UJay Byrne: Hlangana noMuntu Olandela Umshini We-Monsanto PR

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

OwayenguMqondisi Wezokuxhumana Kwamabhizinisi uMonsanto uJay Byrne, umongameli wenkampani yezobudlelwano nomphakathi v-Amandla, ungumdlali oyinhloko kufayela le- i-covert inkulumo-ze nemikhankaso yokunxenxa izinkampani zezolimo ezinkulu kakhulu emhlabeni. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know, kuthunyelwe ku-UCSF Chemical Industry Documents Archive, yembula uhla lwamasu akhohlisayo uByrne nabanye ababambisene nabo embonini abasebenzisayo ukukhuthaza nokuvikela ukudla kwe-GMO kanye nezibulala-zinambuzane.

Izibonelo lapha zibonisa ezinye zezindlela izinkampani ezihambisa ngazo imiyalezo yazo enkundleni yomphakathi zisuka ngemuva kwesembozo samaqembu angaphambi kokuzwakala, abasizi bakahulumeni kanye nezifundiswa ezibonakala zizimele njengoba zisebenza nezinkampani noma ababonisi babo be-PR.

Amaklayenti: izinkampani eziphezulu zezolimo, ezolimo kanye nezinkampani zezidakamizwa 

KaByrne uhlu lwamakhasimende ifake phakathi uhla lwamabhizinisi amakhulu ezolimo kanye nezinkampani ezenza imithi namaqembu amabhizinisi, kufaka phakathi i-American Chemistry Council, iSyngenta, i-AstraZeneca, iMonsanto, iPfizer, i-American Farm Bureau, iNational Corn Growers Association, iGrocery Manufacturers Association, iRohm neHaas kanye nemboni yokubulala izinambuzane. iqembu lokuhweba iCropLife.

I-International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), ekhuthaza ukwenziwa kwezakhi zofuzo “iGolden Rice,” nayo iyiklayenti. Byrne ubambe iqhaza emizameni ye-PR yokuhlasela iGreenpeace nabanye abagxeka ilayisi le-GMO. Bheka nomtapo wolwazi wamakhompiyutha we-UCSF wabaningi amadokhumende afaka i-IRRI.

Kuphekwe iqembu eliphambili lezemfundo ukuze lihlasele abagxeki beMonsanto

Isu elisemqoka lomkhakha wezolimo, njenge I-New York Times ibike, ngukutshala osolwazi “besigqoko esimhlophe” ukulwa izimpi zomkhakha we-PR kanye nokunxenxa izimpi zisemuva kwesembozo "sokungakhethi kanye nesisindo segunya eliza nozalo loprofesa."

NgoMashi 2010, uByrne kanye noProfesa waseYunivesithi yase-Illinois UBruce Chassy uxoxe ngokusungula iqembu eliphambili elibizwa nge- "Academics Review" elingaheha iminikelo evela ezinkampanini ngenkathi libonakala lizimele. U-Byrne waqhathanisa lo mqondo nesikhungo senkululeko yabathengi (iqembu langaphambili eliqhutshwa udumo olubi inkulumo-ze yenkampani indoda engaphambili uRick Berman), okuthe “kwangena kulokhu ngokweqile; futhi ngicabanga ukuthi sinomqondo ongcono kakhulu. ” U-Byrne uchaze “uhla 'lwamathuba' anezinhloso” abangalulandela. UByrne wabhalela uDkt Chassy:

Wonke lawo maqembu, abantu kanye nezindawo zezihloko "kusho imali yezinhlangano zezinkampani ezithende kahle," kubhala uByrne. Uthe yena futhi UVal Giddings, PhD, owayeyisekela likamongameli weqembu lebhizinisi le-biotech i-BIO, ingasebenza "njengezimoto zokuhweba" zezifundiswa.

Ngo-November 2010, UByrne wabhalela uChassy Futhi, "Kuzoba kuhle ukuthola isigaba esilandelayo somsebenzi ekubuyekezweni kwe-Academics - sinezinga elihamba kancane eliqhamuka ngonyaka ka-2011 uma ibhizinisi lisafana." U-Byrne unikeze “ukuhlela isikhathi esithile sokwenza i-pro bono search engine optimization” ”ukuze iqembu lakhe libhekane nethonya lomgxeki we-GMO online. U-Byrne uphethe i-imeyili, "Njengenjwayelo, ngingathanda ukuthola isihloko esilandelayo (futhi sixhase) ukukhulisa lokhu ngenkathi sikwazi."

Ngo-2014, i-Academics Review yakhipha i- kubika ukuhlasela imboni ephilayo njengomkhonyovu wokumaketha; ezintweni zalo zokumaketha zombiko, i-Academics Review ithi izimele futhi ayizange iveze ukuxhaswa kwayo embonini yezolimo.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

"Imiklamo kahulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne" yokuthwebula izintatheli

Ukunxenxa kukaByrne nokusebenza kwe-PR kweGMO kanye nemboni yezibulala-zinambuzane kuhlangana ezindaweni eziningi nomsebenzi we UJon Entine, omunye umuntu osemqoka emikhankasweni yokuvikela umkhakha wezolimo. U-Entine uqondisa i-Genetic Literacy Project, ayisungula ngo-2011 ngesikhathi iMonsanto isiyi- iklayenti lenkampani yakhe ye-PR. (I-Entine's PR firm ESG MediaMetrics ibhale iMonsanto njengekhasimende kuwebhusayithi yayo ku 2010, 2011, 2012 kuze kufike kuJanuwari 2013, ngokusho kwezinqolobane ze-inthanethi zisatholakala online.)

