AmaChlorpyrifos: i-pesticide ejwayelekile eboshelwe ekulimaleni kwengqondo ezinganeni

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

I-Chlorpyrifos, isibulala-zinambuzane esisetshenziswa kakhulu, ixhunyaniswe kakhulu ne ukulimala kwengqondo ezinganeni. Lokhu nokunye ukukhathazeka kwezempilo kuholele amazwe amaningana futhi amanye amazwe aseMelika ukuvimbela i-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali yilokho kusavunyelwe ezitshalweni zokudla e-US ngemuva ukunxenxa ngempumelelo ngomkhiqizi wayo.

AmaChlorpyrifos ekudleni

AmaChlorpyrifos ama-insecticide afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo kumagama omkhiqizo iDursban neLorsban, i-chlorpyrifos isibulala-zinambuzane se-organophosphate, i-acaricide kanye ne-miticide esetshenziswa ikakhulu ukulawula amahlamvu nezinambuzane ezithwalwa ngumhlabathi ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene zokudla nezokudla. Imikhiqizo iza ifomu eliwuketshezi kanye nama-granules, izimpushana, namaphakethe ancibilikiswa ngamanzi, futhi ingasetshenziswa ngumhlabathi noma imishini yasemoyeni.

AmaChlorpyrifos asetshenziswa ezinhlotsheni ezahlukahlukene ezibandakanya ama-apula, amawolintshi, ama-strawberry, ummbila, ukolweni, ezisawolintshi nokunye ukudla imindeni nezingane zabo ezikudlayo nsuku zonke. Ama-USDA Uhlelo Lwemininingwane Yezibulala-zinambuzane kutholwe izinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos kuma-citrus namakhabe ngisho nangemva kokugezwa nokuhluzwa. Ngokwevolumu, i-chlorpyrifos isetshenziswa kakhulu emmbileni nakosoya, kunamakhilogremu angaphezu kwesigidi asetshenziswa minyaka yonke esitshalweni ngasinye. Amakhemikhali awavunyelwe ezitshalweni eziphilayo.

Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ukukhathazeka ngempilo yabantu

I-American Academy of Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane abangaphezu kwama-66,000, uxwayise lokho ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo kwama-chlorpyrifos kubeka engcupheni enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, i-IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kokukhula kwezimoto. Izifundo ezisemqoka zibhalwe ngezansi.

IChlorpyrifos ibuye ixhunyaniswe nobuthi bezibulala-zinambuzane obunzima futhi ingadala ukudlikizela, ukukhubazeka kokuphefumula, futhi kwesinye isikhathi, nokufa.

I-FDA ithi ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile

I-Chlorpyrifos inobuthi obukhulu kangangoba i-European Food Safety Authority ukuthengiswa okungavunyelwe kwekhemikhali kusukela ngoJanuwari 2020, ukuthola ukuthi kukhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile. Ezinye izifundazwe zaseMelika zivimbele ama-chlorpyrifos ekusetshenzisweni kokulima, kufaka phakathi California futhi Hawaii.

I-US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow Chemical ngo-2000 ukuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwama-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yocwaningo lwesayensi olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Kwakungavunyelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni ngo-2012.

Ngo-Okthoba 2015, i-EPA yathi ihlela uku kuhoxise konke ukubekezelela izinsalela zokudla i-chlorpyrifos, okusho ukuthi bekungeke kusaba semthethweni ukuyisebenzisa kwezolimo. Le nhlangano ithe "izinsalela ezilindelekile zama-chlorpyrifos ezitshalweni zokudla zidlula izinga lokuphepha ngaphansi komthetho iFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act." Lesi sinyathelo sivele ngenxa yesicelo sokuvinjelwa koMkhandlu Wezokuvikelwa Kwemvelo kanye ne-Pesticide Action Network.

NgoNovemba 2016, i-EPA yakhipha Ukubuyekezwa kokuhlolwa kwengozi yomuntu kwezempilo kuma-chlorpyrifos eqinisekisa ukuthi akuphephile ukuvumela ikhemikhali ukuthi liqhubeke lisetshenziswe kwezolimo. Phakathi kokunye, i-EPA ithe konke ukuvezwa kokudla namanzi okuphuza akuphephile, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-1-2 ubudala. I-EPA ithe lokhu kuvinjelwa kuzokwenzeka ngo-2017.

I-Trump EPA ibambezela ukuvinjelwa

Ngemuva kokukhethwa kukaDonald Trump njengoMongameli wase-United States, ukuvinjelwa okuhlongozwayo kwe-chlorpyrifos kwabambezeleka. NgoMashi 2017, ngo esinye sezenzo zakhe zokuqala ezisemthethweni njengesikhulu esiphezulu sezemvelo esizweni, Umphathi we-EPA uScott Pruitt wasenqaba isicelo ngamaqembu ezemvelo futhi wathi ukuvinjelwa kwama-chlorpyrifos ngeke kuqhubekele phambili.

The Associated Press kubikwa ngoJuni 2017 ukuthi uPruitt uhlangane nesikhulu esiphezulu seDow u-Andrew Liveris ezinsukwini ezingama-20 ngaphambi kokumisa ukuvinjelwa. Abezindaba nabo babike ukuthi uDow unikele ngo- $ 1 million emisebenzini yokuqala kaTrump.

NgoFebhuwari ka-2018, i-EPA ufinyelele endaweni yokuhlala edinga iSyngenta ukukhokha inhlawulo engu- $ 150,000 nokuqeqesha abalimi ukuthi basebenzise izibulala-zinambuzane ngemuva kokuba inkampani yehlulekile ukuxwayisa abasebenzi ukuthi bagweme amasimu lapho kusanda kufuthwa khona ama-chlorpyrifos nabasebenzi abaningana abangena emasimini babegula futhi edinga ukunakekelwa kwezokwelapha. I-Obama EPA ekuqaleni yayihlongoze inhlawulo cishe ephindwe kasishiyagalolunye emikhulu.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience (phambilini uDowDuPont) wathi izophela ukukhiqizwa kwama-chlorpyrifos, kepha ikhemikhali lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okushicilelwe ngoJulayi 2020, abalawuli base-US kuncike emininingwaneni engelona iqiniso enikezwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos emakhaya aseMelika iminyaka. Ukuhlaziywa okuvela kubacwaningi base-University of Washington bathi ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-1970 yeDow.

NgoSepthemba 2020 i-EPA yakhipha okwesithathu ukuhlolwa kwengozi kuma-chlorpyrifos, ethi "yize kutadwe iminyaka eminingana, ukubuyekezwa kontanga, kanye nenqubo yomphakathi, isayensi ekhuluma ngemiphumela yokuthuthuka ihlala ingasonjululwanga," futhi isengasetshenziswa ekukhiqizeni ukudla.

Isinqumo size ngemuva imihlangano eminingi phakathi kwe-EPA neCorteva.

Amaqembu nezifundazwe zimangalela i-EPA

Ngemuva kwesinqumo sabaphathi bakaTrump sokubambezela noma yikuphi ukuvinjelwa kuze kube okungenani u-2022, i-Pesticide Action Network kanye noMkhandlu Wezokuvikela Wezemvelo wafaka icala ngokumelene ne-EPA ngo-Ephreli 2017, efuna ukuphoqa uhulumeni ukuthi alandele izincomo zokuphatha kuka-Obama zokuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos. Ngo-Agasti 2018, umbuso Inkantolo yokudlulisa amacala itholakele ukuthi i-EPA yephule umthetho ngokuqhubeka nokuvumela ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos, futhi yayalela i-EPA ukuthi iphothule ukuvinjelwa kwayo okuhlongozwayo zingakapheli izinyanga ezimbili. Ngemuva kwalokho ukubambezeleka okuningi, Umphathi we-EPA u-Andrew Wheeler umemezele ngoJulayi 2019 ukuthi i-EPA ngeke ivimbele ikhemikhali.

Izifundazwe eziningana ziye zamangalela i-EPA ngokwehluleka kwayo ukuvimba ama-chlorpyrifos, kufaka phakathi iCalifornia, New York, Massachusetts, Washington, Maryland, Vermont futhi Oregon. Izifundazwe zithi emibhalweni yasenkantolo yokuthi ama-chlorpyrifos kufanele avinjelwe ekukhiqizeni ukudla ngenxa yezingozi ezihambisana nakho.

I-Earthjustice ibuye yafaka icala eNkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala yaseMelika eNkantolo Yesifunda Yesishiyagalolunye ukufuna ukuvinjelwa ezweni lonke egameni lamaqembu akhuthaza abezemvelo, abasebenzi basemapulazini kanye nabantu abakhubazeke ngokufunda.

Izifundo zezokwelapha nezesayensi

Intuthuko ye-neurotoxicity

“Ucwaningo lwezifo olubukeziwe lapha lubike ukuhlangana kwezibalo phakathi kokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kuya kuCPF [chlorpyrifos] kanye nezinkinga zemizwa zangemva kokubeletha, ikakhulukazi ukushoda kwengqondo okuhlobene nokuphazamiseka kwesimo sobuchopho…. Amaqembu ahlukahlukene okucwaninga ngaphambi komhlaba emhlabeni wonke akhombise ngokungaguquki ukuthi i-CPF iyi-neurotoxicant yentuthuko. Intuthuko ye-CPF neurotoxicity, esekelwa kahle yizifundo ezisebenzisa izinhlobo ezahlukahlukene zezilwane, imizila yokuchayeka, izimoto, nezindlela zokuhlola, imvamisa ibonakala ngokushoda kwengqondo kanye nokuphazamisa ubuqotho besakhiwo. ” Ukuthuthukiswa kwe-neurotoxicity ye-organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos: kusuka ekutholeni komtholampilo kuya kumamodeli wangaphambi kokusebenza kanye nezinqubo ezingaba khona. Ijenali yeNeurochemistry, 2017.

"Kusukela ngo-2006, izifundo ze-epidemiological ziye zabhala ezinye izinzwa eziyisithupha ezithuthukisa i-neurotoxicants — i-manganese, i-fluoride, i-chlorpyrifos, i-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, i-tetrachlorethylene, ne-polybrominated diphenyl ether." Imiphumela ye-Neurobehavioural yobuthi bokuthuthuka. ILancet Neurology, 2014.

I-IQ yezingane nokukhula kwengqondo

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort lokufunda komama nezingane ezisemadolobheni luthola ukuthi “ukutholakala okuphezulu kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], ngaphambi kokuzalwa, njengoba kulinganiswa ngentambo yegazi le-umbilical, kwakuhlotshaniswa nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo kuma-indices amabili e-WISC-IV, kusampula yedolobha izingane ezincane ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala… i-Working Memory Index ibihlobene kakhulu nokuchayeka kwe-CPF kulesi sibalo sabantu. ” Izikolo zeminyaka eyisikhombisa ze-Neurodevelopmental Scores kanye nokuvezwa kokubeletha kweChlorpyrifos, umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile wezolimo. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo lweqembu lokuzalwa lemindeni esebenza kakhulu epulazini laseLatino eCalifornia luthinta imethabolite yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ye-organophosphate etholakala emchameni kwabesifazane abakhulelwe abanezibalo ezimbi kakhulu ezinganeni zabo zememori, isivinini sokucubungula, ukuqonda ngamazwi, ukucabanga okunengqondo kanye ne-IQ. “Okutholakele kwethu kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha emithini yokubulala izinambuzane i-OP [organophosphate], njengoba kulinganiswa ngama-metabolite e-urap DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kubantu besifazane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa, kuhlotshaniswa namakhono empofu okuqonda ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Izingane ezisezingeni eliphakeme kakhulu lokugxila komama be-DAP zazinokushoda okuphakathi kwamaphoyinti angu-7.0 IQ uma kuqhathaniswa nalezo ezikwi-quintile ephansi kakhulu. Ososeshini babebambisene, futhi asizange sibheke mngcele. ” Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi kokubeletha ku-Organophosphate Pesticides kanye ne-IQ ezinganeni ezineminyaka engu-7 ubudala. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu besifazane nezingane zabo "liphakamisa ukuthi ukutholakala ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-organophosphates kuhlotshaniswa kabi nokukhula kwengqondo, ikakhulukazi ukucabanga okunengqondo, nobufakazi bemiphumela eqala ezinyangeni eziyi-12 futhi kuqhubeke kusukela ebuntwaneni." Ukuvezwa Kwangaphambi Kokubeletha ku-Organophosphates, iParaoxonase 1, kanye Nokuthuthukiswa Kokuqonda Kwezobuntwana. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2011.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labantu abaphakathi nedolobha lathola ukuthi izingane ezinamazinga aphezulu okuchayeka kuma-chlorpyrifos “zithole, ngokwesilinganiso, amaphuzu angu-6.5 aphansi kwi-Bayley Psychomotor Development Index namaphoyinti angu-3.3 aphansi ku-Bayley Mental Development Index eneminyaka emithathu ubudala uma kuqhathaniswa nalabo abanamazinga aphansi okuchayeka. Izingane ezivezwe izinga eliphakeme, uma kuqhathaniswa namazinga aphansi, ama-chlorpyrifos nawo mancane amathuba okuthi abhekane nokubambezeleka kwe-Psychomotor Development Index kanye ne-Mental Development Index, izinkinga zokunaka, ukunakekelwa kokushoda / izinkinga zokuphazamiseka kwengqondo, kanye nezinkinga zesifo sokukhula ezisabalele ziseneminyaka emithathu ubudala. ” Umthelela Wokuvezwa Kwe-Chlorpyrifos Yangaphambi Kokubeletha Ekuthuthukisweni Kwe-Neurodevelopment Eminyakeni Eyi-3 Yokuqala Yokuphila Phakathi Kwezingane Zangaphakathi Nasedolobheni. Ijenali yeAmerican Academy of Pediatrics, 2006.

Ucwaningo lwe-longitudinal cohort esifundeni sezolimo eCalifornia lwandisa "ukutholwa kwangaphambilini kwezinhlangano phakathi kwe-PON1 genotype namazinga we-enzyme kanye nezizinda ezithile ze-neurodevelopment phakathi neminyaka yobudala besikole, kuveza ubufakazi obusha bokuthi izinhlangano ezingezinhle phakathi kwamazinga we-DAP [dialkyl phosphate] kanye ne-IQ zingaba namandla kakhulu ezinganeni zomama ezinamazinga aphansi kakhulu enzyme ye-PON1. ” Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate pesticide, i-PON1, kanye ne-neurodevelopment ezinganeni ezifunda isikole esifundweni se-CHAMACOS. Ucwaningo Lwemvelo, 2014.

I-Autism nezinye izinkinga ze-neurodevelopmental

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenziwa ngabantu luthole ukuthi, "Ukuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha noma kwengane kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane okhethiwe — kufaka phakathi i-glyphosate, i-chlorpyrifos, i-diazinon, ne-permethrin-kuhlotshaniswa nokwanda kwamathuba okuba ne-autism spectrum disorder." Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nosana emithini yokubulala izinambuzane eziseduze kanye nokuphazamiseka kwe-autism spectrum ezinganeni: isifundo esilawulwa ngamacala abantu. BMJ, 2019.

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala olwenzelwe abantu "lubone ubudlelwane obuhle phakathi kwe-ASD [i-autism spectrum disorders] kanye nokuhlala ngaphambi kokubeletha okusondelene nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane e-organophosphate okwesibili (kwe-chlorpyrifos) kanye ne-trimesters yesithathu (i-organophosphates jikelele)". Ukuphazamiseka kweNeurodevelopmental kanye nePrenatal Residential Resurial to the Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2014.

Bona futhi: Ukunciphisa ibhalansi yengozi ye-Autism: Izindlela Ezinokwenzeka Zokuxhuma I-Pesticides ne-Autism. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2012.

Okudidayo kobuchopho

"Okutholakele kwethu kukhombisa ukuthi ukutholakala kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni abonwe ngokusetshenziswa okujwayelekile (ukungasebenzi) nangaphansi kombundu wanoma yiziphi izimpawu zokuvezwa kanzima, kunomthelela ongaba khona esakhiweni sobuchopho esampula yezingane ezingama-40 5.9-11.2 y of ubudala. Sithole ukungajwayelekile okuphawulekayo ezilinganisweni ze-morphological ze-cerebral surface ehambisana nokuvezwa okuphezulu kwe-CPF ngaphambi kokubeletha… .Ukukhuliswa kwesifunda kobuso be-cerebral kugqame kakhulu futhi bekutholakala endaweni ephakeme yesikhashana, yangemuva yesikhashana, kanye ne-postyral gyri ephansi, kanye ne-gyrus ephezulu engaphambili. , i-gyrus rectus, i-cuneus, ne-precuneus ngasodongeni lwe-mesial lwe-hemisphere yangakwesokudla ”. Ukungafani kobuchopho ezinganeni kudalulwe ngokweqile kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile we-organophosphate. Izinqubo zeNational Academy of Sciences, 2012.

Ukukhula kwesisu

Lolu cwaningo "lubone ukuhlangana okuphawuleka kakhulu phakathi kwamazinga we-umbilical cord chlorpyrifos kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa phakathi kwezinsana eqenjini lamanje elizalwe ngaphambi kwezinyathelo zomthetho ze-EPA zase-US zokuqeda ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokubulala izinambuzane." Ama-biomarkers ekuhloleni ukutholakala kwendawo yokubulala izinambuzane ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa nemiphumela ekukhuleni kwengane. I-Toxicology kanye ne-Applied Pharmacology, 2005.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile, lweqembu lamaqembu amaningi lathola ukuthi “lapho kubhekwa izinga lomsebenzi womama we-PON1, amazinga omama ama-chlorpyrifos angaphezulu komkhawulo wokutholwa okuhambisana nomsebenzi ophansi womama we-PON1 ahlotshaniswa nokwehliswa okuphawulekayo kodwa okuncane kokuzungezwa kwekhanda. Ngaphezu kwalokho, amazinga we-PON1 womama kuphela, kepha hhayi ama-polymorphisms ezakhi zofuzo e-PON1, ahlotshaniswa nosayizi wekhanda owehlisiwe. Ngenxa yokuthi usayizi omncane wekhanda utholakale ubikezela ikhono elilandelayo lokuqonda, le mininingwane iphakamisa ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos angaba nomthelela omubi ekukhuleni kwe-fetal neurodevelopment komama abakhombisa umsebenzi ophansi we-PON1. ” Ku-Utero Pesticide Exposure, Umsebenzi We-Maternal Paraoxonase, kanye ne-Head Circumference. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ucwaningo olulindelekile lweqembu labomama abambalwa nezinsana zabo ezisanda kuzalwa "luqinisekisa ukutholwa kwethu kwangaphambilini kokuhlangana okuphambene phakathi kwamazinga ama-chlorpyrifos ku-umbilical cord plasma kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude ... Ngaphezu kwalokho, ubudlelwane bokuphendula ngomthamo babuye babonwa esifundweni samanje. Ngokuqondile, ukuhlangana phakathi kwentambo ye-plasma chlorpyrifos nesisindo esincishisiwe sokuzalwa nobude kwatholakala ikakhulu ezinganeni ezisanda kuzalwa ezinamazinga aphezulu okuvezwa angama-25%. ” Ukuchayeka kokubulala izinambuzane ngaphambi kokubeletha kanye nesisindo sokuzalwa nobude phakathi kweqoqo elincane lase-Urban. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2004.

Lung Cancer  

Ekuhlolweni kwabasebenzisi abangaphezu kwama-54,000 bezibulala-zinambuzane ku-Agricultural Health Study, ososayensi e-National Cancer Institute babike ukuthi izehlakalo zomdlavuza wamaphaphu zihambisana nokuchayeka kwe-chlorpyrifos. "Kulokhu kuhlaziywa kwesifo somdlavuza phakathi kwabafakizicelo bezibulala-zinambuzane ezinelayisense e-chlorpyrifos eNyakatho Carolina nase-Iowa, sithole ukuthambekela okuphawulekayo kwezibalo zokwanda komdlavuza wamaphaphu, kodwa hhayi komunye umdlavuza ohloliwe, ngokuchayeka okwandayo kwe-chlorpyrifos." Isigameko Somdlavuza Phakathi Kwabafakizicelo Bezibulala-zinambuzane Abachazwe KumaChlorpyrifos Esifundweni Sezempilo Sezolimo. Ijenali yeNational Cancer Institute, 2004.

Isifo sikaParkinson

Ucwaningo lokulawulwa kwamacala kwabantu abahlala eCentral Valley eCalifornia lubike ukuthi ukuvezwa okukhona kuma-pesticides angama-36 asetshenziswa kakhulu e-organophosphate ngokwehlukana kwandise ingozi yokuhlaselwa yisifo sikaParkinson. Ucwaningo "lunezela ubufakazi obuqinile" bokuthi i-organophosphate pesticides "iyathinteka" ku-etiology yesifo se-idiopathic Parkinson. Ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka kuma-organophosphates kanye nengozi yesifo sikaParkinson. Imithi Yokusebenza Nemvelo, 2014.

