelele nezisesikhathini nezindlela ezinamandla zokubheka ezidingekayo ukwenza ngcono ukuphepha. Ephreli 19, 2016. I-GAO-16-305. 

USA Namuhla. Izehlakalo eziyi-10 ezitholwe kuma-biolabs esizwe. U-Alison Young noNick Penzenstadler. Meyi 29, 2015. 

I-Bulletin ye-Atomic Scientists. Ubhadane olusongelwayo nelebhu kuyaphunyuka: iziprofetho ezizigcwalisa. UMartin Furmanski. Mashi 31, 2014.

Isikhungo Sokulawulwa Kwezikhali Nokungasebenzi. Ukuphunyuka Kwelabhorethri Nomqedazwe “Wokuzifeza”. UMartin Furmanski. Februwari 17, 2014.

UMkhandlu Kazwelonke Wokucwaninga. Izinselelo zokuphepha kokuvikela ukwanda komhlaba wonke kwama-laboratories e-biology ephezulu: isifinyezo somhlangano wokusebenzela. 2012. IWashington, DC: I-National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/13315 

Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ngamagciwane, amagciwane, nezimfihlo: ukwanda buthule kwama-bio-laboratories e-United States, 110th Congress. Okthoba 4, 2007.

Indlu yabamele i-US. IKomidi Lezamandla Nezentengiselwano. Ukuzwa ku-Federal Oversight of High-Containment Biolaboratories, Ikhulu Elilodwa Eleventh Congress. Septemba 22, 2009.

BMJ. Ukwephulwa kwemithetho yokuphepha kuyimbangela yokuqhamuka kwamuva kweSARS, kusho i-WHO. UJane Parry. Meyi 22, 2004. doi: 10.1136 / bmj.328.7450.1222-b

Izindaba Ezizimele Zesayensi. Umlando omude wokukhishwa ngephutha kwelabhoratri kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane awunakwa ekusakazweni kwabezindaba kwe-COVID-19. USam Husseini. Meyi 5, 2020.

GMWatch. I-COVID-19: Ucingo lokuvusa i-biosafety. UJonathan Matthews. Ephreli 24, 2020. 

USA Today. I-CDC yehlulekile ukudalula izehlakalo zelebhu ezinamagciwane e-bioterror kwiCongress. U-Alison Young. Juni 24, 2016.

I-Global Times. Umhlahlandlela we-biosafety okhishwe ukulungisa izikhala zokuphatha okungapheli kumalebhu wamagciwane. Liu Caiyu no Leng Shumei. Februwari 16, 2020.

Izindaba ze-CBS. Ukuphenya: Inkampani yase-US ibungled impendulo ye-Ebola. I-Associated Press. Mashi 7, 2016. 

GMWatch. Ithiyori yokucwaninga imithombo yolwazi yamajenali yakwaSARS-CoV-2. UClaire Robinson. Julayi 16, 2020. 

Amanethiwekhi we-biodefense ne-biowarfare 

Indawo yokwenza izinwele. Ngabe leli gciwane livele lab? Mhlawumbe hhayi - kepha kuveza usongo lomjaho wezikhali ze-biowarfare. USam Husseini. Ephreli 24, 2020.

 I-Sam Husseini Blog. Ukunqanda ukubuka kwethu kusuka ku-biowarfare: ubhadane lwezifo neziphrofetho ezizigcwalisayo. USam Husseini. Meyi 2020. 

IBoston Globe. Ukuheha kwezikhali ze-bio. UBernard Lown noPrasannan Parthasarathi. Februwari 23, 2005. 

IMonterey Institute of International Study. I-Beijing kuma-biohazard: Ongoti baseChina ezindabeni ze-bioweapons nonproliferation. U-Amy E. Smithson, uMhleli. Agasti 2007. Isikhungo SikaJames Martin Sezifundo Ezingahambisani Nokukhiqiza.

Amasiko Abulalayo: Izikhali zebhayoloji kusukela ngo-1945. UMark Wheelis, uLajos Rózsa, noMalcolm Dando (Abahleli). IHarvard University Press, 2006.

I-Biowarfare kanye nobuphekula. UFrancis Boyle. 2005. I-Clarity Press, Inc.

Ukuvimbela umjaho wezikhali zebhayoloji. USusan Wright (Umhleli). I-MIT Press, 1990. 

I-Biohazard. UKen Alibek noStephen Handelman. Indlu engahleliwe: ENew York, 1999. 

Izinkulumompikiswano zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi

Abezindaba Kazwelonke. Izingozi ezingaba khona nezinzuzo zokwenza ucwaningo ngomsebenzi: isifinyezo somhlangano wokusebenzela. 2015. 

Forbes. Kufanele sivumele ososayensi ukuthi bakhe ama-super-virus ayingozi? USteven Salzberg. Okthoba 20, 2014. 

ICambridge Working Group. Isitatimende sokuvumelana seCambridge Working Group ngokwakhiwa kwamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane (PPPs). Julayi 14, 2014. 

mBio. Ngabe inani elilinganiselwe lesayensi lokuhlolwa okungahle kube khona kobhubhane lwezifo lingazithethelela izingozi? UMarc Lipsitch. Okthoba 14, 2014. doi: https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.02008-14 

mBio. Ucwaningo nge-Highly Pathogenic H5N1 Influenza Virus: The Way Forward. U-Anthony S. Fauci. Septhemba-Okthoba 2012, 3 (5): e00359-12. i-doi: 10.1128 / mBio.00359-12

mBio. Ukuwa phansi komgodi wonogwaja: i-aTRIP ibheke ekunembeni kwesichazamazwi empikiswaneni "yokuthola umsebenzi". W. Paul Duprex no-Arturo Casadevall. vol. 5,6 e02421-14. 12 Dis. 2014, doi: 10.1128 / mBio.02421-14

Umuthi we-PLoS. Ezinye izindlela zokuziphatha ekuhlolweni ngamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane enoveli. UMarc Lipsitch no-Alison Galvani. 2014. 11 (5): e1001646. i-doi: 10.1371 / journal.pmed.1001646  

Amaphepha wesayensi ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2

I-Lancet. Izici zemitholampilo yeziguli ezinegciwane le-coronavirus yango-2019 eWuhan, China. UChaolin Huang et al. Janawari 30, 2020. Umqulu 395: 497-506. 

Imvelo. Ukuqhamuka kwe-pneumonia okuhambisana ne-coronavirus entsha yemvelaphi yelulwane. UPeng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… noZheng-Li Shi. Februwari 3, 2020. 579 (7798): 270-273. i-doi: 10.1038 / s41586-020-2012-7

Imvelo. I-Addendum: Ukuqhamuka kwesifo se-pneumonia okuhambisana ne-coronavirus entsha yemvelaphi yelulwane. UPeng Zhou, Xing-Lou Yang, Xian-Guang Wang, Ben Hu,… noZheng-Li Shi. Novemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2951-z

Umuthi Wemvelo. Umsuka oyinhloko we-SARS-CoV-2. UKristian G. Andersen, Andrew Rambaut, W. Ian Lipkin, u-Edward C. Holmes, uRobert F. Garry. Ephreli 2020. Umqulu 26, amakhasi 450-455. 

I-Journal of Medical Virology. Imibuzo emayelana nomsuka oyisisekelo we-SARS-CoV-2. UMurat Seyran, uDamiano Pizzol, uParis Adadi… no-Adam M. Brufsky. Septhemba 3, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26478 

BioEssays. Kungenzeka yini ukuthi abakwa-SARS ‐ CoV-2 bavele ngendlela eyindilinga enqwabelana ngezilwane noma amasiko eseli? UKarl Sirotkin noDan Sirotkin. Agasti 12, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000091

Imingcele Kwezempilo Yomphakathi. Amacala e-Lethal pneumonia ezimayini zaseMojiang (2012) kanye ne-mineshaft anganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Septhemba 17, 2020. doi: 10.3389 / fpubh.2020.581569

BioEssays. Isakhiwo sofuzo seSARS ‐ CoV-2 asisho ukuthi imvelaphi yelabhoratri. URossana Segreto futhi Yuri Deigin. Novemba 17, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1002/bies.202000240

bioRxiv. I-SARS-CoV-2 isetshenziswe kahle kubantu. Kusho ukuthini lokhu ukuphinda kuvele? UShing Hei Zhan, uBenjamin E. Deverman, uYujia Alina Chan. Meyi 2, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.01.073262 

UZenodo. Uqalephi Ubhubhane Lwe-Coronavirus 2019 futhi Lwasakazeka Kanjani? Isibhedlela Sabantu Sokukhululeka EsiseWuhan China kanye Nomugqa 2 Wuhan Metro System Ziyizimpendulo Eziphoqayo. USteven Carl Quay. Okthoba 28, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4119262

Minerva. Ubufakazi obukhombisa ukuthi leli akulona igciwane eliguquke ngokwemvelo: I-aetiology yomlando eyakhiwe kabusha ye-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2. UBirger Sørensen, u-Angus Dalgleish no-Andres Susrud. Julayi 1, 2020.