Ngo-December 2013, U-Entine ubhalele uMax T. Holtzman, owayeyibamba lesekela likanobhala ngaphansi koMnyango Wezolimo e-US, ukuze aphakamise ukusebenzisana ochungechungeni lwezinto azichaza ngokuthi “yimisebenzi kahulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne” ukukhuthaza ama-GMO. U-Entine ubhalele uHoltzman:

Isiphakamiso sika-Entine “Uhulumeni wase-US-GLP-Byrne”Amaphrojekthi afaka phakathi“ Ithimba leBoot Camp ne-Response Swat Team ”ukulungiselela izifundiswa ezivela eceleni ukuthi“ zibambe iqhaza ekushayweni komthetho ezindlebeni [ze-GMO] nakwezinye izindaba ezihlobene nazo, ”“ umhlangano wobuntatheli ”ukuqinisa ukusakazwa kwabezindaba mayelana nezinselelo zokuphepha kokudla kanye“ nokuhlinzeka ngoqeqesho kwizintatheli ezisencane, ”umkhankaso wokufinyelela kwabezindaba emhlabeni wonke wokukhuthaza ukwamukelwa kwe-biotechnology, kanye" nokuqukethwe kwemidiya eminingi nokubekwa okuvela emithonjeni ethembekile "kuqinisa izingqikithi ezibalulekile" ngamasegmenti nemibhalo etholakalayo etholakala kumawebhusayithi kahulumeni wase-US, i-GLP namanye amapulatifomu. "

UHoltzman uphendule, “Ngiyabonga Jon. Bekukuhle ukuhlangana nawe futhi. Ngicabanga ukuthi uhlaka lwakho olungezansi luhlinzeka ngamaphoyinti ezimpambanweni zemvelo lapho imiyalezo ye-usda / USG nemizamo yakho ihlangana kahle. Ngingathanda ukuqhubekisela phambili futhi ngixegise abanye abantu lapha e-usda hhayi nje kuphela abavela ezindaweni zobuchwepheshe / ezentengiselwano kodwa nasezitolo zethu zokuxhumana. ”

Amavidiyo aqondiswe ngabakhokhi bentela, aqondaniswe neMonsanto ukukhuthaza ama-GMO

Uchungechunge lwabakhokhi bentela oluxhaswe ngemali videos okwakhiqizwa ngo-2012 ukukhuthaza ukudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo kunikeza esinye isibonelo sendlela izifundiswa namanyuvesi abephusha ngayo imiyalezo ehambisana nezinkampani. Inkampani ka-Byrne i-PR v-Fluence isize ekwakheni ama-video “abeklanyelwe ukuvela njengesabelomali esincane kanye nezimfundamakhwela,” ngokusho kwe-imeyili evela kuSolwazi uBruce Chassy wase-University of Illinois.

UDkt Chassy yabhalela abasebenzi baseMonsanto ngo-Ephreli 27, 2012:

U-Eric Sachs weMonsanto uphendule wathi:

AmaSachs anikele ngokusiza ngokuthumela imiyalezo ngamavidiyo wesikhathi esizayo ngokwabelana ngemiphumela yokuhlolwa kweqembu okwakugxilwa kulo okwenziwa uMonsanto. UDkt. Chassy umeme iSachs ukuthi inikeze iziphakamiso ngezihloko zevidiyo ezizayo futhi yamcela ukuthi athumele imiphumela yeqembu lokugxila leMonsanto.

Ukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuhlela impikiswano mayelana nama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides

Ngo-2014 nango-2015, uByrne wasiza uJon Entine ukuhlela ifayili le- Izinkambu zeBiotech Literacy Project ixhaswe yizinkampani zezolimo futhi ibanjwe ngokubambisana ngamaqembu amabili angaphambili embonini, Iphrojekthi ye-Entine's Genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezemfundo KukaBruce Chassy. Abahleli bedukise bachaza uxhaso lwalemicimbi njengokuqhamuka emithonjeni yezemfundo, kahulumeni neyezimboni, kodwa i okuwukuphela komthombo wokuthola imali owawungalandeleka kwakuyimboni yezolimo, ngokusho kombiko kaPaul Thacker. Inhloso yamakamu ama-boot, kusho uThacker, "kwakuwukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukuthi bahlele impikiswano ngama-GMO nangobuthi be-glyphosate."

UByrne wayeseqenjini elalihlela, kanye noCami Ryan (manje osebenzela iMonsanto) noBruce Chassy (owayethola izimali ezivela eMonsanto lokho akuzange kuvezwe obala), ngokusho kwama-imeyili avela ku- Faka futhi Ryan.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

I-Bonus Eventus: ikamelo lezokuxhumana lomkhakha wezolimo lomkhakha wezolimo

Umsebenzi obalulekile uByrne ahlinzeka ngawo emizamweni yokwenyusa yezolimo ngumphakathi wakhe "we-Bonus Eventus" onikeza izifundiswa nabanye ababambisene nabo embonini ngamaphoyinti okukhuluma namathuba wokuphromotha. Ngaphakathi imibhalo (ikhasi 9) ichaza i-Bonus Eventus ngokuthi "ingosi yokuxhumana nabantu yangasese esebenza njengendawo yokubambisana kwezokuxhumana kososayensi abathanda ezolimo, abenza izinqubomgomo nabanye ababambe iqhaza." Amalungu athola incwadi yezindaba kaByrne, kanye nokufinyelela kulabhulali yakhe eyinkomba yezihloko zebhizinisi lezolimo, "imininingwane yababambiqhaza" yabantu abanethonya empikiswaneni ye-GMO, nokuqeqeshwa nokwesekwa kokuzibandakanya kwabezindaba zenhlalo.