Imiphumela yokuzalwa

Iqoqo labazali be-Multiethnic labesifazane abakhulelwe nezinsana ezisanda kuzalwa lithole ukuthi ama-chlorpyrifos “ahlotshaniswa nokwehla kwesisindo sokuzalwa nobude bokuzalwa kukonke (p = 0.01 futhi p = 0.003, ngokulandelana) nangesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi phakathi kwabase-Afrika baseMelika (p = 0.04) futhi banciphisa ubude bokuzalwa kumaDominican (p <0.001) ". Imiphumela Yokuchayeka Kokutshalwa Kwendawo Kokungcola Kwemvelo Emiphumeleni Yokuzalwa Emphakathini Wabantu Abaningi. Imibono Yezempilo Yezemvelo, 2003.

Ukuphazanyiswa kwe-Neuroendocrine

“Ngokuhlaziywa kwezindlela eziyinkimbinkimbi zokuziphatha kobulili-dimorphic sibonisa ukuthi imisebenzi ye-neurotoxic ne-endocrine ephazamisa imisebenzi yeCPF [chlorpyrifos] iyahlangana. Lo muthi we-organophosphorus osatshalaliswa kabanzi ungabhekwa njengesiphazamiso se-neuroendocrine okungenzeka simelele ubungozi bokuphazamiseka kwengqondo okubangelwa ucansi ezinganeni. ” Ukuziphatha kwe-sex dimorphic njengezimpawu zokuphazanyiswa kwe-neuroendocrine ngamakhemikhali ezemvelo: Icala le-chlorpyrifos. I-NeuroToxicology, 2012.

eliqhaqhazelayo

"Okutholakele njengamanje kukhombisa ukuthi izingane ezinokuchayeka okuphezulu kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos zazisemathubeni amakhulu okukhombisa ukuzamazama okuncane noma okumaphakathi ukuya kokulinganayo engalweni eyodwa noma zombili lapho kuhlolwe phakathi kweminyaka yobudala eyi-9 nengu-13.9 yeminyaka…. Sihlangene, ubufakazi obandayo busikisela ukuthi Ukuchayeka kokubeletha kwe-CPF [chlorpyrifos], emazingeni asetshenziswayo njengamanje, kuhlotshaniswa nezinkinga zokuthuthuka eziqhubekayo nezinhlobonhlobo. ” Ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kwi-organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos nokuzamazama kwengane. I-NeuroToxicology, 2015.

Izindleko zama-chlorpyrifos

Izilinganiso zezindleko zokuchayeka kumakhemikhali aphazamisa i-endocrine e-European Union zithole ukuthi "Ukuvezwa kwe-Organophosphate kuhlotshaniswa nezigidi eziyi-13.0 (ukuhlaziywa kobucayi, izigidi ezingama-4.24 kuya kweziyi-17.1) kulahlekelwe amaphuzu e-IQ kanye nama-59 300 (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, amacala ayi-16 500 kuya ku-84 400) yokukhubazeka ngokwengqondo, kubiza u- € 146 billion (ukuhlaziywa kozwelo, € 46.8 billion kuya ku- € 194 billion). ” Ukushoda kwe-Neurobehaisheral, Izifo, kanye Nezindleko Ezihlanganisiwe Zokuchayeka Kumakhemikhali Aphazamisa i-Endocrine e-European Union. Ijenali ye-Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2015.

Indlala yegilo kumagundane

"Ucwaningo lwamanje lukhombisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kwamagundane e-CD1, ngesikhathi sokukhulelwa kokubeletha nangemuva kokubeletha, emazingeni emithamo ye-CPF [chlorpyrifos] ngaphansi kwalawo avimbela ubuchopho i-AchE, kungadala ushintsho ku-thyroid." Ukuvezwa Kokuthuthuka Kwama-Chlorpyrifos Kukhuthaza Ukushintshwa Kumazinga we-Thyroid ne-Thyroid Hormone Ngaphandle Kwezinye Izimpawu Zobuthi kumagundane e-Cd1. Isayensi Yezobuthi, 2009.

Izinkinga ngezifundo zomkhakha

“NgoMashi 1972, uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo e-Albany Medical College babika imiphumela yocwaningo lwenhloso ye-chlorpyrifos kumxhasi walolu cwaningo, iDow Chemical Company. Umbiko wabo uphethe ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli elingabonwa-elibi-lomthelela (i-NOAEL) lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Sikhombisa lapha ukuthi ukuhlaziywa okufanele kwendlela yokuqala yezibalo bekufanele kutholakale i-NOAEL ephansi (i-0.014 mg / kg-day), nokuthi ukusetshenziswa kwezindlela zezibalo ezitholakale okokuqala ku-1982 bekuzokhombisa ukuthi nomthamo ophansi kakhulu ocwaningweni umphumela wokwelashwa obalulekile. Ukuhlaziywa kwangempela, okwenziwe ngabasebenzi bezibalo abaqashwe yi-Dow, akuzange kubuyekezwe okusemthethweni; noma kunjalo, i-EPA icaphune ucwaningo lwaseCoulston njengocwaningo oluthembekile futhi yagcina i-NOAEL yayo ebikiwe njengendawo yokuhamba yokuhlolwa kwezingcuphe kuwo wonke ama-1980 kanye nama-1990. Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa kwezindawo zokuhlala eziningi ezakhanselwa kamuva ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo ezingaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ” Ukuhlaziywa okunamaphutha kwesifundo somthamo womuntu ngamabomu kanye nomthelela wawo ekuhlolweni kwengozi ye-chlorpyrifos. Imvelo Yomhlaba Wonke, 2020.

"Ekubuyekezweni kwethu kwedatha eluhlaza kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ovelele, i-chlorpyrifos, kanye nenye into ehlobene nayo, kutholakale ukungafani phakathi kokubona kwangempela kanye neziphetho ezitholwe ilabhorethri yokuhlola embikweni olethwe ukugunyazwa kwe-pesticide." Ukuphepha Kokuhlolwa Kokuphepha Kwezibulala-zinambuzane: i-neurotoxicity yentuthuko ye-chlorpyrifos ne-chlorpyrifos-methyl. Impilo Yezemvelo, 2018.

Amanye amaphepha eqiniso

Isikhungo saseHarvard Kennedy School Shorenstein: Isibulala-zinambuzane esinempikiswano nomphumela waso ekukhuleni kobuchopho: Ucwaningo nezinsizakusebenza

IHarvard University: I-Pesticide Esetshenziswa Kakhulu, ngonyaka owodwa kamuva

Ukulungiswa komhlaba: Ama-Chlorpyrifos: I-pesticides enobuthi elimaza izingane zethu kanye nemvelo

ISierra Club: Izingane namaChlorpyrifos

Ubuntatheli kanye nemibono

Ukulingiswa nguBradley Peterson, ngeProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; New York Times

Ifa likaTrump: Ubuchopho Obonakele, nguNicholas Kristof, New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane, esesigaba samakhemikhali esenziwe njengegesi yezinzwa eyenziwe yiNazi Germany, manje sesitholakala ekudleni, emoyeni nasemanzini okuphuza. Ucwaningo lwabantu nolwezilwane lukhombisa ukuthi lulimaza ubuchopho futhi linciphise ama-IQ ngenkathi lubangela ukuthuthumela ezinganeni. ”

Vikela Ubuchopho Bezingane Zethu, nguSharon Lerner, New York Times. “Ukusetshenziswa okubanzi kwe-chlorpyrifos kukhomba eqinisweni ukuthi akulona uhlobo lwamakhemikhali olulimaza wonke umuntu ohlangana nalo - noma olubangela ukuthi bawele phansi. Esikhundleni salokho, ucwaningo lukhombisa ukwanda engcupheni yokuhlushwa yizinkinga ezithile zentuthuko okuthi noma zincane kangako, futhi zikhuthazelele. ”

Izithelo Zobuthi: IDow Chemical Ifuna Abalimi ukuthi Baqhubeke Basebenzisa I-Pesticide Exhumene Ne-Autism ne-ADHD, nguSharon Lerner, The Intercept. “IDow, inkampani enkulu yamakhemikhali enelungelo lobunikazi lama-chlorpyrifos futhi esenza iningi lemikhiqizo enayo, ibuphikisana ngokungaguquguquki nobufakazi besayensi obukhulayo bokuthi ikhemikhali yayo eyi-blockbuster iyazilimaza izingane. Kodwa umbiko kahulumeni wakwenza kwacaca ukuthi i-EPA manje isemukela isayensi ezimele ekhombisa ukuthi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane osetshenziselwa ukutshala ukudla kwethu okuningi akuphephile. ”

Lapho idatha eyanele inganele ukwenza inqubomgomo: Ukwehluleka ukuvimbela ama-chlorpyrifos, nguLeonardo Trasande, i-PLOS Biology. “Ososayensi banesibopho sokukhuluma uma abenzi bezinqubomgomo behluleka ukwamukela imininingwane yesayensi. Badinga ukumemezela ngokugcizelela imiphumela yokwehluleka kwenqubomgomo, noma ngabe ezinye zezisekelo zesayensi zihlala zingaqinisekile. ”

Akavinjelwanga Kanjani Lo Muthi Wezibulala-zinambuzane? yibhodi yabahleli beThe New York Times. “Isibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuthi i-chlorpyrifos ngokusobala siyingozi futhi sisetshenziswa kakhulu. Kuyaziwa ukuthi kudlula kalula kusuka kumama kuya embungwini futhi kuxhunyaniswe nezinkinga ezahlukahlukene ezibucayi zezokwelapha, kufaka phakathi ukukhula kahle, isifo sikaParkinson nezinye izinhlobo zomdlavuza. Lokho akumangazi ngokuphelele. Ikhemikhali lakhiwa ekuqaleni ngamaNazi ngesikhathi seMpi Yezwe II ukuze lisetshenziswe njengegesi yezinzwa. Nakhu okumangazayo: Amathani esibulala-zinambuzane asafuthwa njalo ezigidini zamahektare asepulazini lase-United States minyaka yonke, cishe eminyakeni emihlanu ngemuva kokuthi i-Environmental Protection Agency inqume ukuthi kufanele ivinjelwe. ”

Lesi sibulala-zinambuzane sihlobene kakhulu nama-nerve agents asetshenziswa eMpini Yesibili Yomhlaba. I-EPA kaTrump ayinandaba, nguJoseph G. Allen, Washington Post. “Esikwaziyo ngama-chlorpyrifos kuyethusa. Mhlawumbe ucwaningo olwaziwa kakhulu ngolwenziwa ngabaphenyi baseColumbia University abenza ukucabanga kobuchopho ezinganeni ezisencane kakhulu ezinama-chlorpyrifos. Imiphumela iyashaqisa futhi ayicaci. Ngokwamagama abacwaningi: "Lolu cwaningo lubika izinhlangano ezibalulekile zokuchayeka ngaphambi kokubeletha kwisidakamizwa esisetshenziswa kakhulu kwezemvelo, emazingeni asetshenziswayo, ngezinguquko ezihlelekile ebuchosheni bomuntu obusakhulayo."

Icala Elinamandla Lokulwa Nesibulala-zinambuzane Alisho I-EPA Ngaphansi Kwetrump, nguRoni Caryn Robin, New York Times. “Ukubuyekezwa kwengozi yezempilo yabantu ehlanganiswe yi-EPA ngoNovemba kwathola ukuthi izinkinga zezempilo zazenzeka emazingeni aphansi okuchayeka kunalokho okwakucatshangwa ukuthi kuyingozi. Izinsana, izingane, amantombazane amancane nabesifazane bavezwa amazinga ayingozi ama-chlorpyrifos ngokudla kuphela, kusho le nhlangano. Izingane zichayeke emazingeni aphindwe kayi-140 kunomkhawulo wokuphepha. ”

Izingane Zikhudlwana Ngemuva Kokuvinjelwa Kwama-pesticides ama-2, Ukuthola Okufundwayo, nguRichard Pérez-Peña, eNew York Times. "Abesifazane abakhulelwe eManhattan engenhla ababesengozini enkulu yokubulala izinambuzane ezivamile babenezingane ezincane ukwedlula omakhelwane babo, kodwa imikhawulo yakamuva kulezi zinto ezimbili yehlisa ukutholakala kalula futhi yanda nosayizi wezingane, ngokusho kocwaningo olushicilelwa namuhla."

Ubuthi Yithi, nguTimothy Egan, New York Times. “Uma uluma ucezu lwesithelo, kufanele kube yinjabulo engenangqondo. Impela, lelo sitrobheli elibukeka njenge-steroidal elinendawo emhlophe yokugcoba amazinyo akubonakali kulungile ukuqala ngalo. Kepha akumele ucabange ngokukhula kobuchopho bengane lapho uyibeka ngaphezu kokusanhlamvu kwakho. Abaphathi bakaTrump, ngokubeka amathoyizi embonini yamakhemikhali phakathi kokudla kwethu nokuphepha komphakathi, kuphoqe ukuthi kuhlolisiswe kabusha ibhulakufesi neminye imikhuba okungafanele yethuse. ”

Epuletini lakho lesidlo sakusihlwa nasemzimbeni wakho: Isibulala-zinambuzane esiyingozi kakhulu ongakaze uzwe ngaso, nguStaffan Dahllöf, Ukuphenya Ukubika IDenmark. “Umphumela onoshevu wama-chlorpyrifos ezinambuzaneni awuphikiswa. Umbuzo ongaxazululeki ukuthi ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos kuyingozi kangakanani kuzo zonke izinto eziphilayo ezinjengezinhlanzi emanzini aseduze noma abasebenzi basemapulazini emasimini, noma kunoma ngubani odla imikhiqizo elashwa. ”

Ama-Neurotoxin ku-broccoli yengane yakho: lokho kuyimpilo ngaphansi kukaTrump, nguCarey Gillam, The Guardian. “Ingakanani impilo yengane yakho? Impendulo evela ebuholini be-US Environmental Protection Agency ithi: hhayi kangako… Ngakho-ke silapha - sinokukhathazeka kwesayensi ngokuphepha kwezingane zethu ezingenacala nezisengozini ngakolunye uhlangothi nabadlali abanamandla, abacebile bezinkampani ngakolunye uhlangothi. Abaholi bethu bezepolitiki nabezomthetho bakhombisile ukuthi bazithanda kakhulu kabani.

Ukubulala Izinambuzane Okuvamile Kungalimaza Ubuchopho Babafana Ngaphezu Kwamantombazane, nguBrett Israel, Environmental Health News. “Kubafana, ukuvezwa ama-chlorpyrifos esibelethweni kwakuhlanganiswa nakho amaphuzu aphansi ekuhlolweni kwememori yesikhashana uma kuqhathaniswa namantombazane avezwe inani elifanayo.

Amashidi amaningi wesayensi kumakhemikhali ekudleni kwethu 

Thola amanye amashidi eqiniso e-US Right to Know:

I-Aspartame: Iminyaka eyishumi yeSayensi ikhomba ezingozini ezinkulu zezeMpilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeGlyphosate: Umdlavuza Nokunye Ukukhathazeka Kwezempilo

Ishidi Leqiniso LeDicamba 

I-US Right to Know iyiqembu lezempilo lomphakathi eliphenyayo elisebenza emhlabeni wonke ukuveza ububi bezinkampani kanye nokwehluleka kukahulumeni okusongela ubuqotho bohlelo lwethu lokudla, imvelo yethu kanye nempilo yethu.  Ungakwazi nikela lapha kuphenyo lwethu futhi bhalisela iphephandaba lethu lamasonto onke.  

Abalawuli baseMelika bathembele iminyaka emininingwaneni yezibulala-zinambuzane enamaphutha enikezwe yiDow Chemical

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Sekuyiminyaka, abalawuli baseMelika bethembele kwimininingwane engeyona ehlinzekwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos amakhemikhali emakhaya aseMelika, ngokusho ukuhlaziywa okusha kusuka kubacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Ukuhlaziywa kuphinda kuhlolisise ukusebenza okuvela kuma-1970 axhaswe yi-Dow futhi athunyelwa kwi-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuqondisa i-ejensi ekusunguleni lokho ososayensi abakubiza ngokuthi yi "no-seen-adverse-effect-level" noma i-NOAEL. Leyo mibundu isetshenziselwa ukuthola ukuthi iziphi izinhlobo zokusetshenziswa nokuthi ukuvezwa ngamakhemikhali kungavunyelwa futhi kubhekwe kanjani “njengokuphephile”.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okusha, okushicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi 3 kumagazini I-Environmental International, ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ngumcwaningi uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo abavela e-Albany Medical College ekuqaleni kwawo-1970 kweDow.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baphinde bahlola ukuthi umsebenzi wangaphambilini nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske woMnyango Wezemvelo Nezemisebenzi Yezesayensi Yezempilo, Isikole Sezempilo Yomphakathi e-University of Washington.

Ngenkathi isifundo sibhalwa yiqembu laseCoulston, ukuhlaziywa kwaqedwa yisazi sezibalo seDow futhi kwaphetha ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli le-NOAEL lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha okwenziwe ngabaphenyi beYunivesithi yaseWashington kutholile ukuthi kweqise ngokweqile umkhawulo wezokuphepha. Ukube imininingwane ihlaziywe kahle i-NOAEL engezansi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ibizotholakala, kusho bona.

Ucwaningo lwaseCoulston aluzange lubuyekezwe ontanga kepha lusasetshenziswa yi-EPA ekuhloleni ubungozi phakathi nawo wonke ama-1980's kanye nawo-1990, kubike abacwaningi be-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa ezindaweni eziningi okwathi kamuva kwahoxiswa ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ”

Kusetshenziswe Kahle

Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo egameni lomkhiqizo iLorsban, ama-insepideides e-chlorpyrifos afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Imakethe yezolimo enkulu kunazo zonke yama-chlorpyrifos ummbila kepha isibulala-zinambuzane sisetshenziswa futhi ngabalimi abatshala ubhontshisi, izihlahla zezithelo namantongomane, amahlumela eBrussels, ama-cranberries, no-cauliflower, kanye nezinye izitshalo ezilandelanayo. Izinsalela zamakhemikhali zivame ukutholakala ekudleni. Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ephakanyiswe yi-Dow, ucwaningo oluzimele lwesayensi luye lwabonisa ubufakazi obandayo bezingozi ze-chlorpyrifos, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezincane. Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kwentuthuko yezimoto.

I-American Academy for Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane nodokotela abahlinzayo abangaphezu kwama-66,000, isixwayise ngokuthi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kwaleli khemikhali kubeka engozini enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane kanye nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority isho ukuthi ikhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile.

I-EPA yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow ngo-2000 sokuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwaleli khemikhali ngenxa yocwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Ngo-2012, ama-chlorpyrifos ayevinjelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience, okuyinhlangano eyalandela ukuhlangana kweDow neDuPont, kusho yona izophela ukukhiqizwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Leli khemikhali, noma kunjalo, lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Izifundo ezingabantu

Ucwaningo oluyisihloko sephepha elisha labaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseWashington lwenganyelwa ngo-1971 yi-Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology ye-Albany Medical College. Ucwaningo lubandakanya iziboshwa zesilisa esezikhulile ezinempilo eziphakeme ezivela echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, ejele elinokuphepha okuphezulu eDannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ahlelwa ngamaqembu amane okuhlola, kufaka phakathi iqembu elilodwa lokulawula, amalungu alo athola i-placebo yansuku zonke. Amalungu amanye amaqembu amathathu athola ukwelashwa nsuku zonke ngama-chlorpyrifos ngemithamo emithathu ehlukene. Ucwaningo lwenzeke ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezingama-63.

Ukuhlaziywa okusha kuthole izinkinga eziningana ngocwaningo, kufaka phakathi ukushiywa kwezilinganiso eziyisisekelo eziyisishiyagalombili ezivumelekile zeqembu elilodwa lezokwelapha.

"Ukushiywa okunjalo kwemininingwane evumelekile ngaphandle kwesizathu kuyindlela yokwenziwa kwedatha okwephula wonke amakhodi ajwayelekile womkhuba wokucwaninga ngokuziphatha futhi okuchazwa njengokuziphatha okungahambi kahle kocwaningo," kuphetha abacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi bathi ama-chlorpyrifos "adlula enkambisweni yokulawula ngaphandle kwempikiswano enkulu," noma ngabe kukhona "ubufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi bungaba yingozi yezempilo ezindaweni zokuhlala."

"UCoulston Study udukise abalawuli ngokushiya imininingwane evumelekile," futhi "kungenzeka kube nomthelela omubi empilweni yomphakathi" iminyaka eminingana, kuphetha iphepha le-University of Washington.

Abalawuli baseMelika bathembele iminyaka emininingwaneni yezibulala-zinambuzane enamaphutha enikezwe yiDow Chemical

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Sekuyiminyaka, abalawuli baseMelika bethembele kwimininingwane engeyona ehlinzekwe yiDow Chemical ukuvumela amazinga angaphephile ama-chlorpyrifos amakhemikhali emakhaya aseMelika, ngokusho ukuhlaziywa okusha kusuka kubacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Ukuhlaziywa kuphinda kuhlolisise ukusebenza okuvela kuma-1970 axhaswe yi-Dow futhi athunyelwa kwi-Environmental Protection Agency (i-EPA) ukuqondisa i-ejensi ekusunguleni lokho ososayensi abakubiza ngokuthi yi "no-seen-adverse-effect-level" noma i-NOAEL. Leyo mibundu isetshenziselwa ukuthola ukuthi iziphi izinhlobo zokusetshenziswa nokuthi ukuvezwa ngamakhemikhali kungavunyelwa futhi kubhekwe kanjani “njengokuphephile”.

