Izimpendulo zeGMO ngumkhankaso wokumaketha nowokuxhumana nomphakathi wezinkampani ezibulala izinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Izibuyekezo:

kuphendula u-ketchum gmo

Izimpendulo ze-GMO ikhokhiswa njengesithangami lapho abathengi bangathola khona izimpendulo eziqondile kochwepheshe abazimele ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kanti ezinye izintatheli zikuthatha ngokungathi sína njengomthombo ongachemile. Kepha iwebhusayithi iyithuluzi lokumaketha lezimboni eliqonde ngqo ukuhambisa ama-GMO ngendlela efanele.

Ubufakazi bokuthi Izimpendulo ze-GMO iyithuluzi lepropaganda elilawula ukubhekana nezinkinga elingenakwethenjelwa.

Izimpendulo zeGMO zenziwa njengemoto yokuhambisa umbono womphakathi ngokuthanda ama-GMO. Ngokushesha ngemuva kokuba iMonsanto kanye nabalingani bayo behlule isinyathelo sokuvota sika-2012 sokuqamba ama-GMO eCalifornia, eMonsanto umemezele izinhlelo ukwethula umkhankaso omusha wobudlelwano nomphakathi wokwakha kabusha idumela lama-GMO. Baqashe inkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi iFleishmanHillard (ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) ukuthola i umkhankaso wabayisikhombisa.

Njengengxenye yomzamo, inkampani ye-PR iKetchum (nayo ephethwe ngu-Omnicom) yaqashwa yi-Council for Biotechnology Information - ixhaswe iMonsanto, BASF, Bayer, Dow, Dupont neSyngenta - ukudala i-GMOAnswers.com. Isayithi lithembise uku susa ukudideka futhi ususe ukungathembani mayelana nama-GMO asebenzisa amazwi angahleliwe okuthiwa “ochwepheshe abazimele.”

Kepha bazimele kangakanani labo ngoti?

Iwebhusayithi igawula amaphuzu okuxoxa aqanjwe ngokucophelela axoxa indaba enhle ngama-GMO ngenkathi edlala phansi noma engazinaki izingozi zezempilo nezemvelo. Isibonelo, lapho ubuzwa ukuthi ngabe ama-GMO aqhuba ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane, leli sayithi linikeza u-convoluted no, ngaphandle kwemininingwane ebuyekezwe ngontanga ekhombisa ukuthi, yebo, empeleni, kunjalo.

Izitshalo ze- "Roundup Ready" ze-GMO zikhulise ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate, a mhlawumbe umdlavuza womuntu, by amakhulu ezigidi zamaphawundi. Uhlelo olusha lwe-GMO / pesticide olubandakanya i-dicamba seluholele ekubhujisweni kwe izitshalo zesoya phesheya kwe-US, kanye ne-FDA ibamba iqhaza kulo nyaka ukusetshenziswa kathathu ka-2,4-D, i-herbicide endala enobuthi, ngenxa yezitshalo ezintsha ze-GMO ezenzelwe ukumelana nayo. Konke lokhu akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo, ngokusho kwe-GMO Answers.

Imibuzo ephathelene nokuphepha iphendulwa ngezitatimende ezingamanga ezifana nokuthi "zonke izinhlangano zezempilo ezihola phambili emhlabeni zisekela ukuphepha kwama-GMO." Asitholanga kukhulunywa ngesitatimende esisayinwe ososayensi, odokotela kanye nezifundiswa ezingama-300 abathi kukhona “akukho ukuvumelana kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwe-GMO,”Futhi asizitholanga izimpendulo zemibuzo esiyithumele ngalesi sitatimende.

Izibonelo zivele lokho I-Ketchum PR ibhale ezinye izimpendulo ze-GMO lawo asayinwa “ochwepheshe abazimele.”

Uhlu olufushane lomklomelo we-PR wokulawulwa kwezinkinga

Njengobunye ubufakazi isiza siyimoto ye-spin: Ngo-2014, Izimpendulo ze-GMO kwaba njalo kufakwe ohlwini lomklomelo wokukhangisa we-CLIO esigabeni se- "Public Relations: Crisis Management & Issue Management."

Futhi inkampani ye-PR edale izimpendulo ze-GMO yazishaya isifuba ngethonya layo kwizintatheli. Ku-video efakwe kwi-website ye-CLIO, uKetchum uzishaye isifuba ngokuthi i-GMO Answers “icishe yakuphinda kabili ukusakazwa kwabezindaba ngama-GMO.” Le vidiyo isuswe ngemuva kokuthi i-US Right to Know iyinakile, kepha thina uyigcine lapha.

Kungani izintatheli zingayethemba imoto yokumaketha eyakhiwe nguKetchum njengomthombo othembekile kunzima ukuyiqonda. Ketchum, okwaze kwaba yi-2016 PR ngokuqinile eRussia, kufakiwe ku imizamo yobunhloli ngokumelene nokungenzi inzuzo ukhathazekile ngama-GMO. Awusiwona umlando ozibandakanya ekuqedeni ukungathembani.

Njengoba kunikezwe ukuthi Izimpendulo ze-GMO iyithuluzi lokumaketha elenziwe futhi lixhaswe yizinkampani ezidayisa ama-GMO, sicabanga ukuthi kungumdlalo ofanele ukubuza ukuthi: Ngabe “ochwepheshe abazimele” ababoleka ukwethembeka kuwebhusayithi - abaningi babo abasebenzela amanyuvesi kahulumeni futhi abakhokhelwa ngabakhokhi bentela - ozimele ngokweqiniso futhi osebenzela umphakathi? Noma basebenza ngokubambisana nezinkampani kanye namafemu obudlelwano bomphakathi ukusiza ukuthengisa umphakathi indaba ye-spin?

Ekufuneni lezi zimpendulo, i-US Right to Know ifake izicelo ze-Freedom of Information Act Ukufuna ukuxhumana kosolwazi abaxhaswa ngemali ababhalela iGMOAnswers.com noma basebenze kweminye imizamo yokukhuthaza i-GMO. Ama-FOIA yizicelo ezincanyana ezingafaki imininingwane yomuntu siqu noma yezifundo, kepha kunalokho funa ukuqonda ukuxhumana okukhona phakathi kosolwazi, izinkampani zezolimo ezithengisa ama-GMO, izinhlangano zazo zezohwebo kanye nama-PR kanye namafemu okusiza aqashelwe ukukhuthaza ama-GMO kanye nokulwa nokufakwa amalebula ngakho-ke sigcinwa ebumnyameni ngalokho esikudlayo.

Landela imiphumela ye- Uphenyo lwase-US Right to Know lapha.

Bona wethu I-Pesticide Industry Propaganda Tracker ukuthola eminye imininingwane mayelana nabadlali ababalulekile emikhakheni yamakhemikhali emizamweni yokuxhumana nomphakathi.

Ungasiza ukwandisa uphenyo lweLungelo Lokwazi ngo wenza umnikelo ongadonswa ngentela namuhla

Abalawuli baseMelika bathembele iminyaka emininingwaneni yezibulala-zinambuzane enamaphutha enikezwe yiDow Chemical

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Sekuyiminyaka, abalawuli baseMelika bethembele kwimininingwane engeyona ehlinzekwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos amakhemikhali emakhaya aseMelika, ngokusho ukuhlaziywa okusha kusuka kubacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Ukuhlaziywa kuphinda kuhlolisise ukusebenza okuvela kuma-1970 axhaswe yi-Dow futhi athunyelwa kwi-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuqondisa i-ejensi ekusunguleni lokho ososayensi abakubiza ngokuthi yi "no-seen-adverse-effect-level" noma i-NOAEL. Leyo mibundu isetshenziselwa ukuthola ukuthi iziphi izinhlobo zokusetshenziswa nokuthi ukuvezwa ngamakhemikhali kungavunyelwa futhi kubhekwe kanjani “njengokuphephile”.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okusha, okushicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi 3 kumagazini I-Environmental International, ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ngumcwaningi uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo abavela e-Albany Medical College ekuqaleni kwawo-1970 kweDow.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baphinde bahlola ukuthi umsebenzi wangaphambilini nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske woMnyango Wezemvelo Nezemisebenzi Yezesayensi Yezempilo, Isikole Sezempilo Yomphakathi e-University of Washington.

Ngenkathi isifundo sibhalwa yiqembu laseCoulston, ukuhlaziywa kwaqedwa yisazi sezibalo seDow futhi kwaphetha ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli le-NOAEL lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha okwenziwe ngabaphenyi beYunivesithi yaseWashington kutholile ukuthi kweqise ngokweqile umkhawulo wezokuphepha. Ukube imininingwane ihlaziywe kahle i-NOAEL engezansi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ibizotholakala, kusho bona.

Ucwaningo lwaseCoulston aluzange lubuyekezwe ontanga kepha lusasetshenziswa yi-EPA ekuhloleni ubungozi phakathi nawo wonke ama-1980's kanye nawo-1990, kubike abacwaningi be-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa ezindaweni eziningi okwathi kamuva kwahoxiswa ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ”

Kusetshenziswe Kahle

Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo egameni lomkhiqizo iLorsban, ama-insepideides e-chlorpyrifos afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Imakethe yezolimo enkulu kunazo zonke yama-chlorpyrifos ummbila kepha isibulala-zinambuzane sisetshenziswa futhi ngabalimi abatshala ubhontshisi, izihlahla zezithelo namantongomane, amahlumela eBrussels, ama-cranberries, no-cauliflower, kanye nezinye izitshalo ezilandelanayo. Izinsalela zamakhemikhali zivame ukutholakala ekudleni. Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ephakanyiswe yi-Dow, ucwaningo oluzimele lwesayensi luye lwabonisa ubufakazi obandayo bezingozi ze-chlorpyrifos, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezincane. Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kwentuthuko yezimoto.