Izibonelo zale ncwadi zingatholakala kulokhu inqolobane yama-imeyili asuka eByrne aya kuPeter Phillips, onguprofesa wase-University of Saskatchewan oke waba egxekwa ngozakwabo ngenxa yakhe vala ubudlelwano neMonsanto. Encwadini yezindaba kaNovemba 7, 2016, uByrne unxuse uPhillips nabanye abamukeli ukuthi babelane ngokuqukethwe mayelana "namaphutha nokushiyeka" ku Indaba yeNew York Times lokho kwabika ngokwehluleka kwezitshalo ze-GMO ukukhuphula isivuno kanye nokunciphisa izibulala-zinambuzane, futhi "imibuzo ekhulayo" ebhekene neqembu lomhlaba wonke lososayensi bomdlavuza ababika ukuthi i-glyphosate yi-carcinogen mhlawumbe yabantu ehambisana nohlelo lukaMonsanto lwe-PR ihlaze iphaneli lokucwaninga ngomdlavuza. (Bheka ne- iphepha lamaqiniso likaPeter Phillip imfihlo yochungechunge "ilungelo lokwazi").

U-Byrne unxuse umphakathi we-Bonus Eventus ukuthi wabelane ngokuqukethwe ngalezi zingqikithi kubalobi abaxhumene nomkhakha, njenge UJulie Kelly, UDkt. Henry Miller, UKavin Senapathy, I-Sci Babe futhi Hank campbell we Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, iqembu leMonsanto lalikhona ukukhokha ukusiza ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi bomdlavuza. Ku-2017, iForbes isuse inqwaba yama-athikili kaDkt.Miller - kufaka phakathi amaningana awabhala nawo Kelly, Senapathy neByrne - ngemuva kwe- I-New York Times ibike ukuthi uDkt. Miller wayeshicilele udaba eForbes ngaphansi kwegama lakhe okwakubhalwe ngalo isipoki nguMonsanto.

Umlindisango ngokuhlaselwa kweGreenpeace

Lapho iqembu labathola izindondo zikaNobel linxusa iGreenpeace ukuba iyeke ukuphikisa irayisi elenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo, kwabukeka njengomzamo ozimele. Kepha ngemuva kwekhethenisi lezimpawu ezihlaba umxhwele bekungukusizwa kwabadlali ababalulekile emkhankasweni wezokuxhumana we-PR wemboni yezolimo: UJay Byrne kanye nelungu lebhodi le-Genetic Literacy Project. Byrne bekuposwe emnyango emcimbini we-2016 National Press Club okhuthaza iqembu elibizwa Sekela i-Precision Agriculture. Uhlobo lwe-.com lwaleyo webhusayithi luqondiswe kabusha iminyaka ku-Genetic Literacy Project, iqembu langaphambili elisebenzayo neMonsanto kumaphrojekthi we-PR ngaphandle kokudalula lezo zibopho. 

Ngakho-ke ngubani okhokhele umcimbi wezindaba we-anti-Greenpeace? USir Richard Roberts, isazi samakhemikhali ezinto eziphilayo owathi wahlela incwadi yabathole umklomelo kaNobel, uchaze le ndaba kwi-FAQ kuwebhusayithi: "umkhankaso ubusungabizi kakhulu kuze kube manje," ubhale, kubandakanya iningi lomholo wakhe okhokhelwe umqashi wakhe iNew England Biolabs kanye "nezindleko eziphuma ephaketheni" ezikhokhwe nguMatt Winkler. UWinkler, umsunguli nosihlalo wenkampani ye-biotech i-Asuragen, naye ungumxhasi futhi ilungu lebhodi yeGenetic Literacy Project, ngokusho kwewebhusayithi yeqembu. URoberts uchaze ukuthi uWinkler “ubhalise umngani, uVal Giddings,” (the iqembu langaphambili lokuhweba nge-biotech VP) “ophakamise uJay Byrne” (owayengumphathi wezokuxhumana kuMonsanto) owanikeza ukwesekwa kwe-pro bono logistical for the event.

U-Byrne no-Giddings baphinde basiza ukuhlela uhlelo lwe-Academics Review oluxhaswe yimboni, iqembu langaphambili abalisungula ukuthi livele lizimele ngenkathi lisebenza njengemoto yokuheha imali yezinkampani ukuze kutholakale abagxeki abahlaselayo bemikhiqizo ye-ag-biotech, ngokusho kwe ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know. Kuma-imeyili, uByrne waqamba igama elithi Greenpeace ku- Uhlu “lwamatshegethi” abelubhalela iMonsanto. Enye kaByrne amakhasimende yi-International Rice Research Institute, okuyiqembu eliyimboni eliyinhloko elizama ukuthengisa i-GMO Golden Rice, obekugxilwe kuyona yi-Greenpeace critique. Ucwaningo olwenziwe nguGlenn Davis Stone waseWashington University eSt. Louis luthole lokho isivuno esiphansi nobunzima bezobuchwepheshe babambe iGolden Rice, hhayi ukuphikiswa ngamaqembu ezemvelo.

Embuzweni wakhe we-FAQ, uDkt. Roberts waluchitha ucwaningo oluzimele lukaDkt. UJulie Kelly, Henry Miller futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa. Umcimbi wabezindaba wenzeke ngesikhathi esibucayi sezepolitiki, futhi waba usizo indaba eWashington Post, isonto ngaphambi kokuba iCongress ivote ukuvimbela amazwe ukuthi afake ilebuli yama-GMO.