Ngokuya ngokuhlaziywa okusha, okushicilelwe ku-inthanethi ngoJulayi 3 kumagazini I-Environmental International, ukutholwa okunganembile kwakuwumphumela wocwaningo lwe-chlorpyrifos dosing olwenziwe ngumcwaningi uFrederick Coulston nozakwabo abavela e-Albany Medical College ekuqaleni kwawo-1970 kweDow.

Ababhali bephepha elisha baphinde bahlola ukuthi umsebenzi wangaphambilini nguLianne Sheppard, uSeth McGrew noRichard Fenske woMnyango Wezemvelo Nezemisebenzi Yezesayensi Yezempilo, Isikole Sezempilo Yomphakathi e-University of Washington.

Ngenkathi isifundo sibhalwa yiqembu laseCoulston, ukuhlaziywa kwaqedwa yisazi sezibalo seDow futhi kwaphetha ngokuthi i-0.03 mg / kg-day kwakuyizinga elingapheli le-NOAEL lama-chlorpyrifos kubantu. Kepha ukuhlaziywa okusha okwenziwe ngabaphenyi beYunivesithi yaseWashington kutholile ukuthi kweqise ngokweqile umkhawulo wezokuphepha. Ukube imininingwane ihlaziywe kahle i-NOAEL engezansi ye-0.014 mg / kg-day ibizotholakala, kusho bona.

Ucwaningo lwaseCoulston aluzange lubuyekezwe ontanga kepha lusasetshenziswa yi-EPA ekuhloleni ubungozi phakathi nawo wonke ama-1980's kanye nawo-1990, kubike abacwaningi be-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi baphetha ngokuthi: “Ngaleso sikhathi, i-EPA yavumela ama-chlorpyrifos ukuthi abhaliselwe ukusetshenziswa ezindaweni eziningi okwathi kamuva kwahoxiswa ukunciphisa imithelela yezempilo engaba khona ezinganeni nasezinsaneni. Ukube kusetshenziswe ukuhlaziywa okuhle ekuhlolweni kwalolu cwaningo, kungenzeka ukuthi ukusetshenziswa okuningi okubhalisiwe kwama-chlorpyrifos bekungeke kugunyazwe yi-EPA. Lo msebenzi ukhombisa ukuthi ukuthembela kwabalawuli bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane emiphumeleni yocwaningo engazange ibuyekezwe kahle kontanga kungafaka umphakathi engozini ngokungadingekile. ”

Kusetshenziswe Kahle

Ngokuvamile kwaziwa njengesithako esisebenzayo egameni lomkhiqizo iLorsban, ama-insepideides e-chlorpyrifos afakwa yi-Dow Chemical ngo-1965 futhi asetshenziswe kakhulu ezindaweni zezolimo. Imakethe yezolimo enkulu kunazo zonke yama-chlorpyrifos ummbila kepha isibulala-zinambuzane sisetshenziswa futhi ngabalimi abatshala ubhontshisi, izihlahla zezithelo namantongomane, amahlumela eBrussels, ama-cranberries, no-cauliflower, kanye nezinye izitshalo ezilandelanayo. Izinsalela zamakhemikhali zivame ukutholakala ekudleni. Ukusetshenziswa okungezona ezolimo kufaka izifundo zegalofu, i-turf, izindlu eziluhlaza, nezinsiza.

Ngaphandle kwesayensi ephakanyiswe yi-Dow, ucwaningo oluzimele lwesayensi luye lwabonisa ubufakazi obandayo bezingozi ze-chlorpyrifos, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni ezincane. Ososayensi bathole ukuthi ukuvezwa ngaphambi kokubeletha kuma-chlorpyrifos kuhlotshaniswa nesisindo sokuzalwa esiphansi, IQ encishisiwe, ukulahleka kwememori yokusebenza, ukuphazamiseka kokunaka, nokubambezeleka kwentuthuko yezimoto.

I-American Academy for Pediatrics, emele odokotela bezingane nodokotela abahlinzayo abangaphezu kwama-66,000, isixwayise ngokuthi ukuqhubeka nokusetshenziswa kwaleli khemikhali kubeka engozini enkulu imibungu esakhulayo, izinsana, izingane kanye nabesifazane abakhulelwe.

I-Chlorpyrifos iyingozi kakhulu kangangokuba i-European Food Safety Authority isho ukuthi ikhona alikho izinga lokuvezwa okuphephile.

I-EPA yafinyelela esivumelwaneni neDow ngo-2000 sokuqeda konke ukusetshenziswa kwendawo yokuhlala kwaleli khemikhali ngenxa yocwaningo olukhombisa ukuthi leli khemikhali liyingozi ezingqondweni ezikhulayo zezingane nezingane ezisencane. Ngo-2012, ama-chlorpyrifos ayevinjelwe ukusetshenziswa ezikoleni.

NgoFebhuwari 2020, ngemuva kwengcindezi evela kubathengi, ezokwelapha, amaqembu esayensi nasebhekene nezingcingo ezikhulayo zokuvinjelwa emhlabeni jikelele, uCorteva AgriScience, okuyinhlangano eyalandela ukuhlangana kweDow neDuPont, kusho yona izophela ukukhiqizwa kwe-chlorpyrifos. Leli khemikhali, noma kunjalo, lihlala lisemthethweni kwezinye izinkampani ukuthi zenze futhi zithengise.

Izifundo ezingabantu

Ucwaningo oluyisihloko sephepha elisha labaphenyi baseYunivesithi yaseWashington lwenganyelwa ngo-1971 yi-Institute of Experimental Pathology and Toxicology ye-Albany Medical College. Ucwaningo lubandakanya iziboshwa zesilisa esezikhulile ezinempilo eziphakeme ezivela echibini lamavolontiya eClinton Correctional Facility, ejele elinokuphepha okuphezulu eDannemora, eNew York.

Amavolontiya ahlelwa ngamaqembu amane okuhlola, kufaka phakathi iqembu elilodwa lokulawula, amalungu alo athola i-placebo yansuku zonke. Amalungu amanye amaqembu amathathu athola ukwelashwa nsuku zonke ngama-chlorpyrifos ngemithamo emithathu ehlukene. Ucwaningo lwenzeke ngaphezu kwezinsuku ezingama-63.

Ukuhlaziywa okusha kuthole izinkinga eziningana ngocwaningo, kufaka phakathi ukushiywa kwezilinganiso eziyisisekelo eziyisishiyagalombili ezivumelekile zeqembu elilodwa lezokwelapha.

"Ukushiywa okunjalo kwemininingwane evumelekile ngaphandle kwesizathu kuyindlela yokwenziwa kwedatha okwephula wonke amakhodi ajwayelekile womkhuba wokucwaninga ngokuziphatha futhi okuchazwa njengokuziphatha okungahambi kahle kocwaningo," kuphetha abacwaningi base-University of Washington.

Abaphenyi bathi ama-chlorpyrifos "adlula enkambisweni yokulawula ngaphandle kwempikiswano enkulu," noma ngabe kukhona "ubufakazi obukhulayo bokuthi bungaba yingozi yezempilo ezindaweni zokuhlala."

"UCoulston Study udukise abalawuli ngokushiya imininingwane evumelekile," futhi "kungenzeka kube nomthelela omubi empilweni yomphakathi" iminyaka eminingana, kuphetha iphepha le-University of Washington.

Amakhemikhali Ekudleni Kwethu: Lapho “Kuphephe” Kungase Kungabi Kuphephe Ngempela

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Ukuhlolisiswa kwesayensi kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kuyakhula; ukuvikelwa kokulawula kubuzwa

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe ekuqaleni ku Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

NguCarey Gillam

Ababulali bokhula kuma-cracker kakolweni nasenhlamvini, izibulala-zinambuzane kujusi we-apula kanye nokuhlanganiswa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane eminingi esipinashi, ubhontshisi wezintambo neminye imifino - konke kuyingxenye yokudla kwansuku zonke kwabantu abaningi baseMelika. Sekungamashumi eminyaka, izikhulu zikahulumeni zimemezele ukuthi imikhondo emincane yalezi zingcolisi iphephile. Kepha igagasi elisha lokuhlolisisa okungokwesayensi liyinselele kulokho kugomela.

Yize abathengi abaningi bengazi ngakho, unyaka nonyaka, ososayensi bakahulumeni babhala ukuthi amakhulukhulu amakhemikhali asetshenziswa abalimi emasimini abo nasezitshalweni ashiya kanjani izinsalela ekudleni okusetshenziswa kakhulu. Izithelo ezingaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-75 namaphesenti angaphezu kwama-50 emifino esampuli athwale izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane e izibonelo zamuva zakamuva ezibikiwe yi-Food and Drug Administration. Ngisho nezinsalela zamakhemikhali abulala ngokuqinile izimbungulu i-DDT zitholakala ekudleni, kanye nohla lweminye imithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyaziwa ngososayensi ukuthi kuxhunyaniswe nezifo ezahlukahlukene kanye nezifo. I-pesticide endosulfan, kuvinjelwe umhlaba wonke ngenxa yobufakazi bokuthi ingadala izinkinga zemizwa nezokuzala, nayo itholakale kumasampula okudla, kusho umbiko we-FDA.

Abalawuli baseMelika nezinkampani ezidayisela abalimi amakhemikhali baphikelela ekutheni izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane aziyona ingozi empilweni yabantu. Iningi lamazinga ezinsalela atholakala ekudleni angaphansi kwamazinga asemthethweni "okubekezelelana" asethwe yi-Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), abalawuli bathi.

"AbaseMelika bathembele ku-FDA ukuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwemindeni yabo kanye nokudla abakudlayo," UKhomishani we-FDA uScott Gottlieb usho kanjena esitatimendeni ephelezelwa yi-ejensi ukukhishwa kombiko wayo wezinsalela ngomhlaka-1 Okthoba. "Njengeminye imibiko yakamuva, imiphumela ikhombisa ukuthi amazinga asele ensalela yamakhemikhali ezibulala-zinambuzane angaphansi kokubekezelelwa yi-Environmental Protection Agency, ngakho-ke akubeki engozini kubathengi."

I-EPA inesiqiniseko sokuthi iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni iphephile kangangoba i-ejensi inikeze izinkampani zamakhemikhali izicelo eziningi zokwenyusa ukubekezelelana okuvumelekile, inikeze isisekelo esisemthethweni samazinga aphezulu ezinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ukuze avunyelwe ekudleni kwaseMelika.

Kepha izifundo ezisanda kwenziwa zesayensi zenze ososayensi abaningi baxwayisa ukuthi iminyaka yezethembiso zokuphepha ingahle ingalungi. Ngenkathi kungekho muntu okulindeleke ukuthi afe efile ngokudla isitsha sokusanhlamvu okuqukethe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane, ukuvezwa okuphindaphindwayo kwezinga eliphansi ukulandelela inani lezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kungaba nomthelela ezinkingeni ezahlukahlukene zezempilo, ikakhulukazi ezinganeni, ososayensi bathi.

“Cishe miningi eminye imiphumela yezempilo; asikazifundi nje ”

Iqembu lososayensi baseHarvard lishicilele umhlaziyi ngo-Okthoba esho ukuthi ucwaningo oluthe xaxa ngezixhumanisi ezingaba khona phakathi kwezifo nokusetshenziswa kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane "ludingeka ngokushesha" njengoba abantu abangaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-90 abantu baseMelika benensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane emchameni nasegazini labo. Umzila oyinhloko wokuchayeka kulezi zinambuzane ngukudla kwabantu abakudlayo, kusho iqembu labacwaningi baseHarvard.

Ososayensi abaningana abasebenzisana neHarvard bashicilele i- cwaningo ngasekuqaleni kwalo nyaka wabesifazane ababezama ukukhulelwa. Okutholakele kuphakamisa ukuthi ukuvezwa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane ngaphakathi kohlobo "olujwayelekile" kuhlotshaniswa nezinkinga abesifazane abakhulelwa kanye nokubeletha izingane eziphilayo, kusho ososayensi.

“Ngokusobala amazinga okubekezelelana akhona manje asivikela kubuthivu obukhulu. Inkinga ukuthi akucaci ukuthi ukutholakalela ezingeni eliphansi izinsalela zezibulali zinambuzane ngokudla kungaba yingozi empilweni noma kungabi yingozi kangakanani, ”kusho uDkt Jorge Chavarro, ongusolwazi ohlangene noMnyango Wezokudla Neziphephelo eHarvard I-TH Chan School of Health Public, nomunye wababhali bokufunda.

“Ukuvezwa kwezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ngokudla kuhlotshaniswa [neminye] imiphumela yokuzala kubandakanya ikhwalithi yesidoda kanye nengozi enkulu yokulahleka kokukhulelwa kwabesifazane abelashwa ngemithi yokungazali. Kukhona eminye imiphumela eminingi yezempilo; asikazifundisisi ngokwanele ukwenza ukuhlola okwanele kobungozi, ”kusho uChavarro.

Isazi sezinto ezinobuthi uLinda Birnbaum, oqondisa i-US National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), naye uzwakalise ukukhathazeka ngezingozi zezibulala-zinambuzane ngokudalula obekucatshangwa ukuthi kuphephile. Ngonyaka odlule wabiza "Ukwehliswa jikelele ekusetshenzisweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane zezolimo" ngenxa yezinkinga eziningi ngempilo yabantu, esho ukuthi "imithetho ekhona yase-US ayihambisani nentuthuko yesayensi ekhombisa ukuthi amakhemikhali asetshenziswa kakhulu abangela izinkinga ezinkulu zempilo emazingeni obekucatshangwa ukuthi aphephile."

Engxoxweni uBirnbaum uthe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini ziphakathi kwezinhlobo zokuchayeka ezidinga ukubhekelwa ngokomthetho okukhulu.

“Ngicabanga ukuthi amazinga asethwe njengamanje aphephile? Mhlawumbe akunjalo, ”kusho uBirnbaum. "Sinabantu abanobungozi obuhlukile, kungaba ngenxa yofuzo lwabo, noma iminyaka yabo, noma yini engabenza bathambekele kakhulu kulezi zinto," esho.

“Yize sibheka amakhemikhali eyodwa ngesikhathi, kunobufakazi obuningi bezinto ezisebenza ngendlela ehambisanayo. Izinqubomgomo zethu eziningi zokuhlola ezijwayelekile, eziningi ezakhiwa eminyakeni engama-40 kuya kwengama-50 edlule, azibuzi imibuzo obekufanele siyibuze, ”wengeza.

Umthetho awusho ukuthi uphephile

Amanye amaphepha esayensi akamuva akhomba kokutholakele okukhathazayo. Eyodwa ngeqembu lososayensi bamazwe omhlaba elishicilelwe ngoMeyi kutholakale i-glyphosate herbicide ngemithamo njengamanje ebhekwa “njengephephile” iyakwazi ukudala izinkinga zezempilo ngaphambi kokuqala kokuthomba. Ucwaningo oluningi luyadingeka ukuqonda izingcuphe ezingaba khona ezinganeni, abalobi bezocwaningo bathi.

Futhi ephepheni ishicilelwe ngo-Okthoba 22 ku-JAMA Internal Medicine, abacwaningi baseFrance bathi lapho bebheka izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ezixhumanisa nomdlavuza ocwaningweni lokudla kwabantu abangaphezu kwama-68,000, bathole izinkomba zokuthi ukudla kokudla okwenziwe ngamakhemikhali, okungenzeki kakhulu ukuthi kuthwale izinsalela zokwenziwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane kunokudla okwenziwe ngezitshalo ezikhule ngokujwayelekile, kwakuhlotshaniswa nengozi encishisiwe yomdlavuza.

Iphepha le-2009 eshicilelwe ngumcwaningi waseHarvard nososayensi ababili be-FDA bathole amasampula okudla ayi-19 kwayi-100 izingane ezivame ukuwadla aqukethe okungenani isibulala-zinambuzane esisodwa esaziwa njenge-neurotoxin. Ukudla okwabhekwa ngabaphenyi kwakuyimifino emisha, izithelo namajusi. Kusukela lapho, ubufakazi sebukhulile ngemithelela yempilo yomuntu eyingozi yemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ikakhulukazi.

Amazinga angamukeleki

"Izindinganiso zomthetho eziningi zamanje zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini aziyivikeli ngokuphelele impilo yomphakathi, futhi azikhombisi isayensi yakamuva," kusho u-Olga Naidenko, umeluleki omkhulu wesayensi wenhlangano engenzi nzuzo ye-Environmental Working Group, ekhiphe imibiko eminingana ukubheka izingozi ezingaba khona zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini. “Ezomthetho azikhombisi ukuthi 'uphephile,'” kusho yena.

Isibonelo esisodwa sokuthi iziqinisekiso zokuphepha zitholakale zintuleka kanjani uma kukhulunywa ngezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kuyisibulala-zinambuzane esaziwa ngokuthi i-chlorpyrifos. Imakethwa yiDow Chemical, eyaba yinkampani yeDowDuPont ngonyaka we-2017, i-chlorpyrifos isetshenziswa ngaphezu kwamaphesenti angama-30 ama-apula, isilimo esinengono emnandi edliwayo, amantongomane, u-anyanisi, amagilebhisi, i-broccoli, ama-cherries nekholifulawa otshalwe e-US futhi kuvame ukutholakala ekudleni okudliwe yizingane . I-EPA isishilo iminyaka ukuthi ukudalulwa okungaphansi kokubekezelelwa kwezomthetho okubekiwe bekungeyona into okufanele ikhathazeke ngayo.

Noma kunjalo ucwaningo lwesayensi eminyakeni yamuva nje kukhombise ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka kwe-chlorpyrifos kanye nokushoda kwengqondo ezinganeni. Ubufakazi bokulimaza ubuchopho obusakhula bunamandla kangangokuba i-EPA ngo-2015 kusho ukuthi "ayikwazi ukuthola ukuthi noma yikuphi ukubekezelelana njengamanje kuphephile."

I-EPA ithe ngenxa yamazinga angavumelekile okubulala izinambuzane ekudleni nasemanzini okuphuza ihlela ukuvimbela lesi sibulala-zinambuzane ekusebenziseni ezolimo. Kepha ingcindezi evela kuDow futhi ama-lobbyists embonini yamakhemikhali agcine amakhemikhali esetshenziswa kabanzi emapulazini aseMelika. Umbiko wakamuva we-FDA uthole ukuthi bangu-11th izibulala-zinambuzane ezivame kakhulu ekudleni kwase-US okuvela emakhulwini afakiwe ekuhlolweni.

A inkantolo yenhlangano ngo-Agasti ithe ukuthi iTrump Administration yayifaka engcupheni impilo yomphakathi ngokugcina ama-chlorpyrifos esetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kokudla kwezolimo. I- inkantolo ibaluliwe "Ubufakazi besayensi bokuthi insalela yakho ekudleni ibanga ukulimala kwe-neurodevelopmental ezinganeni" futhi yayalela i-EPA ukuthi isuse konke ukubekezelela futhi ivimbele ikhemikhali emakethe. I-EPA isazothatha isinyathelo kulowo myalo, futhi kunjalo ukufuna ukulalelwa kabusha ngaphambi kwe-9 epheleleth Inkantolo Yokudlulisa Amacala Yesifunda.

Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi angakuchaza kanjani ukuma kwakhe okuguqukayo kuma-chlorpyrifos, okhulumela i-ejensi wathi i-EPA "ihlela ukuqhubeka nokubuyekeza isayensi ekhuluma ngemiphumela ye-neurodevelopmental" yamakhemikhali.

Iqiniso lokuthi lisasetshenziswa kakhulu liyakhathaza futhi lithukuthelise odokotela abagxile kwezempilo yezingane futhi libashiye bezibuza ukuthi yikuphi okunye ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni okungenzeka ukuthi kuyabenzela abantu.

"Okusemqoka ukuthi ukukhathazeka okukhulu kwezempilo yomphakathi kwama-chlorpyrifos kusuka ekutholakaleni kwayo ekudleni," kusho uDkt. Bradley Peterson umqondisi we-Institute for the Developing Mind esibhedlela sezingane eLos Angeles. Ngisho nokuchayeka okuncane kungaba nemiphumela emibi. ”

Isinqumo se-EPA sokuqhubeka nokuvumela ama-chlorpyrifos ekudleni kwaseMelika "siyisibonakaliso sokuchithwa okubanzi kobufakazi besayensi" obubekela inselelo impilo yabantu kanye nobuqotho besayensi, ngokuvumelana ne UDkt ULeonardo Trasande, oqondisa iDivision of Environmental Pediatrics ngaphakathi koMnyango Wezingane e-Langone Health yaseNew York University.