I-American Academy for Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane nodokotela abahlinzayo abangaphezu kwama-66,000, isixwayise ngokuthi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kwaleli khemikhali kubeka engozini enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane kanye nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority isho ukuthi ikhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile.

I-EPA yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow ngo-2000 sokuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwaleli khemikhali ngenxa yocwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Ngo-2012, ama-chlorpyrifos ayevinjelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience, okuyinhlangano eyalandela ukuhlangana kweDow neDuPont, kusho yona izophela ukukhiqizwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Leli khemikhali, noma kunjalo, lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Izifundo ezingabantu

Ucwaningo oluyisihloko sephepha elisha labaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseWashington lwenganyelwa ngo-1971 yi-Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology ye-Albany Medical College. Ucwaningo lubandakanya iziboshwa zesilisa esezikhulile ezinempilo eziphakeme ezivela echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, ejele elinokuphepha okuphezulu eDannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ahlelwa ngamaqembu amane okuhlola, kufaka phakathi iqembu elilodwa lokulawula, amalungu alo athola i-placebo yansuku zonke. Amalungu amanye amaqembu amathathu athola ukwelashwa nsuku zonke ngama-chlorpyrifos ngemithamo emithathu ehlukene. Ucwaningo lwenzeke ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezingama-63.

Ukuhlaziywa okusha kuthole izinkinga eziningana ngocwaningo, kufaka phakathi ukushiywa kwezilinganiso eziyisisekelo eziyisishiyagalombili ezivumelekile zeqembu elilodwa lezokwelapha.

"Ukushiywa okunjalo kwemininingwane evumelekile ngaphandle kwesizathu kuyindlela yokwenziwa kwedatha okwephula wonke amakhodi ajwayelekile womkhuba wokucwaninga ngokuziphatha futhi okuchazwa njengokuziphatha okungahambi kahle kocwaningo," kuphetha abacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi bathi ama-chlorpyrifos "adlula enkambisweni yokulawula ngaphandle kwempikiswano enkulu," noma ngabe kukhona "ubufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi bungaba yingozi yezempilo ezindaweni zokuhlala."

"UCoulston Study udukise abalawuli ngokushiya imininingwane evumelekile," futhi "kungenzeka kube nomthelela omubi empilweni yomphakathi" iminyaka eminingana, kuphetha iphepha le-University of Washington.

Amaphepha eDicamba: Imibhalo Eyisihluthulelo Nokuhlaziywa

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Inqwaba yabalimi ezungeze i-United States imangalela iMonsanto Co yangaphambili, eyathengwa ngo-2018 yiBayer AG, kanye ne-congresserate BASF ngomzamo wokwenza izinkampani ziphendule ngezigidi zamahektare omonakalo wezitshalo abalimi abathi zibangelwa ukusetshenziswa okungekho emthethweni okusetshenzisiwe i ukhula lubulala i-dicamba yamakhemikhali, ukusetshenziswa okukhuthazwa yizinkampani.

Icala lokuqala ukuthethwa kwecala laxabanisa izinkampani zaseMissouri eziphathelene nezinkampani kwaholela ekutheni kukhishwe isinqumo esiyizigidi ezingama- $ 265 ezinkampanini. I- amajaji aklonyelisiwe $ 15 million kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye nezigidi ezingama- $ 250 kumonakalo wokujezisa.

Icala lifakwe enkantolo ye- Inkantolo Yesifunda Sase-US Yesifunda SaseMpumalanga yeMissouri, Southeastern Division, Idokodo Lombuso # 1: 16-cv-00299-SNLJ. Abanikazi beBader Farms basola ukuthi izinkampani zakha uzungu lokudala "inhlekelele yezemvelo" ezokwengeza abalimi ukuthi bathenge imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba. Imibhalo esemqoka evela kulelo cala ingatholakala ngezansi.

Ihhovisi le-EPA loMhloli Jikelele (i-OIG) uhlela ukuphenya ukugunyazwa kwe-ejensi yemithi emisha yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ukuthola ukuthi ngabe i-EPA iyayilandela yini imigomo yenhlangano kanye "nezimiso ezizwakalayo ngokwesayensi" ngenkathi ibhalisa ama-dicamba herbicides amasha.

Isenzo Sombuso

Ngokwehlukana, ngoJuni 3, 2020. INkantolo Yokudluliswa Kwamacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye yathi i-Environmental Protection Agency yephule umthetho ngokuvumela ukubulawa kwe-dicamba okwenziwe yiBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences kanye kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi wemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe yizigebenga ezintathu zamakhemikhali. Lesi sinqumo sikwenze kwaba semthethweni ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa lo mkhiqizo.

Kodwa i-EPA yasishaya indiva isinqumo senkantolo, yakhipha isaziso ngoJuni 8 kusho lokho Abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula yezinkampani kuze kube nguJulayi 31, yize inkantolo isho ngokukhethekile ngokulandelana kwayo ukuthi ibingafuni ukubambezeleka ekuphumeni lokho kugunyazwa. Inkantolo ibalule umonakalo owenziwe ukusetshenziswa kwe-dicamba ehlobo elidlule ezigidini zamahektare ezitshalo, izivande neziza zemifino ezweni lonke lase-US.

Ngo-June 11, i-2020, abakhongi ecaleni wafaka isimangalo esiphuthumayo ukufuna ukuphoqelela umyalelo wenkantolo nokubamba i-EPA ngendelelo. Izinhlangano eziningi zamapulazi zijoyine iCorteva, iBayer neBASF ekuceleni inkantolo ukuthi ingaphoqeleli ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa. Imibhalo itholakala ngezansi.

Background

I-Dicamba ibisetshenziswa ngabalimi kusukela ngeminyaka yama-1960 kodwa ngemikhawulo ebicubungule ukuthambekela kwamakhemikhali ukukhukhumala nokuthambeka- kusuka kude lapho kufuthwe khona. Ngenkathi imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula yaseMonsanto ethandwayo, efana neRoundup, iqala ukuphelelwa ngamandla ngenxa yokuphikiswa kokhula okusakazekile, uMonsanto wanquma ukwethula uhlelo lokutshala i-dicamba olufana nohlelo lwalo oludumile lweRoundup Ready, olwalubhanqa imbewu ebekezelela i-glyphosate ne-glyphosate herbicides. Abalimi abathenga imbewu entsha ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo i-dicamba bangaphatha kalula ukhula olunenkani ngokufafaza amasimu wonke nge-dicamba, noma ngabe izinyanga zikhula ngokufudumele, ngaphandle kokulimaza izitshalo zabo. IMonsanto umemezele ukusebenzisana ne-BASF ngo-2011. Lezi zinkampani zithe imishanguzo yabo emisha ye-dicamba izobe incipha kakhulu futhi ingathambeki kangako kunezindlela ezindala ze-dicamba.

I-Environmental Protection Agency yavuma ukusetshenziswa kwe-Monsanto's dicamba herbicide “XtendiMax” ngo-2016. I-BASF yathuthukisa eyayo i-dicamba herbicide eyibiza nge-Engenia. Kokubili i-XtendiMax ne-Engenia zathengiswa okokuqala e-United States ngo-2017.

IMonsanto iqale ukuthengisa imbewu yayo ebekezelela i-dicamba ngonyaka we-2016, futhi isimangalo esibalulekile sabamangali ukuthi ukuthengisa imbewu ngaphambi kokuvunyelwa kokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala ukhula entsha ye-dicamba kukhuthaze abalimi ukuthi bafafaze amasimu ngezinhlobo ezindala ze-dicamba. Icala leBader lithi: “Imbangela yokucekelwa phansi kwezitshalo zikaMmangali Bader Farms ukukhishwa kwamabomu kommangalelwa uMonsanto ngamabomu nangobudedengu kohlelo lwesitshalo olungasebenzi kahle - okuyi-soya yalo eguqulwe ngokwezakhi zofuzo i-Roundup Ready 2 Xtend kanye nembewu kakotini iBollgard II Xtend (“ izilimo ze-Xtend ” ) - ngaphandle kwesihlanganisi esivunyelwe i-EPA esivunyelwe i-dicamba herbicide. ”

Abalimi bathi izinkampani ziyazi futhi zilindele ukuthi imbewu entsha izokhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kabanzi kwe-dicamba kangangokuba ukukhukhuleka kuzolimaza amasimu abalimi abangayithenganga imbewu ekwazi ukubekezelela i-dicamba. Abalimi basola ukuthi lokhu bekuyingxenye yohlelo lokwandisa ukuthengiswa kwembewu ebekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba. Abaningi basola ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba okuthengiswa yizinkampani nakho kuyakhukhula futhi kudale ukulimala kwezitshalo njengoba nje izinhlobo ezindala zenzile.

Ngeminye imininingwane mayelana ne-dicamba, sicela ubone eyethu ishidi lamaqiniso le-dicamba.

Amaqembu ama-Big Ag athi inkantolo ayikwazi ukutshela i-EPA ukuthi kufanele ivimbele nini i-dicamba

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Abahlukumezi abasindayo kunabo bonke batshele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi akufanele izame ukuvimba abalimi bakakotini nabasoya beGMO ekusebenziseni ababulali bokhula be-dicamba ngokungekho emthethweni ekupheleni kukaJulayi, yize inkantolo yakhipha umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ngokushesha.

Izinhlangano eziyisithupha zezentengiselwano zikazwelonke, zonke ezinokuxhumana okudala kwezezimali eMonsanto nakwezinye izinkampani ezithengisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba okukhulunywa ngayo, zifake isikhalazo ngoLwesithathu eNkantolo Yezokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika ngeSekethe Lesishiyagalolunye linxusa inkantolo ukuthi ingazami ukugxambukela. ngesimemezelo se-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sokuthi abalimi bangaqhubeka nokusebenzisa imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ngoJulayi 31.