ResearchGate. Ngabe ukubheka imvelaphi yokukhohliswa kofuzo kukaSARS-CoV-2 kuyimbono yetulo okumele ihlolwe? URossana Segreto noYuri Deigin. Ephreli 2020. DOI: 10.13140 / RG.2.2.31358.13129 / 1

Iziqalo. Ukukhathazeka okukhulu ngokuhlonza uhlobo lwe-bat coronavirus strain i-RaTG13 nekhwalithi yephepha elihlobene ne-Nature. UXiaoxu Lin, uShizhong Chen. Juni 5, 2020. 2020060044. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202006.0044.v1 

Iziqalo. Isimo esingajwayelekile sesampula ye-fecal swab esetshenziselwe ukuhlaziywa kwe-NGS yokulandelana kwe-RaTG13 genome ibeka umbuzo ngokunemba kokulandelana kwe-RaTG13. UMonali Rahalkar noRahul Bahulikar. Agasti 11, 2020. doi: 10.20944 / preprints202008.0205.v1 

Amaphrinta we-OSF. I-COVID-19, i-SARS namalulwane ama-coronaviruses genomes ukulandelana okungalindelekile kwe-RNA okungalindelekile. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Ephreli 25, 2020. doi: 10.31219 / osf.io / d9e5g 

UZenodo. Izindlela zokuziphendukela kwemvelo ze-HIV ezilawulwa ngumuntu. UJean-Claude Perez noLuc Montagnier. Agasti 2, 2020. 

Ama-Microbes Asakhulayo Nezifo. I-HIV-1 ayizange ibambe iqhaza ku-2019-nCoV genome. UXiao Chuan, Li Xiaojun, Liu Shuying, Sang Yongming, Gao Shou-Jiang noGao Feng. 2020. 9 (1): 378-381. i-doi: 10.1080 / 22221751.2020.1727299

i-arXiv. Ekuqhathaniseni i-silico kwamafinyela abophayo we-spike protein-ACE2 kuzo zonke izinhlobo zezinto eziphilayo; Ukubaluleka kwemvelaphi engaba khona yegciwane le-SARS-CoV-2. USakshi Piplani, uPuneet Kumar Singh, uDavid A. Winkler, uNikolai Petrovsky. Meyi 13, 2020. 

Nature. Ukukhomba ama-coronavirus ahlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. UTommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Na Jia, Ya-Wei Zhang, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Jia-Fu Jiang, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Yong-Xia Shi, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wen-Juan Li, Bao-Gui Jiang, Wei Wei, Ting-Ting Yuan, Kui Zheng, Xiao-Ming Cui, Jie Li, Guang-Qian Pei, Xin Qiang, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Lian-Feng Li, Fang- UFang Sun, Si Qin, Ji-Cheng Huang, uGabriel M. Leung, u-Edward C. Holmes, uYan-Ling Hu, u-Yi Guan no-Wu-Chun Cao. Mashi 26, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2169-0

Amagciwane e-PLoS. Ngabe ama-pangolin angumsingathi ophakathi nendawo we-2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)? UPing Liu, Jing-Zhe Jiang, Xiu-Feng Wan, Yan Hua, Linmiao Li, Jiabin Zhou, Xiaohu Wang, Fanghui Hou, Jing Chen, Jiejian Zou, Jinping Chen. Meyi 14, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1008421

Nature. Ukuhlukaniswa kwe-coronavirus ehlobene ne-SARS-CoV-2 kusuka kuma-pangolin aseMalayan. Kangpeng Xiao, Junqiong Zhai, Yaoyu Feng, Niu Zhou, Xu Zhang, Jie-Jian Zou, Na Li, Yaqiong Guo, Xiaobing Li, Xuejuan Shen, Zhipeng Zhang, Fanfan Shu, Wanyi Huang, Yu Li, Ziding Zhang, Rui-Ai Chen, Ya-Jiang Wu, Shi-Ming Peng, Mian Huang, Wei-Jun Xie, Qin-Hui Cai, Fang-Hui Hou, Wu Chen, Lihua Xiao & Yongyi Yena. Meyi 7, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2313-x

Biology yamanje. Umsuka wePangolin ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 Okuhambisana nokuqubuka kwe-COVID-19. UTao Zhang, uQunfu Wu, uZhigang Zhang. Mashi 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.03.022

bioRxiv. Umthombo owodwa wama-pangolin CoV ane-Spike RBD eseduze ne-SARS-CoV-2. U-Yujia Alina Chan noShing Hei Zhan. Okthoba 23, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.07.184374

Ukutheleleka, i-Genetics kanye ne-Evolution. I-COVID-19: Isikhathi sokukhipha i-pangolin ekudlulisweni kwe-SARS-CoV-2 iye kubantu. URoger Frutos, uJordi Serra-Cobo, uTianmu Chen noChristian A. Devaux. Umqulu 84, Okthoba 2020, 104493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104493

bioRxiv. Abukho ubufakazi bama-coronaviruses noma amanye amagciwane angaba yi-zoonotic kuma-Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) angena ekuhwebeni kwezilwane zasendle ngeMalaysia. Jimmy Lee, Tom Hughes, Mei-Ho Lee, Hume Field, Jeffrine Japning Rovie-Ryan, Frankie Thomas Sitam, Symphorosa Sipangkui, Senthilvel KSS Nathan, Diana Ramirez, Subbiah Vijay Kumar, Helen Lasimbang, Jonathan H. Epstein, Peter Daszak. Juni 19, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.19.158717

Izingobo zomlando zeVirology. A umabhebhana Ukulandelana kwe-RNA njengomnikeli ojwayelekile wokuqhekeka kokukopisha ukukhethwa kokukhetha ku-SARS-CoV-2. UWilliam R. Gallaher. Julayi 31, 2020.

Iseli. Umbono we-genomic ngemvelaphi nokuvela kwe-SARS-CoV-2. UYong-Zhen Zhang, u-Edward C. Holmes. Ephreli 2020 181 (2): 223-227. i-doi: 10.1016 / j.cell.2020.03.035.

Izinqubo ze-National Academy of Sciences. Uhlamvu lwe-Superantigenic lokufaka okuhlukile ku-spike ye-SARS-CoV-2 esekelwa yi-repertoire ye-TCR eboshiwe ezigulini ezine-hyperinfigueation. UMary Hongying Cheng, She Zhang, Rebecca A. Porritt, Magali Noval Rivas, Lisa Paschold, Edith Willscher, Mascha Binder, Moshe Arditi, no-Ivet Bahar. Septhemba 28, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010722117

I-Biology yamanje. I-bat coronavirus yenoveli ehlobene eduze ne-SARS-CoV-2 iqukethe okufakiwe okungokwemvelo endaweni yokuhlanza ye-S1 / S2 ye-protein spike. Hong Zhou, Xing Chen, Tao Hu, Juan Li, Hao Song, Yanran Liu, Peihan Wang, Di Liu, Jing Yang, Edward C. Holmes, Alice C. Hughes, Yuhai Bi, noWeifeng Shi. Juni 8, 2020. 30: 2196-2203. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.05.023

aRxiv. I-bat coronavirus RmYN02 ibonakala ngokususwa okungu-6-nucleotide lapho kuhlangana khona i-S1 / S2, futhi ukufakwa kwayo okufunwayo kwe-PAA akungabazeki. UYuri Deigin noRossana Segreto. Disemba 1, 2020.

bioRxiv. Isiza sokuhlanza i-Furin siyisihluthulelo se-SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis. UBryan A. Johnson,… uKari Debbink, uPei Yong Shi, u-Alexander Freiberg noVineet Menachery. Agasti 26, 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.26.268854 

bioRxiv. Isiza se-furin cleavage se-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein siyisici esibalulekile sokudluliswa ngenxa yokuphindaphindeka okuthuthukile kumaseli womoya. UThomas Peacock, uDaniel H. Goldhill, uJie Zhou,… noWendy S. Barclay. Septhemba 30, 2020. doi. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.30.318311 

UZenodo. Izici ezingajwayelekile ze-SARS-CoV-2 genome ephakamisa ukuguqulwa okuyinkimbinkimbi kwelabhorethri kunokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokucaciswa kwendlela yayo yokwenziwa okungenzeka. Li-Meng Yan, Shu Kang, Jie Guan, futhi Shanchang Hu. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4028829  

Johns Hopkins Isikhungo Sokuphepha Kwezempilo. Ukuphendula: Yan et al Preprint Examinations of the Origin of SARS-CoV-2. UKelsey Lane Warmbrod, uRachel M. West, uNancy D. Connell noGigi Kwik Gronvall. Septhemba 21, 2020.

UZenodo. Isiphakamiso seSARS-CoV-2 Spillover Ngesikhathi Sokubukeza Kwamasampula sango-2019 esivela eMineshaft eMojiang, esifundazweni saseYunnan, eChina. Ongaziwa. Septhemba 14, 2020. doi: 10.5281 / zenodo.4029544

Izindatshana zebhulogi eziphenyayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2

Medium. Kwenziwe ilebhu? I-SARS-CoV-2 yohlu lozalo ngokusebenzisa i-lens yocwaningo lomsebenzi. Yuri Deigin. Ephreli 22, 2020.

Medium. Ama-virus ayesabekayo nokuthi ungawathola kuphi. UMoreno Colaiacovo. Novemba 15, 2020.

Okuphakathi. Ukuqoqwa kwemininingwane esheshayo yamacala asolwa ekuqaleni kukaCovid-19 eWuhan. UGilles Demaneuf. Okthoba 15, 2020.

Amasethi wedatha aguquliwe aphakamisa imibuzo eminingi ngokuthembeka kwezifundo ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukubuyekezwa kwedathasethi yama-genomic ehlotshaniswa nezifundo ezine ezibalulekile kwimvelaphi ye-coronavirus engeza eminye imibuzo ngokuthembeka kwalezi zifundo, ezinikeza ukusekelwa okuyisisekelo kwe-hypothesis ukuthi uSARS-CoV-2 uqhamuke ezilwaneni zasendle. Izifundo, UPeng Zhou et al., Hong Zhou et al., ULam et al., Futhi UXiao et al., ithole ama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS-CoV-2 kumalulwane amahhashi nama-pangolin aseMalayan.