Kusukela ngoJanuwari 2019, inguqulo ye- .com ye-Support Precision Agriculture iphinde yaqondiswa ku-Genetic Literacy Project. Ku-FAQ yakhe, uRoberts uthe akanabo ubudlelwano ne-GLP futhi wathi "umuntu ongaziwa" uthenge indawo efanayo "ngomzamo obonakalayo" wokuyixhumanisa ne-GLP. Uthe lesi yisibonelo sokuthi "amaqhinga angcolile eqembu eliphikisayo awanamkhawulo."
(Ukuqondisa kabusha kwenziwa kwasebenza esikhathini esithile ngemuva kokuthi lokhu okuthunyelwe kuqale ukusebenza.)

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Ukwenza iwebhu isebenze ngabantu namawebhusayithi mbumbulu

Ukubikwa kwe UGuardian ngo-2002, UGeorge Monbiot uchaze iqhinga lokucasha ukuthi izinkampani zezolimo kanye nezinhlangano zabo ze-PR bezikade zisebenzisa amashumi eminyaka ukukhuthaza nokuvikela imikhiqizo yabo: ukudala ubuntu obungebona obusobala namawebhusayithi mbumbulu ukuze kuthuliswe abagxeki futhi kube nomthelela emiphumeleni yokusesha eku-inthanethi.

UMonbiot ubike ukuthi “izakhamizi mbumbulu” (abantu abebengekho empeleni) “bebehlasela amabhokisi asohlwini lwe-inthanethi ngemiyalezo esola ososayensi kanye nabezemvelo abebegxeka izitshalo ze-GM” - kanti izakhamizi mbumbulu zalandelwa zabuyiselwa enkampanini i-PR kaMons Bivings.

UMonbiot uchaze ukuxhumana kukaJay Byrne neBivings:

"Cabanga nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni… kukhona ozobulawa."

“Ekupheleni konyaka odlule, uJay Byrne, owayengumphathi [weMonsanto] wezokuxhumana nge-internet, wachazela amanye amafemu amaqhinga ayewasebenzisile eMonsanto. Ukhombise ukuthi, ngaphambi kokuthi aqale ukusebenza, izingosi eziphezulu ze-GM ezibalwe yinjini yokusesha kwi-inthanethi zonke zazigxeka ubuchwepheshe. Ngemuva kokungenelela kwakhe, izingosi ezisezingeni eliphezulu zonke bezingabasekeli (ezine zazo ezisungulwe yinkampani yakwaMonsanto's PR Bivings). Ubatshele ukuthi 'bacabange nge-intanethi njengesikhali esisetafuleni. Kuphakathi kokuthi uyayicosha noma umuntu oyincintisana naye uyayithatha, kodwa kukhona umuntu ozobulawa. ' Ngenkathi esasebenzela iMonsanto, uByrne utshele iphephandaba le-inthanethi wow ukuthi 'uchitha isikhathi sakhe nomzamo wakhe ebambe iqhaza' ezingxoxweni zewebhu mayelana ne-biotech. Ukhethe indawo i-AgBioWorld, lapho 'eqinisekisa ukuthi inkampani yakhe idlala khona'. I-AgBioWorld yindawo lapho [isakhamuzi mbumbulu] uSmetacek eqale khona umkhankaso wakhe. ”

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Okuningi okuvela kuJay Byrne

A Isethulo se-Power Point sika-2013 ibonisa indima edlalwa nguByrne kumakhasimende akhe embonini yezolimo. Lapha uchaza imibono yakhe ngabasekeli bezemvelo, ubeka ithonya labo online futhi unxusa izinkampani ukuthi zihlanganise izinsiza zazo ukubhekana nazo, ukuze kugwenywe "izingqinamba zokulawula nezimakethe."

The 2006 ibhuku “Bayekeni Badle Ukuqapha,” enyatheliswa yi- I-American Enterprise Institute futhi yahlelwa yimboni yezolimo Umsebenzi we-PR uJon Entine, iqukethe isahluko sikaByrne esihloko sithi, "Ukwakha kabusha i-Agricultural Biotechnology Protest Industry."

U-Byrne uyilungu le- "AgBioChatter," a uhlu lwe-imeyili oluyimfihlo ukuthi abasebenzi abaphezulu embonini yezolimo, abeluleki kanye nezifundiswa basebenzise ukuxhumanisa imisebenzi yokuthumela imiyalezo nokunxenxa. Ama-imeyili atholwe yi-US Right to Know khombisa uByrne ekhuthaza amalungu e-AgBioChatter ukuthi azame ukudicilela phansi isithunzi sabantu namaqembu ayegxeka ama-GMO kanye ne-pesticides. Uhlelo lwe-Monsanto PR lwango-2015 olubizwa nge-AgBioChatter njengenye ye "Abalingani bezimboni" uMonsanto uhlele ukuzibandakanya ukusiza ukuhlazisa ukukhathazeka ngomdlavuza mayelana ne-glyphosate.

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

I-SciBabe ithi yidla izibulala-zinambuzane zakho. Kepha ubani omkhokhelayo?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isayensi embi yeSciBabe izama ukwenza imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ibukeke kahle.

Ukubhuloga ngaphansi kwegama SciBabe, UYvette d'Entremont uvikela amakhemikhali anobuthi emikhiqizweni yokudla futhi akhuthaze izibulala-zinambuzane njengeziphephile. Uthole uxhaso ne-honouraria ezinkampanini ezahlukahlukene kanye namaqembu ezimboni.