Bacele nenkantolo ukuthi ingayibukeli phansi i-EPA njengoba kuceliwe ngamaqembu awine i- Juni 3 umyalelo wenkantolo ekhipha ukuvinjelwa.

"Abalimi baseMelika bakabhontshisi nabokotini bangaba sengozini enkulu yezezimali uma bevinjelwa ukusebenzisa i-Dicamba Products kule nkathi yokukhula," kusho umbiko omfushane owenziwe yi-American Farm Bureau Federation, i-American Soybean Association, iNational Cotton Council of America, iNational Association of Wheat Growers, National I-Corn Growers Association, nabakhiqizi be-National Sorghum.

Ngokwehlukana, iCropLife America, i-lobbyist enethonya embonini yezolimo, wafaka isikhashana  ithi ifuna ukunikeza "Ulwazi Olusizo eNkantolo." AbakwaCropLife basho lokhu kufayela ukuthi inkantolo ayinalo igunya lokuthi i-EPA iqhubeka kanjani nokusula ukusetshenziswa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala izinambuzane njengababulali bokhula i-dicamba.

Le minyakazo ingeyakamuva ezimweni eziningi ezalandela isinqumo seSekethe Yesishiyagalolunye, esathola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto - ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye nemikhiqizo edayiswa yiBASF, kanye IDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye walezi zinkampani, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bayo leyo mikhiqizo kubalimi abatshala izilimo ngaphandle kokotini nobhontshisi obenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-EPA ibonakale iliphika i-oda, kepha, lapho utshele abalimi bakakotini nabasoya bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngoJulayi 31.

ICentre for Food Safety (CFS) namanye amaqembu abekade beyise i-EPA enkantolo ngalolu daba babuyele enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, bafuna ukuthi i-9 Circuit bamba i-EPA ngokwedelela. Inkantolo manje isicubungula leso siphakamiso.

"I-EPA nezinkampani ezibulala izibulala-zinambuzane zizamile ukudida lolu daba nokuzama ukwesabisa iNkantolo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell, umqondisi wezomthetho we-CFS nommeli walaba bafaka izicelo. "INkantolo ibambe ukuthi lo mkhiqizo usebenzisa okungekho emthethweni kanti ubuqili be-EPA abunakukushintsha lokho."

Umyalo wokuvinjelwa kwemikhiqizo yenkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lasepulazini ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya kanye nokotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi ze-dicamba ezakhiwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe izinkampani ezintathu. Izitshalo zibekezelela i-dicamba ngenkathi ukhula lufa.

Amaqembu okwamukela izivakashi epulazini athi ngamafuphi awo ukuthi ama-acre angama-64 million atshalwe nembewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini. Bathe uma labo balimi bengakwazi ukufafaza amasimu abo ngemikhiqizo ye-dicamba bazoba “ngokuvikeleka kakhulu kukhula olumelana neminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, okubanga
imiphumela ebalulekile yezimali evela ekulahlekelweni komkhiqizo. ”

Ngenkathi iMonsanto, iBASF neDuPont / Corteva bekhipha imishanguzo yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule bathi le mikhiqizo ngeke ivuthukele futhi ingene emikhakheni engomakhelwane njengoba izinhlobo zakudala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwakwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift.

Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi ezitshalo ezingakhiqizwanga izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba kwabikwa ukuthi zalimala ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, kusho inkantolo yombuso kulesi sinqumo.

"Inhloso ye-EPA ukuvikela impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo…" kusho umongameli webhodi leNational Family Farm Coalition uJim Goodman. "Ukwedelela kwabo lo msebenzi bekungeke kuvezwe ngokucacile kunokunganaki kwabo okusobala isinqumo seNkantolo Yesishiyagalolunye Yesekethe Yokwedlulisa Amacala sokumisa izicelo eziphezulu kakhulu zedicamba ngokushesha ukuvimbela izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo zabalimi ukuba zingabhujiswa."

NgoFebhuwari, a Ijaji laseMissouri liyalile IBayer neBASF bakhokhele umlimi wamapentshisi amadola ayizigidi eziyi-15 kumonakalo wokunxephezela kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-250 kumonakalo wokujezisa ngomonakalo we-dicamba ezingadini zomlimi. Ijaji liphethe ngokuthi iMonsanto neBASF bakha uzungu ezenzweni ababazi ukuthi zizoholela ekulimaleni kwezitshalo okubanzi ngoba babelindele ukuthi kuzonyusa inzuzo yabo

Izidlakela zamakhemikhali ezethukile zifuna indlela enkantolo lapho kuvinjelwa ababulali babo bokhula

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Bephawula “isimo esiphuthumayo,” imidondoshiya yamakhemikhali i-BASF ne-DuPont bacele inkantolo yombuso ukuthi ibavumele bangenelele ecaleni lapho inkantolo ekuqaleni kwenyanga yayalela ukuthi imithi yabo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ivinjelwe ngokushesha kanye nomkhiqizo we-dicamba owenziwe ngumnikazi weMonsanto uBayer AG .

Isenzo sezinkampani zamakhemikhali silandela a Isinqumo sangoJuni 3 yiNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-US Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye eyathi i-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) yephule umthetho ngesikhathi ivuma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba eyenziwe nguMonsanto / Bayer, BASF neDuPont, ephethwe yiCorteva Inc.

Inkantolo ikhiphe umyalelo wokuthi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa komkhiqizo ngamunye wenkampani i-dicamba, ithole ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

I-EPA weqe lowo myalo, kodwa-ke, ukutshela abalimi ukuthi bangaqhubeka nokufafaza ukubulala ukhula okukhulunywa ngako ngasekupheleni kukaJulayi.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu amapulazi nabathengi abafake icala okokuqala bephikisana ne-EPA babuyela enkantolo ngesonto eledlule, ukucela umyalelo ophuthumayo ephethe i-EPA ngokudelela. Inkantolo yanikeza i-EPA kuze kuphele usuku ngoLwesibili, ngoJuni 16, ukuba iphendule.

Isiphithiphithi Ezweni Lepulazi

Umyalelo ovimbela imikhiqizo yezinkampani i-dicamba ubangele isiyaluyalu ezweni lepulazi ngoba abalimi abaningi besoya nabakotini batshale izigidi zamahektare ezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba ezenziwe nguMonsanto ngenhloso yokwelapha ukhula kulezo zinsimu ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba eyenziwe yilaba abathathu izinkampani.

“Uhlelo lwezitshalo lwe-dicamba” luhlinzekela abalimi ukuthi batshale amasimu abo ngezitshalo ezibekezelela i-dicamba, abangazifafaza “ngaphezulu-phezulu” ngombulali wokhula we-dicamba. Uhlelo luye lwacebisa izinkampani ezidayisa imbewu namakhemikhali futhi lusize abalimi abatshala ukotini okhethekile obekezelela i-dicamba noshuya ukubhekana nokhula olunenkani olumelana nemikhiqizo esekwe ku-glyphosate-based Roundup.

Kepha kwinani elikhulu labalimi abangazitshali izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo, ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-dicamba herbicides kusho ukulimala nokulahleka kwezitshalo ngoba i-dicamba ithambekele ekukhuphukeni nasekukhukhulekeni amabanga amade lapho ingabulala khona izitshalo, izihlahla nezihlahlana hhayi ukuguqulwa kofuzo ukumelana nekhemikhali.

Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazelwe zingamanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zokulimala kwe-dicamba drift. Ngaphezu kwamahektare ayisigidi okonakele kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka owedlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yombuso yaphawula kulesi sinqumo sayo.

Abalimi abaningi baqale bagubha isinqumo senkantolo futhi bakhululeka ukuthi amapulazi abo kanye nezithelo zabo zezithelo zizosinda kuleli hlobo kumonakalo we-dicamba ababhekane nawo ehlobo langaphambilini. Kepha ukukhululeka kube okwesikhashana lapho i-EPA ithi ngeke iphoqe ngokushesha ukuvinjelwa okunqunywe yinkantolo.

Ekugcwaliseni okwenziwe ngoLwesihlanu, IBASF incenge inkantolo hhayi ukuphoqelela ukuvinjelwa ngokushesha futhi watshela inkantolo ukuthi kuzodingeka ivalwe indawo yokukhiqiza eBeaumont, eTexas, okwamanje "esebenza amahora angama-24 ngosuku cishe ngokuqhubekayo unyaka wonke" uma ingakwazi ukukhiqiza uhlobo lwayo lwe-dicamba herbicide olubiziwe Engenia. I-BASF isebenzise u- $ 370 million eminyakeni eyedlule ithuthukisa lesi sitshalo futhi iqashe abantu abayi-170 lapho, kusho inkampani.

Iqaphela "ukutshalwa kwezimali okukhulu" kumkhiqizo wayo, i-BASF iphinde yatshela inkantolo ukuthi kunokwanele komkhiqizo wayo njengamanje kuso sonke "isiteshi samakhasimende" sayo ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-26.7 kasoya nobotini. I-BASF inomkhiqizo owengeziwe obiza u- $ 44 million we-Engenia dicamba onawo, owanele ukwelapha amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-6.6 kabhontshisi nokotini, kusho inkampani.

UDuPont / Corteva wenze impikiswano efanayo, etshela inkantolo ekufayilini kwayo ukuthi ukuvinjelwa "kulimaza ngqo" inkampani "kanye nabalimi abaningi ezweni lonke abaphakathi nenkathi yokukhula." Kuzolimaza “isithunzi” senkampani uma kuvalwa umuthi wayo wokubulala ukhula, inkampani itshele inkantolo.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, iDuPont / Corteva ilindele ukudala "imali engenayo" ngokuthengisa umuthi wayo we-dicamba, obizwa ngeFeXapan futhi uzolahlekelwa yileyo mali uma ukuvinjelwa kuphoqelelwa, kusho inkampani.