Isazi se-Epidemiologist uPhilip Landrigan, umqondisi wohlelo lweBoston College lweGlobal Public Health, kanye nowayengusosayensi we-US Centers for Disease Control, unxusa ukuthi kuvinjelwe zonke izidalwa eziphilayo, isigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane ehlanganisa ama-chlorpyrifos, ngenxa yengozi eziyibangela izingane .

"Izingane zisengozini enkulu kula makhemikhali," kusho uLandrigan. "Lokhu kumayelana nokuvikela izingane."

Ukwanda kokubekezelelana uma kucelwa imboni

Umthetho iFederal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act ugunyaza i-EPA ukuthi ilawule ukusetshenziswa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni ngokuya ngamazinga athile asemthethweni futhi inikeze i-EPA igunya elilinganiselwe lokusungula ukubekezelela iziqu zomthetho ezihlangabezana nemithi yokubulala izinambuzane.

Ukungabekezelelani kuyehluka ekudleni nasekudleni nasekubulaweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ngakho-ke i-apula lingaphatha ngokusemthethweni uhlobo oluthile lwensalela yokubulala izinambuzane kune-plamu, ngokwesibonelo. Ukubekezelelana nakho kuyahlukahluka kuye ngamazwe, ngakho-ke lokho i-US ekubeka njengokubekezelelana okusemthethweni kwezinsalela ze-pesticide ekudleni okuthile - futhi kuvame ukwehluka kakhulu kunemikhawulo ebekwe kwamanye amazwe. Njengengxenye yokuhlelwa kwalokhu kubekezelelana, abalawuli bahlola idatha ekhombisa ukuthi kungakanani okusalayo okuqhubeka ngemuva kokuthi isibulali zinambuzane sisetshenziswe njengoba kuhloswe esitshalweni, futhi benza ukuhlolwa kokudla okuyingozi ukuqinisekisa ukuthi amazinga ezinsalela ze-pesticides awabeki ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yabantu .

Le nhlangano ithi ibangela ukuthi izidlo zezinsana nezingane zingahluka kakhulu kwezabantu abadala nokuthi badla ukudla okuningi ngosayizi wabo kunabantu abadala. I-EPA futhi ithi ihlanganisa imininingwane ngemizila yokuchayeka kwezibulala-zinambuzane - ukudla, ukusetshenziswa kwamanzi okuphuza lapho kuhlala khona - ngolwazi olumayelana nobuthi besibulala-zinambuzane ngasinye ukucacisa izingozi ezingaba khona ezidalwa izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane. Le nhlangano ithi uma izingozi "zingamukeleki," ngeke ikwamukele ukubekezelelana.

I-EPA iphinde ithi uma yenza izinqumo zokubekezelelana, “ifuna ukuvumelanisa ukubekezelelana kweMelika nezindinganiso zamazwe omhlaba lapho kungenzeka khona, ngokuhambisana nezindinganiso zokuphepha kokudla zase-US kanye nemikhuba yezolimo.”

IMonsanto, eyaba yiyunithi yeBayer AG ekuqaleni konyaka, icele ngempumelelo i-EPA ukuthi yandise amazinga ezinsalela ze-glyphosate ezivunyelwe ekudleni okuningana, kufaka phakathi ukolweni ne-oats.

Ngo-1993, isibonelo, i-EPA ibinokubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats ezingxenyeni eziyi-0.1 ngesigidi ngasinye (ppm) kepha ngo-1996 UMonsanto ubuze i-EPA ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana kube ngu-20 ppm kanye ne- I-EPA yenza njengoba ibuziwe. Ku-2008, kusiphakamiso sikaMonsanto, i- I-EPA iphinde yabheka ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana i-glyphosate kuma-oats, kulokhu iye ku-30 ​​ppm.

Ngaleso sikhathi, liphinde lathi lizokhuphula ukubekezelelana kwe-glyphosate ebhali kusuka ku-20 ppm kuye ku-30 ​​ppm, kuphakamise ukubekezelelana emasimini ommbila kusuka ku-1 kuye ku-5 ppm futhi kuphakamise ukubekezelelana kwezinsalela ze-glyphosate kukolweni kusuka ku-5 ppm kuya ku-30 ​​ppm, ukwanda ngamaphesenti angama-500. I-30 ppm kakolweni ifaniswa namanye amazwe angaphezu kwama-60, kepha ingaphezulu kakhulu kokubekezelelwa okuvunyelwe emazweni angaphezu kwama-50, ngokusho kwe i-database yokubekezelelana kwamazwe omhlaba isungulwe ngemali ye-EPA futhi igcinwe manje yiqembu elizimele lezindaba zikahulumeni.

"I-Ejensi inqume ukuthi ukubekezelelana okwandisiwe kuphephile, okusho ukuthi, kunesiqiniseko esizwakalayo sokuthi akukho monakalo ozovela ekutholakaleni okuhlangene kwensalela yamakhemikhali ezibulala-zinambuzane," kusho i-EPA kwi-Federal Register yangoMeyi 21, 2008.

“Zonke lezi zitatimende ze-EPA - sithembe ukuthi kuphephile. Kodwa iqiniso asazi ukuthi liphephile ngempela yini, ”kusho uDkt. Bruce Lanphear, ongusosayensi wezokwelapha eChild & Family Research Institute, BC Children's Hospital, noprofesa emkhakheni wesayensi yezempilo eSimon Fraser University e IVancouver, eBritish Columbia. U-Lanphear uthe ngenkathi abalawuli becabanga ukuthi imiphumela enobuthi iyakhuphuka ngomthamo, ubufakazi besayensi bubonisa ukuthi amanye amakhemikhali anobuthi kakhulu emazingeni aphansi okuvezwa. Ukuvikela impilo yomphakathi kuzodinga ukucabanga kabusha ukucabanga okuyisisekelo mayelana nokuthi ama-ejensi alawula kanjani amakhemikhali, waphikisa ephepheni eshicilelwe ngonyaka odlule.

Eminyakeni yamuva bobabili iMonsanto neDow bathole amazinga amasha okubekezelelana kwezibulala-zinambuzane i-dicamba kanye ne-2,4-D ekudleni futhi.

Ukukhulisa ukubekezelelana kuvumela abalimi ukuthi basebenzise izibulala-zinambuzane ngezindlela ezahlukahlukene ezingashiya izinsalela eziningi, kepha lokho akusongeli impilo yabantu, ngokusho kweMonsanto. Kubhulogi ethunyelwe nyakenye, Usosayensi weMonsanto uDan Goldstein uqinisekise ukuphepha kwezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane ekudleni ngokuvamile kanye ne-glyphosate ikakhulukazi. Ngisho noma beqa umkhawulo wezomthetho, izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zincane kakhulu futhi azinabungozi, ngokusho kukaGoldstein, othumele ibhulogi ngaphambi kokuthatha umhlalaphansi eMonsanto kulo nyaka.

Cishe uhhafu wokudla okwenziwe isampula uqukethe iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane

Phakathi kokukhathazeka kwesayensi, i- idatha yakamuva kakhulu ye-FDA kuzinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni kutholakale ukuthi cishe ingxenye yokudla i-ejensi eyayisampulile iqukethe iminonjana yezibulala-zinambuzane, ama-herbicides, ama-fungicides namanye amakhemikhali anobuthi asetshenziswa abalimi ekukhuliseni ukudla okungamakhulu amaningi.

Amaphesenti angaphezu kwama-90 ama-apula ama-apple asampuliwe atholakale aqukethe izibulala-zinambuzane. I-FDA iphinde yabika ukuthi amaphesenti angaphezu kwama-60 e-cantaloupe aphethe izinsalela. Kukonke, amaphesenti angama-79 ezithelo zaseMelika namaphesenti angama-52 emifino aqukethe izinsalela zemithi yokubulala izinambuzane ezahlukahlukene - eziningi ezaziwa ngososayensi ukuthi kuxhunyaniswe nezifo ezahlukahlukene kanye nezifo. Ama-pesticides atholakele kumikhiqizo yesoya, ummbila, i-oat nemikhiqizo kakolweni, nokudla okuphelile njengamabele, ama-crackers nama-macaroni.

Ukuhlaziywa kwe-FDA "cishe kuphela" kugxile kwimikhiqizo engabhalwanga njengeyinto ephilayo, ngokusho kokhulumela i-FDA uPeter Cassell.

I-FDA yehlisa iphesenti lokudla okuqukethe izinsalela ze-pesticides futhi igxile kumaphesenti amasampula okungekho ukwephula amazinga okubekezelelana. Embikweni wayo wakamuva kakhulu, kusho i-FDA ukuthi ngaphezu "kwama-99% wokudla kwasekhaya kanye no-90% kokudla kwabantu okuhambisanayo bekuhambisana nemithetho yenhlangano."

Umbiko ukhombise ukwethulwa kwale nkampani kokuhlolela i-glycosate killer killer ekudleni. IHhovisi Lokuziphendulela kuHulumeni lathi ngonyaka we-2014 ukuthi bobabili i-FDA kanye noMnyango Wezolimo wase-US kufanele baqale ukuhlola njalo ukudla kwe-glyphosate. I-FDA yenze izivivinyo ezinqunyelwe kuphela ifuna izinsalela ze-glyphosate, kodwa-ke, isampula ummbila kanye nesoya nobisi namaqanda kumbulali wokhula, kusho le nhlangano. Azikho izinsalela ze-glyphosate ezitholwe obisini noma amaqanda, kepha izinsalela zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-63.1 amasampula ommbila namaphesenti angama-67 amasampula wesoya, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Le nhlangano ayizange iveze okutholakele ngomunye wemithi yayo ye-glyphosate ku-oatmeal futhi imikhiqizo yezinyosi, noma ngabe usokhemisi we-FDA enza lokho akutholayo kwaziwa abaphathi nabanye ososayensi abangaphandle kwe-ejensi.

UCassell uthe okutholwe uju ne-oatmeal bekungeyona ingxenye yesabelo se-ejensi.

Sekukonke, umbiko omusha we-FDA wahlanganisa izampuli ezenziwe kusukela ngo-Okthoba 1, 2015, kuze kube nguSepthemba 30, 2016, futhi wafaka ukuhlaziywa kwamasampula angu-7,413 467 okudla okuhloliwe njengengxenye yohlelo “lokuqapha izibulala-zinambuzane” lwe-FDA. Iningi lamasampula kwakungukudla okwakudliwa ngabantu, kepha amasampula angama-47.1 kwakungukudla kwezilwane. Le nhlangano ithe izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zitholakale emaphesentini angama-49.3 amasampula wokudla kwabantu akhiqizwa ekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-57 wokudla okungeniswe kwamanye amazwe enzelwe ukudla kwabathengi. Imikhiqizo yokudla yezilwane yayifana, nezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane zitholakale kumaphesenti angama-45.3 amasampula asekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-XNUMX wokudla okungenisiwe kwezilwane.

Amasampula amaningi okudla angenisiwe akhombisa izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane eziphakeme ngokwanele ukwephula imingcele yezomthetho, kusho i-FDA. Cishe amaphesenti angama-20 amasampula womkhiqizo wokusanhlamvu nokusanhlamvu okhonjisiwe abonise amazinga aphezulu kakhulu wezibulala-zinambuzane, ngokwesibonelo.

Indlela Abadukisa Ngayo UTamar Haspel Abafundi BeWashington Post

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

UTamar Haspel yintatheli ezimele ebilokhu ibhala amakholomu okudla nyangazonke eWashington Post kusukela ngo-Okthoba 2013. Amakholomu akhe avame ukukhuthaza futhi avikele imikhiqizo yomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane, kuyilapho ethola izinkokhelo zokukhuluma emicimbini ehambisana nemboni, futhi kwesinye isikhathi evela emaqenjini ezimboni. Lo mkhuba wezintatheli othola izinkokhelo ezivela emaqenjini ezimboni, aziwa ngokuthi "yi-buckraking," uvusa imibuzo mayelana nokuhlunga.

Ukubuyekezwa kwamakholomu eHaspel eWashington Post kuphakamisa okunye ukukhathazeka. Ezimweni eziningi, uHaspel wehlulekile ukudalula noma achaze ngokuphelele ukuxhumana kwemithombo yakhe yemithombo, wathembela ezifundweni ezigxilwe embonini, amaqiniso athathwe ngamakhompiyutha ukusekela izikhundla zomkhakha, noma wacaphuna inkulumo-ze yezimboni ngokungafanele. Bona isibuyekezo sethu somthombo ukuthola imibhalo. UHaspel ubengakaphenduli emibuzweni yale ndatshana.

Ukuxhaswa kwezimali kwezolimo kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo

"Ngikhuluma futhi ngilinganise amaphaneli nezimpikiswano njalo, futhi ngumsebenzi engikhokhelwa wona," kusho uHaspel wabhala engxoxweni online online 2015 isingathwe yiWashington Post, ephendula umbuzo wokuthi ngabe uyayithola yini imali emithonjeni yezimboni. UHaspel uthe udalula ukuxhumana kwakhe naye iwebhusayithi yomuntu siqu, kepha akadaluli ukuthi yiziphi izinkampani noma amaqembu amxhasayo, noma ukuthi anikela malini.

Lapho ebuzwa ukuthi uthathe malini embonini yezolimo kanye namaqembu ayo angaphambili, UHaspel ubhale kuTwitter, “Njengoba noma yiliphi iqembu elikholelwa ukuthi i-biotech linokuthile elikunikezayo 'liqembu eliphambili,' inala!”

Ngokusho the Amazinga we-Washington Post kanye Nezimiso Zokuziphatha, izintatheli azikwazi ukwamukela izipho, ukuhamba mahhala, ukuphathwa ngendlela ekhethekile noma ukwamukelwa mahhala emithonjeni yezindaba, futhi “kufanele zenze wonke umzamo wokuhlala kubalaleli, zingashiyi inkundla, zibike izindaba, hhayi ukwenza izindaba.” Le mithetho ayisebenzi kuma-freelancers kodwa, futhi iphepha likushiyela kubahleli ukuthi bathathe isinqumo.

Umhleli kaHaspel uJoe Yonan usho kanje unethezekile ngendlela uHaspel asebenza ngayo ekukhulumisaneni okukhokhelwayo futhi uthola ukuthi "kuyisilinganiso esifanelekile."

Ukuze uthole ukwaziswa okwengeziwe:

Pro GMO beat

UHaspel waqala ukubhala ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ku- Mashi 2013 ku-Huffington Post ("Iya eFrankenfish! Kungani Sidinga i-GM Salmon"). Okokugcina uchungechunge lwezihloko zeHuffington Post kugxilwe kahle kwimikhiqizo yezimboni yezolimo. Wazikhipha izingcuphe ze glyphosate futhi Ukudla kwezilwane kwe-GMO, kuphikisana ngokumelene nelebula le-GMO imikhankaso, futhi wakhuthaza imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane exhaswa ngemali iwebhusayithi Izimpendulo ze-GMO. Lelo sayithi lalikhona ingxenye yedola lezigidi eziningi Isinyathelo sobudlelwano bomphakathi sokulwa nokukhathazeka kwabathengi ngokudla okwenziwe ngezakhi zofuzo ngemuva kwemikhankaso yokuqamba ama-GMO amagama.

I-HuffPo Julayi 2013: Isibonelo sendlela iHaspel eyithuthukise ngayo imithombo yezimboni ngokungaqondile. Ezinye izibonelo ezingezansi. 

UHaspel wethule ikholomu yakhe yokudla “evundululiwe” yanyanga zonke eWashington Post kungekudala ngemuva kwalokho, ngo-Okthoba 2013, ngendatshana ekhuluma “yini eyiqiniso”Mayelana nama-GMO. Uthembise ukuthi “uzomba ajule ukuzama ukuthola ukuthi yini eyiqiniso nokuthi yini engekho engxoxweni mayelana nokutholakala kokudla kwethu.” Weluleke abafundi ukuthi babheke ukuthi “ungamethemba ngubani” empikiswaneni ye-GMO futhi wakhomba amaqembu amaningi angazange aluphumelele uhlolo lwakhe lokungakhethi; i-Union of Concerned Scientists ibiphakathi kwabo.

Ikholamu elandelayo kaHaspel, “GMO indawo evamile: Lapho abasekeli nabaphikisi bevumelana khona, ”kunikeze imibono ebanzi evela kuzintshisekelo zomphakathi kanye nasemithonjeni yezimboni. Kodwa-ke, kumakholomu alandelayo, uHaspel wayeqabukela ecaphuna amaqembu ezithakazelo zomphakathi futhi anikeze isikhala esincane kakhulu emithonjeni yezempilo yomphakathi kunemithombo exhunywe embonini. Uvame ukucaphuna ochwepheshe "ekuboneni ubungozi" abavame ukubukela phansi ukukhathazeka kwezempilo yomphakathi nokuphepha. Ezimweni eziningana, iHaspel yehlulekile ukudalula noma uchaze ngokuphelele ukuxhumana kwezezimboni nemithombo lapho ubika ngama-GMO, izibulala-zinambuzane noma ukudla okuphilayo.

Ikholomu 'yokunyakaza kokudla' okwenziwe umkhakha

Isibonelo esikhombisa izinkinga zokukhetha yiHaspel January 2016 ikholomu, "Iqiniso elimangazayo ngokuhamba kokudla." Uthi abantu abakhathalele ubunjiniyela bezakhi zofuzo noma ezinye izici zokukhiqizwa kokudla - "ukunyakaza kokudla" - bayingxenye engezansi yabantu. Akahlanganisanga nezingxoxo nabathengi, ezempilo, ezemvelo noma amaqembu ezobulungiswa azithatha njengengxenye yokunyakaza kokudla.

IHaspel ithole ikholamu ngamaqembu amabili wespin axhaswe ngemali embonini, i- Umkhandlu Wokwaziswa Kwezokudla Womhlaba Wonke futhi UKetchum, inkampani yezobudlelwano bomphakathi eqhuba iwebhusayithi exhaswa ngemali yimboni yezibulala-zinambuzane iGMO Answers. Ngenkathi echaza uKetchum njengenkampani ye-PR "esebenza kakhulu nemboni yokudla," uHaspel akazange adalule imvelaphi: ukuthi uKetchum waqashwa yinhlangano yezohwebo ukushintsha imibono yabathengi ngokudla kwe-GMO. Uphinde wakhuluma ngomlando wehlazo likaKetchum i-flacking yeRussia futhi eqhuba izinhloli ngokumelene namaqembu ezemvelo.

Umthombo wesithathu wekholomu yakhe kwakuyinhlolovo yocingo eneminyaka emibili eyenziwe UWilliam Hallman, umhlaziyi wombono womphakathi ovela kuRutgers obike ukuthi abantu abaningi abanendaba nokubekwa ilebula kwe-GMO. Ngonyaka owedlule, uHallman noHaspel babevele ndawonye kuxhaswe nguhulumeni iphaneli yokuxoxa ngama-GMO no-Eric Sachs waseMonsanto.

Ukusebenzisana namaqembu we-spin spin

Ukusondelana kukaTamar Haspel, nokusebenzisana kwakhe, nabadlali ababalulekile emizamweni yezobudlelwano nomphakathi embonini yezolimo kuphakamisa okunye ukukhathazeka mayelana nenhloso yakhe.

Isilinganiso sokukhangisa esingenhla ivela ekhasini eliyisiqalo le-STATS / Sense About Science, ichaza ama-STAT "njengabaluleke" ekubikeni kwakhe. Ezinye izintatheli zichaze ama-STATS njenge- umkhankaso wokuvikela umkhiqizo “umkhankaso wokwaziswa okungaziwa”Lokho kusebenzisa amaqhinga kagwayi okukhiqiza ukungabaza ngobungozi bamakhemikhali. Ama-STAT adlale indima enkulu “kwezepolitiki ze-hardball zokulawulwa kwamakhemikhali” kanye nemizamo yomkhakha yokuhlambalaza ukukhathazeka kwezempilo nge-bisphenol-A, ngokusho kwe- kubika eMilwaukee Journal Sentinel.

A 2016 Indaba ku-The Intercept ichaze izibopho zikagwayi ze-STATS ne-Sense About Science, ezihlangane ngo-2014, kanye nendima la maqembu ayidlalayo ekuphusheni imibono yezimboni ngesayensi. Ubudlelwano bomphakathi ngo-2015 idokhumenti yamasu waqamba igama elithi Sense About Science phakathi kwe- “abalingani bemboni ”UMonsanto uhlele ukuzibandakanya emkhankasweni wayo "wokulungisa ukukhala" ngokumelene ne-ejensi yocwaningo lomdlavuza yeWorld Health Organisation ukudicilela phansi umbiko mayelana ne-carcinogenicity ye-glyphosate.