Ngo-2017, inkampani eyenziwe ngoshukela yokufakelwa iSPLENDA waqasha uSciBabe ukwenza "i-debunk junk science" ukuvikela umkhiqizo wabo. USciBabe ubeyisikhulumi esifakiwe kumakhemikhali ahlukahlukene nasekudleni imicimbi exhaswe imboni njengengqungquthela yango-2017 ye-Atlantic Farm Women exhaswe ngu ICropLife neMonsanto, Umbukiso Wabahlinzeki ngo-2015 lapho inkulumo yakhe yesidlo sasemini ibikhona exhaswe yiDuPont, kanye nomhlangano waminyaka yonke we-CropLife America ka-2016 lapho inkulumo yakhe eyisihluthulelo yayikhona exhaswe nguMonsanto. Ngokusho kwe- Ukudalulwa okubikiwe kwe-webinar yango-2017, d'Entremont usebenza njengomxhumanisi ku-SPLENDA futhi uthole i-honaria evela, phakathi kwabanye, Abakhiqizi Bokunambitheka, Abalimi Bama-Florida Dairy, i-CropLife, i-American Soybean Association kanye ne-CA Beet Growers.

Ezingxoxweni, uSciBabe uvame ukubalula umsebenzi wakhe wangaphambili ebhodini lezibulala-zinambuzane njengesisekelo solwazi lwakhe ngokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane.

Usebenze enkampanini yokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane eyimpikiswano eyayinesivumelwano neMonsanto ukukhuthaza ama-GMO

Ngaphambi kokuba abe yi-blogger yesikhathi esigcwele, uYvette d'Entremont wasebenza njenge-an isazi samakhemikhali sokuhlaziya at I-Amvac Chemical Corporation, “okwenza ibhizinisi elichumayo lithengise ezinye zezibulala-zinambuzane eziyingozi kakhulu emhlabeni,” ngokusho kwendaba yango-2007 kuyi- I-Los Angeles Times:

“I-Amvac ikhuthaze ukukhula kwemali engenayo enamadijithi amabili ngomkhuba webhizinisi ongajwayelekile: Ithenge ezinkampanini ezinkulu amalungelo emithi yokubulala izinambuzane endala, iningi layo lisengozini yokuvinjelwa noma ukuvinjelwa ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokuphepha. Le nkampani ilwele ukugcina lawo makhemikhali emakethe isikhathi eside ngangokunokwenzeka, eqasha ososayensi nabameli ukuba balwe nezinhlangano ezilawulayo. Ukugxila kwe-Amvac emithini yokubulala izinambuzane endala kubize impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo, ngokusho kweFederal Environmental Agency Agency (EPA) kanye namarekhodi wombuso, uphenyo lwezomthetho kanye nochungechunge lwamacala. Izingozi ezibandakanya izibulala-zinambuzane zale nkampani ziholele ekutheni kuthuthwe omakhelwane futhi kufakwe nobuthi eziningini zabasebenza emasimini eCalifornia nakwezinye izindawo. ”

I-Amvac Chemical Corporation ine- Okukhethekile isivumelwano neDow Chemical Corporation ukuthengisa iLorsban eyenziwe nge-chlorpyrifos, a isibulala-zinambuzane esiyimpikiswano ukuthi amashumi eminyaka ka isayensi iphakamisa ngokuqinile kulimaza ubuchopho bezingane. I-EPA ithe ama-chlorpyrifos kufanele ivinjelwe, kepha isasetshenziswa kabanzi kuma-apula, amawolintshi, ama-strawberry kanye ne-broccoli, futhi i-Amvac iyimaketha njenge “ukukhetha okulungile!”I-Amvac nayo ine- Isivumelwano neMonsanto ukukhuthaza izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

I-2016 Monsanto ixhase inkulumo yeSciBabe.

Izitatimende ezingamanga mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane nama-GMO, nethonya le-Amvac

I-SciBabe yenza izimangalo ezingamanga mayelana nezingozi zezempilo kanye nezinqubo zokuphepha zezibulala-zinambuzane, ama-GMO namakhemikhali ekudleni:

  • “Sifakazele ngokukhulu ukucophelela ukuthi, uma bengena ekudleni, [izibulala-zinambuzane] ziphephile kubantu… ngoba sisendaweni elawulwa kakhulu, amathuba okuthi uthole okuthile ekudleni kwakho okungaphephile kuleli qophelo liphansi kakhulu, liphansi kakhulu. Ngisho, ngiphansi ngokweqile. ” (podcast noprofesa waseYunivesithi yaseFlorida UKevin Folta)
  • Okokunandisa okwenziwe kuphephile ngaphandle kobufakazi bokulimala. (SciBabe ibhulogi; Nawa amaqiniso mayelana izingozi zempilo ze-aspartame)
  • Kuma-GMO, “Kunamazinga wokuhlola abucayi akhona avela ku-EPA, FDA, ne-USDA. Ama-GMO ahlolwe kuze kube sekugcineni kwe-DNA. ” (esihlokweni ngoba Iphrojekthi Ye-Genetic Literacy Project)

USciBabe ubonga umsebenzi wakhe wangaphambili ebhodini le-Amvac ngokumkhuthaza ukuthi abambe iqhaza njengomxhumanisi wesayensi:

  • “Ngesikhathi ngisebenza lapho, kulapho-ke lapho ngaqala khona ukungena engxabanweni yalolu hlobo lwempi esinayo kwi-Internet nabantu abathi alukho ucwaningo olwenziwe ngalezi zinambuzane ngaphambi kokuba kuqale imakethe. Futhi ngifana noyebo, ngivele ngikhothe okubi bese ngithi mhlawumbe ngeke zibulale izingane zakho ngaphambi kokukuvumela ukuthi kuthengiswe - okuyinto engikuthembisa yona, akusebenzi kanjalo. ” (i-podcast)
  • "Ngiqale i-blog ngenkathi ngisebenza lapho, futhi ngokwengxenye ngoba bengilokhu ngibona imininingwane emibi kakhulu ku-inthanethi mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane." (Isayensi Edumile Q&A)
  • “Njalo lapho ngibona impikiswano ku-inthanethi yokuthi (ama-GMO) awahlolelwa ukuphepha, ngangibona ebhodini lami lezibulala-zinambuzane engangisebenza kulo, sasikhona. Ngifana nokuthi, 'Lezi zingavivinyelwa kanjani ukuphepha uma umsebenzi wami ngqo uvivinya ukuphepha?' Futhi kwesinye isikhathi bengichitha amasonto amabili ngilinganisela insimbi eyodwa, futhi ngiyisigaxa esisodwa emshinini. Futhi ngiyazi ukuthi ezinye izinhlangothi zicophelelayo njengami. ” (Isayensi Edumile)