IMonsanto ibisebenza kuleli cala elisekela ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA ngaphambi kwesinqumo, kepha bobabili i-BASF neDuPont bagomela ngokungeyikho ukuthi icala lasenkantolo lisebenza kuphela emikhiqizweni kaMonsanto hhayi kweyabo. Inkantolo ikubeke kwacaca nokho ukuthi i-EPA yamukele ngokungemthetho imikhiqizo eyenziwe yizo zontathu lezi zinkampani.

Iholwa yiCentre for Food Safety, isicelo esimelene ne-EPA silethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, iCentre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Ngokucela inkantolo ukuthi ithole i-EPA ngokwedelela, i-consortium ixwayise ngomonakalo wezitshalo ozofika uma imikhiqizo ye-dicamba ingavinjelwe ngokushesha.

"I-EPA ayinakubaleka ngokuvumela ukufafazwa kwamakhilogremu ayizigidi eziyi-16 ngaphezulu kwe-dicamba kanye nomonakalo odaleke ezigidini zamahektare, kanye nezingozi ezinkulu ezinhlotsheni zezilwane ezisengozini enkulu," kusho le nhlangano. “Kukhona okunye futhi okusengcupheni: umthetho. INkantolo kumele isebenze ukuvimbela ukungabi nabulungisa futhi ixhase ubuqotho benqubo yokwahlulela. Futhi ngenxa yokushaywa indiva kwe-EPA ngokusobala ngesinqumo seNkantolo, abafaki bezikhalazo banxusa iNkantolo ukuthi ibukele phansi i-EPA. ”

Kubuyekeziwe uthi umlawuli "wehlise ubungozi"

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

(IZibuyekezo ezinesitatimende esivela ku-BASF)

Ngokukhuza okumangalisayo kwe-Environmental Protection Agency, inkantolo yenhlangano ngoLwesithathu kuguqulwe ukugunyazwa yi-ejensi yemithi yokubulala ukhula ethandwayo esuselwa ku-dicamba eyenziwe ama-giants amakhemikhali iBayer, BASF kanye neCorteva Agrisciences. Lesi sinqumo sikwenza kube ngokungemthetho ukuthi abalimi baqhubeke nokusebenzisa umkhiqizo.

Isinqumo seNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yase-United States Yesekethe Lesishiyagalolunye sathola ukuthi i-EPA “ibubeka phansi kakhulu ubungozi” bemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi “yehluleka ngokuphelele ukwamukela ezinye izingozi.”

"I-EPA yenza amaphutha amaningi ekunikezeni ukubhaliswa okunemibandela," kusho isinqumo senkantolo.

IMonsanto ne-EPA bebecele inkantolo, uma ivumelana nabamangali, ukuthi ingakushintshi ngokushesha ukugunyazwa kwemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula. Inkantolo imane yathi: “Siyenqaba ukwenza kanjalo.”

Icala lilethwe yiNational Family Farm Coalition, Centre for Food Safety, Centre for Biological Diversity, nePesticide Action Network eNyakatho Melika.

Abamangali basola i-EPA ngokwephula umthetho ekuhloleni imithelela yohlelo olwakhiwe yiMonsanto, oluthengwe yiBayer ngo-2018, oludale ukulimala kwezitshalo “okusabalele” kulezi zinsuku ezimbalwa zasehlobo futhi luyaqhubeka nokusongela amapulazi ezweni lonke.

"Isinqumo sanamuhla siphumelele kakhulu kubalimi nakwezemvelo," kusho uGeorge Kimbrell weCentre for Food Safety, ongumeluleki waleli cala. “Kuhle ukukhunjuzwa ukuthi izinkampani ezifana neMonsanto neTrump Administration azikwazi ukweqa umthetho, ikakhulukazi ngesikhathi senhlekelele efana nalena. Usuku lwabo lokwahlulela selufikile. ”

Inkantolo ithole ukuthi phakathi kwezinye zezinkinga, i-EPA “yenqabile ukulinganisela inani lomonakalo we-dicamba, ichaza lowo monakalo njengokuthi 'kungenzeka' nokuthi 'kusolwa,' lapho ubufakazi obubonisa ukuthi i-dicamba idale umonakalo omkhulu futhi ongenakuphikiswa.”

Inkantolo iphinde yathola ukuthi i-EPA yehlulekile ukwamukela ukuthi imikhawulo ebekwe ekusetshenzisweni kwemithi yokubulala ukhula ye-dicamba ngeke ilandelwe, futhi inqume ukuthi i-EPA “yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi obukhulu bokuthi ukubhaliswa kuzoba nemiphumela yokuncintisana kwezomnotho izimboni zesoya nokotini. ”

Ekugcineni, inkantolo ithe, i-EPA yehluleke ngokuphelele ukwamukela ubungozi bokuthi ukusetshenziswa okusha kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba esungulwe nguMonsanto, BASF kanye noCorteva "kuzodabula imiphakathi yezolimo."

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides isikhathi esingaphezu kweminyaka engama-50 kepha ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambeka okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe lapho kungalimaza izitshalo, izingadi, izivande, nezihlahlana.

IMonsanto isiphakamisile leso sibambiso lapho yethula imbewu yesoya nekotini engabekezeleleki eminyakeni embalwa eyedlule, ikhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba “ngaphezulu” kwalezi zitshalo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo phakathi nezinyanga ezikhulayo ezifudumele-sezulu.

Isinyathelo sikaMonsanto sokwenza izitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-dicamba size ngemuva kwezitshalo zayo ezibekezelela i-glyphosate kanye nokufafaza okuthe xaxa kwe-glyphosate kudale ubhadane lokumelana nokhula ezweni lonke lase-US.

Abalimi, ososayensi bezolimo kanye nabanye ochwepheshe baxwayise uMonsanto ne-EPA ukuthi ukwethula uhlelo olubekezelela i-dicamba ngeke kudale kuphela ukumelana nokubulala amakhambi kepha kuzoholela ekulimaleni okulimazayo ezitshalweni ezingakhiqiwe izakhi zofuzo ukubekezelela i-dicamba.

Ngaphandle kwezixwayiso, iMonsanto, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole imvume kwi-EPA yokuthengisa ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba herbicides yalolu hlobo olusakazwayo lokufafaza. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza. Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwethulwe izilimo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha. Ngaphezulu kwamahektare ayisigidi wokulimala kwezitshalo kwabikwa ngonyaka odlule ezifundazweni eziyi-18, inkantolo yaphawula.

Njengoba kubikezelwe, kube nezinkulungwane zezikhalazo zomonakalo we-dicamba ezirekhodiwe ezifundazweni eziningi. Esinqumweni sayo, inkantolo yaphawula ukuthi ngo-2018, kumahektare ayizigidi eziyi-103 kabhontshisi nokotini otshalwe e-United States, cishe amahektare ayizigidi ezingama-56 atshalwe nembewu nge-Micanto's dicamba-tolerance, kusuka ku-27 million acres ngonyaka owandulele 2017.

NgoFebhuwari, amajaji avumelana ngazwi linye anikeze umlimi wamapentshisi waseMissouri amaRandi ayizigidi eziyizigidi eziyishumi nanhlanu emalini eyinxephezelo kanye namaRandi ayizigidi ezingama-15 kumonakalo ozojeziswa yiBayer neBASF ngokulimaza i-dicamba empahleni yakhe.

IBayer ikhiphe isitatimende kulandela lesi sinqumo ithi iphikisana kakhulu nesinqumo senkantolo futhi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

"Isinqumo se-EPA esinolwazi esisekelwe kwisayensi siyakuqinisekisa ukuthi leli thuluzi libalulekile kubalimi futhi alilethi ubungozi obungenangqondo bokunyakaza okungasetshenziswanga uma kusetshenziswe ngokwemikhombandlela yelebula," kusho inkampani. "Uma isinqumo sizoma, sizosebenza ngokushesha ukunciphisa noma yimuphi umthelela kumakhasimende ethu kule sizini."

UCorteva uphinde wathi imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba ibidinga amathuluzi abalimi nokuthi ibihlola izinketho zayo.

I-BASF ibize umyalo wenkantolo “ngendlela engakaze ibonwe” futhi yathi “inamandla amakhulu okulimaza amashumi ezinkulungwane zabalimi.”

Abalimi bangalahlekelwa “yimali ebonakalayo” uma bengakwazi ukubulala ukhula ezindaweni zabo zesoya nezikakotini ngemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba, kusho inkampani.

"Sizosebenzisa zonke izindlela zomthetho ezitholakalayo ukuphonsela inselelo le-oda," kusho iBASF.

Okhulumela i-EPA uthe okwamanje le nhlangano ibuyekeza isinqumo senkantolo futhi “izothutha ngokushesha iyokhuluma nomyalelo weNkantolo.”

Inkantolo ivumile ukuthi lesi sinqumo singabiza kakhulu kubalimi asebethengile futhi / noma batshale imbewu ebekezelela i-dicamba kule sizini futhi yahlela ukusebenzisa imishanguzo yokubulala ukhula kuyo ngoba isinqumo asikuvumeli ukusetshenziswa kwe-herbicide.

"Siyabuvuma ubunzima laba balimi abangaba nabo ekutholeni imithi yokubulala ukhula esebenzayo neyomthetho ukuvikela izitshalo zabo (ezibekezelela i-dicamba)…" kusho umbuso. “Babekwe kulesi simo ngaphandle kwephutha labo. Kodwa-ke, ukungabi bikho kobufakazi obuningi obusekela isinqumo se-EPA kusiphoqa ukuthi sikushiye ukubhaliswa. ”

UDicamba: Abalimi besaba enye inkathi yokulimala kwezitshalo; Kulindwe isinqumo senkantolo

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngokujika kwekhalenda kuze kube nguJuni, abalimi e-Midwest yase-US basonga ukutshalwa kwezitshalo ezintsha zesoya futhi banakekele izinkambu ezikhulayo zezitshalo zommbila ezincane neziza zemifino. Kepha abaningi futhi balungiselela ukushaywa isitha esingabonakali esidale umonakalo ezweni lasepulazini ehlobo eledlule - ikhemikhali killer dicamba.