Ababhali bezifundo bafaka idatha yokulandelana kwe-DNA ebizwa ukulandelana kufundwa, ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa izakhi zofuzo ze-bat- ne-pangolin-coronavirus, e-National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) ukulandelana funda ingobo yomlando (SRA). I-NCBI isungule i-database yomphakathi ukusiza ukuqinisekisa okuzimele kokuhlaziywa kwe-genomic ngokususelwa kubuchwepheshe bokulandelana okuphezulu.

I-US Right to Know ithole imibhalo ngamarekhodi womphakathi icela lokho khombisa izibuyekezo kulezi zifundo zedatha ye-SRA ngemuva kwezinyanga zishicilelwe. Lokhu kubuyekezwa kuyinqaba ngoba kwenzeke ngemuva kokushicilelwa, futhi ngaphandle kwesizathu, incazelo noma ukuqinisekiswa.

Ngokwesibonelo, UPeng Zhou et al. futhi ULam et al. bavuselele idatha yabo ye-SRA ngezinsuku ezimbili ezifanayo. Imibhalo ayichazi ukuthi kungani beguqule idatha yabo, kuphela ukuthi kwenziwa izinguquko ezithile. UXiao et al. wenze izinguquko eziningi emininingwaneni yabo ye-SRA, kufaka phakathi ukususwa kwedathasethi ezimbili ngo-Mashi 10, ukwengezwa kwedathasethi entsha ngoJuni 19, ukufakwa esikhundleni kwedatha ngoNovemba 8 kukhishwe okokuqala ngo-Okthoba 30, nokunye ukuguqulwa kwedatha ngoNovemba 13 - ngemuva kwezinsuku ezimbili Nature ungeze “inothi lokukhathazeka” loMhleli mayelana nesifundo. Hong Zhou et al. kusamele sabelane ngedathasethi ephelele ye-SRA ezonika amandla ukuqinisekisa okuzimele. Ngenkathi omagazini bethanda Nature kudinga ababhali ukuthi benze yonke imininingwane “itholakale ngokushesha”Ngesikhathi sokushicilelwa, imininingwane ye-SRA ingakhishwa ngemuva ukushicilelwa; kodwa akujwayelekile ukwenza ushintsho olunjalo ezinyangeni ezithile ngemuva kokushicilelwa.

Lezi zinguquko ezingavamile zemininingwane ye-SRA azenzi ngokuzenzakalela ukuthi lezi zifundo ezine namasethi wedatha ahlobene nazo angathembeki. Kodwa-ke, ukubambezeleka, izikhala kanye nezinguquko kwimininingwane ye-SRA kuphazamise ukuhlangana okuzimele nokuqinisekisa yokulandelana kwe-genome okushicilelwe, bese ufaka ku imibuzo futhi ukukhathazeka mayelana the ukufaneleka kwezifundo ezine, njenge:

  1. Yikuphi ukubuyekezwa okuqondile ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwedatha ye-SRA? Kungani zenziwa? Zikuthinte kanjani ukuhlaziywa okuhambisanayo kwe-genomic nemiphumela?
  2. Ngabe lokhu kubuyekezwa kwe-SRA kuqinisekiswe ngokuzimela? Uma kunjalo, kanjani? I- Ukuqinisekiswa kweNCBI kuphela indinganiso yokushicilela i-SRA BioProject– ngale kwemininingwane eyisisekelo efana "negama lomzimba" - ukuthi ngeke ibe yimpinda.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe: 

The Isikhungo Sikazwelonke Semininingwane Yebhayoloji (i-NCBI) imibhalo ingatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili we-NCBI (Amakhasi we-63)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo kusuka kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi zokuphenywa kwethu kwama-biohazards. Bona: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ikhasi langemuva kuphenyo lwase-US Right to Know ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2.

Akukho ukubuyekezwa kontanga kwesengezo esifundweni esivelele semvelaphi ye-coronavirus?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ijenali Nature akuzange kuhlolisise ukuthembeka kwezimangalo ezibalulekile ezenziwe ngoNovemba 17 isithasiselo kuya ku cwaningo ngemvelaphi yelulwane le-coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ukuxhumana ne Nature abasebenzi basikisela.

NgoFebhuwari 3, 2020, ososayensi baseWuhan Institute of Virology babika ukuthi bathola isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-SARS-CoV-2, i-bat coronavirus ebizwa nge-RaTG13. I-RaTG13 isibe maphakathi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.

Amakheli esengezo engaphendulwa imibuzo mayelana nokuvela kweRaTG13. Ababhali, uZhou et al., Bacacisile ukuthi bathole iRaTG13 ngo-2012-2013 "endaweni encane eshiyiwe eMojiang County, esifundazweni saseYunnan," lapho abavukuzi abayisithupha bahlupheka khona isifo sokuphefumula okunamandla ngemuva kokuchayeka endleni yelulwane, Futhi abathathu bashona. Uphenyo lwe- izimpawu zabavukuzi abagulayo zinganikeza imikhondo ebalulekile ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. UZhou et al. babike ukuthi abatholanga ama-coronavirus ahlobene no-SARS kumasampula agcinwe abagibeli abagulayo, kodwa abazisekelanga izimangalo zabo ngemininingwane nangezindlela mayelana nokuhlolwa kwabo kanye nezilawuli zokuhlola.

Ukungabi khona kwemininingwane esemqoka kwisengezo kunakho kwaphakamisa eminye imibuzo ngokwethembeka kweZhou et al. funda. NgoNovemba 27, i-US Right to Know yabuza Nature imibuzo mayelana nezicelo zesengezo, futhi wakucela lokho Nature shicilela yonke imininingwane esekelayo uZhou et al. kungenzeka unikeze.

NgoDisemba 2, Nature INhloko Yezokuxhumana uBex Walton Waphendula ukuthi uZhou wokuqala et al. isifundo “besinembile kepha kungacaci,” nokuthi isengezo besifanelekile ipulatifomu yokushicilelwa ngemuva kokushicilelwa ukuthola ukucaciselwa. Ubuye wathi: “Mayelana nemibuzo yakho, singakuqondisa ukuthi uye kubabhali bephepha ukuthola izimpendulo, njengoba le mibuzo ayithinti ucwaningo esilushicilele kodwa kolunye ucwaningo olwenziwe ngababhali, esingakwazi ukuphawula ngalo ”(kugcizelelwa okwethu). Njengoba imibuzo yethu ihlobene nocwaningo oluchazwe kusengezo, i Nature Isitatimende sabamele sikhombisa ukuthi isengezo sikaZhou et al asizange sihlolwe njengocwaningo.

Sabuza umbuzo olandelayo ngoDisemba 2: “ngabe lesi sengezo sakhonjelwa ekubuyekezweni kontanga kanye / noma ekuqondisweni kokuhlelwa ngu Nature? ” UNks Walton akazange aphendule ngqo; yena Waphendula: “Ngokuvamile, abahleli bethu bazohlola ukuphawula noma ukukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe nathi ekuqaleni, babonisane nababhali, futhi bafune izeluleko kubabuyekezi boontanga nakwabanye ochwepheshe bangaphandle uma sikubona kunesidingo. Inqubomgomo yethu yobumfihlo isho ukuthi asikwazi ukuphawula ngendlela ethile yokuphathwa kwamacala ngamanye. ”

Kusukela Nature ubheka isengezo njenge- a post-isibuyekezo sokushicilelwa, futhi ayikubeki lokho kungezwa kokushicilelwa kokushicilelwa kumazinga afanayo okubukeza ontanga njengezincwadi zokuqala, kubonakala sengathi iZhou et al. isengezo asizange sibuyekezwe ngontanga.

Ababhali uZhengli Shi noPeng Zhou abaphendulanga imibuzo yethu mayelana yabo Nature Eyongeziwe.

Ama-imeyili amasha akhombisa izingxoxo zososayensi zokuxoxa ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ama-imeyili asanda kuthola anikela amazwibela okuthi ukulandisa kokuqiniseka kuthuthuke kanjani ngemvelaphi yemvelo yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, ngenkathi kusala imibuzo ebalulekile yesayensi. Izingxoxo zangaphakathi kanye nohlaka lokuqala lwencwadi yososayensi zikhombisa ochwepheshe bexoxa ngezikhala zolwazi nemibuzo engaphenduliwe ngemvelaphi yelabhu, njengoba abanye bebefuna ukucindezela imibono “engemuva” yokuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane livele ebhodini.

Ososayensi abanethonya nezindawo eziningi zezindaba bachaze ubufakazi ngokuthi “nzima”Ukuthi leli gciwane lavela ezilwaneni zasendle, hhayi ebhodini. Kodwa-ke, ngemuva konyaka amacala okuqala abikiwe we-SARS-CoV-2 edolobheni laseChina iWuhan, kuncane okwaziwayo kanjani noma kuphi kwavela igciwane. Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2, obangela isifo i-COVID-19, kungabaluleka ekunqandeni ubhadane olulandelayo.

Ama-imeyili ochwepheshe be-coronavirus USolwazi Ralph Baric - etholwe ngesicelo samarekhodi omphakathi yi-US Right to Know - khombisa izingxoxo phakathi kwabamele iNational Academy of Sciences (NAS), kanye nochwepheshe bokungavikeleki kwezifo ezithathelwanayo emanyuvesi ase-US nase Umanyano we-EcoHealth.