Abangane beqembu langaphambili

Umsebenzi weSciBabe ngu njalo kukhuthazwe ngu izimboni zamakhemikhali amaqembu angaphambili, njenge Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo (eye uthole imali kusuka ku-Amvac Chemical Corporation) kanye ne- Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo.

I- "Kevin Folta Fan Club" ungubani wobungani beMonsanto kanye nabavikeli bezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-SciBabe iyingxenye yalokho akubiza nge- "Kevin Folta Fan Club" evikela uprofesa wase-University of Florida owenze kaninginingi izitatimende ezingamanga nezidukisayo. Isithombe seklabhu yabalandeli sibonisa i-d'Entremont noJulie Gunlock we Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele, iqembu elixhaswa ngezimali nguKoch lelo abalingani neMonsanto ukwehlisa ukwesaba mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane; i-propagandist ye-pesticide UJulie Kelly; kanye nesayensi yezenhlalo kaMonsanto kuhola uCami Ryan.

Okuningi ku-Yvette d'Entremont:

  • “USciBabe Akayena Usosayensi Noma Uyingane: UnguBullshit,” Medium
  • “Impendulo kuGawker 'I-Food Babe Blogger igcwele…,” UkudlaBabe
  • "ISciBabe, ekhokhwa ngabakwaSplenda, ithinta umkhiqizo wayo," nguJerry Coyne, PhD, uprofesa e-Univ. waseChicago.

Odokotela, ososayensi batusa ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane 

Izinsizakusebenza zokufunda kabanzi ngobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane nemithetho ebuthakathaka eyehluleka ukuvikela impilo:

I-American Academy Yezingane uncoma ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane. Nayi i-AAP ka-2012 iphepha lesikhundla sesayensi.

“Ubufakazi be-Epidemiologic bubonisa ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka zisencane kwezibulala-zinambuzane nomdlavuza wezingane, kwehle ukusebenza kwengqondo, nezinkinga zokuziphatha. Izifundo ezihlobene nobuthi bezilwane zihlinzeka ngokusekelwa kwezinto eziphilayo ngokusekelwa kwalokhu okutholakele. Ukubona nokunciphisa ukuvezwa kwezinkinga kuzodinga ukunakekelwa kokuntuleka kwamanje ekuqeqesheni ubudokotela, ukulandela umkhondo wezempilo yomphakathi, kanye nezinyathelo zokulawula izibulala-zinambuzane. ”

Umbiko KaMongameli Wephaneli Yomdlavuza incoma ukwehlisa ukuvezwa kwezingane ekuchayekeni kwemvelo okubangela umdlavuza kanye nokukhuthaza umdlavuza.

“Abantu baseMelika — ngisho nangaphambi kokuba bazalwe — bahlaselwa njalo ngenhlanganisela eyinqwaba yalezi zingozi eziyingozi. IPhaneli ikunxusa kakhulu ukuthi usebenzise amandla ehhovisi lakho ukususa izidalwa zomzimba nezinye izinto ezinobuthi ekudleni kwethu, emanzini nasemoyeni ezikhuphula ngokungadingekile izindleko zokunakekelwa kwempilo, zikhubaze umkhiqizo weSizwe sethu, futhi zichithe izimpilo zabantu baseMelika. ”

Isahluko sikaPresident's Cancer Panel ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane siqala ekhasini 43:

“Cishe i-1,400 yezibulala-zinambuzane ibhalisiwe (okungukuthi, ivunyelwe) yi-EPA ukuze isetshenziselwe ezolimo nokungasetshenziswa kwezolimo. Ukuchayeka kulawa makhemikhali kuxhunyaniswe nesistimu yezinzwa yobuchopho / emaphakathi, isifuba, ikholoni, amaphaphu, ama-ovari (abashadikazi besifazane), i-pancreatic, izinso, amasende, nomdlavuza wesisu, kanye neHodgkin ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, i-myeloma eminingi, kanye i-sarcoma yezicubu ezithambile. Abalimi abachayeke ngezibulala-zinambuzane, abafaka izibulala-zinambuzane, abashayeli bezindiza zezitshalo, nabakhiqizi nabo batholakale benamazinga aphakeme omdlavuza wendlala yabesilisa, i-melanoma, eminye imidlavuza yesikhumba nomdlavuza wezindebe. ”

Ukuhlolwa Kokukhethwa Kokukhethwa Kokukhetha KwePhalamende laseYurophu le-2016 Kunconywe ukwehliswa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ikakhulukazi kwabesifazane nezingane.

Ukuhlolwa kobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane “akubunaki ubufakazi obuvela ocwaningweni lwezifo ezibonisa imiphumela engemihle yokuchayeka ezingeni eliphansi emithini yokubulala izinambuzane ye-organophosphate ekukhuleni kwengqondo yezingane, yize kunezindleko ezinkulu zokulahlekelwa yi-IQ emphakathini. Yize ukungeniswa kwezithelo nemifino kungafanele kwehliswe, izifundo ezikhona zisekela umgomo wokunciphisa ukutholakala kokudla kuzinsalela ze-pesticides, ikakhulukazi kwabesifazane abakhulelwe nezingane. ”

Ijenali yokuphawula kwe-American Medical Association nguPhillip Landrigan, MD, uncoma ukuthi kudliwe ukudla okuphilayo.