UJack Geiger, umlimi oqinisekisiwe wezinto eziphilayo eRobinson, eKansas, uchaza izinkathi ezimbalwa zokugcina zezikhathi zasehlobo njengoba kubonakala “ngezinxushunxushu,” futhi wathi ulahlekelwe yingxenye yesitifiketi sensimu eyodwa yezitshalo eziphilayo ngenxa yokungcola nge-dicamba efuthwe kude. Manje unxusa omakhelwane abafafaza umbulali wokhula emasimini abo ukuze baqiniseke ukuthi ikhemikhali alihlali kude nempahla yakhe.

"Kukhona i-dicamba yonke indawo," kusho uGeiger.

UGeiger ungomunye wabalimi abangamakhulu azungeze i-US Midwest kanye nezifunda eziningana eziseningizimu ezibike ngomonakalo wezitshalo nokulahleka abathi kubangelwe ukukhukhuleka kwedicamba eminyakeni embalwa edlule.

Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-dicamba herbicides iminyaka engaphezu kwengu-50 kodwa ngokwesiko kugwenywe ukufaka umuthi wokubulala ukhula ezinyangeni ezishisayo zasehlobo, futhi kuyaqabukela uma kwenzeka ezindaweni eziningi zomhlaba ngenxa yokuthambekela okwaziwayo kwekhemikhali ukukhuphuka kude nezindawo okuhlosiwe.

Lokho kuvinjelwa kuguqulwe ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule izimbewu zesoya nezikakotini ezingabekezeleleki ukukhuthaza abalimi ukuthi bafafaze ukwakheka okusha kwe-dicamba "ngaphezulu" kwalezi zilimo ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo. IMonsanto, manje ephethwe yiBayer AG, kanye neBASF kanye ICorteva AgriScience bonke bathole ukuvunyelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ukumaketha ukwakheka okusha kwama-dicamba herbicides okufafaza ngaphezu kweziqongo zezitshalo ezikhula zibekezelela i-dicamba. Izinkampani zithi izinhlobo zazo ezintsha ze-dicamba ngeke zande futhi zingahambi njengoba izinhlobo ezindala zemikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula lwe-dicamba kwaziwa ukuthi ziyayenza.

Kepha lezo ziqinisekiso zifakazele amanga phakathi kwezikhalazo ezisabalele zomonakalo we-dicamba drift selokhu kwaqala izitshalo ezintsha ezibekezelela i-dicamba kanye ne-dicamba herbicides entsha.

Umfelandawonye wamaqembu abalimi nabathengi umangalele i-EPA ngokuxhasa kwayo ukusetshenziswa okuphezulu kakhulu kwemithi yokubulala ukhula i-dicamba futhi manje ilinde isinqumo senkantolo yesishiyagalolunye yokudlulisa amacala eSan Francisco maqondana nesicelo sabo sokuthi inkantolo ichithe umthetho we-EPA imvume yemithi yokubulala ukhula yenkampani ezintathu. Izimpikiswano zomlomo zabanjwa ngo-Ephreli.

Abathengi kanye namaqembu ezemvelo asola ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokwehluleka ukuhlaziya "izindleko ezibalulekile zenhlalo yomnotho kanye nezolimo kubalimi" okuholele emazingeni "ayinhlekelele" omonakalo wezitshalo.

La maqembu athi i-EPA ibonakala inentshisekelo enkulu kuyo ukuvikela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi weMonsanto nezinye izinkampani kunokuvikela abalimi.

Abameli beMonsanto, abamele inkampani njengeyunithi yeBayer, bathe abamangali abanampikiswano ethembekile. Umuthi omusha we-dicamba herbicide wenkampani, obizwa nge-XtendiMax, “usize abalimi ekubhekaneni nenkinga enkulu yokulwisana nokhula ezweni lonke, kanti isivuno sikabhontshisi nesokotini sesibe namandla kakhulu ezweni lonke ngaleli cala,” kusho kuya kafushane yafakwa ngabameli benkampani ngoMeyi 29.

"Isicelo sabafaka isicelo somyalelo wokumisa ngokushesha konke ukuthengiswa nokusetshenziswa kwesibulala-zinambuzane simema amaphutha ezomthetho kanye nemithelela engaba yinhlekelele emhlabeni wangempela," kusho inkampani.

Njengoba belinde isinqumo senkantolo yenhlangano, abalimi banethemba lokuthi imikhawulo emisha ebekwe yizifundazwe ezithile izobavikela. UMnyango Wezolimo e-Illinois ululeke abafake izicelo abangakwazi ukufafaza ngemuva kukaJuni 20, ukuthi akufanele bafafaze imikhiqizo ye-dicamba uma izinga lokushisa lingaphezu kuka-45 degrees Fahrenheit, nokuthi kufanele basebenzise kuphela i-dicamba lapho umoya uvunguza usuka ezindaweni “ezizwelayo”. IMinnesota, Indiana, North Dakota kanye neNingizimu Dakota ziphakathi kwezinye izifundazwe ezibeka izinsuku zokunquma zokufafaza i-dicamba.

USteve Smith, umqondisi wezolimo kwaRed Gold Inc, inqubo yamatamatisi esemathinini enkulu kunazo zonke emhlabeni, uthe ngisho nangemingcele yombuso "ukhathazeke kakhulu" ngesizini ezayo. Amahektare amaningi okutshala notshwala obubekezelela i-dicamba athuthukiswe yiMonsanto ngakho-ke kungenzeka ukuthi kube khona ama-dicamba amaningi afuthwayo, kusho yena.

"Sisebenze kanzima ukugcina umlayezo ngaphandle wokuthi ungasondeli eduze kwethu, kodwa kukhona umuntu, kwesinye isikhathi, ozokwenza iphutha elingasilahlekisela kakhulu ibhizinisi lethu," esho.

USmith uthe unethemba lokuthi inkantolo izokuchitha ukugunyazwa kwe-EPA futhi “imise lolu hlanya lohlelo.”

Ngaphandle kokulimala okungaba khona kwe-dicamba ezitshalweni, ucwaningo olusha isanda kushicilelwa ekhombisa ukuthi abalimi abachayeke emazingeni aphezulu e-dicamba babonakala benobungozi obuphakeme besibindi nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Abaphenyi bathi imininingwane emisha ikhombisile ukuthi inhlangano ebonwe phambilini kudatha phakathi kwe-dicamba ne-lung namaphilisi e-colon "ibingasabonakali" ngemininingwane ebuyekeziwe.

I-IFIC: Ukudla Okukhulu Kakhulu Kuphikisa Kanjani Izindaba Ezimbi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know neminye imithombo ikhanyisa ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwe Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke (IFIC), iqembu lezentengiselwano elixhaswe izinkampani ezinkulu zokudla nezolimo, kanye "nengalo yalo yezemfundo yomphakathi" engenzi nzuzo Isisekelo se-IFIC. Amaqembu e-IFIC aqhuba izinhlelo zocwaningo nezokuqeqesha, akhiqiza izinto zokumaketha futhi axhumanise amanye amaqembu embonini ukuxhumana nomkhakha wezokuphepha mayelana nokuphepha kokudla nokondleka. Ukulayeza kufaka phakathi ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ushukela, ukudla okusetshenzwe, okokunandisa okokufakelwa, izithasiselo zokudla, izibulala-zinambuzane kanye nokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

Ukuphotha umbiko womdlavuza wezibulala-zinambuzane weMonsanto

Njengesibonelo esisodwa sendlela i-IFIC ebambisana ngayo nezinkampani ukukhuthaza imikhiqizo yezolimo kanye nokuphazamisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza, lokhu idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto ikhomba i-IFIC njenge- “Umlingani wezimboni” ohlelweni lobudlelwano bomphakathi noMonsanto ukudicilela phansi iqembu labacwaningi ngomdlavuza leWorld Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ukuze “kuvikelwe isithunzi” seRoundup weedkiller. Ngo-Mashi 2015, i-IARC yahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko ku-Roundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

IMonsanto ibhale i-IFIC njengoMlingani “wezimboni” weTier 3 kanye namanye amaqembu amabili axhaswe izimboni zokudla, i- Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa futhi Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla.

IFICIC izama kanjani ukudlulisa umyalezo wayo kwabesifazane.

La maqembu akhonjwa njengengxenye “yethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement” elingaxwayisa izinkampani zokudla “ngecebo lokugoma” likaMonsanto ngombiko womdlavuza we-glyphosate.

AmaBlogs kamuva athunyelwa ku- Iwebhusayithi ye-IFIC khombisa ukuthunyelwa kweqembu "ungakhathazeki, sethembe" imiyalezo kwabesifazane. Okungenayo kufaka phakathi, “izindlela eziyi-8 zobuhlanya abazama ukukwesabisa ngazo ngezithelo nemifino,” “Ukusika imfuhlumfuhlu ku-glyphosate,” nokuthi “Ngaphambi kokuba sidangele, ake sibuze ochwepheshe… ochwepheshe bangempela.”

Abaxhasi bezinkampani

I-IFIC isebenzise imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 22 esikhathini esiyiminyaka emihlanu kusukela 2013-2017, ngenkathi i-IFIC Foundation ichithe imali engaphezu kwezigidi ezingama- $ 5 kuleyo minyaka emihlanu, ngokusho kwamafomu entela afakwe kwi-IRS. Izinkampani namaqembu ezimboni asekela i-IFIC, ngokusho kwe- ukudalulwa komphakathi, kufaka phakathi i-American Beverage Association, American Meat Science Association, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Bayer CropScience, Cargill, Coca-Cola, Dannon, DowDuPont, General Mills, Hershey, Kellogg, Mars, Nestle, Perdue Farms kanye nePepsiCo.