NgoFebhuwari 3, i-White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) kubuziwe iNational Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (NASEM) ukuze “ibize umhlangano wochwepheshe… ukuze kuhlolwe ukuthi iyiphi idatha, ulwazi namasampula adingekayo ukubhekana nokungaziwa, ukuze kuqondwe imvelaphi yokuziphendukela kwemvelo ye-2019-nCoV, futhi iphendule ngempumelelo kokubili ukugqashuka kwanoma yikuphi ukwaziswa okungaqondile okuba umphumela. ”

I-Baric nezinye izazi zezifo ezithathelwanayo zazibandakanyeka ekubhaleni impendulo. Ama-imeyili akhombisa izingxoxo zangaphakathi zochwepheshe kanye ne okusalungiswa kusenesikhathi yangomhla kaFebhuwari 4.

Umbhalo wokuqala wachaza "imibono yokuqala yochwepheshe" ukuthi "imininingwane etholakalayo ye-genomic iyahambisana nokuziphendukela kwemvelo nokuthi okwamanje abukho ubufakazi bokuthi igciwane lenzelwe ukusabalala ngokushesha okukhulu phakathi kwabantu." Lo musho osalungiswa waphakamisa umbuzo, kubakaki: “[cela ochwepheshe ukuthi bangeze imininingwane ethile yamasayithi okubopha?]” Iphinde yafaka umbhalo waphansi kubakaki: ukuvela kwama-coronaviruses ahlobene]. ”

In i-imeyili eyodwa, yangomhla kaFebruwari 4, uchwepheshe wezifo ezithathelwanayo uTrevor Bedford waphawula: “Ngeke ngikhulume ngezindawo zokubopha lapha. Uma uqala ukukala ubufakazi kuningi okufanele ucabange ngakho kuzo zombili lezi zimo. ” Ngazo “zombili lezi zimo,” kubonakala sengathi iBedford ibhekisa kuzimo zelebhu kanye nemvelaphi yemvelo.

Umbuzo wezindawo ezibophezelayo ubalulekile engxoxweni mayelana nemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2. Izindawo ezihlukanisayo ezibophayo ku-SARS-CoV-2's spike protein confer “Okuseduze” ukubopha nokungena kwegciwane emangqamuzaneni omuntu, nokwenza i-SARS-CoV-2 itheleleke kakhulu kune-SARS-CoV. Ososayensi baphikise ngokuthi izingosi ezihlukile zokubopha zeSARS-CoV-2 kungenzeka ukuthi zivele ngenxa ye- zemvelo spillover endle noma ngamabomu I-laboratory ukulungisa kabusha kokhokho wemvelo ongakadalulwa okwamanje we-SARS-CoV-2.

The incwadi yokugcina eshicilelwe ngoFebhuwari 6 ayizange isho izingosi ezibophezelayo noma ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi ivela kulabhorethri. Kuyacaca ukuthi kuneminye imininingwane edingekayo yokuthola umsuka weSARS-CoV-2. Incwadi ithi, “Ochwepheshe basazise ukuthi imininingwane eyengeziwe yokulandelana kwe-genomic evela kumasampula egciwane ngokwendawo - nangokwesikhashana - ayadingeka ukunquma umsuka nokuvela kwegciwane. Amasampula aqoqwe kusenesikhathi ekuqhamukeni kweWuhan namasampula avela ezilwaneni zasendle abaluleke kakhulu. ”

Ama-imeyili akhombisa abanye ochwepheshe bexoxa ngesidingo solimi olucacile ukuphikisana nalokho okuchazwe ngokuthi yi "crackpot theories" yemvelaphi yelabhu. UKristian Andersen, umbhali oholayo we iphepha elinomthelela leMvelo Medicine egomela imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2, uthe okusalungiswa kwasekuqaleni “kwakukukhulu, kodwa ngiyazibuza ukuthi ngabe sidinga yini ukuqina kakhulu embuzweni wobunjiniyela.” Uqhube wathi, “Uma enye yezinhloso zalo mbhalo kungukuphikisana nalezi zinkolelo-mbono, ngicabanga ukuthi kubaluleke kakhulu ukuthi sikwenze lokho ngokuqinile nangolimi olucacile…”

In impendulo yakhe, IBaric ihlose ukudlulisa isisekelo sesayensi ngemvelaphi yemvelo yakwaSARS-CoV-2. “Ngicabanga ukuthi sidinga ukusho ukuthi isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu naleli gciwane (96%) satholwa kumalulwane azungeza emhumeni waseYunnan, eChina. Lokhu kwenza isitatimende esiqinile ngemvelaphi yezilwane. ”

Okokugcina Incwadi kusuka kubongameli be-NASEM abathathi hlangothi ngemvelaphi yegciwane. Ithi, “Ucwaningo lwezocwaningo ukuqonda kangcono imvelaphi ye-2019-nCoV nokuthi ihlobana kanjani namagciwane atholakala kumalulwane nakwezinye izinhlobo zezinto eseziqalile. Isihlobo esiseduze kakhulu se-2019-nCoV sibonakala njenge-coronavirus ekhonjwe kumasampula athathwe ngamalulwane aqoqwe eChina. ” Incwadi ibhekisiwe ezimbili izifundo lokho kwenziwa yi-EcoHealth Alliance neWuhan Institute of Virology. Zombili ziveza imvelaphi engokwemvelo ye-SARS-CoV-2.

Emasontweni ambalwa kamuva, incwadi kaMongameli yeNASEM yavela njengomthombo onegunya lomuntu onethonya Isitatimende sabososayensi esishicilelwe ku I-Lancet lokho kudlulise isiqiniseko esithe xaxa ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2. I-USRTK ibike ngaphambilini ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala la mazwi, aqinisekisa ukuthi "ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi… baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle." Lesi sikhundla, kusho isitatimende, "sisekelwa futhi yincwadi evela kubongameli be-US National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine."

Ukuqokwa okwalandela kukaPeter Daszak nabanye ababambisene ne-EcoHealth Alliance ukuze Ikhomishini yeLancet COVID19 noDaszak kuye Uphenyo lweWorld Health Organisation Imvelaphi yakwaSARS-CoV-2 kusho ukuthi ukwethembeka kwale mizamo kucekelwa phansi ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo, nangokubukeka sengathi sebevele behlulele ngaphambi kwalolu daba.

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“Izingqinamba okufanele sizigweme”

Ama-imeyili eBaric akhombisa nomele i-NAS ukuphakamisa kososayensi base-US kufanele “mhlawumbe bagweme” imibuzo emayelana nemvelaphi yakwa-SARS-CoV-2 emihlanganweni yamazwe womabili ababeyihlela nochwepheshe be-Chinese COVID-19. Ama-imeyili ngoMeyi nangoJuni 2020 axoxa ngezinhlelo zemihlangano. Ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseMelika, iningi labo elingamalungu e-NAS Ikomidi Elimi Ngezifo Ezithathelwanayo Eziqhamukayo Nezinsongo Zempilo Zekhulu Lama-21, kubalwa uRalph Baric, Peter Daszak, David Franz, James Le Duc, Stanley Perlman, David Relman, Linda Saif, noPeiyong Shi.

The ososayensi ababambe iqhaza baseChina kufaka phakathi uGeorge Gao, uZhengli Shi, noZhiming Yuan. UGeorge Gao unguMqondisi we-China CDC. UZhengli Shi uhola ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan Institute of Virology, kanti uZhiming Yuan unguMqondisi weWIV.

In i-imeyili kubahlanganyeli baseMelika mayelana neseshini yokuhlela, Isikhulu Sezinhlelo Eziphezulu se-NAS uBenjamin Rusek uchaze inhloso yomhlangano: “ukukugcwalisa ngemvelaphi yengxoxo, xoxa ngezihloko / imibuzo (uhlu kuhlu lwesimemo sakho nokunamathiselwe) nezinkinga okufanele gwema (imibuzo yemvelaphi, ipolitiki)…

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Xhumanisa nama-imeyili kaProfesa Ralph Baric wase-University of North Carolina angatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili eBaric (Amakhasi we-83,416)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo evela kuzicelo zethu zamarekhodi womphakathi ze uphenyo lwethu lwe-biohazards. Bheka: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

I-EcoHealth Alliance yahlela isitatimende sososayensi abalulekile "ngemvelaphi yemvelo" ye-SARS-CoV-2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know akhombisa ukuthi a isitatimende ku I-Lancet ebhalwe ososayensi abaqavile bezempilo yomphakathi abangama-27 begxeka "imibono yetulo ephakamisa ukuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi yemvelo" yahlelwa ngabasebenzi be-EcoHealth Alliance, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo ithole izigidi zamaRandi of Umkhokhi wentela wase-US uxhaso ukuze ukuguqula izakhi zofuzo Ama-coronavirus nososayensi e Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology.

Ama-imeyili atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi akhombisa ukuthi uMongameli we-EcoHealth Alliance uPeter Daszak wabhala lo mbhalo I-Lancet isitatimende, nokuthi wayehlose ukukwenza "Kungabonakali ukuthi ivela kunoma iyiphi inhlangano noma umuntu oyedwa" kodwa kunalokho kubonakale njenge “Incwadi elula evela kososayensi abaphambili”. UDaszak ubhale ukuthi ufuna "ukugwema ukuvela kwesitatimende sezepolitiki".