  • "Isimo sethu samanje se-laissez-faire maqondana nokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane siyasihluleka"
  • "Ubufakazi obuningi buveza ukuthi inzalo yomuntu iyancipha nokuthi imvamisa yokukhubazeka kokuzala iyanda." Lezi zinkambiso “cishe” zixhunyaniswe nokuchayeka kwemvelo kumakhemikhali
  • Bhekafuthi Isifundo seHarvard pesticide / infertility kuJAMAAbaphenyi baseHarvard balandela abesifazane abangama-325 emtholampilo wokuzala iminyaka emibili futhi babika ukuthi abesifazane abadla njalo izithelo nemifino elashwa ngezibulala-zinambuzane banamazinga empumelelo aphansi okukhulelwa i-IVF

Isitatimende sokuvumelana esivela ososayensi abahola phambili: Ukukhathazeka ngezingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula esekwe ku-glyphosate nezingozi ezihambisana nokuchayeka, i-Environmental Health Journal

Izindaba zakamuva ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane

I-chlorpyrifos yokubulala izinambuzane kaDow ikhonjiswe ukuthi ilimaza ubuchopho bezingane kanti ososayensi uqobo lwe-EPA bathe ngo-2016 abasakwazi ukufakazela ukuphepha kwesibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni noma emanzini, kodwa isasetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo ngenxa yengcindezi yezepolitiki evela embonini yezolimo.

Icala Elinamandla Ngokuphikisana Nesibulala-zinambuzane Alisho I-EPA Ngaphansi Kwetrump, NguRoni Caryn Rabin New York Times

Yilokhu okwenziwa ngumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ebuchosheni bengane, NguNicholas Kristof New York Times

I-EPA ikhothama embonini yamakhemikhali ekubambezelekeni kokubuyekezwa komdlavuza weGlyphosate

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Ikhophi yeBrandProducts_Image_Large ikhophi

Lokhu kungenzeka kube yisonto elinzima kuMonsanto Co I-Environmental Protection Agency yayihlelelwe ukuthi ibambe izinsuku ezine zemihlangano yomphakathi egxile embuzweni owodwa: Ingabe i-glyphosate, i-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni kanye ne-lynchpin kumcebo kaMonsanto, iphephe njengeMonsanto uchithe iminyaka engama-40 esitshela ukuthi kunjalo?

Kepha ngokumangazayo, imihlangano ye-EPA Scientific Advisory Panel (SAP), ebizelwe ukubheka ubudlelwane obukhona be-glyphosate nomdlavuza, “zahlehliswa“Ezinsukwini ezine nje ngaphambi kokuthi ziqale ngo-Okthoba 18, ngemuva kokunxenxa okukhulu imboni yezolimo. Imboni iqale yalwela ukuthi imihlangano ingabanjwa nhlobo, futhi waphikisana ukuthi uma babanjwa, ochwepheshe abaningana abahola phambili bamazwe kufanele bakhishwe ekubambeni iqhaza, kufaka phakathi "noma yimuphi umuntu oveze obala umbono wakhe mayelana ne-carcinogenicity ye-glyphosate."

Njengoba imihlangano yayisondela, CropLife Melika, emele izintshisekelo zeMonsanto namanye amabhizinisi ezolimo, ngokukhethekile kwaba nodaba ososayensi okungenani ababili abakhethwe iphaneli, besola ukuthi ochwepheshe bangahle babe nokuchema okuhle nezintshisekelo zemboni. Ngo-Okthoba 12, iqembu wathumela incwadi ku-EPA efuna UDkt. Kenneth Portier we-American Cancer Society ukuze ihlolisiswe ngokujulile nganoma yiziphi "iziphetho ezenziwe ngaphambilini" mayelana ne-glyphosate.

Okuphawuleka kakhulu, uCropLife ubize udokotela wezifo ezihamba phambili UDkt Peter Infante ukungavunyelwa ngokuphelele ukubamba iqhaza kwephaneli: "I-EPA kufanele ithathe isikhundla sikaDkt. Infante kube ngudokotela wezifo ezingenalo ubandlululo olunjalo," kusho uCropLife etshela i-EPA. Iqembu lemboni yamakhemikhali lithe i-Infante ayinakwenzeka ukuthi inikeze izifundo zocwaningo ezixhaswe imboni ukwethembeka imboni ekholelwa ukuthi ibafanele. AbakwaCropLife bathi abakwa-Infante bafakaze phambilini ngabamangali emacaleni okuvezwa ngamakhemikhali abhekene neMonsanto. AbakwaCroplife baphinde bathi ngenxa yokuthi u-Infante waye "ukuphela kwesazi sezifo ku-glyphosate SAP" wayezoba nethonya elikhulu ekuhlolweni kwedatha yezifo mayelana ne-glyphosate nomdlavuza.

Incwadi yeCropLife ibhalwe ngoLwesithathu olwedlule, kwathi ngoLwesihlanu i-EPA yamemezela ukuthi ifuna olunye ulwazi lobuchwepheshe bokulwa nezifo ukuze kuqinisekiswe “ukumelwa okuqinile kulowo mkhakha.” I-EPA iphinde yathi omunye wama-panelist uhambe ngokuzithandela, noma ngabe i-ejensi yenqabile ukusho ukuthi ngubani lowo ophaneli.