Amarekhodi wentela esalungiswa e-IFIC Foundation, atholakele ngezicelo zamarekhodi wombuso, uhlu lwezinkampani ezixhase iqembu 2011, 2013 noma zombili: I-Grocery Manufacturers Association, i-Coca-Cola, i-ConAgra, i-General Mills, i-Kellogg, i-Kraft Foods, i-Hershey, i-Mars, i-Nestle, i-PepsiCo ne-Unilever. UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US unikeze i-IFIC Foundation imali engu- $ 177,480 yabakhokhi bentela e 2013 ukukhiqiza "umhlahlandlela wezokuxhumana”Yokukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo.

I-IFIC iphinde icele imali ezinkampanini ngemikhankaso ethile yokuvikela umkhiqizo. Le imeyili ka-Ephreli 28, 2014 kusuka kumphathi we-IFIC kuya kuhlu olude lwamalungu ebhodi yezinkampani ucela iminikelo engu- $ 10,000 yokuvuselela i- "Understanding our Food" isinyathelo ukwenza ngcono ukubukwa kwabathengi kokudla okusetshenzisiwe. I-imeyili ibhala abasekeli bezimali bangaphambilini: iBayer, iCoca-Cola, iDow, iKraft, iMars, iMcDonalds, iMonsanto, iNestle, iPepsiCo neDuPont.

Kukhuthaza ama-GMO ezinganeni zesikole

IFIC iqondisiwe Amaqembu we-130 nge Ukubambisana Ukondla Ikusasa emizamweni yokuthumela imiyalezo "yokuthuthukisa ukuqonda" ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo. Amalungu afaka phakathi Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, lo Umkhandlu Wokulawulwa Kwekhalori, the Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla kanye ne-The Nature Conservancy.

I-Alliance to Feed the Future inikeze ngezifundo zamahhala zemfundo ukufundisa abafundi ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kufaka phakathi “Isayensi Yokondla Umhlaba”Kothisha be-K-8 kanye ne-“Ukuletha i-Biotechnology empilweni”Zamabanga 7-10.

Ukusebenza kwangaphakathi kwezinsizakalo ze-IFIC's PR

Uchungechunge lwemibhalo etholwe yi-US Right to Know unikeze umuzwa wokuthi i-IFIC isebenza kanjani ekusithekeni ukuze ivule izindaba ezimbi futhi ivikele imikhiqizo yabaxhasi bayo bezinkampani.

Ixhuma izintatheli kososayensi abakhokhelwa yimboni  

  • Meyi 5, 2014 imeyili kusuka kuMat Raymond, umqondisi omkhulu wezokuxhumana, uxwayise ubuholi be-IFIC kanye "neqembu lezingxoxo zabezindaba" "ngezindaba ezisezingeni eliphakeme lapho i-IFIC ibandakanyeka khona manje" ukusiza ukuhambisa izindaba ezingezinhle, kufaka phakathi ukuphendula i-movie ethi Fed Up. Uphawule ukuthi baxhume intatheli yeNew York Times no “Dr. UJohn Sievenpiper, uchwepheshe wethu odumile emkhakheni woshukela. ” USievenpiper “uphakathi kweqembu elincane lososayensi abafundile baseCanada abathole amakhulu ezinkulungwane oxhaso kubenzi beziphuzo ezithambile, izinhlangano zokuhweba ngokudla okuhlanganisiwe kanye nomkhakha kashukela, okwenza izifundo nezihloko zemibono ezivame ukuqondana nezintshisekelo zalawo mabhizinisi, ” ngokusho kweNational Post.
  • Ama-imeyili avela ku- 2010 futhi 2012 ziphakamisa ukuthi i-IFIC incike eqenjini elincane lososayensi abaxhunywe embonini ukubhekana nezifundo eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO. Kuwo womabili ama-imeyili, uBruce Chassy, ​​uprofesa wase-University of Illinois ngubani uthole izimali ezingadalulwanga ezivela eMonsanto ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ama-GMO, kweluleka i-IFIC ukuthi ingaphendulwa kanjani ezifundweni eziphakamisa ukukhathazeka ngama-GMO.

Isikhulu seDuPont siphakamisa isu lobuchule lokulwa nemibiko yabathengi

  • Phakathi ku Februwari 3, 2013 imeyili, Abasebenzi be-IFIC baxwayisa "iqembu lobudlelwano nabezindaba" ukuthi Imibiko Yabathengi ibike ukukhathazeka mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela wezemvelo wama-GMO. UDoyle Karr, Umqondisi wenqubomgomo ye-biotechnology kaDuPont nephini likamongameli webhodi ye Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla, wathumela i-imeyili kusosayensi onombuzo ngemibono yokuphendula, futhi waphakamisa ukubhekana Nemibiko Yabathengi ngaleli qhinga lokwenza okuthile: nezitatimende ze- (Consumer Reports ') mayelana nokuphepha kanye nomthelela kwezemvelo. ?? ”

Ezinye izinsizakalo ze-PR IFIC inikeza embonini

  • Kusabalalisa amaphuzu okukhuluma embonini edukisayo: April 25, 2012 thumela kumalungu ayi-130 e-Alliance Ukondla Ikusasa “egameni lelungu le-Alliance Inhlangano Yabenzi Begilosa ” yathi uhlelo lokuvota lwaseCalifornia lokufaka ilebula lokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo “lungavimbela ukuthengiswa kwamashumi ezinkulungwane emikhiqizo yokudla eCalifornia ngaphandle kokuthi inamalebula akhethekile.”
  • Ibhekana nezincwadi ezibucayi ngokudla okusetshenzisiwe: February 20, 2013 I-imeyili ichaza isu le-IFIC lokuphotha izincwadi ezimbili ezigxeka imboni yezokudla, “Usawoti, Ushukela, Amafutha” kaMichael Moss, kanye ne “Lunchbox kaPandora” kaMelanie Warner. Izinhlelo zazihlanganisa ukubhala ukubuyekezwa kwezincwadi, ukusabalalisa izindawo zokukhuluma kanye "nokuhlola ezinye izindlela zokuthuthukisa ukuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zedijithali kulinganiswa ubukhulu bokusabalala." Ku-imeyili kaFebhuwari 22, 2013, umphathi we-IFIC welulela izifundiswa ezintathu - URoger Clemens wase-University of Southern California, UMario Ferruzzi wasePurdue University futhi UJoanne Slavin wase-University of Minnesota - ukubacela ukuthi batholakalele izingxoxo nabezindaba mayelana nezincwadi. I-imeyili inikeze izifundiswa izifinyezo zalezi zincwadi ezimbili nezindawo zokukhuluma ze-IFIC ezivikela ukudla okwenziwe. “Sizokuthokozela ukuthi nihlanganyele noma yimaphi amaphuzu athile okuxoxa ngezindaba ezithile zesayensi eziphakanyiswe ezincwadini,” kusho i-imeyili evela kuMarianne Smith Edge, iphini likamongameli omkhulu we-IFIC wezokudla nokuvikeleka kokudla.
  • Ucwaningo nocwaningo ukusekela izikhundla ezimbonini; isibonelo esisodwa ngocwaningo lwango-2012 olathola ukuthi abathengi abangama-76% “abakwazi ukucabanga nganoma yini eyengeziwe abangathanda ukuyibona kulebula” esetshenziswa amaqembu embonini ukuphikisana nokulebula kwe-GMO.
  • “Ungakhathazeki, sethembe” izincwajana zokumaketha, njenge lena echaza ukuthi izithasiselo zokudla nemibala akuyona into okufanele ukhathazeke ngayo. Amakhemikhali nodayi “babambe iqhaza elibalulekile ekwehliseni ukusweleka okukhulu kwabathengi,” ngokusho kwencwajana ye-IFIC Foundation "eyayilungiselelwe ngaphansi kwesivumelwano sokubambisana ne-US Food and Drug Administration."

okokuqala kuthunyelwe ngoMeyi 31, 2018 futhi kuvuselelwa ngoFebhuwari 2020

Ukuhlaziywa Okungaphikisi okuvela ku-FDA

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ngenyanga edlule abakwaFood & Drug Administration bashicilele incwadi yabo i- ukuhlaziywa kwamuva konyaka yamazinga ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezingcolisa izithelo nemifino nokunye ukudla thina baseMelika esihlala sikubeka kuma-plate plate ethu. Idatha entsha inezela ekukhuleni kwabathengi okukhulayo nasempikiswaneni yesayensi yokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zinganikela kanjani - noma cha - ekuguleni, ezifweni nasezinkinga zokuzala.

Ngaphezu kwamakhasi angama-55 emininingwane, amashadi namagrafu, umbiko we-FDA othi “Pesticide Residue Monitoring Program” Programme ubuye unikeze isibonelo esingathandeki sezinga abalimi base-US abathembele kuzinambuzane zokwenziwa, isikhunta kanye nokubulala ukhula ekukhuliseni ukudla kwethu.

Sifunda, ngokwesibonelo, ekufundeni umbiko wakamuva, ukuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane itholakale kumaphesenti angama-84 amasampula ezithelo zasekhaya, namaphesenti angama-53 yemifino, kanye namaphesenti angama-42 okusanhlamvu namaphesenti angama-73 amasampula okudla abhalwe nje “ okunye. ” Amasampula athathwe ezweni lonke, kufaka phakathi eCalifornia, Texas, Kansas, New York naseWisconsin.