Umkhakha wezolimo ujikeleza imicimbi

NgoJuni 2014, iHaspel yayiyi- Ilungu le "faculty" emcimbini wokuqeqeshwa kwemiyalezo oxhaswe imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane obizwa nge- Ikamu Le-Boot Biotech Literacy Project. Lo mcimbi ubuhlelwe yi Iphrojekthi ye-genetic Literacy Project futhi Ukubuyekezwa Kwezifundiswa, amaqembu amabili angaphambili embonini iMonsanto nayo ekhonjwe "njengabalingani bemboni" kuyo Uhlelo lwe-2015 PR.

IGenetic Literacy Project ingeyokuqala uhlelo lwe-STATS, kanye ne-Academics Review kwaba usethe ngosizo lweMonsanto kuya hlazisa abagxeki bezimboni ngenkathi ugcina ukusebenzisana izigxivizo zeminwe zifihliwe, ngokuya ngama-imeyili atholwe ngezicelo zamarekhodi womphakathi.

Ikhempu ebihanjelwa yiHaspel ibihlose “ukulungisa kabusha impikiswano mayelana nokudla kanye nempikiswano ye-GMO,” ngokwe-ajenda. UPaul Thacker ubike ngalo mcimbi ku-Okuqhubekayo, "Imboni iphinde yaxhasa ngasese uchungechunge lwezingqungquthela ukuqeqesha ososayensi nezintatheli ukubumba impikiswano ngama-GMO nobuthi be-glyphosate… Kuma-imeyili, abagqugquzeli babhekise kulezi zingqungquthela njengezikhungo zokufundisa ukufunda nge-biotech, kanti izintatheli zichazwa 'njengabalingani.' ”

Izifundiswa ezijwayele amaqhinga we-spin we-corporate zibuyekeze imibhalo yekamu ebhuthini ngesicelo sikaThacker. “Lezi yizinto ezicindezelayo,” kusho uNaomi Oreskes, uprofesa womlando wesayensi eHarvard University. "Kusobala ukuthi kuhloswe ngakho ukukholisa abantu ukuthi izitshalo ze-GMO zinenzuzo, ziyadingeka, futhi aziyona ingozi eyenele ukufakazela ukufakwa kwamagama." UMarion Nestle, uprofesa wezokudla, izifundo zokudla, kanye nempilo yomphakathi eNyuvesi yaseNew York, uthe, "Uma izintatheli ziya ezingqungqutheleni ezikhokhelwa ukuya kuzo, kumele zisole ngokusobala."

UCami Ryan, owayesebenza ekamu ebhuthini owaqhubeka nokusebenzela iMonsanto, kuphawulwe ku- ukuhlolwa komhlangano ababambiqhaza babefuna, "Izikhathi eziningi ze-Haspel-ish, ama-Ropeik-ish." UDavid Ropeik ungumeluleki wokubona ngobungozi kabani amaklayenti afaka iBayer nezinye izinkampani zamakhemikhali, nobani Haspel esetshenziswe njengomthombo kukholamu abhale ngayo nge-glyphosate.

Izingqungquthela zezinkomfa zemiyalezo ye-biotech

NgoMeyi 2015, uHaspel wethule inkulumo ethi “usuku lwe-biotechnology literacy kanye nezokuxhumana”ENyuvesi yaseFlorida. Lo mcimbi uhlelwe nguKevin Folta, ongusolwazi ohlangene nemboni yezolimo ezimayelana Nomphakathi futhi imizamo yokunxenxa. UFolta wayefake neHaspel kufayela le- Isiphakamiso wasithumela eMonsanto efuna ukuxhaswa ngezimali emicimbini ayichaze “njengesixazululo senkinga yezokuxhumana nge-biotech.” Le nkinga, kusho uFolta, ibingenxa yokuthi izishoshovu "zilawula umbono womphakathi" kanye "namandla abo amakhulu okuzama ukubamba ukudla ngokungadingekile." Ekhasini 4, UFolta uchaziwe umcimbi obekuzoba nawo osolwazi be-UF kanye "nabamele imboni, ochwepheshe bezintatheli kwezokuxhumana kwezesayensi (isib. UTamar Haskel [sic], u-Amy Harmon), kanye nochwepheshe ekuboneni ubungozi bomphakathi kanye ne-psychology (isib. uDan Kahan)."

Monsanto uxhase isiphakamiso, bakubiza ngokuthi “indlela enhle evela eceleni yokuthuthukisa uhlobo lokukhuthaza esifuna ukuluthuthukisa.” (Imali kamuva ezanikelwa endaweni yokudla ngemuva kokuthi umthombo woxhaso ubonakale emphakathini.)

Ngo-Ephreli 2015, uFolta wabhalela uHaspel ngemininingwane emayelana nomcimbi wokuqeqeshwa kwemiyalezo, “Sizobhekana nezindleko kanye ne-honorary, noma yini edingekayo. Izethameli kuzoba ososayensi, odokotela kanye nabanye ochwepheshe okudingeka bafunde ukuthi bangakhuluma kanjani nomphakathi. ”

UHaspel uphendule wathi, "Ngingene impela," futhi udlulise i-anecdote evela kwelinye iphaneli "lokuxhumana ngesayensi" elisanda kushintsha umbono womuntu mayelana neMonsanto. "Kungenzeka ukuhamba phambili, kodwa ngiyaqiniseka ukuthi kungenxa yokuxhumana komuntu nomuntu," kusho uHaspel ebhalela uFolta.

The i-ajenda efakwe kungobo yomlando ngosuku lokuxhumana eFlorida lubhale izikhulumi njengoHaspel, Folta, abanye osolwazi abathathu be-UF, isisebenzi saseMonsanto uVance Crowe kanye nabamele Kwenziwe kabusha futhi Isikhungo Sobuqotho Bokudla (amanye amaqembu amabili iMonsanto ebizwa ngokuthi abalingani bomkhakha isu layo le-PR lokuvikela i-glyphosate). Kwenye imeyili kuFolta, UHaspel wakuthakasela ukuhlangana noCrowe, “Ngikubheke ngabomvu lokhu. (Bengifuna ukuhlangana noVance Crowe - ngijabule kakhulu ukuthi uzobe ekhona.) ”

Imibuzo yokuziphatha nokuziphendulela

NgoSepthemba 2015, iThe New York Times yaveza uFolta ku- indaba esekuqaleni ngu-Eric Lipton mayelana nokuthi amaqembu embonini athembele kanjani kwizifundiswa ukulwa nempi yokulebula i-GMO. U-Lipton ubike ngesicelo sikaFolta sokuqoqa imali esiya eMonsanto, nokuthi uFolta ubelokhu esho esidlangalaleni ukuthi akanabo ubudlelwano neMonsanto.

UHaspel ubhalele uFolta ezinyangeni ezimbalwa kamuva, "Ngiyaxolisa kakhulu ngalokho osudlule kukho, futhi kuyakhathaza lapho ukuhlaselwa okunenhliziyo embi, kunabahlanganyeli kufihla izingqinamba zangempela - kwezesayensi kanye nasekubonakaliseni izinto obala, zombili lezi zinto ezibaluleke kakhulu." UHaspel ubalule ukuthi ubesebenza neNational Press Foundation ukuthuthukisa ukungqubuzana okungcono kwamazinga wenzalo yezintatheli ezizimele.

IHaspel kwakuyi 2015 umuntu weNational Press Foundation (iqembu elixhaswe ngemali yizinkampani, kufaka phakathi IBayer neDuPont). Kundatshana abhalele yona i-NPF mayelana izimiso zokuziphatha zabasebenza ngokuzimela, UHaspel uxoxe ngokubaluleka kokudalulwa futhi wachaza nenqubo yakhe yokukhuluma emicimbini kuphela uma ababambiqhaza okungebona bezimboni nemibono ehlukahlukene bebandakanyekile - imigomo engafinyelelwanga yimicimbi ye-biotech literacy. Ikhasi lokudalula ku- iwebhusayithi yakhe ayivezi ngokunembile i- abahlanganisi nabaxhasi wekamu lebhuthi lokufunda nokubhala le-biotech ka-2014. UHaspel akayiphendulanga imibuzo ephathelene nemicimbi yokufunda nge-biotech.

Ukubuyekezwa komthombo: ukubika okulahlekisayo ngama-pesticides

Ukubuyekezwa komthombo kwamakholomu amathathu kaTamar Haspel eWashington Post ngesihloko semithi yokubulala izinambuzane kutholakale okuningi okuphathelene nezibonelo zemithombo engaxhunywanga exhunywe embonini, ukushiywa kwedatha nokubikwa okungaphandle komongo okusebenzise ukuqinisa imiyalezo embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane ukuthi imithi yokubulala izinambuzane ayiyona inkinga futhi organic akuyona inzuzo enkulu. Ukubuyekezwa komthombo kuhlanganisa lamakholomu amathathu:

  • “Ingabe okuphilayo kungcono empilweni yakho? Ukubheka ubisi, inyama, amaqanda, umkhiqizo kanye nenhlanzi ”(April 7, 2014)
  • “Yikhemikhali iMonsanto elincike kuyo. Kuyingozi kangakanani? ” (October 2015)
  • "Iqiniso ngomkhiqizo ophilayo kanye ne-pesticides" (Kwangathi 21, 2018)

Kuncike emithonjeni exhunywe embonini; yehlulekile ukudalula ubudlelwane bemboni

Kuwo womathathu amakholomu aboniswe kulokhu kubuyekezwa komthombo, iHaspel yehlulekile ukudalula ukuxhumana kwemikhakha yezibulala-zinambuzane emithonjeni esemqoka eyehlisa ubungozi bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane. Akukho nokukodwa kokuxhuma embonini okulandelayo okukhulunywe ngakho kumakholomu akhe kusukela ngo-Agasti 2018 ngenkathi lokhu kubuyekezwa kushicilelwa.

Embikweni wakhe we-2018 "weqiniso mayelana nomkhiqizo wemvelo kanye ne-pesticides," uHaspel unikeze abafundi "umbono wobungozi obukhulu" kusuka ekuvezweni kwezibulala-zinambuzane okwandayo ngokucaphuna isifundo lokho kulinganisa ubungozi bokudla izibulala-zinambuzane kusuka ekudleni kuya ewayinini yokuphuza. UHaspel akazange adalule ukuthi ababhali abane kwabahlanu balolu cwaningo babeqashwe yiBayer Crop Sciences, engomunye wabakhiqizi abakhulu bezibulala-zinambuzane emhlabeni.

Akazange futhi azise abafundi bakhe ukuthi ucwaningo lokuqala lwalunephutha elikhanyayo elalilungiswa kamuva (yize ikholomu yakhe yayixhunywe kocwaningo lokuqala nolungisiwe). Ucwaningo luqale lalinganisa ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni njengokulingana nokuphuza ingilazi eyodwa yewayini njalo eminyakeni eyisikhombisa. Ababhali kamuva bakulungisa lokho engilazini eyodwa yewayini njalo ezinyangeni ezintathu. Lokho kwakungelinye lamaphutha amaningi ephepheni, ngokusho kwe- incwadi eya kulo magazini kososayensi abachaze lolu cwaningo “njengolulula ngokweqile noludukisa kakhulu.”

Ukuchitha ukukhathazeka ngemiphumela yokuhlangana kokuchayeka kwizibulala-zinambuzane eziningi, uHaspel ucaphune enye cwaningo kusuka kumbhali okuyiwona kuphela onxusa i-Bayer wesifundo esinamaphutha sokuqhathanisa iwayini. Futhi ubalule “a Umbiko we-2008”Lokho“ kwenza ukuhlolwa okufanayo. ” Ababhali balowo mbiko wango-2008 bahlanganisa u-Alan Boobis no-Angelo Moretto, izifundiswa ezimbili ezabanjwa ku ukungqubuzana kwehlazo lenzalo ngo-2016 ngoba babe ngusihlalo wephaneli le-UN elakhipha i-glyphosate engcupheni yomdlavuza ngasikhathi sinye njengoba babephethe izikhundla zobuholi e I-International Life Sciences Institute, iqembu elingenzi nzuzo elithole okukhulu iminikelo evela embonini yezibulala-zinambuzane.

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2015 emayelana nobungozi be-glyphosate, “ikhemikhali iMonsanto incike kuyo,” uHaspel ucaphune imithombo emibili enokuxhumana komkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane angazange akudalule. Imithombo kwakunguKeith Solomon, isazi sezobuthi esabhala amaphepha nge-glyphosate ayekhona ixhaswe nguMonsanto (futhi ngubani uMonsanto ukukhuthaza njengomthombo); noDavid Ropeik, umxhumanisi wokubona ngobungozi onenkampani yePR amaklayenti afaka iDow, iDuPont neBayer.

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2014 mayelana nokuthi izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni zibeka engcupheni yini ezempilo, uHaspel wethule ukungabaza ngezingozi zezempilo ze-organophosphates, isigaba semithi yokubulala izinambuzane exhumene ukulimala kwemizwa ezinganeni. Ubalule i- ukubuyekeza ethola ukuthi "izifundo ze-epidemiological azizange zithinte ngokuqinile noma imuphi umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane njengoba uhlobene kakhulu nemiphumela emibi yokukhula kwezinzwa ezinganeni nasezinganeni." Umbhali oholayo wayengu- UCarol Burns, usosayensi eDow Chemical Company, ongomunye wabakhiqizi abakhulu be-organophosphates ezweni; ukuxhumeka akuzange kudalulwe.

Leyo kholamu iphinde yasebenzisa imboni eya kusosayensi wezobuthi uCarl Winter njengomthombo wokuqinisekisa ukuphepha kwezinsalela ze-pesticis ekudleni, ngokususelwa ekuhloleni ubungozi be-EPA. IMonsanto yayikhona ukugqugquzela umsebenzi kaBusika ngaleso sikhathi ezindaweni zokukhuluma, kanti uBusika naye wakhonza kwi ibhodi lokweluleka ngesayensi weqembu elixhaswe ngemali yiMonsanto Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo, okuyinto ngiziqhayisa kokuthunyelwe kwebhulogi ezinyangeni ezimbalwa ezedlule mayelana nokushicilelwa kwe-anti-organic okwakucaphuna umfana wabo, "umeluleki we-ACSH uDkt. Carl Winter."

Idukisiwe nokubikwa okungaphandle kokuqukethwe

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2014 ephathelene nokudla okuphilayo, uHaspel wasebenzisa iphepha lowe-2012 yi-American Academy of Pediatrics ngaphandle komongo ukuqinisa impikiswano yakhe yokuthi ukudla i-organic kungahle kunganikeli izinzuzo zezempilo, futhi akabazisanga abafundi ngobubanzi obugcwele bocwaningo noma iziphetho. I- Iphepha le-AAP ibike ubufakazi obuhlukahlukene besayensi obuphakamisa ukulimala ezinganeni kusuka kokuchayeka okunamandla nokuhlala njalo kumithi yokubulala izinambuzane ehlukahlukene. Kuphethe ngokuthi, "Ukuchayeka kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane kufanele kulinganiselwe ngangokunokwenzeka." Lo mbiko ucaphune ubufakazi bokuthi “kwehle ngokushesha okukhulu ekukhishweni komchamo kwama-metabolites ezibulala-zinambuzane” ezinganeni ezidla ukudla okungokwemvelo. I-AAP nayo ikhishiwe izincomo zenqubomgomo ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane.

UHaspel washiya wonke lowo mongo futhi wabika kuphela ukuthi umbiko we-AAP, “waphawula ukuhlangana phakathi kokuvezwa kwe-organophosphate nezinkinga zezinzwa ezitholakale kwezinye izifundo kodwa waphetha ngokuthi kusengakacaci ukuthi ukwehliswa kokuchayeka ngokudla izinto eziphilayo kungaba 'emtholampilo efanele. '”

Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2018 emayelana nomkhiqizo ophilayo, uHaspel ngokudukisa wabika ukuthi i-pesticide chlorpyrifos "kube yimpi phakathi kwamaqembu ezemvelo, afuna ukuthi ivinjelwe, ne-EPA, engafuni" - kepha akabazisanga abafundi ngesihluthulelo iphuzu: ukuthi i-EPA wayencome ukuvinjelwa i-chlorpyrifos ngenxa yobufakazi obandayo bokuthi ukutholakala kokubeletha kungahle kwenzeke ube nemiphumela ehlala njalo ebuchosheni bezingane. I-ejensi ihlehlise inkambo kuphela ngemuva kwe- UTrump EPA waphazamisa.

UHaspel uthole indlela yakhe yokudukisa "amaqembu ezemvelo vs EPA" ngesixhumanisi seNew York Times ikhasi lemibhalo lokho akuhlinzekanga umongo ngesinqumo se-EPA, kunokuxhumanisa nendaba ye-NYT ebike ngayo ithonya lebhizinisi ngemuva kwesinqumo se-EPA ukuvumela i-chlorpyrifos.

Kuncike emithonjeni evumelana 

Kwikholamu yakhe ka-2018, uHaspel usungule impikiswano yakhe yokuthi ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni akukhathazi kakhulu isu lokuzibika elingathandeki alisebenzisile kwezinye izikhathi: ecacisa isivumelwano phakathi kwemithombo eminingi engaziwa.

Kulokhu, uHaspel ubike ukuthi amazinga ezibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni “aphansi kakhulu” futhi “akufanele ukhathazeke ngawo,” ngokusho kwezinhlangano zikahulumeni wase-US “(kanye nezazi eziningi ezinobuthi engikhulume nazo eminyakeni edlule).” Yize ebike ukuthi "akuwona wonke umuntu onokholo" kulezo zivivinyo zikahulumeni, uHaspel akazange asho lutho ngemithombo engavumelani futhi wakushaya indiva ngokuphelele lokho Umbiko we-American Academy of Pediatrics lokho kuncoma ukwehliswa kokuchayeka kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane, akubalule ngokungahambisani nekholamu yakhe yango-2014. Kwikholamu yakhe yango-2015 ekhuluma nge-glyphosate, waphinda futhi wacaphuna imithombo enomqondo ofanayo, ebika ukuthi usosayensi “ngamunye” akhulume naye wathi, kuze kuphakame imibuzo yakamuva, "i-glyphosate ibiphawuliwe ngokuphepha kwayo."

Kuphuthelwe idatha efanele 

UHaspel uphuthelwe yinqwaba yemininingwane efanele ekubikeni kwakhe ngokuthi “finyelela ezansi kwako” ebika ngobungozi bemithi yokubulala izinambuzane nezinzuzo zezinto eziphilayo. Izitatimende zakamuva zamaqembu ezempilo avelele nesayensi ayilahlekile zifaka:

Imibono eminingi yokubika kukaHaspel

  • “Inhlangano yokudla incane? Akuveli lapho sihlala khona, ”kusho uChellie Pingree no-Anna Lappé, Washington Post (2.4.2016)
  • "Umbhali wephephandaba waseWashington Post uyoshaya iMonsanto - futhi," nguStacy Malkan, Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (2.4.2016)
  • Ukubheja kwi-Food Beat: Kunini lapho kungqubuzana kwezintshisekelo khona? ” nguStacy Malkan, Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (10.28.2015)
  • "Impendulo yokuthi 'Ingabe Okuphilayo Kungcono Yini Empilweni Yakho?'” Isikhungo se-Organic (4.8.2014)
  • "Ukuhlaselwa kwe-Organic: Ukuziba isayensi ukwenza icala lokulima ngamakhemikhali," nguKari Hamerschlag noStacy Malkan, Ukulunga nokunemba ekubikeni (7.2014)

I-SciBabe ithi yidla izibulala-zinambuzane zakho. Kepha ubani omkhokhelayo?

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isayensi embi yeSciBabe izama ukwenza imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ibukeke kahle.

Ukubhuloga ngaphansi kwegama SciBabe, UYvette d'Entremont uvikela amakhemikhali anobuthi emikhiqizweni yokudla futhi akhuthaze izibulala-zinambuzane njengeziphephile. Uthole uxhaso ne-honouraria ezinkampanini ezahlukahlukene kanye namaqembu ezimboni.

Ngo-2017, inkampani eyenziwe ngoshukela yokufakelwa iSPLENDA waqasha uSciBabe ukwenza "i-debunk junk science" ukuvikela umkhiqizo wabo. USciBabe ubeyisikhulumi esifakiwe kumakhemikhali ahlukahlukene nasekudleni imicimbi exhaswe imboni njengengqungquthela yango-2017 ye-Atlantic Farm Women exhaswe ngu ICropLife neMonsanto, Umbukiso Wabahlinzeki ngo-2015 lapho inkulumo yakhe yesidlo sasemini ibikhona exhaswe yiDuPont, kanye nomhlangano waminyaka yonke we-CropLife America ka-2016 lapho inkulumo yakhe eyisihluthulelo yayikhona exhaswe nguMonsanto. Ngokusho kwe- Ukudalulwa okubikiwe kwe-webinar yango-2017, d'Entremont usebenza njengomxhumanisi ku-SPLENDA futhi uthole i-honaria evela, phakathi kwabanye, Abakhiqizi Bokunambitheka, Abalimi Bama-Florida Dairy, i-CropLife, i-American Soybean Association kanye ne-CA Beet Growers.

Ezingxoxweni, uSciBabe uvame ukubalula umsebenzi wakhe wangaphambili ebhodini lezibulala-zinambuzane njengesisekelo solwazi lwakhe ngokuphepha kwezibulala-zinambuzane.