Indima ye-Infante eyinselele ukunyakaza okunesibindi. Ngemuva kwakho konke, u-Infante uchithe iminyaka engama-24 esebenzela i-Occupational Safety and Health Administration esiza ekutholeni izingozi zomdlavuza kubasebenzi ngesikhathi kwenziwa amanani amakhemikhali anobuthi, afaka i-asbestos, i-arsenic, ne-formaldehyde. I-resume yakhe ifaka phakathi i-National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health lapho enza khona izifundo ze-epidemiological ezihlobene ne-carcinogens, futhi uke wasebenza njengomxhumanisi ongungoti wezifo zezifo ezinhlanganweni zomhlaba eziningi, kubandakanya i-EPA kanye neWorld Trade Organisation.

Ngokusho kwemithombo esondelene nalesi simo, u-Infante usalokhu eyi-panelist kusukela kuleli sonto, kepha asikho isiqiniseko sokuthi imihlangano ingahlehliswa nini, nokuthi ubulungu bephaneli bungabukeka kanjani uma behlelwa kabusha. I-EPA yenqabile ukudingida ukuthi ngubani oqhubeka nokuba sesigungwini nokuthi ngubani ongekho kulesi sikhathi, kanti abanye ababukele bathi i-EPA ngokusobala ibikhothamela intshisekelo yezimboni zezolimo.

“Kuyabheda lokhu. Umkhakha ufuna ukusho ukuthi ososayensi bakahulumeni wethu, abaphambili emkhakheni wabo, abawenele la mapaneli. ”

“Kuyabheda lokhu. Imboni ifuna ukusho ukuthi ososayensi bethu bakahulumeni, abaphezulu emkhakheni wabo, abanele kulezi zinhlaka, ”kusho uMichael Hansen, ongusosayensi ophakeme wabasebenzi kwi-Consumers Union. “Uma ngabe i-EPA ifuna ukwengeza odokotela besifo abengeziwe lokho kuhle kodwa kungani bengakwenzanga phambilini? Lokhu bakwenza ngenxa yengcindezi evela embonini. ”

Imboni ngokusobala isengozini enkulu, njengomphakathi. IGlyphosate iyisithako esiyisihluthulelo semithi yokubulala ukhula enophawu iMonsanto kanye nemithi yokubulala ukhula edayiswa izinkampani eziningi zezolimo emhlabeni jikelele. Futhi kuyisihluthulelo salokho obekuyiminyaka engama-20 yokuthengiswa kwezitshalo ezibekezelela izakhi zofuzo ze-glyphosate ezakhiwe yiMonsanto. Ukuthengiswa kwesikhathi esizayo kwamakhemikhali nezitshalo kusengozini ngenxa yokukhathazeka okwandayo kokuthi i-glyphosate ingadala umdlavuza nezinye izifo noma izifo. Ososayensi emhlabeni jikelele bebelokhu bephakamisa amafulegi abomvu iminyaka eminingi ngokutholakala kocwaningo olukhathazayo, kanti ngonyaka odlule i-International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), yathi i-glyphosate kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu. Ngaphezu kwe amacala amathathu zifakwe eMonsanto ngabantu abathi i-Roundup ibanikeze i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, futhi bobabili abalawuli baseYurophu nabaseMelika bahlola ikhemikhali ukuze lisetshenziswe ngokuqhubekayo.

Kusukela ngezigaba ze-IARC, iMonsanto icele i-EPA ukuthi ibuyisele isiqiniseko embonini ukuthi i-glyphosate iphephile, futhi kuze kube manje, i-EPA ikwenzile ngqo lokho, ikhipha uchungechunge lwemibiko namamemo ahambisana nesimo sikaMonsanto. IMonsanto iphinde yafuna ukuqinisa izimpikiswano zokuphepha kwe-glyphosate ngokukhomba kokusekelayo amaphepha ocwaningo eshicilelwe ngasekupheleni kukaSepthemba kuCritical Reviews in Toxicology. UMonsanto waqasha iqembu elalihlelele iphaneli, futhi iningi lososayensi abayi-16 ababandakanyekayo yilabo ababengabasebenzi baseMonsanto noma abeluleki beMonsanto. Okungenani oyedwa, uGary Williams, uphinde wabonisana neMonsanto ezindabeni zokumangalelwa ezibandakanya i-glyphosate. Ngaphandle kwakho konke lokho kusebenzisana, ucwaningo luthiwa "luzimele."

Kubukeka kungubuzenzisi nje obuncane ukuthi labo sosayensi bavezwa njengabathembekile yimboni, kepha ososayensi abanjengo-Infante noPortier kuthiwa abakufanele ukweluleka i-EPA ngenxa yokwenzelela okusolwayo. Njengo-Infante, uPortier unerekhodi elide njengososayensi ozimele. Uyiphini likamongameli weStatistics & Evaluation Center eAmerican Cancer Society. Ubambe iqhaza kweminye imihlangano engaphezulu kwama-60 yeSAP futhi useke wasebenza kuma-panels ochwepheshe kanye nezeluleko zeNational Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Toxicology Program, kanye neWorld Health Organisation Food and Agriculture Organisation.

UPortier naye ubengeke aphawule ngezinto ezikhathaza imboni ngaye, ukuhlehliswa noma ukuguqulwa kwesimo seSAP, ngaphandle kokuthi athi kuze kube namuhla, usahleli ethimbeni.

I-EPA ithe "kuyasebenza ukuhlela kabusha ngokushesha okusemandleni." Kepha ukubambezeleka nokwenza umkhakha ukuthonye ukubamba iqhaza kwamaphaneli akuqinisi ukuzethemba kwabathengi emphumeleni wenhloso.

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku I-Huffington Post.