Cishe amaphesenti angama-94 wamagilebhisi, ijusi lamagilebhisi kanye namagilebhisi omisiwe ahlolwe kutholakala izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba kwenza amaphesenti angama-99 ama-strawberry, amaphesenti angama-88 ama-aphula nejusi le-apula, namaphesenti angama-33 wemikhiqizo yelayisi, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Izithelo nemifino engenisiwe empeleni ikhombise ukwanda okuncane kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngamaphesenti angama-52 ezithelo namaphesenti angama-46 emifino evela phesheya evivinya ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Lawo masampula aqhamuka emazweni angaphezu kwama-40, okubalwa kuwo iMexico, iChina, iNdiya neCanada.

Siphinde sifunde ukuthi ngesampula esanda kubikwa, phakathi kwamakhulu ezibulala-zinambuzane ezahlukahlukene, i-FDA ithole imikhondo yesibulali zinambuzane iDDT emasampuleni okudla, kanye ne-chlorpyrifos, i-2,4-D ne-glyphosate. I-DDT ixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza webele, ukungazali nokukhulelwa kwesisu, kuyilapho i-chlorpyrifos - esinye isibulala-zinambuzane - sikhonjiswe ngokwesayensi ukuthi sidala izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni ezisencane.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority iye yancoma ukuvinjelwa kwamakhemikhali eYurophu, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ukubulala ukhula 2,4-D kanye glyphosate zombili zixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza nezinye izinkinga zempilo futhi.

I-Thailand muva nje wathi bekuvinjelwa i-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobungozi obusungulwe ngokwesayensi balezi zinambuzane.

Ngaphandle kokuxhaphaka kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala ekudleni kwase-US, i-FDA, kanye ne-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US (i-USDA), bagomela ngokuthi izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni empeleni azikhathazi ngakho. Ngesikhathi sokunxenxwa okusindayo yimboni yezolimo i-EPA empeleni isekele ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwe-glyphosate ne-chlorpyrifos ekukhiqizweni kokudla.

Abalawuli bananela amazwi abaphathi beMonsanto nabanye embonini yamakhemikhali ngokugcizelela ukuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane azinabungozi empilweni yabantu inqobo nje uma amazinga ohlobo ngalunye lwensalela ewela ngaphansi kwezinga “lokubekezelelana” elibekwe yi-EPA.

Ekuhlaziyweni kwakamuva kakhulu kwe-FDA, amaphesenti angu-3.8 kuphela okudla kwasekhaya abenamazinga ezinsalela abebhekwa njengokuphakeme ngokungemthetho, noma "okwephula umthetho." Ngokudla okungenisiwe, amaphesenti ayi-10.4 wokudla okwenziwe isampuli ayephula umthetho, ngokusho kwe-FDA.

Lokho i-FDA engakusho, nokuthi yiziphi izinhlaka ezilawulayo ezigwema ukukusho esidlangalaleni, ukuthi amazinga okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane ezithile akhuphukile eminyakeni edlule njengoba izinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zicela imingcele ephakeme naphezulu yezomthetho. I-EPA ivume ukwenyuka okuningana okuvunyelwe izinsalela ze-glyphosate ekudleni, ngokwesibonelo. Futhi, i-ejensi ivame ukwenza isinqumo sokuthi akudingeki ihambisane nesidingo somthetho esithi i-EPA “izosebenzisa elinye ibanga eliphindwe kayishumi lokuphepha ezinganeni nasezinganeni” ekubekeni amazinga asemthethweni ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. I-EPA yeqe leyo mfuneko esimweni sokubekezelelana okuningi kwezibulala-zinambuzane, yathi ayikho enye indlela yokuphepha edingekayo ukuvikela izingane.

Iphuzu elisemqoka: Ukuphakama kwe-EPA kubeka “ukubekezelelana” okuvunyelwe njengomkhawulo wezomthetho, kunciphisa amathuba okuthi abalawuli kuzodingeka babike izinsalela "ezihlukumezayo" ekudleni kwethu. Ngenxa yalokhu, i-US ijwayele ukuvumela amazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kunamanye amazwe athuthukile. Isibonelo, umkhawulo osemthethweni we-killer glyphosate obulala ukhula e-apula uyizingxenye ezingama-0.2 ngesigidi (ppm) e-United States kodwa uhhafu kuphela walelo zinga - 0.1 ppm - uvunyelwe ku-apula e-European Union. Futhi, i-US ivumela izinsalela ze-glyphosate emmbileni ngo-5 ppm, ngenkathi i-EU ivumela i-1 ppm kuphela.

Njengoba imingcele esemthethweni inyuka ngensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni, ososayensi abaningi bebelokhu bekhuphula ama-alamu ngobungozi bokusetshenziswa njalo kwezinsalela, kanye nokuntuleka kokucatshangelwa okulawulayo kwemithelela engaba khona yokudla inqwaba yezimbungulu nababulali bokhula ngaso sonke isikhathi sokudla .

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard bafuna ucwaningo olunzulu ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane njengoba zilinganisela ukuthi abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 e-United States banezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo ngenxa yokudliwa kokudla okunezinambuzane. A cwaningo exhunywe neHarvard ithole ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa zombili nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo.

Ucwaningo olwengeziwe luthole ezinye izinkinga zempilo ezixhumene nokuchayeka ekudleni kuma-pesticides, kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate.  I-Glyphosate yi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni futhi iyisithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup enophawu lukaMonsanto neminye imikhiqizo yokubulala ukhula.

Imboni Yezibulala-zinambuzane Ibuyisela Emuva

Kepha njengoba ukukhathazeka kukhuphuka, ababambisene nomkhakha wezolimo babuyela emuva. Kule nyanga iqembu labacwaningi abathathu abanobudlelwano obuseduze nezinkampani ezidayisa izibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo likhiphe umbiko ofuna ukudambisa ukukhathazeka kwabathengi nokunciphisa ucwaningo lwesayensi.

Umbiko, ekhishwe ngo-Okthoba 21, yathi “abukho ubufakazi obuqondile besayensi noma bezokwelapha obubonisa ukuthi ukuvezwa okuvamile kwabathengi ezinsaleleni zezibulala-zinambuzane kubeka engcupheni impilo. Idatha yezinsalela ze-pesticide kanye nokulinganiselwa kokuchayeka kukhombisa ukuthi abathengi bokudla bavezwa emazingeni ezinsalela ze-pesticides ezinama-oda amaningi angaphansi kwalawo okungenzeka abe nokukhathazeka kwezempilo. ”

Akumangalisi ukuthi ababhali abathathu balo mbiko basondelene kakhulu nomkhakha wezolimo. Omunye wababhali balo mbiko nguSteve Savage, imboni yezolimo umcebisi futhi owayekade esebenza eDuPont. Omunye nguCarol Burns, owayengusosayensi weDow Chemical futhi ongumxhumanisi wamanje weCortevia Agriscience, okuyi-spin-off yeDowDuPont. Umbhali wesithathu nguCarl Winter, onguSihlalo woMnyango Wezokudla Nezobuchwepheshe eNyuvesi yaseCalifornia eDavis. Inyuvesi ithole cishe $ 2 million ngonyaka kusuka embonini yezolimo, ngokusho komcwaningi waseyunivesithi, yize ukunemba kwalelo nani kungakatholakali.

Ababhali bathathe umbiko wabo baya ngqo kuCongress, bewubambile izintshumayelo ezintathu ezahlukene eWashington, DC, eyenzelwe ukuthuthukisa umyalezo wabo wokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane ukuze usetshenziswe “ezindabeni zokuphepha kokudla kwabezindaba, nezeluleko zabathengi mayelana nokuthi yikuphi abathengi okufanele bakudle (noma okungafanele) bakudle.”

Izikhathi zokubulala izinambuzane zibanjelwe ezakhiweni zehhovisi zamalungu eCongress futhi, kubonakala kufanelekile, ekomkhulu le CropLife Melika, i-lobbyist embonini yezolimo. 

 

IMonsanto Ithembele Kulaba "Ozakwethu" Ukuhlasela Ososayensi Abaphezulu Bomdlavuza

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Related: Imibhalo Eyimfihlo Idalula Impi kaMonsanto Ngososayensi Bomdlavuza, nguStacy Malkan

Leli phepha lichaza okuqukethwe yiMonsanto uhlelo oluyimfihlo lokuxhumana nomphakathi ukudicilela phansi igama lophiko locwaningo lomdlavuza lwe-World Health Organisation, i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), ngenhloso yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup weedkiller. NgoMashi 2015, iqembu lomhlaba wonke lochwepheshe kuphaneli ye-IARC lahlulela i-glyphosate, isithako esiyinhloko kuRoundup, ukuthi ibe mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu.

Uhlelo lweMonsanto lubiza amagama angaphezu kweshumi nambili amaqembu "abalingani bezimboni" abaphathi benkampani abakuhlele "ukwazisa / ukugoma / ukubandakanya" emizamweni yabo yokuvikela isithunzi seRoundup, ukuvimbela izimangalo zomdlavuza "ezingenasisekelo" ekubeni umbono odumile, futhi "zinikeze ikhava yezinhlaka ezilawulayo. ” Ozakwethu bahlanganisa izifundiswa kanye namaqembu aphambili embonini yamakhemikhali nezokudla, amaqembu ezohwebo kanye namaqembu okubungaza - landela izixhumanisi ezingezansi kumashidi eqiniso anikeza imininingwane eminingi ngamaqembu ophathina.

Ngokubambisana la maphepha emininingwane ahlinzeka ngesense yokujula nobubanzi be-corporaukuhlaselwa kochwepheshe bomdlavuza we-IARC ngokwehlulwanse kaMi-onsanto edayisa kakhulu i-herbicide.

Izinhloso zikaMonsanto zokubhekana nesilinganiso se-IARC se-carcinogenicity se-glyphosate (ikhasi 5).