Incwadi yososayensi yavela ku I-Lancet ngoFebhuwari 18, kusasele isonto elilodwa nje ukuthi i-World Health Organisation imemezele ukuthi lesi sifo esidalwe yi-novel coronavirus sizobizwa nge-COVID-19.

Ababhali abangama-27 “bayigxeka ngokuqinile imibono yetulo yokuthi i-COVID-19 ayinayo imvelaphi engokwemvelo,” futhi babika ukuthi ososayensi abavela emazweni amaningi “baphetha ngokumangazayo ukuthi le coronavirus yavela ezilwaneni zasendle.” Le ncwadi ibingafaki izinkomba zesayensi zokuphikisa imfundiso-mbumbulu yegciwane. Usosayensi oyedwa, uLinda Saif, ubuze nge-imeyili ukuthi kungasiza yini “Ukufaka isitatimende esisodwa noma ezi-2 ukuxhasa ukuthi kungani i-nCOV kungelona igciwane elenziwa elebhu futhi kuvele ngokwemvelo? Kubonakala kubalulekile ekuphikiseni lokho kushiwo! ” UDaszak uphendule wathi, “Ngicabanga ukuthi kufanele sinamathele esitatimendeni esibanzi. "

Izingcingo ezikhulayo ukuphenya iWuhan Institute of Virology njengomthombo ongaba khona weSARS-CoV-2 kuholele kulokhu ukuhlolwa okwengeziwe we-EcoHealth Alliance. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi amalungu e-EcoHealth Alliance adlale kanjani indima yokuqala ekubunjweni kwemibuzo mayelana nokuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingavela kanjani njengemibono “edabukisayo edinga ukulungiswa,” njenge UDaszak utshele The Guardian.

Yize ibinzana elithi "EcoHealth Alliance" livele kanye kuphela I-Lancet isitatimende, ngokuhlangana nombhali-mbhali uDaszak, abanye ababhali ababambisene nabo banobudlelwano ngqo neqembu elingadalulwanga njengokushayisana kwezintshisekelo. URita Colwell noJames Hughes banjalo amalungu weBhodi labaQondisi be-EcoHealth Alliance, UWilliam Karesh uyiPhini Likamongameli Ophethe weqembu lezeMpilo neNqubomgomo, futhi Inkambu yeHume ungumeluleki weSayensi neNqubomgomo.

Ababhali besitatimende baphinde bathi "ukwabiwa okusheshayo, okuvulelekile, nokusobala kwemininingwane ngalokhu kuqubuka manje sekusongelwa amahemuhemu nolwazi olungelona iqiniso ngemvelaphi yalo." Namuhla, noma kunjalo, kuncane okwaziwayo mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nophenyo ngemvelaphi yayo ngo- i-World Health Organization futhi I-Lancet Ikhomishini ye-COVID-19 ziye zaba kusitshekelwe ekusithekeni futhi ngicindezelwe ngu ukungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo.

UPeter Daszak, uRita Colwell, no I-Lancet Umhleli uRichard Horton akazange anikeze imibono ephendula izicelo zethu zale ndaba.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Isixhumanisi seqoqo lonke lama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance singatholakala lapha: Ama-imeyili e-EcoHealth Alliance: University of Maryland (Amakhasi we-466)

I-US Right to Know ithumela imibhalo etholwe ngenkululeko yomphakathi yolwazi (i-FOI) yezicelo uphenyo lwethu lweBiohazards kokuthunyelwe kwethu: Imibhalo ye-FOI ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, izingozi zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi kanye namalebhu e-biosafety.

Ukusebenza kwezifundo ezisemqoka ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus ngokungabazeki; amaphephandaba ezesayensi aphenya

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Kusukela ukuqubuka kwe-COVID-19 edolobheni laseChina i-Wuhan ngoDisemba 2019, ososayensi bathungathe imikhondo mayelana nokuthi yini eholele ekuveleni komenzeli wayo oyimbangela, inoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Ukuthola umthombo weSARS-CoV-2 kungabaluleka ekuvikeleni ukuqubuka okuzayo.

Uchungechunge lwe ezine high Iphrofayili izifundo okushicilelwe ekuqaleni kwalonyaka kwanikeza ukukholelwa kwesayensi emcabangweni wokuthi iSARS-CoV-2 yaqala ngamalulwane yabe seqa iya kubantu ngohlobo lwe-anteater ebizwa nge-pangolin - phakathi kwezilwane zasendle ezishushumbiswa kakhulu emhlabeni. Ngenkathi lokho inkolelo ethile ezibandakanya pangolins bekulokhu ikakhulukazi ehlisiwe, izifundo ezine ezaziwa ngokuthi "amaphepha epangolin" ziyaqhubeka nokuhlinzeka ukusekela umbono wokuthi ama-coronaviruses ahlobene kakhulu ne-SARS-CoV-2 zungeza endle, okusho ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 edale i-COVID-19 mhlawumbe ivela emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle. 

Ukugxila emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle, inkolelo ethi "zoonotic", sekuyinto ebucayi ezingxoxweni zomhlaba mayelana negciwane, kuqondisa ukunaka komphakathi kude kungenzeka ukuthi kungenzeka ukuthi leli gciwane laqala ngaphakathi kwelabhorethri kahulumeni waseChina - the Isikhungo seWuhan seVirology.

I-US Right to Know (USRTK) ifundile, nokho, ukuthi amaphepha amabili kwamane akha isisekelo sombono we-zoonotic abukeka enamaphutha, nokuthi abahleli bamaphephabhuku lapho amaphepha ashicilelwa khona - Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature - baphenya idatha eyinhloko ngemuva kwezifundo nokuthi idatha yahlaziywa kanjani. Abanye ababili ngokufanayo bavela ku- ubhekane namaphutha.

Izinkinga zamaphepha ocwaningo ziphakamisa "imibuzo ebucayi nokukhathazeka" mayelana nokusebenza kwe-the zoonotic theory jikelele, ngokusho UDkt Sainath Suryanarayanan, isazi sezinto eziphilayo kanye nesazi sezenhlalo sesayensi, kanye nososayensi wabasebenzi be-USRTK.  Izifundo azinayo imininingwane ethembeke ngokwanele, amasethi wedatha angaqinisekiswa ngokuzimela kanye nokubuyekezwa kontanga okusobala nenqubo yokuhlela, ngokusho kukaDkt. Suryanarayanan. 

Bona ama-imeyili akhe nababhali abaphezulu bamaphepha nabahleli bezincwadi, kanye nokuhlaziywa: Imvelo nama-PLoS Pathogens ahlola ubuqiniso besayensi bezifundo ezibalulekile ezixhumanisa i-pangolin coronaviruses kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2.

Iziphathimandla zikahulumeni waseChina uqale waphakamisa umqondo ukuthi umthombo we-causal agent we-COVID-19 kubantu uvela esilwaneni sasendle ngoDisemba. Ososayensi abasekelwa uhulumeni waseChina bese beyisekela leyo mbono ezifundweni ezine ezihlukene ezithunyelwe kumaphephandaba phakathi kukaFebhuwari 7 no-18.

Ithimba le-World Health Organisation le-China Joint Mission Team eliphenya ngokuvela nokusabalala kwe-COVID-19 eChina kusho uFebhuwari

Ukugxila okwenziwe amaShayina emthonjeni wezilwane zasendle kwasiza ukuphola izingcingo uphenyo nge Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology, lapho kade kugcinwa khona ama-coronaviruses ezilwane futhi kwasetshenziswa izakhi zofuzo. Esikhundleni salokho, izinsizakusebenza nemizamo yomphakathi wamazwe omhlaba wesayensi nokwenziwa kwenqubomgomo kube kudwetshwe ekuqondeni izinto ezakha ukuxhumana phakathi kwabantu nezilwane zasendle. 

Amaphepha amane okukhulunywa ngawo yilawa U-Liu et al., UXiao et al. , ULam et al. futhi UZhang et al. Ababili abasaphenywa njengamanje ngabahleli bephephabhuku nguLiu et al noXiao et al. Kwezokuxhumana nababhali nabahleli bamaphephabhuku ala maphepha amabili, i-USRTK ifunde ngezinkinga ezinkulu ngokushicilelwa kwalezo zifundo, kubandakanya okulandelayo:    

  • Liu et al. ayizange ishicilele noma yabelane (lapho kubuzwa) idatha eluhlaza kanye / noma elahlekile ezovumela ochwepheshe ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela ukuhlaziywa kwabo kofuzo.
  • Abahleli kukho kokubili Nature futhi Amagciwane e-PLoS, kanye noProfesa Stanley Perlman, umhleli weLiu et al., bavumile kwezokuxhumana nge-imeyili ukuthi bayazi izingqinamba ezibucayi ngala maphepha nokuthi amaphephandaba ayawaphenya. Kodwa-ke, abakudalulanga esidlangalaleni ngezinkinga ezingaba khona ngamaphepha.  

Ukuthula kwala maphephabhuku ngokuphathelene nophenyo lwawo oluqhubekayo kusho ukuthi imiphakathi ebanzi yososayensi, abenzi bezinqubomgomo kanye nomphakathi othintwe yi-COVID-19 abazi ngezinkinga ezihambisana namaphepha ocwaningo, kusho uDkt Suryanarayanan. 

"Sikholwa wukuthi lezi zinkinga zibalulekile, ngoba zingabumba ukuthi izikhungo zisabela kanjani kubhadane oluyinhlekelele oluthinte kakhulu izimpilo zabantu emhlabeni wonke," esho.