Usebenze enkampanini yokubulala izibulala-zinambuzane eyimpikiswano eyayinesivumelwano neMonsanto ukukhuthaza ama-GMO

Ngaphambi kokuba abe yi-blogger yesikhathi esigcwele, uYvette d'Entremont wasebenza njenge-an isazi samakhemikhali sokuhlaziya at I-Amvac Chemical Corporation, “okwenza ibhizinisi elichumayo lithengise ezinye zezibulala-zinambuzane eziyingozi kakhulu emhlabeni,” ngokusho kwendaba yango-2007 kuyi- I-Los Angeles Times:

“I-Amvac ikhuthaze ukukhula kwemali engenayo enamadijithi amabili ngomkhuba webhizinisi ongajwayelekile: Ithenge ezinkampanini ezinkulu amalungelo emithi yokubulala izinambuzane endala, iningi layo lisengozini yokuvinjelwa noma ukuvinjelwa ngenxa yokukhathazeka ngokuphepha. Le nkampani ilwele ukugcina lawo makhemikhali emakethe isikhathi eside ngangokunokwenzeka, eqasha ososayensi nabameli ukuba balwe nezinhlangano ezilawulayo. Ukugxila kwe-Amvac emithini yokubulala izinambuzane endala kubize impilo yabantu kanye nemvelo, ngokusho kweFederal Environmental Agency Agency (EPA) kanye namarekhodi wombuso, uphenyo lwezomthetho kanye nochungechunge lwamacala. Izingozi ezibandakanya izibulala-zinambuzane zale nkampani ziholele ekutheni kuthuthwe omakhelwane futhi kufakwe nobuthi eziningini zabasebenza emasimini eCalifornia nakwezinye izindawo. ”

I-Amvac Chemical Corporation ine- Okukhethekile isivumelwano neDow Chemical Corporation ukuthengisa iLorsban eyenziwe nge-chlorpyrifos, a isibulala-zinambuzane esiyimpikiswano ukuthi amashumi eminyaka ka isayensi iphakamisa ngokuqinile kulimaza ubuchopho bezingane. I-EPA ithe ama-chlorpyrifos kufanele ivinjelwe, kepha isasetshenziswa kabanzi kuma-apula, amawolintshi, ama-strawberry kanye ne-broccoli, futhi i-Amvac iyimaketha njenge “ukukhetha okulungile!”I-Amvac nayo ine- Isivumelwano neMonsanto ukukhuthaza izitshalo zeRoundup Ready GMO.

I-2016 Monsanto ixhase inkulumo yeSciBabe.

Izitatimende ezingamanga mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane nama-GMO, nethonya le-Amvac

I-SciBabe yenza izimangalo ezingamanga mayelana nezingozi zezempilo kanye nezinqubo zokuphepha zezibulala-zinambuzane, ama-GMO namakhemikhali ekudleni:

  • “Sifakazele ngokukhulu ukucophelela ukuthi, uma bengena ekudleni, [izibulala-zinambuzane] ziphephile kubantu… ngoba sisendaweni elawulwa kakhulu, amathuba okuthi uthole okuthile ekudleni kwakho okungaphephile kuleli qophelo liphansi kakhulu, liphansi kakhulu. Ngisho, ngiphansi ngokweqile. ” (podcast noprofesa waseYunivesithi yaseFlorida UKevin Folta)
  • Okokunandisa okwenziwe kuphephile ngaphandle kobufakazi bokulimala. (SciBabe ibhulogi; Nawa amaqiniso mayelana izingozi zempilo ze-aspartame)
  • Kuma-GMO, “Kunamazinga wokuhlola abucayi akhona avela ku-EPA, FDA, ne-USDA. Ama-GMO ahlolwe kuze kube sekugcineni kwe-DNA. ” (esihlokweni ngoba Iphrojekthi Ye-Genetic Literacy Project)

USciBabe ubonga umsebenzi wakhe wangaphambili ebhodini le-Amvac ngokumkhuthaza ukuthi abambe iqhaza njengomxhumanisi wesayensi:

  • “Ngesikhathi ngisebenza lapho, kulapho-ke lapho ngaqala khona ukungena engxabanweni yalolu hlobo lwempi esinayo kwi-Internet nabantu abathi alukho ucwaningo olwenziwe ngalezi zinambuzane ngaphambi kokuba kuqale imakethe. Futhi ngifana noyebo, ngivele ngikhothe okubi bese ngithi mhlawumbe ngeke zibulale izingane zakho ngaphambi kokukuvumela ukuthi kuthengiswe - okuyinto engikuthembisa yona, akusebenzi kanjalo. ” (i-podcast)
  • "Ngiqale i-blog ngenkathi ngisebenza lapho, futhi ngokwengxenye ngoba bengilokhu ngibona imininingwane emibi kakhulu ku-inthanethi mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane." (Isayensi Edumile Q&A)
  • “Njalo lapho ngibona impikiswano ku-inthanethi yokuthi (ama-GMO) awahlolelwa ukuphepha, ngangibona ebhodini lami lezibulala-zinambuzane engangisebenza kulo, sasikhona. Ngifana nokuthi, 'Lezi zingavivinyelwa kanjani ukuphepha uma umsebenzi wami ngqo uvivinya ukuphepha?' Futhi kwesinye isikhathi bengichitha amasonto amabili ngilinganisela insimbi eyodwa, futhi ngiyisigaxa esisodwa emshinini. Futhi ngiyazi ukuthi ezinye izinhlangothi zicophelelayo njengami. ” (Isayensi Edumile)

Abangane beqembu langaphambili

Umsebenzi weSciBabe ngu njalo kukhuthazwe ngu izimboni zamakhemikhali amaqembu angaphambili, njenge Umkhandlu waseMelika weSayensi nezeMpilo (eye uthole imali kusuka ku-Amvac Chemical Corporation) kanye ne- Iphrojekthi Yezofuzo.

I- "Kevin Folta Fan Club" ungubani wobungani beMonsanto kanye nabavikeli bezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-SciBabe iyingxenye yalokho akubiza nge- "Kevin Folta Fan Club" evikela uprofesa wase-University of Florida owenze kaninginingi izitatimende ezingamanga nezidukisayo. Isithombe seklabhu yabalandeli sibonisa i-d'Entremont noJulie Gunlock we Inkundla Yabesifazane Ezimele, iqembu elixhaswa ngezimali nguKoch lelo abalingani neMonsanto ukwehlisa ukwesaba mayelana nezibulala-zinambuzane; i-propagandist ye-pesticide UJulie Kelly; kanye nesayensi yezenhlalo kaMonsanto kuhola uCami Ryan.

Okuningi ku-Yvette d'Entremont:

  • “USciBabe Akayena Usosayensi Noma Uyingane: UnguBullshit,” Medium
  • “Impendulo kuGawker 'I-Food Babe Blogger igcwele…,” UkudlaBabe
  • "ISciBabe, ekhokhwa ngabakwaSplenda, ithinta umkhiqizo wayo," nguJerry Coyne, PhD, uprofesa e-Univ. waseChicago.

Odokotela, ososayensi batusa ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane 

Izinsizakusebenza zokufunda kabanzi ngobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane nemithetho ebuthakathaka eyehluleka ukuvikela impilo:

I-American Academy Yezingane uncoma ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane. Nayi i-AAP ka-2012 iphepha lesikhundla sesayensi.

“Ubufakazi be-Epidemiologic bubonisa ukuhlangana phakathi kokuchayeka zisencane kwezibulala-zinambuzane nomdlavuza wezingane, kwehle ukusebenza kwengqondo, nezinkinga zokuziphatha. Izifundo ezihlobene nobuthi bezilwane zihlinzeka ngokusekelwa kwezinto eziphilayo ngokusekelwa kwalokhu okutholakele. Ukubona nokunciphisa ukuvezwa kwezinkinga kuzodinga ukunakekelwa kokuntuleka kwamanje ekuqeqesheni ubudokotela, ukulandela umkhondo wezempilo yomphakathi, kanye nezinyathelo zokulawula izibulala-zinambuzane. ”

Umbiko KaMongameli Wephaneli Yomdlavuza incoma ukwehlisa ukuvezwa kwezingane ekuchayekeni kwemvelo okubangela umdlavuza kanye nokukhuthaza umdlavuza.

“Abantu baseMelika — ngisho nangaphambi kokuba bazalwe — bahlaselwa njalo ngenhlanganisela eyinqwaba yalezi zingozi eziyingozi. IPhaneli ikunxusa kakhulu ukuthi usebenzise amandla ehhovisi lakho ukususa izidalwa zomzimba nezinye izinto ezinobuthi ekudleni kwethu, emanzini nasemoyeni ezikhuphula ngokungadingekile izindleko zokunakekelwa kwempilo, zikhubaze umkhiqizo weSizwe sethu, futhi zichithe izimpilo zabantu baseMelika. ”

Isahluko sikaPresident's Cancer Panel ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane siqala ekhasini 43:

“Cishe i-1,400 yezibulala-zinambuzane ibhalisiwe (okungukuthi, ivunyelwe) yi-EPA ukuze isetshenziselwe ezolimo nokungasetshenziswa kwezolimo. Ukuchayeka kulawa makhemikhali kuxhunyaniswe nesistimu yezinzwa yobuchopho / emaphakathi, isifuba, ikholoni, amaphaphu, ama-ovari (abashadikazi besifazane), i-pancreatic, izinso, amasende, nomdlavuza wesisu, kanye neHodgkin ne-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, i-myeloma eminingi, kanye i-sarcoma yezicubu ezithambile. Abalimi abachayeke ngezibulala-zinambuzane, abafaka izibulala-zinambuzane, abashayeli bezindiza zezitshalo, nabakhiqizi nabo batholakale benamazinga aphakeme omdlavuza wendlala yabesilisa, i-melanoma, eminye imidlavuza yesikhumba nomdlavuza wezindebe. ”

Ukuhlolwa Kokukhethwa Kokukhethwa Kokukhetha KwePhalamende laseYurophu le-2016 Kunconywe ukwehliswa kokudla kwezibulala-zinambuzane, ikakhulukazi kwabesifazane nezingane.

Ukuhlolwa kobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane “akubunaki ubufakazi obuvela ocwaningweni lwezifo ezibonisa imiphumela engemihle yokuchayeka ezingeni eliphansi emithini yokubulala izinambuzane ye-organophosphate ekukhuleni kwengqondo yezingane, yize kunezindleko ezinkulu zokulahlekelwa yi-IQ emphakathini. Yize ukungeniswa kwezithelo nemifino kungafanele kwehliswe, izifundo ezikhona zisekela umgomo wokunciphisa ukutholakala kokudla kuzinsalela ze-pesticides, ikakhulukazi kwabesifazane abakhulelwe nezingane. ”

Ijenali yokuphawula kwe-American Medical Association nguPhillip Landrigan, MD, uncoma ukuthi kudliwe ukudla okuphilayo.

  • "Isimo sethu samanje se-laissez-faire maqondana nokulawulwa kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane siyasihluleka"
  • "Ubufakazi obuningi buveza ukuthi inzalo yomuntu iyancipha nokuthi imvamisa yokukhubazeka kokuzala iyanda." Lezi zinkambiso “cishe” zixhunyaniswe nokuchayeka kwemvelo kumakhemikhali
  • Bhekafuthi Isifundo seHarvard pesticide / infertility kuJAMAAbaphenyi baseHarvard balandela abesifazane abangama-325 emtholampilo wokuzala iminyaka emibili futhi babika ukuthi abesifazane abadla njalo izithelo nemifino elashwa ngezibulala-zinambuzane banamazinga empumelelo aphansi okukhulelwa i-IVF

Isitatimende sokuvumelana esivela ososayensi abahola phambili: Ukukhathazeka ngezingozi zemithi yokubulala ukhula esekwe ku-glyphosate nezingozi ezihambisana nokuchayeka, i-Environmental Health Journal

Izindaba zakamuva ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane

I-chlorpyrifos yokubulala izinambuzane kaDow ikhonjiswe ukuthi ilimaza ubuchopho bezingane kanti ososayensi uqobo lwe-EPA bathe ngo-2016 abasakwazi ukufakazela ukuphepha kwesibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni noma emanzini, kodwa isasetshenziswa kakhulu kwezolimo ngenxa yengcindezi yezepolitiki evela embonini yezolimo.

Icala Elinamandla Ngokuphikisana Nesibulala-zinambuzane Alisho I-EPA Ngaphansi Kwetrump, NguRoni Caryn Rabin New York Times

Yilokhu okwenziwa ngumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ebuchosheni bengane, NguNicholas Kristof New York Times

IMonsanto ithi izibulala-zinambuzane zayo ziphephile. Manje, inkantolo ifuna ukubona ubufakazi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Imicimbi yaleli sonto izokwakha okokuqala lapho isayensi esetshenzisiwe ukufakazela izibulala-zinambuzane ezithile iyohlaziywa ngaphansi kwesifungo ukuze ibonwe yibo bonke

Lo mbhalo ushicilelwe okokuqala ngo The Guardian.

NguCarey Gillam

Ngomsombuluko, ukulalelwa kwenkantolo yenhlangano eSan Francisco sizobeka obala emphakathini isayensi ezungeze ukuphepha kwesinye sezibulala-zinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, ikhemikhali lokubulala ukhula elibizwa nge-glyphosate elixhunyaniswe nomdlavuza futhi elitholakala kakhulu ukudla namanzi, ngisho nakwethu uketshezi lomzimba wakho. Uma sibheka imiphumela ebanzi yezempilo nezemvelo ehlobene nokusetshenziswa kwalesi sibulala-zinambuzane, sizosizakala ukuthi sinake.

Njengesithako esisebenzayo ku-Roundup esinegama likaMonsanto namakhulu eminye imithi yokubulala ukhula, i-glyphosate imele izigidigidi zamaRandi emalini engenayo yaminyaka yonke yeMonsanto nezinye izinkampani, futhi isetshenziswa kakhulu ngabalimi njengosizo lokukhiqiza ukudla. Kuyathandwa futhi ngamadolobha ukugcina amapaki omphakathi nezinkundla zokudlala kungekho ukhula, nangabaninikhaya abafuna utshani obuhle. Kepha lelo khemikhali lathathwa njenge- kungenzeka i-carcinogen yomuntu ngochwepheshe bomdlavuza beWorld Health Organisation ngonyaka we-2015 ekutholeni okuqale kudala amagagasi amacala amacala ngokumelene neMonsanto.

Izinkulumompikiswano ezishubile mayelana nokuphepha - noma ukuntuleka kwawo - kwalesi sibulali zinambuzane esidumile ziye zasabalela umhlaba futhi kwaqubula impi yenkulumo-ze uhlangothi ngalunye luthi olunye luye lwaveza kabi umlando wesayensi. Izisulu zomdlavuza zisola ukuthi iMonsanto inayo Kubhalwe “isipoki” ukubuyekezwa kocwaningo, abalawuli abathonywe ngokungafanele futhi badala amaqembu angaphambili ukuthi afune amanga ngokuphepha kwe-glyphosate. IMonsanto, okwamanje, iqinisekisa izifundo eziningi zososayensi bamazwe inamaphutha futhi inenkuthazo kwezepolitiki, futhi ithi izifundo zemboni zibonisa ukuthi umkhiqizo uphephile uma usetshenziswa njengoba kuhlosiwe.

Imicimbi yaleli sonto kuzobe kungokokuqala ngqa lapho uhlaka lwenhlangano yocwaningo, eminye ebilokhu iqoqa uthuli kumajenali agcwele isayensi noma kumafayili ezinkampani eziyimfihlo, luzohlaziywa ngaphansi kwesifungo ukuze lubonwe ngabantu bonke.

Akuwona umsebenzi wokungenzi lutho. Izimpilo zangempela zisengozini kulokhu futhi kunezimpikiswano ezibanzi mayelana nobungozi bezibulala-zinambuzane empilweni yethu. Oyedwa kwabesilisa ababili nowodwa kwabesifazane abathathu manje kulindeleke ukuthi bahlakulele umdlavuza esikhathini sabo sokuphila futhi Umdlavuza wezingane uyanda.

Ezinganeni, ukuvezwa kwezibulala-zinambuzane akuxhunywanga nje kuphela umdlavuza wezingane, kepha futhi nokwehla kokusebenza kwengqondo, nezinkinga zokuziphatha. Kubantu abadala, izibulala-zinambuzane zixhumene i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, i-leukemia, ubuchopho, i-prostate namanye amagciwane. Abamangali abangaphezu kuka-3,000 XNUMX abamangalela iMonsanto bethi ukuvezwa kwenkampani esekwe eglyphosate-based Roundup kubangele bona noma amalungu emindeni yabo ukuthi benze i-non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

IMonsanto izamile ukuncenga ijaji laseMelika uVince Chhabria ukuthi alilahle leli cala, futhi yafuna ukugcina imfihlo imibhalo eminingi yangaphakathi ephoqeleke ukuthi iphendulwe lapho itholwa. Kepha uChabria ukhiphe umyalelo wokuthi ukulalelwa kube kuqoshwe ividiyo futhi kwabiwa esidlangalaleni nge-inthanethi. Futhi uye wakwenza unikezwe imvume ukuze abamangali bahlole enkantolo evulekile izinto ezinjengokubhalwa kwesipoki kwesayensi kanye no isifundo esiyimpikiswano sango-1983 ukuthi ososayensi be-EPA ngaleso sikhathi bathi bakhombisa ubufakazi bokuthi i-glyphosate ingadala umdlavuza.

Inkantolo ibize le micimbi ka-5-9 Mashi ngokuthi "isonto lesayensi" ngoba ubufakazi obuzokwethulwa kuphela buzovela ochwepheshe besayensi yomdlavuza, kuhlanganise izazi ze-epidemiologists, i-toxicologists nabanye kubizwe ukuhlaziya ucwaningo olufanele. Ngeke zibe khona izisulu zomdlavuza ezikhalayo zokudonsa izintambo zenhliziyo; izinhlangothi eziphikisayo ezethula isayensi kwijaji elizonquma ukuthi amacala angaqhubekela phambili yini.

Ukuqinisa ukuzivikela kwayo, inkampani nababambisene nayo embonini yamakhemikhali bebelokhu sisebenzela ukwehlisa isithunzi ososayensi bomdlavuza nabanye abakade bexwayisa ngengozi. Lowo mzamo ugqanyisiwe lapho amalungu ekomidi leNdlu lezesayensi, isikhala nobuchwepheshe wabamba indlebe eWashington ngomhla ka-6 kuNhlolanja ukuyofaka izikhalazo zikaMonsanto mayelana nokuhlukaniswa kwe-glyphosate njenge-carcinogen okungenzeka kube yi-carbinogen, kanye nokusabisa ngokuhlwitha imali ohlangothini lwesayense.

Umzamo wekomidi - ngokuguqula impi yomdlavuza waba yimpi yesayensi yomdlavuza - kwaba njalo kushayelwe ihlombe imboni yamakhemikhali. IMonsanto, kanye ne-lobbyist CropLife America nezinye izinhlangano zezolimo, nayo wamangalela iCalifornia ukumisa abalawuli bezemvelo ukuthi bangadingi izexwayiso zomdlavuza ngemikhiqizo ye-glyphosate, futhi ngomhla ka-26 kuNhlolanja bona uwine umyalo ukuvimba isexwayiso esinjalo.

Impikiswano nge-glyphosate kodwa iyisibonelo sakamuva sendlela imizamo yezimboni ejwayele ukugxila ngayo ekuhloleni ubufakazi besayensi bokulimala, kepha ekudicileleni phansi isayensi ekhubekisayo. Ngonyaka odlule, ngokwesibonelo, iDow Chemical yacela ngempumelelo ubuholi be-Environmental Protection Agency ukuthi ungazinaki izixwayiso ezivela kososayensi bayo (nabanye) ngocwaningo olunzulu olubopha umuthi wokubulala izinambuzane onenzuzo obizwa nge-chlorpyrifos ezinkingeni zokukhula kobuchopho ezinganeni.

Ukunikezwa esidlangalaleni kobufakazi bochwepheshe eSan Francisco mayelana nesibulali zinambuzane esigcwele iMonsanto kunikeza ithuba elibalulekile lokuhlukanisa isayensi ne-spin. Sonke kufanele ngabe sibhekile.

Bamba iPlum Pudding: Imikhombandlela Yokudla Kwamasampula wase-US Iyatatazelisa Izinsalela Zezibulala-zinambuzane

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

NguCarey Gillam

Kwesinye isikhathi iqiniso ngokudla kwethu alihehi kakhulu.

Njengoba abaningi beqoqa lesi sikhathi samaholide ukuze badle ndawonye umndeni, kungenzeka ukuthi bazobe besebenzisa imithamo emincane yezibulala-zinambuzane ngepuleti ngalinye elidlulisiwe, kufaka phakathi uhlobo oluvame kakhulu olukhombisa ukuthi luyingozi ezinganeni nasempilweni yokuzala.