Background

Umbhalo osemqoka okhishwe ngo-2017 ngo izinqubo zomthetho ngokumelene neMonsanto kuchaza “uhlelo lokulungela nokuzibandakanya” kwenkampani ekuhlelweni komdlavuza we-IARC we-glyphosate, umhlaba isetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo. I- idokhumenti yangaphakathi yeMonsanto - yangomhla kaFebhuwari 23, 2015 - yabela abasebenzi abangaphezu kwama-20 beMonsanto ezinhlosweni ezibandakanya "ukunciphisa umthelela wesinqumo," "ukufinyelela komlawuli," "ukuqinisekisa iMON POV" kanye "nokuhola izwi 'kubani i-IARC' kanye ne-2B intukuthelo." NgoMashi 20, 2015, i-IARC yamemezela isinqumo sayo sokuhlukanisa i-glyphosate njenge-Group 2A carcinogen, "mhlawumbe i-carcinogenic kubantu. "

Ukuthola eminye imininingwane, bheka: “Ukulungiswa Kanjani KweMonsanto Ekuhlukanisweni Komdlavuza Wamakhemikhali Okulindelekile,”NguCarey Gillam, uHuffington Post (9/19/2017)

Isigaba 1-4 seMonsanto “Abalingani Bemboni”

Ikhasi 5 le- umbhalo weMonsanto ikhomba izingxenye ezine “zabalingani bemboni” abaphathi beMonsanto abebehlele ukuzibandakanya nohlelo lwayo lwe-IARC lokuzilungiselela. La maqembu ehlangene anokufinyelela okubanzi nomthelela ekuphusheni ukulandisa ngengozi yomdlavuza evikela inzuzo yezinkampani.

Umlingani womkhakha weTier 1 angama-lobby axhaswa ngezimboni kanye namaqembu e-PR.

Abalingani bezimboni zeTier 2 bangamaqembu angaphambili avame ukukhonjwa njengemithombo ezimele, kepha basebenza nemboni yamakhemikhali ekusithekeni kobudlelwano bomphakathi nemikhankaso yokunxenxa.

Abalingani bemboni engu-Tier 3 bangamaqembu ezingenzi-nzuzo axhaswe izimboni zokudla. Lawa maqembu athakanyiswe kokuthi, “Xwayisa izinkampani zokudla ngethimba le-Stakeholder Engagement (IFIC, GMA, CFI) 'ngecebo lokutholwa' lokuhlinzeka ngemfundo yokuqala ngamazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate, chaza izifundo ezenzelwe isayensi uma kuqhathaniswa nemibono eqhutshwa yi-ajenda” yomdlavuza ozimele iphaneli.

Umlingani womkhakha we-Tier 4 "yizinhlangano zabakhiqizi abakhulu." Lawa ngamaqembu ezohwebo ahlukahlukene amele ummbila, isoya nabanye abatshali bezimboni nabakhiqizi bokudla.

Ukuhlela ukukhala ngokumelene nombiko womdlavuza ku-glyphosate

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR uchaze izinhlelo zabo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kulungiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC."

Ukuthi lokho kudlalwe kanjani kungabonakala emibhalweni yozakwethu embonini amaqembu abesebenzisa imiyalezo ejwayelekile nemithombo ukusola i-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza ngokungalungile nokuzama ukudicilela phansi ososayensi abasebenza embikweni we-glyphosate.

Izibonelo zemiyalezo yokuhlasela zingabonakala kuwebhusayithi yeProjekthi ye-Genetic Literacy Project. Leli qembu lithi lingumthombo ozimele wesayensi, kepha, imibhalo etholwe ngumbukiso wase-US Right to Know ukuthi i-Genetic Literacy Project isebenza neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lokho kusebenzisana. UJon Entine wethule leli qembu e2011 ngenkathi uMonsanto eyiklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. Lena iqhinga lakudala leqembu langaphambili; ukuhambisa imiyalezo yenkampani ngeqembu elithi lizimele kepha akunjalo.

Uhlelo lucebisa i-Sense About Science ukuthi "ihole ukuphendula kwemboni"

Umbhalo kaMonsanto we-PR ukhuluma ngezinhlelo zokwenza izindlela zokuxhumana ezinamandla nezokuxhumana ukuze "kuqondiswe ukukhala ngesinqumo se-IARC." Lolu hlelo luphakamisa iqembu i-Sense About Science (kubakaki abanophawu lombuzo) ukuthi "liholele ekuphenduleni kwemboni futhi linikeze inkundla yezingqapheli ze-IARC nokhulumela imboni."

I-Sense About Science iyisiza somphakathi esizinze eLondon lokho kuthiwa kuthuthukisa ukuqonda komphakathi ngesayensi, kodwa iqembu "laziwa ngokuthatha izikhundla buck ukuvumelana kwesayensi noma ukuchitha ubufakazi obuvelayo bokulimala, ”Kubika uLiza Gross ku-The Intercept. Ngo-2014, iSense About Science yethule inguqulo yase-US ngaphansi kokuqondiswa kwe-  UTrevor Butterworth, umbhali onomlando omude wokungavumelani naye isayensi ephakamisa ukukhathazeka ngempilo ngamakhemikhali anobuthi.

I-Sense About Science ihlobene ne- Isayensi Media Center, isayensi PR agency eLondon ethola uxhaso lwezinkampani futhi yaziwa nge ukugcizelela imibono yenkampani yesayensi. Intatheli ephethe sisondelene neSayensi Media Center, UKate Kelland, ushicilele izindatshana eziningana kwiReuters ezigxeka i-ejensi yomdlavuza ye-IARC eyayisekelwe kuyo izindaba ezingamanga futhi ukubika okungaphelele okungaphelele. Izindatshana zeReuters zithuthukiswe kakhulu ngamaqembu kaMonsanto “abalingani bemboni” futhi zasetshenziswa njenge isisekelo se ukuhlaselwa kwezepolitiki ngokumelene ne-IARC.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

  • "I-IARC iyazenqaba izimangalo ezingamanga ku-Reuters," Isitatimende se-IARC (3 / 1 / 18)
  • Indaba ka-Reuters ka-Aaron Blair IARC ikhuthaza ukulandisa okungamanga, USRTK (7 / 24 / 2017)
  • Isimangalo seReuters sokuthi i-IARC "ihlele kahle" okutholakele nakho kungamanga, USRTK (10 / 20 / 2017)
  • "Ngabe izibopho zezinkampani zinomthelela ekusetshenzisweni kwesayensi?" Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (7 / 24 / 2017)

“Bandakanya uHenry Miller”

Ikhasi 2 lombhalo weMonsanto PR likhomba okwokuqala okulethwa ukuhlelela nokulungiselela: "Bandakanya uHenry Miller" "ukugoma / ukusungula umbono womphakathi nge-IARC nezibuyekezo."

"Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngokusalungiswa okuseqophelweni eliphezulu."

UHenry I. Miller, MD, osebenza naye eHoover Institution kanye nomqondisi osungula iHhovisi Le-Biotechnology le-FDA, une umlando omude oqoshiwe wokusebenzisana nezinkampani ukuvikela imikhiqizo enobungozi. Uhlelo lweMonsanto lukhomba “umnikazi we-MON” womsebenzi njengo-Eric Sachs, isayensi, ubuchwepheshe nobuchwepheshe beMonsanto.

Imibhalo kamuva kubika iThe New York Times kwembule lokho amaSachs uthumele i-imeyili uMiller kusasele isonto ngaphambi kombiko we-IARC glyphosate ukubuza ukuthi ngabe uMiller wayenesifiso sokubhala "ngalesi sinqumo esiyimpikiswano." UMiller uphendule wathi, "Ngingathanda uma ngingaqala ngidalelwe ubuciko obusezingeni eliphezulu." Ngo-Mashi 23, uMiller uthumele isihloko kuForbes "okubonakala kakhulu" okusalungiswa okuhlinzekwe nguMonsanto, ngokusho kwe Times. IForbes inqamule ubudlelwano bayo noMiller ngemuva kwesigameko sokubhala ngezipoki futhi ususe izindatshana zakhe kusuka kusayithi.

Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo 

Yize umqulu weMonsanto PR ungazange uqambe igama le- umkhandlu waseMelika oxhaswe ngezinkampani weSayensi nezeMpilo (ACSH) phakathi "kwabalingani bayo bezimboni," ama-imeyili akhishwe nge-litigation show ukuthi iMonsanto uxhase uMkhandlu WaseMelika Wezesayensi Nezempilo futhi wacela iqembu ukuthi libhale ngombiko we-IARC glyphosate. Ama-imeyili akhombisa ukuthi abaphathi beMonsanto bebengakhululekile ngokusebenzisana ne-ACSH kodwa benze njalo noma kunjalo ngoba, "asinabo abalandeli abaningi futhi asikwazi ukulahlekelwa yilabo abambalwa esinabo."

Umholi wesayensi ephezulu kaMonsanto uDaniel Goldstein ubhalele ozakwabo ukuthi, “Ngingakuqinisekisa ukuthi anginabo bonke abantu abanenkanyezi nge-ACSH- banenqwaba yezinsumpa- kodwa: NGEKE UTHOLE UKUBALULEKA OKUNGCONO KWEDOLOLA LAKHO kune-ACSH” (kugcizelela yena). UGoldstein uthumele izixhumanisi zezinto eziningi ze-ACSH ezikhuthaza futhi zivikele ama-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane azichaze ngokuthi “ZISEBENZISA KAKHULU.”

Bona futhi: Ukulandelela i-Agrichemical Industry Propaganda Network 

Landela okutholwe yi-US Right to Know nokusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nokusebenzisana phakathi kwamaqembu embonini yokudla kanye nezifundiswa ku ikhasi lethu lokuphenya. Imibhalo ye-USRTK iyatholakala kufayela le- Umtapo Wezincwadi Wezimboni Zamakhemikhali isingathwe ngu-UCSF.