Izixhumanisi zala ma-imeyili zingatholakala lapha: 

Ngo-July 2020, I-US Right to Know iqale ukuhambisa izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngokulandela idatha ezivela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-Covid-19. Selokhu kuqale ukubheduka eWuhan, abakwaSARS-CoV-2 babulale abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi, ngenkathi begulisa ezinye izigidi ngobhadane lomhlaba oluqhubeka nokuvela.

NgoNovemba 5, I-US Right to Know yafaka icala ngokumelene neNational Institutes of Health (NIH) ngokwephula izinhlinzeko ze-Freedom of Information Act. Icala, elifakwe eNkantolo yesiFunda e-US eWashington, DC, lifuna ukuxhumana nezinhlangano ezifana ne-Wuhan Institute of Virology kanye ne-Wuhan Center for Disease Control and Prevention, kanye ne-EcoHealth Alliance, ebibambisene futhi yaxhasa iWuhan Institute of I-Virology.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga elingenzi nzuzo eligxile ekukhuthazeni ukubonakala kwezempilo yomphakathi. Ungakwazi sekela ucwaningo lwethu nokubika ngokunikela lapha. 

Imvelo kanye ne-PLoS Pathogens ihlola ubuqiniso besayensi bezifundo ezibalulekile ezixhumanisa i-pangolin coronaviruses kumsuka weSARS-CoV-2

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bhalisela ku thola izibuyekezo ezivela ku-Blog ye-Biohazards.

NguSainath Suryanarayanan, PhD 

Lapha, sinikeza ama-imeyili ethu ngababhali abaphezulu be- U-Liu et al. futhi UXiao et al., nabahleli be Amagciwane e-PLoS futhi Nature. Siphinde sethule ingxoxo ejulile yemibuzo nokukhathazeka okuphakanyiswe yila ma-imeyili, okubeka ukungabaza ukusebenza kwalezi zifundo ezibalulekile ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 edala i-COVID-19. Bona ukubika kwethu ngalawa ma-imeyili, Ukusebenza kwezifundo ezisemqoka ngemvelaphi ye-coronavirus ngokungabazeki; amaphephandaba ezesayensi aphenya (11.9.20)


Ukuxhumana nge-imeyili noDkt Jinping Chen, umbhali omkhulu kaLiu et al:


Ama-imeyili kaDkt. Jinping Chen aphakamisa izinkathazo nemibuzo eminingi: 

1– Liu et al. (2020) bahlanganise ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome okulandelanayo okususelwa kuma-coronaviruses asampuliwe avela kuma-pangolin amathathu, amasampula amabili eqenjini elishushumbisiwe ngoMashi 2019, kanye nesampula esisodwa esivela kwelinye iqoqo elabanjwa ngoJulayi 2019. Idathabheyisi yeNational Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) , lapho ososayensi kudingeka ukuthi bafake idatha yokulandelana ukuqinisekisa ukuqinisekiswa okuzimele nokukhiqiza kabusha kwemiphumela eshicilelwe, iqukethe imininingwane yokufunda ngokulandelana (SRA) yamasampuli amabili kaMashi 2019 kepha ayikho idatha yesampula kaJulayi 2019. Lapho ebuzwa ngalesi sampula esilahlekile, uDkt Jinping Chen asibiza ngokuthi yi-F9, uDkt. Jinping Chen wathi: “Imininingwane eluhlaza yalezi zampuli ezintathu ingatholakala ngaphansi kwenombolo ye-NCBI ye-PRJNA573298, ne-BioSample ID kwakungu-SAMN12809952, SAMN12809953, kanye I-SAMN12809954, ngaphezu kwalokho, umuntu ngamunye (i-F9) ovela kwi-batch ehlukile nayo yayinhle, idatha eluhlaza ingabonakala ku-NCBI SRA SUB 7661929, ezokhishwa kungekudala ngoba sinenye i-MS (kuyabuyekezwa)”(Ukugcizelela kwethu).

Kumayelana nokuthi uLiu et al. abakashicileli idatha ehambisana nesampula elilodwa lama-pangolins abawasebenzisile ukuhlanganisa ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome. UDkt.Jinping Chen naye akazange abelane ngale datha lapho ebuzwa. Okujwayelekile kusayensi ukushicilela kanye / noma ukwabelana ngemininingwane yonke ezovumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela. Kwenze kanjani Amagciwane e-PLoS vumela uLiu et al. ugwema ukushicilela idatha eyisampula ebalulekile? Kungani uDkt Jinping Chen engabelani ngemininingwane ephathelene nalesi sampuli yesithathu ye-pangolin? Kungani uLiu et al. ufuna ukukhipha imininingwane engashicilelwe ephathelene nalesi sampuli yesithathu ye-pangolin njengengxenye yesinye isifundo esithunyelwe kumagazini ohlukile? Okukhathaza lapha ukuthi ososayensi bazosabalalisa kabi isampula ye-pangolin elahlekile evela ku-Liu et al. ocwaningweni oluhlukile, okwenza kube nzima kwabanye ukuthi kamuva balandele imininingwane ebalulekile ngale sampuli ye-pangolin, njengomongo lapho kwaqoqwa khona isampula ye-pangolin.

2– UDkt. Jinping Chen ukuphikile ukuthi uLiu et al. ngibe nobudlelwano noXiao et al.'s (2020) Nature funda. Ubhale wathi: “Sihambise iphepha lethu le-PLOS Pathogens ngoFebhuwari 14, 2020 ngaphambi kwephepha leNature (i-Reference 12 ephepheni lethu le-PLOS pathogens, balithumele ngoFebhuwari 16, 2020 kusukela ngosuku lwabo lokulethwa eMvelweni), iphepha lethu lamagciwane e-PLOS chaza ukuthi i-SARS-Cov-2 ayiveli ku-pangolin coronavirus ngqo futhi ne-pangolin hhayi njengomsingathi ophakathi nendawo. Sasiwazi umsebenzi wabo ngemuva kwesithangami sabo sezindaba ngoFebhuwari 7, 2020, futhi sinemibono eyehlukene nabo, amanye amaphepha amabili (amaGciwane neMvelo) afakwe ohlwini lwephepha le-PLOS Pathogen njengamaphepha ayizethenjwa (inombolo eyinkomba 10 no-12), singamaqembu ahlukene ocwaningo avela kubalobi bephepha leMvelo, futhi abukho ubudlelwano phakathi kwabo, Futhi sithathe amasampula imininingwane yesampula enemininingwane evela esikhungweni sokutakula izilwane zasendle saseGuangdong ngosizo oluvela kuJiejian Zou noFanghui Hou njengababhali bethu futhi asazi ukuthi amasampuli ephepha lezeMvelo avelaphi. ” (ukugcizelelwa kwethu)

Amaphuzu alandelayo akhulisa ukungabaza ngezimangalo zikaDkt Chen ngenhla: 

Liu et al. (2020), Xiao et al (2020) noLiu et al. (2019) babelane ngababhali abalandelayo: UPing Liu noJinping Chen babengababhali ku-2019 Amagciwane iphepha kanye ne-2020 Amagciwane e-PLoS iphepha, umbhali omkhulu uWu Chen kuXiao et al. (2020) wayengumbhali-mbhali we-2019 Amagciwane iphepha, kanti uJiejian Zhou noFanghui Hou babengababhali kubo bobabili uXiao et al. noLiu et al. 

b- Yomibili le mibhalo yesandla yafakwa kwiseva yomphakathi yangaphambi kokuprintwa bioRxiv ngosuku olufanayo: Februwari 20, 2020. 

c Xiao et al. “Amasampula e-pangolin aqanjwe kabusha aqala ukushicilelwa ngu-Liu et al. [2019] Amagciwane ngaphandle kokucaphuna isifundo sawo njenge-athikili yokuqala echaze la masampula, futhi asebenzise imininingwane ye-metagenomic evela kulawa masampula ekuhlaziyweni kwawo ”(UChan noZhan). 

d- Liu et al. i-pangolin coronavirus genome ephelele i 99.95% kuyefana ezingeni le-nucleotide kuya ku-pangolin coronavirus genome ephelele eshicilelwe ngu-Xiao et al. Kungenzeka kanjani uLiu et al. sikhiqize lonke ufuzo olungu-99.95% olufanayo (kuphela umehluko we-15 wama-nucleotides) kuXiao et al. ngaphandle kokwabelana kwedathasethi nokuhlaziya?

Lapho amaqembu ahlukene ocwaningo eza ngokuzimela kumasethi weziphetho ezifanayo ngombuzo onikeziwe wocwaningo, kwandisa kakhulu amathuba eqiniso lezimangalo ezibandakanyekile. Okukhathazayo lapha ukuthi uLiu et al. noXiao et al. azenzelwanga izifundo ezizimele njengoba kushiwo nguDkt Chen. Ngabe kukhona ukuxhumana phakathi kukaLiu et al. noXiao et al. maqondana nokuhlaziya nezincwadi zabo? Uma kunjalo, kwakungakanani futhi kwakunjani lokho kuxhumana? 