Imininingwane emisha ekhishwe muva nje yi-Food and Drug Administration (i-FDA) ikhombisa ukwenyuka kokutholakala kwezinsalela ze-pesticides ezitholwe ezinkulungwaneni zamasampula wokudla okusetshenziswa kakhulu. Imibhalo etholwe kule nhlangano ngezicelo zeFreedom of Information Act (FOIA) iphinde ikhombise ukuthi uhulumeni ulungiselela okuningi, ngokusebenzisa okungenani ikhemikhali elilodwa lokubulala ukhula eliyimpikiswano - i-herbicide eyaziwa nge-2,4-D - okulindeleke ukuthi liphindwe kathathu ngonyaka ozayo.

Futhi wangcwatshwa ekujuleni kwe- Umbiko wakamuva we-FDA wezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane idatha ekhombisa ukuthi isibulala-zinambuzane esiyimpikiswano esibizwa nge-chlorpyrifos, esimakethwa yiDow Chemical futhi kuvinjelwe ukusetshenziswa kwasendlini ngenxa yezingozi ezaziwayo, kwaba umuthi wokubulala izitshabalalisi owedlula zonke otholakala ekudleni kokutholakala kwemithi yokubulala izinambuzane engama-207.

Sekukonke, cishe amaphesenti angama-50 okudla kwasekhaya namaphesenti angama-43 okudla okungenisiwe okusampuli kukhombisile izinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane ekuhlolweni kwe-FDA ngonyaka wezimali ka-2015, okuyisikhathi esidalwe kulo mbiko omusha. Lokho kukhuphuke cishe ngamaphesenti angama-37 okudla kwasekhaya kanye namaphesenti angama-28 okudla okungenisiwe okutholakala nezinsalela ngonyaka ka-2010, futhi kusuka kumaphesenti angama-38.5 namaphesenti angama-39, ngokulandelana, okutholwe yi-FDA eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule ngo-2005.

Isampula ye-FDA ibilokhu incipha eminyakeni edlule, yehla cishe ngamaphesenti angama-25 kusukela eminyakeni eyishumi edlule isuka kumasampula angaphezu kwama-7,900 kuya kumasampula angama-5,989 ahlolwe embikweni wayo wakamuva. UMnyango Wezolimo wase-US nawo wenza ukuhlolwa kwamakhemikhali ezinambuzane minyaka yonke, kepha ubheka amasampula angaphezu kuka-10,000. I- umbiko wezinsalela zakamuva ze-USDA, okwabuye kwaba yisikhathi sesikhathi sika-2015, okutholakele mayelana namaphesenti angu-85 amasampula aqukethe izinsalela ze-pesticides.

Ngokuphawulekayo, amasampula ezithelo nemifino - okubhekwa njengokukhetha okunempilo kokudla - akhombise imvamisa ephezulu kakhulu yezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane embikweni omusha we-FDA. Cishe amaphesenti angama-82 ezithelo ezifuywayo zaseMelika namaphesenti angama-62 emifino yasekhaya athatha izinsalela zababulali bokhula, izibulala-zinambuzane kanye nezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ezisetshenziswa kakhulu ngabalimi.

Phakathi kwamasampuli okudla kwasekhaya, i-FDA ithe amaphesenti angama-97 ama-apula, amaphesenti angama-83 wamagilebhisi, amaphesenti ama-60 katamatisi, amaphesenti ama-57 wamakhowe namaphesenti ama-53 ama-plums aphethe izinsalela. Ngokuqondile isigamu sezithelo zezithelo namajeli kanye nokusabalala okufanayo kuye kwahlungwa ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, ngokusho kwedatha ye-FDA.

Uma kubhekwa izithelo nemifino engenisiwe, i-FDA ithole ukuthi cishe amaphesenti angama-51 ezithelo ezingenisiwe namaphesenti angama-47 emifino engenisiwe ephethe izinsalela. Kukonke, ukudla okungenisiwe bekunezinsalela eziphakeme kakhulu ezingekho emthethweni zezinsalela zezibulala-zinambuzane kunokudla kwasekhaya okuyisampula. Ngaphezu kwamaphesenti ayi-9 wezithelo nemifino engenisiwe kwathathwa njengokuphula imingcele esemthethweni yezinsalela zokubulala izinambuzane uma kuqhathaniswa namaphesenti angu-2.2 kuphela wezithelo ezikhuliswe eMelika namaphesenti ayi-3.8 emifino yasekhaya.

I-FDA ithe ezinye izinto ezithile ezilethwe ezweni zingadinga ukunakwa okukhethekile ngenxa yamazinga aphezulu ezibulala-zinambuzane, okubandakanya iklabishi, amakhowe, amawolintshi nejusi lewolintshi nelayisi.

Amazinga “aphephile” aphelelwe yisikhathi

I-Environmental Protection Agency ibeka imikhawulo yezomthetho, ebizwa ngokuthi “imikhawulo yezinsalela eziphakeme” (MRLs) yezinsalela ze-pesticides ekudleni. I-FDA ne-USDA bahlala beqinisekisa abathengi ukuthi uma izinsalela zingaphansi kwama-MRL asunguliwe, zombili zisemthethweni futhi ziphephile. Kepha ososayensi abaningi nochwepheshe bezokwelapha abavumelani, bethi izindlela zokulawula ziphelelwe yisikhathi futhi zincike kakhulu kokufakwayo kubadlali bemboni yamakhemikhali abathengisa izibulala-zinambuzane.

“Izindlela zokuhlola ubungozi ezinhlanganweni zikahulumeni azikaze zivuselelwe imigomo yesayensi yanamuhla, kufaka phakathi ukubalwa kweqiniso lokuthi abantu bavezwa amakhemikhali amaningi nokuthi amaqembu athile, anjengezofuzo atholakala kalula, abancane kakhulu nabadala bangaba sengozini enkulu yokuvezwa , ”Kusho uTracey Woodruff, owayengusosayensi omkhulu we-EPA oqondisa uHlelo Lwezempilo Yokuzala kanye Nezemvelo e-University of California San Francisco School of Medicine.

Impikiswano ezungeze ama-chlorpyrifos igcizelela lokho kukhathazeka. Abalimi bebelokhu besebenzisa ama-chlorpyrifos kusukela ngo-1965 futhi uhulumeni uhlale isikhathi eside ukuthi inqobo nje uma izinsalela zingaphansi kwama-MRL asunguliwe, ziphephile.

Kepha eminyakeni yamuva nje, lowo mbono wokulawula ushintshile njengoba ucwaningo lukhombisa ukuthi lesi sibulala-zinambuzane, esisetshenziswa kummbila nezithelo nemifino efana nama-cranberries, amahlumela aseBrussels, ne-broccoli, singaba nemiphumela eyingozi ye-neurodevelopmental emibungwini omama bayo abadalulwa nasebancane izingane. Ucwaningo lubopha ikhemikhali ekunakekeleni izinkinga zokusilela, ukuthuthumela, kanye ne-autism.

NgoDisemba 15, iHhovisi LaseCalifornia Lokuhlolwa Kobungozi Bezempilo ohlwini lwama-chlorpyrifos njengoba kwaziwa ngokuthi "kubangela ubuthi bokuzala." Futhi i-EPA ithe ayisakwazi vouch ukuphepha kwezinsalela ezitholakala ekudleni. I-EPA ibihlele ukwenqabela ukusetshenziswa kwama-chlorpyrifos kwezolimo. Kepha ukuphathwa kukaTrump kubuyise lelo cebo ekuqaleni konyaka ngemuva ukunxenxa okunzima kusuka kuDow nakwabanye abamele imboni yezolimo.

I-FDA yenqabile ukuphawula ngombiko wayo futhi yenqabile ukuphendula imibuzo ephathelene nokuphepha kwezinsalela ze-chlorpyrifos ezitholakala ekudleni.

Ukwanda ku-2,4-D kulindelekile

Ihlukile kumbiko wezinsalela ezishicilelwe yi-FDA, imibhalo yangaphakathi ye-FDA ikhombisa ukuthi i-ejensi isebenza ukuthola izinsalela zemithi yokubulala ukhula esetshenziswa kabanzi - i-glyphosate ne-2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Imemo yangaphakathi sangomhla kaMeyi walo nyaka esitholwe nge-FOIA sithi ukusetshenziswa kuka-2,4-D “kulindeleke ukuthi kube kathathu ngonyaka ozayo” ngenxa yezitshalo ezintsha ezakhiwe ngezakhi zofuzo ezenzelwe ukubekezelela ukusetshenziswa ngqo kwe-herbicide.

I-FDA noma i-USDA ayivivinye njalo i-glyphosate yize iyi-herbicide esetshenziswa kakhulu emhlabeni, futhi ukuhlolwa kwabafundi, amaqembu abathengi namanye amazwe kukhombisile izinsalela zombulali wokhula ekudleni. I-FDA yathi ekuqaleni kuka-2016 ukuthi ihlela ukuqala ukuhlola umbulali wokhula, futhi imibhalo ikhombisa ukuthi usokhemisi oyedwa we-FDA ubike ngokutholwa izinsalela kuju futhi kumikhiqizo ye-oatmeal, kepha imiphumela ephelele yokuhlolwa kohlelo ayikhishwanga esidlangalaleni.

Imininingwane yohlelo lokuhlola igcinwa iyimfihlo, futhi kumadokhumenti akhishwe yi-FDA nge-FOIA, amabhulokhi amakhulu emininingwane acishiwe. I-FDA yenqabile ukuphawula ngesimo se-glyphosate nokuhlolwa kwe-2,4-D, kufaka phakathi lapho ingashicilela khona eminye imiphumela.

Ama-pesticides ahlolwe yi-FDA, futhi awathola, embikweni wesampula wokudla wakamuva, afakiwe endosulfan, isibulala-zinambuzane esivinjelwe emazweni angaphezu kwama-80 futhi siyakhishwa ngenxa yobungozi obuthile empilweni yomuntu; isibulala-zinambuzane I-DDT, okwakuvinjelwe ngawo-1970 e-United States, futhi malathion, isibulala-zinambuzane esihlukaniswe yi-International Agency for Research on Cancer njenge-carcinogenic.

Le ndatshana yavela okokuqala Izindaba Zempilo Yezemvelo.

Ukudlondlobala Kwama-Anti-Women, AmaQembu EzeMpilo Aphikisana Nomphakathi

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Isithombe © Tony Powell. IGala Lesigungu Sabesifazane Esizimele sango-2017. Isiteshi seNyunyana. Novemba 15, 2017

Le ndatshana yavela okokuqala Huffington Post.  

NguStacy Malkan

Esikhathini esidlule soiree e-Union Station, i-DC power elite ihlangane embuthanweni wezempilo omelene nomphakathi ovunule njengombungazo wabesifazane okufanele uthinte noma ngubani okhathalele impilo namalungelo abesifazane nezingane.

Isithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane sidwebe i- uhlu oluhlaba umxhwele osopolitiki beRiphabhulikhi eya kugal yalo yonyaka uxhaswe ngu, phakathi kokunye, i-American Chemistry Council, inkampani kagwayi uPhillip Morris, iqembu lokuhweba embonini yezimonyo, iGoogle kanye nephiko langakwesokudla leAmerican Legislative Exchange Council.

Izikhulumi zifaka uSomlomo weNdlu uPaul Ryan kanye nomeluleki weTrump uKellyanne Conway, onqobe i-IWF Umklomelo We-Valor ngokuba “ngummeli oshisekayo kahulumeni onomkhawulo” ongayamukeli “umqondo wokuthi ukuba ngowesifazane kungukukhubazeka.” IConway futhi iyilungu lebhodi le-IWF.

Manje siyini Isithangami Esizimele Sabesifazane?

IWF yaqala eminyakeni engama-25 edlule njenge- umzamo wokuvikela manje-iNkantolo Ephakeme iJaji uClarence Thomas njengoba ayebhekene namacala okuhlukumeza ngokocansi. Leli qembu selivele kukhuliswe izigidi kusukela ezisekelweni eziyimfihlo zabazalwane bakaKoch nakwabanye ozigidigidi abangamaphiko okudla ukuze bafeze umsebenzi wabo "wokwandisa isibalo sabesifazane abazisa izimakethe zamahhala nenkululeko yomuntu siqu."

Emhlabeni we-IWF - iqembu uJoan Walsh elichazwe ku- The Nation “njengabafazi 'abenza umsebenzi ongcolile kaKoch” - lokho kusho ukuvikela inkululeko yezinkampani yokuthengisa imikhiqizo enobuthi kanye nokungcolisa imvelo, ngenkathi izama ukuhlela leyo ajenda njengefanele abesifazane nezingane.

Ugwayi we-E kufanele uvunyelwe ngenxa ye- izidingo zebhayoloji ezihlukile kwabesifazane, isibonelo, kanye nemfundo yesayensi yezulu yi wethusa kakhulu eyabafundi. (Incwadi e-cig ithi “uPhillip Morris PR ojwayelekile,” uthi Isazi semboni kagwayi uStan Glanz; kanye neGreenpeace ihlukanisa IWF "njengeqembu eliphambili lokuphika isimo sezulu seKoch Industries.")

Abesifazane bangazuza futhi ngokunganaki ukukhathazeka kwe- "alarmist" ngamakhemikhali anobuthi, ngokusho kochungechunge lwezifundo lwe-IWF exhaswe nguMonsanto.

Ukukunika umuzwa wokuthumela imiyalezo kumakhemikhali: Omama abaphikelela ekudleni okungokwemvelo bayazikhukhumeza, bathanda "abazali bezindiza ezinophephela emhlane" abadinga ukulawula konke uma kuziwa ezinganeni zabo, noma indlela ukudla okulinywa nokuphathwa ngayo, ”Ngokusho kukaJulie Gunlock, umqondisi wephrojekthi ye-IWF ye-“ Culture of Alarmism ”, njengoba kucashunwe ku esihlokweni enesihloko esithi "Ubushiqela be-organic mommy mafia" obabhalwa ngumuntu we-IWF.

E-gala ye-IWF, uGunlock uthathe isithombe nge-Monsanto isisebenzi sika-Aimee Hood noJulie Kelly, obhala izindatshana ezifaka ukungabaza ngobungozi besayensi yezulu kanye ne-pesticide, wake wabizwa ngisho iqhawe lesimo sezulu uBill McKibben "ucezwana".

UGunlock noKelly “bangosaziwayo bamatshe,” UHood ubhale kuTwitter.

"Ngikubiyela lokhu," kusho isisebenzi seMonsanto uCami Ryan.

Beka uhlaka kuyo yonke i-shindig bese ubona ubuphukuphuku bezombusazwe ezithwetshulwe ezinkampanini eMelika, lapho abaholi bezinqubomgomo bamukela obala iqembu labesifazane elilwa nabesifazane elilinganisa "inkululeko" nokudla izibulala-zinambuzane ezinobuthi, emcimbini oxhaswe imboni yamakhemikhali , inkampani kagwayi, iqembu eleqisayo elifuna susa iSenethi ekhethwe ngokuvota kanye nomthombo wezindaba onethonya elikhulu emhlabeni.

Okwamanje emhlabeni onengqondo

Isayensi yakamuva ikhombisa ukuthi uma ufuna ukukhulelwa futhi ukhulise izingane ezinempilo, kufanele wenqabe inkulumo-ze yokuthi amaqembu afana ne-Independent Women Forum azama ukuthengisa.

Emasontweni ambalwa edlule, i-Journals of the American Medical Association ishicilele i- Ucwaningo lweHarvard okufaka ukudla okuphethwe zinambuzane ezinkingeni zokuzala, a Ucwaningo lwe-UC San Diego kubhalwa ukwanda okukhulu kokuchayeka komuntu kumuthi wokubulala izinambuzane ojwayelekile, kanye nakudokotela ukuhlaziya ukunxusa abantu ukuthi badle ukudla okungokwemvelo.

Amaqembu amakhulu abelokhu enikeza izeluleko ezifanayo iminyaka.

Ngo-2012, i-American Academy of Pediatrics Kunconywa ukunciphisa ukutholakala kwezingane emithini yokubulala izinambuzane ngenxa ye- izincwadi ezikhulayo exhumanisa izibulala-zinambuzane nezinkinga zempilo ezingapheli ezinganeni, kufaka phakathi izinkinga zokuziphatha, ukukhubazeka kokuzalwa, isifuba somoya kanye nomdlavuza.

Ngo-2009, i-bipartisan Iphaneli Likamdlavuza likaMongameli wabika: “umthwalo weqiniso womdlavuza obangelwa imvelo uye wabukelwa phansi kakhulu.”

Iphaneli linxuse owayenguMongameli wangaleso sikhathi uGeorge W. Bush “kakhulu ukuthi asebenzise amandla ehhovisi lakho ukususa izidalwa zomzimba nezinye izinto ezinobuthi ekudleni kwethu, emanzini nasemoyeni ezikhuphula ngokungadingekile izindleko zokunakekelwa kwempilo, zikhubaze umkhiqizo weSizwe sethu, futhi zichithe izwe laseMelika uyaphila. ”

Ngeshwa esizweni sakithi, ukwenza ngokuvumelana naleso seluleko akukwazanga ohlelweni lwezepolitiki olubhekiswe kuzintshisekelo zebhizinisi.

Ukubanjwa kwezempilo kwezesayensi
Sekungamashumi eminyaka, izinkampani zokubulala izinambuzane zisebenzisa isayensi nezinhlangano ezilawula i-US ukugcina iqiniso lifihliwe ngobungozi bezempilo bamakhemikhali abo.

Imininingwane yembulwa ngamakhulu ezinkulungwane zamakhasi we imibhalo yemboniwakhululwa zomthetho Ukutholakala, abamemeza futhi Izicelo ze-FOIA ezihlolwe ku- ukulalelwa kukahulumeni futhi by abaningi abezindaba Izitolo.

Ukuze uthole amazwibela omkhankaso weMonsanto “wokusebenza isikhathi eside oyimfihlo wokuqopha irekhodi lesayensi, ukuthonya umbono womphakathi, kanye nokuthonya ukuhlolwa kokulawulwa” ku-herbicide glyphosate, bheka le ndatshana yomuntu engisebenza naye uCarey Gillam ku Umagazini i-Undark.

Njengesibonelo esisodwa sombumbano lukahulumeni / lwenkampani: ngo-2015, ewashini labaphathi baka-Obama, isikhulu se-EPA esasiphethe ukuhlola ingozi yomdlavuza we-glyphosate okuthiwa saziqhayisa kumphathi weMonsanto ngokusiza “ukubulala” isifundo somdlavuza wenye inhlangano, njengoba I-Bloomberg ibike.

Ukucindezela isayensi kube yiphrojekthi ekabili, yamashumi eminyaka. Kusukela ngo-1973, uMonsanto wethule isayensi engabazisayo ukufuna ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate ngenkathi i-EPA ibheke kakhulu, njengoba uValerie Brown no-Elizabeth Grossman babhalela Kulezi zikhathi.

UBrown noGrossman bachitha iminyaka emibili behlola ingobo yomlando etholakala esidlangalaleni yemibhalo ye-EPA kwi-glyphosate, futhi babika:

“IGlyphosate yicala elicacile 'lokuthwalwa ngokomthetho' kwenhlangano esebenza ngenhloso yayo yezezimali ngenkathi imibuzo ebucayi ngempilo yomphakathi isalokhu isezindongeni. Irekhodi lisikisela ukuthi eminyakeni engama-44 — ngokusebenzisa abaphathi bomongameli abayisishiyagalombili — abaphathi be-EPA abakaze bazame ukulungisa le nkinga. Ngempela, imboni yezibulala-zinambuzane ithinta ubuchwepheshe bayo obubheke phambili, besimanje njengoba izama ukugcina ucwaningo lwayo ekhabetheni, futhi ithembele emicabangweni engabazekayo nasezindleleni eseziphelelwe yisikhathi kwezobuthi obulawulayo. ”

Babhala ukuthi okuwukuphela kwendlela yokuthola isisekelo sesayensi sokuhlola ukuphepha kwe-glyphosate, “ukuphoqa ukukhanya kwasemini phakathi kwabalawuli nabalawulwa.”

Uhulumeni olinganiselwe usho inkululeko yokulimaza

EWashington kaTrump, akukho ukukhanya kwemini nhlobo phakathi kwezinkampani ezithengisa imikhiqizo eyingozi nezinhlangano okufanele zizilawule.

Umphathi we-EPA uScott Pruitt ukuxosha ososayensi emabhodini ezeluleko nokufaka i-EPA nge abaqokelwe ezombusazwe exhunywe ezimbonini zikawoyela, zamalahle nezamakhemikhali, eziningi zazo ezixhumene nabaphiki besayensi yesimo sezulu.

Njengomunye wakhe Izenzo zokuqala ezisemthethweni, UPruitt waphonsa eceleni izincomo zososayensi be-EPA futhi wavumela iDow Chemical ukuthi iqhubeke nokuthengisa isibulala-zinambuzane esenziwe njengegesi yezinzwa exhumene nokulimala kwengqondo ezinganeni.

"Ifa likaTrump elihlala njalo kungaba umdlavuza, ukungabi nenzalo kanye nama-IQ anciphile emashumini eminyaka ezayo."

"Izingane zitshelwa ukuthi zidle izithelo nemifino, kodwa ososayensi be-EPA bathole amazinga alesi sibulala-zinambuzane ekudleni okunjalo kuze kube izikhathi eziyi-140 imikhawulo ethathwa njengephephile," kubhala uNicholas Kristof ebabaza. I-NYT ivuliwe. "Ifa likaTrump elihlala njalo kungaba umdlavuza, ukungabi nenzalo kanye nama-IQ anciphile emashumini eminyaka ezayo."

U-Pruitt useze wafaka ne-lobbyist yezimboni zamakhemikhali ophethe i- umthetho omusha oshubile wobuthi obekufanele ulawule imboni yamakhemikhali.

Kubi kakhulu - kodwa-ke, sekuyisikhathi eside kakhulu.

Lowo mthetho omusha oshubile we-toxics, owaphasiswa ngonyaka owedlule ku- isichotho senkazimulo eyizinhlangothi ezimbili, kwaba iphikiswa ngu amaqembu amaningi ezemvelo kodwa kudunyiswa ngu - futhi kubikwa ebhalwe ngu - Umkhandlu waseMelika Chemistry.

“Imboni yamakhemikhali eyizigidi ezingama- $ 800 ifaka imali kosopolitiki futhi inxenxa indlela yokuphuma emithethweni esebenzayo. Lokhu bekulokhu kuyinkinga, kepha manje abaphathi bakaTrump sebehambe baze bakhetha abasebenza embonini yamakhemikhali ukuthi babheke ukuvikelwa kwemvelo, ”njengoba kuchazwe uKristof.

“I-American Academy of Pediatrics iphikisane nesinqumo sabaphathi mayelana nesibulala-zinambuzane segesi yezinzwa, kodwa izikhulu zasekela imboni ngodokotela. Ixhaphozi lawina. Indawo yokwamukela izimboni zamakhemikhali, i-American Chemistry Council, inguqulo yanamuhla kaGwayi Omkhulu… ”

"Ngelinye ilanga sizobheka emuva sizibuze: Besicabangani ?!"

Isimilo Sezwe Lethu

Eminyakeni eyishumi eyedlule, i-Independent Women's Forum yethule i-Valor Award kuNancy Brinker, umsunguli weSusan G. Komen for the Cure, okuyinhlangano enkulu kunazo zonke ezweni yomdlavuza webele - iqembu elibuye lagxekwa ngokuthatha imali ku izinkampani ezingcolisa kanye nokukhuthaza ukudla okungenampilo futhi imikhiqizo enobuthi.

Emhlanganweni we-IWF ka-2007, enkulumweni yokwamukela wabiza “Isimilo Sezwe Lethu, ”Kusho uBrinker waxwayisa ngokuthi kuzolahleka izimpilo zabantu ngaphandle kokuthi iMelika ithathe isinyathelo sokugwema“ i-tsunami yomdlavuza ”ezayo.

Kodwa-ke, uthe: “Bangane bami, lokhu akuyona inkinga yezepolitiki. Uma kukhulunywa ngomdlavuza, awekho amaRiphabhulikhi noma amaDemokhrasi, akukho nkululeko noma abagcinwayo. ”

Esikhundleni salokho, uthe ukucela ukungacaci njengoba ayemi phambi kweqembu elitshela abesifazane ukuthi bangakhathazeki ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane, emcimbini onemali ethe xaxa ezinkampanini, ukushaya umdlavuza kuyindaba yokubiza intando yokwenza umdlavuza ube “yinto ephambili ezweni lonke nasemhlabeni wonke!”

Kepha leyo impela iyinkinga yezepolitiki. Imayelana namaRephabliki namaDemokhrasi, bobabili abadumaze abaseMelika ngokwehluleka ukubhekana nemboni yamakhemikhali. Imayelana nokubiza intando yezepolitiki yokuthola amakhemikhali axhumene nomdlavuza, ukungabi nenzalo nokulimala kobuchopho emakethe nangaphandle kokudla kwethu.

Okwamanje, singathatha izeluleko zesayensi: sidle okuphilayo bese sivotela osopolitiki abazimisele ukumelana nomkhakha wezibulala-zinambuzane.

I-Q & A eno-Carey Gillam ku-Whitewash

Phrinta imeyili Ungahlukıselana Ephathwayo

Incwadi kaCarey Gillam iyatholakala kwa-Island Press: I-Whitewash: Indaba Yombulali Wokhula, Umdlavuza, Nenkohlakalo Yesayensi. I-Whitewash bathole Umklomelo we-2018 Rachel Carson Environmental Book kusuka kuNhlangano Yezintatheli Zezemvelo kanye no Umklomelo Wezindondo Zegolide wezi-2018 kusuka kubashicileli abazimele.

Ngokuya ngeminyaka engu-20 yocwaningo kanye nemibhalo eminingi yemikhakha yangaphakathi, I-Whitewash uphenyo olunzima mayelana nesayensi yezolimo esetshenziswa kakhulu emlandweni. Emashumini amaningi eminyaka i-glyphosate inconyiwe njengekhemikhali "eliphephe ngokwanele ukuphuza," kepha ucwaningo olukhulayo lwesayensi lubopha i-glyphosate kumagciwane kanye nezinye izinsongo zezempilo nezemvelo.

I-Whitewash “kufanele kufundwe,” kusho Uhlu Lencwadi.  Kirkus Izibuyekezo izingcingo I-Whitewash "Indaba eshaya kanzima, evula amehlo," kanye "nempikiswano enamandla yendawo yezomthetho ebeka izintshisekelo zomphakathi ngaphezu kwenzuzo yezinkampani." I- Ukubuyekezwa kwencwadi yeNhlangano Yezintatheli Zemvelo ichaza I-Whitewash “njengokufundwa okunesibindi, okuphoqelelayo kusukela ekuqaleni kuze kube sekugcineni, ikakhulukazi kubafundi abathanda uhlobo lokubika okungasali kahle, lwesikhumba sezicathulo okwakuwuphawu lobuntatheli obukhulu.”

Q: Carey, ubulokhu ubika ngemithi yokubulala izinambuzane neMonsanto cishe iminyaka engama-20. Njengentatheli, kungani kwakubalulekile ukubhala incwadi mayelana nesihloko? Kungani manje?

IMP: Ochwepheshe bezempilo emhlabeni wonke bayabona ukuthi izibulala-zinambuzane zinomthelela omkhulu ezinhlobonhlobo zezinkinga zezempilo ezihlupheka abantu beminyaka yonke, kodwa idlanzana lezinkampani ezinamandla futhi ezinethonya liye laqinisekisa abenzi benqubomgomo ukuthi ubungozi empilweni yabantu kanye nezemvelo buphilile kufanele imivuzo elethwa yilezi zimakhemikhali ngokulwa nokhula, izimbungulu, noma izifo zezitshalo. Lezi zinkampani ziyahlanganisa futhi ziba namandla amakhulu, futhi zisebenzisa ithonya lazo ukududula amazinga aphezulu naphezulu emithi yokubulala izinambuzane eyingozi ezimpilweni zethu, kufaka phakathi nohlelo lwethu lokudla. Silahlekelwe umuzwa wokuqapha odinga kakhulu la makhemikhali, futhi imizamo kaMonsanto yokukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa okwandisiwe kwe-glyphosate ingesinye sezibonelo ezinhle kakhulu zokuthi le ndlela yokufuna inzuzo eyinkampani ibaluleke kanjani ngaphezu kokuvikela umphakathi.

Q: Abantu kungenzeka ukuthi abalazi igama elithi "glyphosate" noma "Roundup." Kwenzenjani? Kungani kufanele abantu banakekele?

A: I-Roundup herbicide isimangalo sikaMonsanto sodumo. Ngaphambi kokuthi ilethe izitshalo ezakhiwe ngofuzo emakethe, iMonsanto yayenza futhi ithengise umbulali wokhula weRoundup. IGlyphosate iyisithako esisebenzayo — izinto empeleni ezibulala ukhula — eRoundup. IGlyphosate nayo isiyasetshenziswa emikhiqizweni engamakhulukhulu ejwayele ukusetshenziselwa izinkambu zamapulazi, utshani nezingadi, izinkundla zegalofu, amapaki nezindawo zokudlala. Inkinga ukuthi akuphephile njengoba iMonsanto igcinile, futhi amashumi eminyaka ocwaningo lwesayensi ayixhumanisa nezifo ezahlukahlukene, kufaka phakathi i-non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

IMonsanto yazi ngalezi zingozi futhi yasebenza kanzima ukuyifihla.

IMonsanto yazi ngalezi zingozi futhi yasebenza kanzima ukuyifihla ngenkathi ithuthukisa ukusetshenziswa okuqhubekayo. Izitshalo zikaMonsanto ezakhiwe ngofuzo zonke zakhelwe ukukhuthaza ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate. Isici esiyinhloko sezakhi zofuzo uMonsanto usufake kubhontshisi baso be-GMO, ummbila, i-canola, isithombo sebhitrudi, nezinye izitshalo yisici esivumela lezo zivuno ukuthi zisinde ekufuthweni ngqo nge-glyphosate. Ngemuva kokuthi iMonsanto yethule lezi zitshalo "ezibekezelela i-glyphosate" maphakathi nawo-1990, ukusetshenziswa kwe-glyphosate kwanda kakhulu. Njengamanye ama-pesticides asetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kokudla, izinsalela ze-glyphosate zivame ukutholakala ekudleni, kufaka phakathi okusanhlamvu, ukudla okulula, uju, isinkwa, neminye imikhiqizo.

Umbuzo: Ubhala lokho I-Whitewash kukhombisa ukuthi sikhohliwe izifundo zikaRachel Carson futhi Thulile Spring. Usho ukuthini ngalokho?

A: UCarson wabeka izingozi ezihambisana nokusetshenziswa ngokungakhethi kwezibulala-zinambuzane zokwenziwa, futhi wabikezela umonakalo ababengawenza nabazowuletha emvelweni yethu. Ubuye wasola imboni yamakhemikhali ngokusabalalisa ngamabomu ulwazi olungelona iqiniso ngemikhiqizo yabo. Incwadi yakhe bekungukuvuka okukhuthaze ukunyakaza kwemvelo nokuholele ekwakhiweni kwe-Environmental Protection Agency. Kepha emashumini eminyaka edlule, umphakathi jikelele kanye nabezombusazwe kanye nabalawuli bethu bakhohlwe ngokusobala isidingo sokuqapha nokubhekisisa ekubhekaneni nalezi zinambuzane kanye nezinkampani ezizuzayo ngazo. Ubona ukucindezela kwabaholi bethu bezepolitiki ukuthola imithethonqubo embalwa, yokusetshenziswa okungavinjelwe okungaphezulu kwe-glyphosate namanye ama-pesticides ekukhiqizeni kwethu ukudla, ngenkathi ucwaninga ngokuthi lezibulala-zinambuzane ziwubangela kanjani umdlavuza, ukuthi zikulimaza kanjani ukukhula kwengqondo yezingane, nokuthi ziyiguqula kanjani impilo yokuzala konke okutholayo kwaphoqelelwa eceleni.

Q: Uthole izimboni zezokuxhumana nezokulawula eziveza ubufakazi bethonya lezinkampani kuma-ejensi alawulayo njenge-EPA. Ingabe ubufakazi obembulile buthatha ukubaluleka okusha ngokubheka isimo samanje sezepolitiki e-US? Abantu bangazigcina kanjani izinhlangano ezilawulayo ziphendula ngokusebenzela umphakathi?

IMP: Yebo, kucace bha ukuthi iMonsanto nezinye izinkampani ezinkulu ezinjengeDow Chemical zijabulela amandla amakhulu nabalawuli, bona kanye abantu okufanele bavikele umphakathi. Izinkampani zisebenzisa imali namandla azo ezepolitiki ukuthonya izinqumo ezilawulayo kanye nokuhlolwa kwesayensi ezinhlakeni zokulawula. Uma thina abathengi nabakhokhi bentela sifuna ukuvikela izingane zethu, imindeni yethu, ikusasa lethu, kudingeka sinake, sizifundise ngalezi zinkinga, sibhale futhi sishayele abenzi bomthetho bethu, futhi sisekele izinhlangano ezisebenza egameni lethu ukuvikela impilo yethu nemvelo yethu. Sidinga ukubambelela kuzinqubomgomo ezivikela umphakathi, hhayi inzuzo yezinhlangano ezinkulu. Ubungxiwankulu bukhulu — ukuphishekela ingcebo ngemakethe yamahhala kunikela ngokuhle okuningi, lokho kuyiqiniso. Kepha uma sivumela ama-ajenda enzuzo yenkampani eze kuqala kunempilo nenhlalakahle yabantu bakithi kanye nomhlaba wethu sizidela kakhulu.

Q: IMonsanto izame ukucwaninga nokukuhlambalaza lapho ushicilela izindaba eziphikisana nezintshisekelo zebhizinisi labo. Yiziphi izindlela izintatheli — noma ososayensi — abangazisebenzisa uma bebhekene nalokhu kubuyiselwa emuva? Ziyini izigxobo uma kungenjalo?

IMP: IMonsanto, nezinhlangano ezisekelwa nguMonsanto, zisebenzele impela ukubukela phansi umsebenzi wami iminyaka eminingi. Kepha angingedwa; balandele izintatheli bevela ezinhlwini eziningi zezindaba ezinkulu, kufaka phakathi i- New York Times, kanye nososayensi, izifundiswa, nabanye abacwaninga kakhulu ngezimfihlo abafuna ukuzifihla. Ngikubona kuyibheji yokuhlonishwa ukuthi uMonsanto nabanye abasembonini yamakhemikhali bazizwe besongelwa ngokwanele ngumsebenzi wethu ukuze basihlasele. Akulula neze, ikakhulukazi ngezintatheli, ukuphonsela inselelo umshini wepropaganda yenkampani.

Izintatheli ezihambisana nomdlalo, eziphinda amaphuzu okukhuluma, futhi ezishicilela izindaba ezisekela izintshisekelo zebhizinisi ziklonyeliswa ngokufisa ukufinyelela kubaphathi abaphezulu futhi zinikezwe izindaba "ezikhethekile" mayelana nemikhiqizo emisha noma amasu amasha, konke okuwathola amaphuzu ebhonasi nabahleli . Ngokuphambene nalokho, izintatheli eziphikisana nokusanhlamvu, ezibika ngocwaningo olungathandeki, noma eziveza ukwehluleka noma ubungozi bemikhiqizo ethile zivame ukuthi zilahlekelwe ukufinyelela kubaphathi abakhulu bezinkampani. Lo mncintiswano uthola isikweletu ngezingxoxo nezikhulu eziphezulu zezinkampani ngenkathi izintatheli ezingadlali lo mdlalo zibona amakhono azo obuntatheli ehlaselwa futhi ethukwa futhi eba yisihloko sezikhalazo eziphikelelayo ezenziwa yizinkampani kubahleli bazo.

Yini engenziwa? Abahleli nezintatheli ngokufanayo kudingeka babheke imigogodla yabo, babone ukuthi umsebenzi wentatheli ukuthola indaba ngemuva kwesiphetho, ukubuza imibuzo engathandeki nokwenza ubuqotho kuphela eqinisweni nasekubonakaleni. Lapho siphelelwa ubuntatheli obuzimele obuyiqiniso, lapho sizwa nje lokho okufunwa ngamandla, kuyaqinisekiswa ukuthi labo abangenawo amandla yibo abakhokha inani.

Umbuzo: Uxoxe nenani elikhulu labantu ngale ncwadi, kufaka phakathi ososayensi, abalimi, nabalawuli. Ingabe ikhona ingxoxo noma indaba ethile evelele kuwe?

Impendulo: Ngixoxisane nezinkulungwane zabantu ngomsebenzi wami, kusukela ezinhlotsheni zezombusazwe ezinamagama amakhulu kakhulu kuya kosaziwayo kuze kube nsuku zonke abesilisa nabesifazane, futhi ngithola ukuthi yilabo njalo abangaziphakamisi, labo “bantu abajwayelekile” ababamba inhliziyo yami. Ekucwaningeni le ncwadi, indaba engangithinta kakhulu eyikaTeri McCall, umyeni wakhe uJack wahlupheka kabuhlungu ngaphambi kokubulawa umdlavuza ngakusasa ngemuva kukaKhisimusi ngo-2015. Umndeni wakwaMcCall wawuphila impilo enokuthula futhi elula, ukhulisa ukwatapheya futhi wahlanganyela Izithelo ezisawolintshi epulazini labo laseCambria, eCalifornia, bengasebenzisi ezinye izibulala-zinambuzane ngaphandle kweRoundup ezingadini zabo zezithelo. Ukushona kukaJacks kwi-non-Hodgkin lymphoma, uhlobo lomdlavuza oluxhunywe ne-glyphosate, kumchithe ngokuphelele uTeri nezingane zakhe nabazukulu. Ukhombise umusa namandla amaningi futhi unginike isikhathi sakhe esiningi — nezinyembezi zakhe — ekungitsheleni indaba kaJack. Ungowesifazane engimkhonzile ngokweqiniso.

Vele kunabanye abaningi engifunde kubo, engibazwelayo, kufaka phakathi ososayensi abebenenkinga yokushicilela ucwaningo, abaye bahlolwe noma babi kakhulu ngokutholakala kwabo kokulimala okuhlobene ne-glyphosate neminye imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane. Futhi abalimi-ngibahlonipha kakhulu abalimi ngokujwayelekile, kufaka phakathi ngamunye okwaxoxwa naye ngale ncwadi. Umsebenzi abawenzayo wokukhulisa ukudla kwethu uyinselele emangalisayo futhi basemgqeni wokuqala wezingozi zezibulala-zinambuzane nsuku zonke.

Ukudonsa imihlathi kuyindlela engcono yokuchaza eminye yemibhalo mina nabanye engiyitholile.

Q: Usuneminyaka ucwile kulesi sihloko. Ngabe kukhona okutholile ngenkathi ucwaninga futhi ubhala le ncwadi okukumangazile?

IMP: Ukwehla emihlathini kuyindlela engcono yokuchaza eminye yemibhalo mina nabanye esiyithole. Ukubona ngemuva kwekhethini, ukufunda ngamagama abo ukuthi abasebenza ezinkampanini basebenza kanjani ngenhloso yokusebenzisa isayensi, ukudukisa abathengi nosopolitiki, bekushaqisa. Njengomlobi wezindaba wesikhathi eside, ngingumuntu onobuhlungu obunzima. Noma kunjalo, ukujula kwenkohliso ebekwe obala kule mibhalo, neminye imibhalo esavela, kuyamangalisa.

Q: Unethemba lokuthi abafundi bazothathani bathathe ini I-Whitewash?

A: Umbhali ku New York Times wangitshela ngemuva kokufunda I-Whitewash ukuthi wesaba ukudla noma yini esiqandisini sakhe ngenxa yolwazi olunikezwa yile ncwadi mayelana nohla lwensalela yezibulala-zinambuzane ezitholakala kwimikhiqizo eminingi yokudla. Lokho akuyona neze inhloso yami, ukukhungathekisa noma ukwethusa abantu. Kepha ngithemba ukuthi abafundi bazoshukumiseleka ukuba banakekele kakhulu ukuthi ukudla kwethu kukhiqizwa kanjani, nokuthi sisebenzisa kanjani imishanguzo yokubulala izinambuzane eyingozi hhayi emapulazini kuphela kepha nasemagcekeni esikole nasemapaki lapho izingane zethu zidlala khona.

Futhi ngithemba ukuthi bazofuna ukuzibandakanya engxoxweni enkulu nasezingxoxweni zokuthi silakha kanjani ikusasa elilinganisa ngokwanele izingozi nemivuzo ehambisana nalezi zinambuzane. Njengoba I-Whitewash imibukiso, uhlelo lwamanje lwenzelwe ukupompa inzuzo yezinkampani kakhulu kunalokho ukukhuthaza ukusimama kokukhiqizwa kwemvelo nokudla isikhathi eside. Kunamandla amaningi asebenzayo okugcina isimo simile, ukuqhubeka nokuphusha izibulala-zinambuzane eziyingozi, cishe ngokoqobo phansi komphimbo wethu. Kukithi sonke ukuthi sibuyele emuva.

UCarey Gillam uyintatheli engumakadebona, umcwaningi, nomlobi onolwazi olungaphezu kweminyaka engama-25 olumayelana nezinkampani zaseMelika. Owayekade eyintatheli enkulu yezindaba zamazwe omhlaba iReuters, uGillam ungena shí ebhizinisini elikhulu lokudla nezolimo. UCarey uphinde abe ngumqondisi wezocwaningo we Ilungelo Lethu Lase-US Lokwazi, inhlangano engenzi nzuzo ephenya ubungozi obuhambisana nohlelo lokudla lwenkampani, kanye nemikhuba kanye nomthelela wemboni yokudla kunqubomgomo yomphakathi.