3– Kungani uLiu et al. ingenzi ukuthi kutholakale esidlangalaleni idatha eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-amplicon ababeyisebenzisela ukuhlanganisa i-pangolin coronavirus genome yabo? Ngaphandle kwale datha eluhlaza, i-pangolin coronavirus genome ehlanganiswe ngu-Liu et al., Abanye abakwazi ukuqinisekisa ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela ka-Liu et al. Njengoba kushiwo ngaphambili, okujwayelekile kusayensi ukushicilela kanye / noma ukwaba yonke idatha ezovumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela futhi bakhiqize imiphumela. Sicele uDkt.Jingping Chen ukuthi abelane ngemininingwane yokulandelana kwe-amplicon kaLiu et al. Uphendule ngokwabelana ngemiphumela yokulandelana kwemikhiqizo ka-Liu et al.'s RT-PCR, okungeyona idatha ye-amplicon eluhlaza esetshenziselwe ukuhlanganisa i-pangolin coronavirus genome. Kungani uDkt Jinping Chen enqena ukukhipha idatha eluhlaza engavumela abanye ukuthi baqinisekise ngokuzimela ukuhlaziywa kukaLiu et al.

I-4- Liu et al. Amagciwane (2019) yashicilelwa ngo-Okthoba 2019 futhi ababhali bayo babefake i-pangolin coronavirus (ukulandelana kokufunda okugciniwe) idatha ye-SRA ne-NCBI ngoSeptemba 23, i-2019, kodwa walinda kwaze kwaba January 22, 2020 ukwenza le datha ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni. Ososayensi bavame ukukhipha idatha eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-genomic kulwazi olufinyeleleka esidlangalaleni ngokushesha okukhulu ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwezifundo zabo. Lo mkhuba uqinisekisa ukuthi abanye bangakwazi ukufinyelela ngokuzimela, baqinisekise futhi basebenzise idatha enjalo. Kungani uLiu et al. I-2019 linda izinyanga ze-4 ukwenza idatha yabo ye-SRA ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni? UDkt. Jinping Chen ukhethe ukungawuphenduli ngqo lo mbuzo wethu empendulweni yakhe ngoNovemba 9, 2020.

Siphinde saxhumana noDkt. Stanley Perlman, Amagciwane e-PLoS Umhleli kaLiu et al. futhi nakhu kwakufanele akusho.

Ngokuphawulekayo, uDkt Perlman uvumile ukuthi:

  • "I-PLoS Pathogens iphenya kabanzi leli phepha" 
  • "Akazange aqinisekise ubuqiniso besampula kaJulayi 2019 ngesikhathi sokubuyekezwa kontanga ngaphambi kokushicilela"
  • “[C] ukukhathazeka ngokufana phakathi kwezifundo ezimbili [Liu et al. noXiao et al.] kwavela kuphela ngemuva kokushicilelwa kwezifundo zombili. ”
  • Akazange "abone imininingwane ye-amplicon ngesikhathi sokubuyekezwa kontanga. Ababhali banikeze inombolo yokungena ku-genome ehlanganisiwe… yize ngemuva kokushicilelwa kuvele ukuthi inombolo yokufakwa ohlwini efakwe kusitatimende sokutholakala kwedatha ye-athikili ayilungile. Leli phutha nemibuzo emayelana nemininingwane eluhlaza yokulandelana kwe-contig okwamanje kuyakhulunywa ngayo njengengxenye yecala langemva kokushicilelwa. ”

Lapho sixhumana Amagciwane e-PLoS ngokukhathazeka kwethu ngoLiu et al. sithole okulandelayo impendulo evela kuMhleli Omkhulu wethimba le-PLoS Publication Ethics:

Ama-imeyili avela kuXiao et al.

Ngo-Okthoba 28, i- Umphathi Omkhulu Wezesayensi Yezinto ze Nature uphendule (ngezansi) ngegama eliyisihluthulelo elithi "sizithatha ngokungathi sína lezi zinkinga futhi sizolubheka kahle udaba oluphakamisa ngezansi." 

Ngo-Okthoba 30, uXiao et al. ekugcineni ikhishwe esidlangalaleni idatha yabo yokulandelana ye-amplicon eluhlaza. Kodwa-ke, njengokushicilelwa kwalesi siqephu, imininingwane yokulandelana kwe-amplicon ethunyelwe nguXiao et al. ishoda ngamafayela wedatha eluhlaza angavumela abanye ukuthi bahlangane futhi baqinisekise ukulandelana kwabo kwe-pangolin coronavirus genome.

Kusele imibuzo ebalulekile edinga ukubhekisiswa: 

  1. Ngabe ama-pangolin coronaviruses angempela? Isihloko esithi Umdwebo 1e kuXiao et al. ithi: “Izinhlayiya ezibangelwa amagciwane zibonakala kuma-vesicles anezingqimba ezimbili esithombeni sokudlulisela i-electron microscopy esithathwe kusiko le-Vero E6 elifakwe umusi ongaphezu kowodwa wezicubu zamaphaphu ezisuselwe ku-pangolin eyodwa, ne-morphology ekhombisa i-coronavirus.” Uma uXiao et al. ihlukanise i-pangolin coronavirus, ngabe bazokwabelana ngesampula elingalodwa legciwane nabaphenyi abangaphandle kweChina? Lokhu kungahamba ibanga elide ekuqinisekiseni ukuthi leli gciwane likhona ngempela futhi livela ezicutshini zepangolin.
  2. Kwasekuqaleni kuka-2020, noma ngisho naku-2019 U-Liu et al., UXiao et al., ULam et al. futhi UZhang et al. uyazi ukuthi bazoshicilela imiphumela ngokususelwa kudathasethi efanayo?
    a. Ngabe kwakukhona ukusebenzisana kubhekwa ukuthi eyodwa yanyatheliswa ngoFebhuwari 18 kwathi ezintathu zanyatheliswa ngoFebhuwari 20?
    b. Kungani uLiu et al. (2019) abenzi ukulandelana kwabo kufundwe idatha yomlando ifinyeleleke esidlangalaleni ngosuku abayifake ku-database ye-NCBI? Kungani balinda kwaze kwaba nguJanuwari 22, 2020 ukwenza le datha yokulandelana kwe-pangolin coronavirus ibe sesidlangalaleni.
    c. Ngaphambi kukaLiu et al. 2019 Amagciwane idatha ikhishwe ku-NCBI ngoJanuwari 22, 2020, ngabe le datha yayifinyeleleka kwabanye abacwaningi baseChina? Uma kunjalo, i-pangolin coronavirus yokulandelela idatha yayigcinwe kubani, ngubani owayekwazi ukufinyelela, futhi idatha yafakwa nini futhi yenziwa ifinyeleleke nini?
  3. Ngabe ababhali bazobambisana yini nophenyo oluzimele ukulandelela umthombo wamasampuli e-pangolin ukubona ukuthi amanye amagciwane afana ne-SARS-CoV-2-like angatholakala yini ngoMashi kuya kuJulayi 2019 amaqoqo ezilwane ezishushumbisiwe — ezingaba ngamasampuli afriziwe noma usaphila eGuangdong Wildlife Rescue Center?
  4. Ngabe ababhali bazobambisana yini nophenyo oluzimele ukubona ukuthi abashushumbisi (ngabe baboshwa yini? Noma bahlawuliswa badedelwa?) Banama-antibodies egciwane lakwaSARS avela ekutholakaleni njalo kula magciwane?

Kungani sicwaninga ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2, amalebhu ezokuvikela kanye nocwaningo lwe-GOF

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bheka IBiohazards Blog ukuthola izibuyekezo kuphenyo lwethu, futhi siyathumela imibhalo evela kuphenyo lwethu lapha. Bhalisela lapha ukuthola izibuyekezo zamasonto onke. 

NgoJulayi 2020, i-US Right to Know yaqala ukuletha izicelo zamarekhodi omphakathi ngenhloso yokuthola imininingwane evela ezikhungweni zomphakathi ngemizamo yokuthola okwaziwayo ngemvelaphi yenoveli coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, edala lesi sifo i-Covid-19. Selokhu kuqale ukubheduka eWuhan, abakwaSARS-CoV-2 babulale abantu abangaphezu kwesigidi, ngenkathi begulisa ezinye izigidi ngobhadane lomhlaba oluqhubeka nokuvela.

Siphenya nezingozi, ukuvuza nokunye ukwenzeka emalabhorethri lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe izifo ezinamandla eziwubhadane, kanye nezingozi zezempilo zomphakathi zocwaningo lwe-gain-of-function (GOF), olubandakanya ucwaningo lokuthuthukisa izici zokusebenza kwamagciwane abulalayo , njengomthamo wegciwane, ukusuleleka kanye nokusabalalisa.

Umphakathi wesayensi womphakathi nowomhlaba wonke unelungelo lokwazi ukuthi iyiphi idatha ekhona ngalezi zindaba. Sizobika lapha noma yikuphi ukutholakala okuwusizo okungavela ocwaningweni lwethu.

I-US Right to Know iqembu lokucwaninga eliphenya ngokugxila ekubonakaleni kwezempilo yomphakathi.

Kungani senza lolu cwaningo?

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi izinsizakusebenza zokuphepha zikazwelonke e-United States, China nakwezinye izindawo, kanye neyunivesithi, izimboni kanye nezinhlangano zikahulumeni abasebenzisana nazo, kungenzeka zinganikeli isithombe esiphelele nesithembekile ngemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2 nobungozi yocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi.

Ngocwaningo lwethu, sifuna ukuphendula imibuzo emithathu:

  • Yini eyaziwayo ngemvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2?
  • Ngabe zikhona izingozi noma iziphithiphithi ezenzekile ezikhungweni zokucwaninga nge-biosafety noma ze-GOF ezingakabikwa?
  • Ngabe kukhona ukukhathazeka mayelana nezingozi zokuphepha eziqhubekayo zamalabhorethri okuphepha noma ucwaningo lwe-GOF olungakabikwa?

Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2?

Ngasekupheleni kukaDisemba 2019, edolobheni laseWuhan, eChina, kwavela izindaba zesifo esibulalayo esithathelwanayo esibizwa nge-COVID-19, esidalwe yiSARS-CoV-2, i-coronavirus yenoveli eyayingaziwa ukuthi ibikhona phambilini. Imvelaphi yeSARS-CoV-2 ayaziwa. Kunemicabango emibili eyinhloko.

Abaphenyi kumanethiwekhi ochwepheshe ahlobene ne Isikhungo se-Wuhan se-Virology (WIV) futhi Umanyano we-EcoHealth, i-US non-profitthat ine kutholwe izigidi zamadola kwizibonelelo ezikhokhelwa ngabakhokhi bentela kuya sebenzisana no I-WIV ocwaningweni lwe-coronavirus, babe ezibhaliwe ukuthi igciwane lenoveli kungenzeka ukuthi yavela ngokukhethwa kwemvelo ezindaweni zezilwane, nge inqolobane yayo kumalulwane. Lokhu "Zoonotic" umsuka i-hypothesis yaphinde yaqiniswa ngu izimangalo ukuthi ukuqubuka okusha kwe-coronavirus kuqale kufayela le- “Izilwane zasendle” emakethe eWuhan, the Imakethe yokudla kwasolwandle yaseHuanan, lapho kungenzeka khona ukuthi kuthengiswe izilwane ezingase zitheleleke. (Noma kunjalo, okungenani ingxenye eyodwa kwezintathu yeqoqo lokuqala leziguli ezinegciwane, kufaka phakathi icala lokuqala elaziwa kakhulu lokutheleleka kusuka ngoDisemba 1, 2019, lalingaxhumananga ngqo noma ngokungaqondile nababekhona emakethe yezilwane zasolwandle yabantu nezilwane.)

I-zoonosis hypothesis njengamanje iyi-hypothesis yemvelaphi ekhona. Kodwa-ke, imvelaphi ye-zoonotic ye-SARS-CoV-2 inayo kepha isazomiswa ngokuqinisekile, futhi abanye abacwaningi baveze ukuthi kusekelwe eziphikisanayo kokuma ukuthi zidinga ukuqhubeka kophenyo.

Ngokuqhubeka nokufunda ngalezi zihloko, bheka uhlu lwethu lokufunda: Uyini umsuka weSARS-CoV-2? Ziyini izingcuphe zokucwaninga ngomsebenzi?

Abanye ososayensi baye basikisela umbono ohlukile wemvelaphi; bacabanga ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingumphumela we ngengozi ukukhishwa kohlobo lwasendle noma i-lab-modified uhlobo lokuhlobene eduze Igciwane elifana ne-SARS ebigcinwe ezikhungweni zokuvikela ukuphepha ezenza ucwaningo lwe-coronavirus eWuhan, njenge-WIV noma iZikhungo ze-Wuhan zokuLawulwa nokuVinjelwa kwezifo.

Okubaluleke kakhulu, isimo esivela kumalabha asisho ukuthi asiyifaki i-zoonosis hypothesis ngoba i-SARS-CoV-2 ingaba umphumela wokulungiswa kwelebhu okwenziwe ngezinhlobo ezingabikwanga ze-bat coronaviruses ezingabiki ze-SARS igcinwe ku-WIV, noma ukuqoqwa nje kanye nokugcinwa kwama-coronaviruses anjalo. Abagxeki ye-lab-origin hypotheses iyichithile le mibono njenge ukuqagela okungenabufakazi futhi izinkolelo zendlovu.

Kuze kube manje, kukhona hhayi kwanele ubufakazi ukwenqaba ngokuphelele imvelaphi ye-zoonotic noma i-lab-Origin hypotheses. Siyazi, ngokususelwa kuzindatshana zocwaningo ezishicilelwe futhi Izibonelelo zikahulumeni wase-US ku-EcoHealth Alliance yokuxhasa ucwaningo lwe-WIV coronavirus, leyo WIV igcinwe amakhulukhulu wama-coronaviruses angaba yingozi akwa-SARS, futhi enziwe Ukuhlolwa kwe-GOF kuma-coronaviruses ngokubambisana namanyuvesi ase-US, futhi kwakukhona ukukhathazeka ngokuphepha nge I-WIV's BSL-4 laboratory.

Kepha kuze kube manje, akukabi khona ukucwaningwa okuzimele kwamarekhodi kanye nemininingwane yolwazi lweWIV, futhi kunolwazi oluncane mayelana nokusebenza kwangaphakathi kweWIV. I-WIV isusile kwimininingwane yayo yewebhusayithi njenge ukuvakashelwa konozakuzaku besayensi baseMelika ngonyaka wezi-2018, Futhi ivale ukufinyelela kwi-database yayo yamagciwane futhi amarekhodi elabhorethri izivivinyo ze-coronavirus ezenziwa ososayensi be-WIV.

Ukuqonda umsuka weSARS-CoV-2 kunemithelela ebalulekile yenqubomgomo yezinhlelo zomphakathi zezempilo nezokudla. Imvelaphi engaba khona ye-zoonotic yakwaSARS-CoV-2 iyaphakama imibuzo mayelana nezinqubomgomo ezithuthukisa ukunwetshwa kokusebenza kwezolimo ezimbonini kanye nemfuyo, okungaba yizimbangela ezinkulu ze ukuvela kwamagciwane enoveli kanye ne-pathogenic kakhulu, ukugawulwa kwamahlathi, ukulahleka kwezinhlobonhlobo zemvelo kanye nokuhlaselwa kwemvelo. I- kungenzeka ukuthi i-SARS-CoV-2 ingahle ivele kulabhorethri ye-biodefense imibuzo mayelana ukuthi kufanele yini unalezi zinsiza, lapho kugcinwa khona futhi kuguqulwe okwenziwe ngama-microbial pathogen akhiqizwa endle.

Noma ngabe i-SARS-CoV-2 iguqulwe ilebhu noma cha, uphenyo lwelab-origin-theorists luphakamisa imibuzo ebalulekile mayelana nokushoda obala maqondana nocwaningo ngamagciwane abangelwa ubhubhane, kanye nezinto ezibalulekile kanye nabadlali abakha izindawo zokuvikela ukuphepha ezanda kakhulu lapho amagciwane ayingozi ekhona igcinwe futhi yaguqulwa ukuze ibenze babulale kakhulu.

Ingabe ucwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi lufanele ingozi?

Kukhona okuphawulekayo ubufakazi ukuthi amalabhorethri okuphepha okuvikela ukuphepha kokuphila abe nokuningi izingozi, ukwephulwa, Futhi ukwehluleka kokuqukethwe, nokuthi izinzuzo ezingaba khona zocwaningo lokuthola umsebenzi may akufanelekile the izingozi kokubangela izifo ezingaba khona.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka lushintsha futhi luhlole amagciwane ayingozi njenge-Ebola, igciwane lesifo somkhuhlane i-H1N1, kanye nama-coronaviruses ahlobene no-SARS ngaphansi kwerubrikhi yokwenziwa kwezinyathelo zokulwa nezokwelapha (njengemithi yokugoma). Ngenxa yalokho, inesithakazelo hhayi kuphela ku- umkhakha we-biotechnology kanye nowokwenza imithi kepha futhi ukuze umkhakha we-biodefense, ephathelene nokusetshenziswa okungenzeka kocwaningo lwe-GOF ngezenzo ze-biowarfare.

Ucwaningo lwe-GOF ngamagciwane abulalayo yi- Staff umphakathi impilo. Imibiko kokuvuza ngengozi nokwephulwa kokungavikeleki ezindaweni zokucwaninga ze-GOF akuvamile. Ngemuva kokuthi iqembu elivelele lama-virologists lishicilele okuphuthumayo isitatimende sokuvumelana ngoJulayi 14, 2014 ecela ukuthi kumiswe ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka, uhulumeni wase-US ngaphansi kokuphatha kukaMongameli uBarack Obama wabeka umthetho  "Ikhefu lezezimali" ekuhlolweni kwe-GOF okubandakanya amagciwane ayingozi, kufaka phakathi ama-coronaviruses namagciwane omkhuhlane.

Ukuphumula kwemali kahulumeni ocwaningweni lokukhathazeka nge-GOF kwasuswa ngo-2017 ngemuva kwesikhathi lapho uhulumeni wase-US enza khona uchungechunge lwezingxoxo ukuhlola i- izinzuzo nezingozi kuhlotshaniswa nezifundo ezibandakanya ucwaningo lwe-GOF lokukhathazeka.

Ifuna ukwenza izinto obala

Sikhathazekile ngokuthi imininingwane ebaluleke kakhulu kunqubomgomo yezempilo yomphakathi mayelana nemvelaphi ye-SARS-CoV-2, kanye nezingozi zamalabhorethri okuphepha kanye nocwaningo lomsebenzi, kungafihlwa kumanethiwekhi e-biodefense wezinsiza zokuphepha zikazwelonke ze-United Amazwe, iChina, nakwezinye izindawo.

Sizozama ukukhanyisa ngalezi zindaba ngokusebenzisa izicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi. Mhlawumbe sizophumelela. Singahluleka kalula. Sizobika noma yini ewusizo esingayithola.

USainath Suryanarayanan, PhD, ungusosayensi wabasebenzi e-US Right to Know futhi ungumbhali ngokubambisana wale ncwadi, “Izinyosi Ezinyamalalayo: Isayensi, Ezombusazwe kanye ne-Honeybee Health”(Rutgers University Press, 2017).